WorldWideScience

Sample records for line item 7061-9611

  1. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  2. 31 CFR 50.14 - Separate line item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....14 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.14 Separate line item. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure on a “separate line item in the policy...

  3. Basic Stand Alone Medicare DME Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare DME claims. The...

  4. 76 FR 58138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Alternative Line Item Structure (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... DoD published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 21847 on April 19, 2011, to add DFARS..., the contract line item may be for a desktop computer, but the actual items delivered, invoiced, and..., Desktop with 20 EA CPU, Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse. Alternative line-item structure offer where monitors...

  5. 76 FR 21847 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS), Alternative Line-Item Structure (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... with CPU, 20 EA Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse. Alternative line-item structure offer where monitors are... CPU, 20 EA Keyboard and Mouse. 0002 Monitor 20 EA (End of provision)] [FR Doc. 2011-8966 Filed 4-18-11... problems in the receipt and acceptance phase for contract deliverables and payments. This group determined...

  6. On-line item control at a high enriched nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.W.; Lewis, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    The on-line item control system at Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., is a near-real time method capable of tracking uniquely identified items from creation through disposition. The system provides for improved control, timeliness, accuracy and usability of company information and the necessary data required to support the regulatory program for the protection against diversion of Special Nuclear Materials. The system consists of software applications (approximately 150 programs) with man/machine interface controls which provide facilities for correct data entry and for the protection of data integrity. This system went into stand-alone operation in September, 1983 after a twenty month parallel test run with the previous keybatched (manual forms) item control system

  7. Conceptual design report for environmental, safety and health phase III FY-91 line item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-09-01

    The Mound Facility (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by the facility`s activities. Design has been completed, and construction is in progress for Phase I of this multiphase program. Phase II has been submitted for fiscal year (FY) 89 funding and Phase IV is being submitted as an FY 92 line item. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) addresses Phase III of the ES&H program.

  8. Waste management of Line Item projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zill, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    With the growing number of companies involved with today's Line Item projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), there are ever increasing problems in the handling of Radioactive Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW). The most important of these problems is who is going to do what with the waste and when are they going to do it. The who brings to mind training; the what, compliance; and the when, cost. At ORNL, the authors have found that the best way to address the challenges of waste handling where several contractors are involved is through communication, compromise and consistency. Without these elements, opportunities bred from waste handling are likely to bring the project to a halt

  9. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget) și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR; Adrian Mihai INCEU

    2004-01-01

    A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system make...

  10. 48 CFR 245.7101-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. 245.7101-3 Section 245.7101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document...

  11. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system makes it easier to monitor revenues and expenditures, which is important in this era of shrinking resources. Zero-based budgeting is a system that requires all departments to defend their programs and justify their continuation each year. Instead of simply penciling in the amounts of the additional funds that are needed in each account, the department head must prepare a series of “decision packages” that describe – and justify – each of the department’s programs in detail. For each program, the department must show: the various levels of service that could be provided with different levels of funding – including zero funding; alternative courses of action; and the consequences of funding the service at different levels, or not funding it at all. The most positive feature of zero-based budgeting is that it requires a thorough evaluation of all programs on a continuing basis and encourages proper funding for priority programs at the expense of less useful programs. The major drawback to zero-based budgeting is that it is extremely time-consuming, costly and requires a level of staff expertise that is not often available in small cities.

  12. Park Facilities, Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained by field GPS observation, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2010. Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained...

  13. Technical Evaluation for the Determination of CGI Designation for Safety Class Items Incorporated in Hose-in-Hose Transfer Line Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUCHANAN, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this technical evaluation is to determine whether the secondary hoses are to be categorized as Commercial Grade Items (CGI) or Engineered Equipment. This determination will identify whether or not use of the CGI Dedication process is appropriate

  14. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  15. Line-item analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: results from two studies of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G; Kasper, William; Manos, George; Mathew, Suja; Marcus, Ronald; Owen, Randall; Mankoski, Raymond

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of discrete symptoms of irritability associated with autistic disorder, as well as other symptoms captured on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). This was a post hoc analysis of data from two 8-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials to evaluate the efficacy of aripiprazole dosed flexibly (2-15 mg/day, n=47) or fixed (5, 10, or 15 mg/day, n = 166) versus placebo (flexibly dosed, n = 51; fixed dose, n = 52). The effects of treatment on the 58 ABC items were evaluated. Statistically significantly greater improvement was seen with aripiprazole versus placebo (p autistic disorder, particularly with respect to symptoms associated with tantrum behavior.

  16. Spare Items validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carratala, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)

  17. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  18. Evolution of a Test Item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…

  19. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  20. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  1. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  2. Item information and discrimination functions for trinary PCM items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Wies; Muraki, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    For trinary partial credit items the shape of the item information and the item discrimination function is examined in relation to the item parameters. In particular, it is shown that these functions are unimodal if δ2 – δ1 < 4 ln 2 and bimodal otherwise. The locations and values of the maxima are

  3. Negative effects of item repetition on source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon; Raye, Carol L; Johnson, Marcia K

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we explored how item repetition affects source memory for new item-feature associations (picture-location or picture-color). We presented line drawings varying numbers of times in Phase 1. In Phase 2, each drawing was presented once with a critical new feature. In Phase 3, we tested memory for the new source feature of each item from Phase 2. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated and replicated the negative effects of item repetition on incidental source memory. Prior item repetition also had a negative effect on source memory when different source dimensions were used in Phases 1 and 2 (Experiment 3) and when participants were explicitly instructed to learn source information in Phase 2 (Experiments 4 and 5). Importantly, when the order between Phases 1 and 2 was reversed, such that item repetition occurred after the encoding of critical item-source combinations, item repetition no longer affected source memory (Experiment 6). Overall, our findings did not support predictions based on item predifferentiation, within-dimension source interference, or general interference from multiple traces of an item. Rather, the findings were consistent with the idea that prior item repetition reduces attention to subsequent presentations of the item, decreasing the likelihood that critical item-source associations will be encoded.

  4. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  5. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  6. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Allen E.; Cleary, T. Anne

    1987-01-01

    Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM). Signed measures of differential item performance (DIP) were obtained for each item in the eight ACTM forms. DIP estimates were analyzed and a significant item category effect was found. (Author/LMO)

  7. Item-focussed Trees for the Identification of Items in Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutz, Gerhard; Berger, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    A novel method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by means of recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item, it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. The way a DIF item is determined by covariates is visualized in a small tree and therefore easily accessible. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method.

  8. Negative effects of item repetition on source memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon; Raye, Carol L.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we explored how item repetition affects source memory for new item–feature associations (picture–location or picture–color). We presented line drawings varying numbers of times in Phase 1. In Phase 2, each drawing was presented once with a critical new feature. In Phase 3, we tested memory for the new source feature of each item from Phase 2. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated and replicated the negative effects of item repetition on incidental source memory. Prior item re...

  9. Item validity vs. item discrimination index: a redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, R. L.; Irawati, R.; Sujana, A.; Hanifah, N.; Djuanda, D.

    2018-03-01

    In several literatures about evaluation and test analysis, it is common to find that there are calculations of item validity as well as item discrimination index (D) with different formula for each. Meanwhile, other resources said that item discrimination index could be obtained by calculating the correlation between the testee’s score in a particular item and the testee’s score on the overall test, which is actually the same concept as item validity. Some research reports, especially undergraduate theses tend to include both item validity and item discrimination index in the instrument analysis. It seems that these concepts might overlap for both reflect the test quality on measuring the examinees’ ability. In this paper, examples of some results of data processing on item validity and item discrimination index were compared. It would be discussed whether item validity and item discrimination index can be represented by one of them only or it should be better to present both calculations for simple test analysis, especially in undergraduate theses where test analyses were included.

  10. Dissociating the neural correlates of intra-item and inter-item working-memory binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinne Piekema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations as compared to non-spatial associations or single items. There are two explanations for this result, the mere presence of the spatial component activates the MTL, or the MTL is recruited to bind associations between neurally non-overlapping representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current fMRI study investigates this issue further by directly comparing intrinsic intra-item binding (object/colour, extrinsic intra-item binding (object/location, and inter-item binding (object/object. The three binding conditions resulted in differential activation of brain regions. Specifically, we show that the MTL is important for establishing extrinsic intra-item associations and inter-item associations, in line with the notion that binding of information processed in different brain regions depends on the MTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that different forms of working-memory binding rely on specific neural structures. In addition, these results extend previous reports indicating that the MTL is implicated in working-memory maintenance, challenging the classic distinction between short-term and long-term memory systems.

  11. Problems with the factor analysis of items: Solutions based on item response theory and item parcelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. De Bruin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch

  12. ITEM LEVEL DIAGNOSTICS AND MODEL - DATA FIT IN ITEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response ... data. Though, there is an argument that the evaluation of fit in IRT modeling has been ... National Council on Measurement in Education ... model data fit should be based on three types of ... prediction should be assessed through the.

  13. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  14. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  15. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  16. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  17. The Line Item Veto Act After One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    grounds that it violates the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine. The Supreme Court has scheduled oral arguments on the case for late April and is expected to make a mling sometime this year.

  18. Line-item Budgeting and Film-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    , which aided in protecting the director against the negative aspects of passion (e.g. distorted thought processes, myopia and weakness of will) in the creative process and in terms of the ability of the constraints to channel creativity in certain directions, thus preventing the availability of too many...... options from hampering the creative process. Originality/value – The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects...

  19. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect--that is, better recognition of "to-be-remembered" than of "to-be-forgotten" pictures--was observed, although its size was smaller than previously reported for words or line drawings. The magnitude of the directed forgetting effect correlated negatively with participants' depression and dissociation scores. The results indicate that, at least in an item method, directed forgetting occurs for complex pictures as well as words and simple line drawings. Furthermore, people with higher levels of dissociative or depressive symptoms exhibit altered memory encoding patterns.

  20. Does remembering emotional items impair recall of same-emotion items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, Jo Ann G; Mather, Mara

    2007-04-01

    In the part-set cuing effect, cuing a subset of previously studied items impairs recall of the remaining noncued items. This experiment reveals that cuing participants with previously-studied emotional pictures (e.g., fear-evoking pictures of people) can impair recall of pictures involving the same emotion but different content (e.g., fear-evoking pictures of animals). This indicates that new events can be organized in memory using emotion as a grouping function to create associations. However, whether new information is organized in memory along emotional or nonemotional lines appears to be a flexible process that depends on people's current focus. Mentioning in the instructions that the pictures were either amusement- or fear-related led to memory impairment for pictures with the same emotion as cued pictures, whereas mentioning that the pictures depicted either animals or people led to memory impairment for pictures with the same type of actor.

  1. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.214-72... 2008) Bids on []* will be given equal consideration along with bids on []** and any such bids received... [].** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer will...

  2. A METHOD OF SECURITY SCANNING OF CARRY-ON ITEMS, AND A CARRY-ON ITEMS SECURITY SCANNING SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A security scanning system (1) comprises a first stage module (3) having at least one X-ray source (6) and at least three first detectors (7) that are line-shaped and arranged in mutually different orientations and have at least dual energy resolution. A group of carry-on items (4) on a carrier...

  3. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  4. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  5. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  6. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  7. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a selected-response format. This chapter presents a short overview of how item response theory and generalizability theory were integrated to model such assessments. Further, the precision of the esti...

  8. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  9. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules...... additive in costs....

  10. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  11. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  12. Using automatic item generation to create multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis; Turner, Simon R

    2012-08-01

    Many tests of medical knowledge, from the undergraduate level to the level of certification and licensure, contain multiple-choice items. Although these are efficient in measuring examinees' knowledge and skills across diverse content areas, multiple-choice items are time-consuming and expensive to create. Changes in student assessment brought about by new forms of computer-based testing have created the demand for large numbers of multiple-choice items. Our current approaches to item development cannot meet this demand. We present a methodology for developing multiple-choice items based on automatic item generation (AIG) concepts and procedures. We describe a three-stage approach to AIG and we illustrate this approach by generating multiple-choice items for a medical licensure test in the content area of surgery. To generate multiple-choice items, our method requires a three-stage process. Firstly, a cognitive model is created by content specialists. Secondly, item models are developed using the content from the cognitive model. Thirdly, items are generated from the item models using computer software. Using this methodology, we generated 1248 multiple-choice items from one item model. Automatic item generation is a process that involves using models to generate items using computer technology. With our method, content specialists identify and structure the content for the test items, and computer technology systematically combines the content to generate new test items. By combining these outcomes, items can be generated automatically. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  13. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  14. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DoD has updated its Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on...

  15. Towards an authoring system for item construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Jos H.A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The process of writing test items is analyzed, and a blueprint is presented for an authoring system for test item writing to reduce invalidity and to structure the process of item writing. The developmental methodology is introduced, and the first steps in the process are reported. A historical

  16. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  17. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  18. New technologies for item monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy's request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence ampersand Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet)

  19. New technologies for item monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  20. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  1. Item Modeling Concept Based on Multimedia Authoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stergar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a modern item design framework for computer based assessment based on Flash authoring environment will be introduced. Question design will be discussed as well as the multimedia authoring environment used for item modeling emphasized. Item type templates are a structured means of collecting and storing item information that can be used to improve the efficiency and security of the innovative item design process. Templates can modernize the item design, enhance and speed up the development process. Along with content creation, multimedia has vast potential for use in innovative testing. The introduced item design template is based on taxonomy of innovative items which have great potential for expanding the content areas and construct coverage of an assessment. The presented item design approach is based on GUI's – one for question design based on implemented item design templates and one for user interaction tracking/retrieval. The concept of user interfaces based on Flash technology will be discussed as well as implementation of the innovative approach of the item design forms with multimedia authoring. Also an innovative method for user interaction storage/retrieval based on PHP extending Flash capabilities in the proposed framework will be introduced.

  2. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  3. Using Differential Item Functioning Procedures to Explore Sources of Item Difficulty and Group Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; Gerritz, Kalle

    1990-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology for revealing sources of item difficulty and performance characteristics of different groups was explored. A total of 150 Scholastic Aptitude Test items and 132 Graduate Record Examination general test items were analyzed. DIF was evaluated for males and females and Blacks and Whites. (SLD)

  4. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  5. CERN Running Club – Sale of Items

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN Running Club is organising a sale of items  on 26 June from 11:30 – 13:00 in the entry area of Restaurant 2 (504 R-202). The items for sale are souvenir prizes of past Relay Races and comprise: Backpacks, thermos, towels, gloves & caps, lamps, long sleeve winter shirts and windproof vest. All items will be sold at 5 CHF.

  6. Evaluation of psychometric properties and differential item functioning of 8-item Child Perceptions Questionnaires using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, David T W; Wong, May C M; Lam, K F; McGrath, Colman

    2015-08-19

    Four-factor structure of the two 8-item short forms of Child Perceptions Questionnaire CPQ11-14 (RSF:8 and ISF:8) has been confirmed. However, the sum scores are typically reported in practice as a proxy of Oral health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL), which implied a unidimensional structure. This study first assessed the unidimensionality of 8-item short forms of CPQ11-14. Item response theory (IRT) was employed to offer an alternative and complementary approach of validation and to overcome the limitations of classical test theory assumptions. A random sample of 649 12-year-old school children in Hong Kong was analyzed. Unidimensionality of the scale was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principle component analysis (PCA) and local dependency (LD) statistic. Graded response model was fitted to the data. Contribution of each item to the scale was assessed by item information function (IIF). Reliability of the scale was assessed by test information function (TIF). Differential item functioning (DIF) across gender was identified by Wald test and expected score functions. Both CPQ11-14 RSF:8 and ISF:8 did not deviate much from the unidimensionality assumption. Results from CFA indicated acceptable fit of the one-factor model. PCA indicated that the first principle component explained >30 % of the total variation with high factor loadings for both RSF:8 and ISF:8. Almost all LD statistic items suggesting little contribution of information to the scale and item removal caused little practical impact. Comparing the TIFs, RSF:8 showed slightly better information than ISF:8. In addition to oral symptoms items, the item "Concerned with what other people think" demonstrated a uniform DIF (p Items related to oral symptoms were not informative to OHRQoL and deletion of these items is suggested. The impact of DIF across gender on the overall score was minimal. CPQ11-14 RSF:8 performed slightly better than ISF:8 in measurement precision. The 6-item short forms

  7. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost of...

  8. Grouping of Items in Mobile Web Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavletova, Aigul; Couper, Mick P.

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence that a scrolling design may reduce breakoffs in mobile web surveys compared to a paging design, but there is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of the optimal number of items per page. We investigate the effect of the number of items presented on a page on data quality in two types of questionnaires: with or…

  9. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  10. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  11. Factoring handedness data: I. Item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I

    1995-12-01

    Recently in this journal Peters and Murphy challenged the validity of factor analyses done on bimodal handedness data, suggesting instead that right- and left-handers be studied separately. But bimodality may be avoidable if attention is paid to Oldfield's questionnaire format and instructions for the subjects. Two characteristics appear crucial: a two-column LEFT-RIGHT format for the body of the instrument and what we call Oldfield's Admonition: not to indicate strong preference for handedness item, such as write, unless "... the preference is so strong that you would never try to use the other hand unless absolutely forced to...". Attaining unimodality of an item distribution would seem to overcome the objections of Peters and Murphy. In a 1984 survey in Boston we used Oldfield's ten-item questionnaire exactly as published. This produced unimodal item distributions. With reflection of the five-point item scale and a logarithmic transformation, we achieved a degree of normalization for the items. Two surveys elsewhere based on Oldfield's 20-item list but with changes in the questionnaire format and the instructions, yielded markedly different item distributions with peaks at each extreme and sometimes in the middle as well.

  12. Item Information in the Rasch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Ron J.H.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1988-01-01

    Fisher's information measure for the item difficulty parameter in the Rasch model and its marginal and conditional formulations are investigated. It is shown that expected item information in the unconditional model equals information in the marginal model, provided the assumption of sampling

  13. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  14. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  15. The randomly renewed general item and the randomly inspected item with exponential life distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    For a randomly renewed item the probability distributions of the time to failure and of the duration of down time and the expectations of these random variables are determined. Moreover, it is shown that the same theory applies to randomly checked items with exponential probability distribution of life such as electronic items. The case of periodic renewals is treated as an example. (orig.) [de

  16. Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…

  17. Evaluation of Northwest University, Kano Post-UTME Test Items Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, Ado Abdu; Hafiz, Hadiza; Bello, Samira Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing is used for the purposes of providing results that have important consequences. Validity is the cornerstone upon which all measurement systems are built. This study applied the Item Response Theory principles to analyse Northwest University Kano Post-UTME Economics test items. The developed fifty (50) economics test items was…

  18. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  19. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  20. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  1. The Technical Quality of Test Items Generated Using a Systematic Approach to Item Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Theresa G.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    The study was designed to examine the similarity of response options generated by different item writers using a systematic approach to item writing. The similarity of response options to student responses for the same item stems presented in an open-ended format was also examined. A non-systematic (subject matter expertise) approach and a…

  2. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  3. Automated Item Generation with Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2018-03-12

    Utilizing technology for automated item generation is not a new idea. However, test items used in commercial testing programs or in research are still predominantly written by humans, in most cases by content experts or professional item writers. Human experts are a limited resource and testing agencies incur high costs in the process of continuous renewal of item banks to sustain testing programs. Using algorithms instead holds the promise of providing unlimited resources for this crucial part of assessment development. The approach presented here deviates in several ways from previous attempts to solve this problem. In the past, automatic item generation relied either on generating clones of narrowly defined item types such as those found in language free intelligence tests (e.g., Raven's progressive matrices) or on an extensive analysis of task components and derivation of schemata to produce items with pre-specified variability that are hoped to have predictable levels of difficulty. It is somewhat unlikely that researchers utilizing these previous approaches would look at the proposed approach with favor; however, recent applications of machine learning show success in solving tasks that seemed impossible for machines not too long ago. The proposed approach uses deep learning to implement probabilistic language models, not unlike what Google brain and Amazon Alexa use for language processing and generation.

  4. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  5. Murdock free recall data: The initial recall search identifies the context by the location of the least remembered item and produces only better remembered items in proportion to the total recall difference.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) shows an additional surprise that seems to have gone undetected until now: the probability of guessing an item in the initial recall is not identical to the overall free recall curve. Initial recall of an item is well correlated with the total recall of that item using a straight line but with an unexpected offset. The offset varies with the presentation rate and the total number of list items but in each case it is the same as the total recall ...

  6. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  7. Extending item response theory to online homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing “big data” gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  8. Inventions on presenting textual items in Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Although a GUI largely replaces textual descriptions by graphical icons, the textual items are not completely removed. The textual items are inevitably used in window titles, message boxes, help items, menu items and popup items. Textual items are necessary for communicating messages that are beyond the limitation of graphical messages. However, it is necessary to harness the textual items on the graphical interface in such a way that they complement each other to produce the best effect. One...

  9. Item selection via Bayesian IRT models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Serena

    2015-02-10

    With reference to a questionnaire that aimed to assess the quality of life for dysarthric speakers, we investigate the usefulness of a model-based procedure for reducing the number of items. We propose a mixed cumulative logit model, which is known in the psychometrics literature as the graded response model: responses to different items are modelled as a function of individual latent traits and as a function of item characteristics, such as their difficulty and their discrimination power. We jointly model the discrimination and the difficulty parameters by using a k-component mixture of normal distributions. Mixture components correspond to disjoint groups of items. Items that belong to the same groups can be considered equivalent in terms of both difficulty and discrimination power. According to decision criteria, we select a subset of items such that the reduced questionnaire is able to provide the same information that the complete questionnaire provides. The model is estimated by using a Bayesian approach, and the choice of the number of mixture components is justified according to information criteria. We illustrate the proposed approach on the basis of data that are collected for 104 dysarthric patients by local health authorities in Lecce and in Milan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Working memory for sequences of temporal durations reveals a volatile single-item store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Manohar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritising some items over others can be accounted for by a focus of attention, maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200ms to 2s. Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e. the smallest memory set size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were

  11. The role of attention in item-item binding in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2017-09-01

    An important yet unresolved question regarding visual working memory (VWM) relates to whether or not binding processes within VWM require additional attentional resources compared with processing solely the individual components comprising these bindings. Previous findings indicate that binding of surface features (e.g., colored shapes) within VWM is not demanding of resources beyond what is required for single features. However, it is possible that other types of binding, such as the binding of complex, distinct items (e.g., faces and scenes), in VWM may require additional resources. In 3 experiments, we examined VWM item-item binding performance under no load, articulatory suppression, and backward counting using a modified change detection task. Binding performance declined to a greater extent than single-item performance under higher compared with lower levels of concurrent load. The findings from each of these experiments indicate that processing item-item bindings within VWM requires a greater amount of attentional resources compared with single items. These findings also highlight an important distinction between the role of attention in item-item binding within VWM and previous studies of long-term memory (LTM) where declines in single-item and binding test performance are similar under divided attention. The current findings provide novel evidence that the specific type of binding is an important determining factor regarding whether or not VWM binding processes require attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  13. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo ePark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effect on item parameters and examinee ability.

  14. Evaluation of item candidates for a diabetic retinopathy quality of life item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Pesudovs, Konrad; Khadka, Jyoti; Rees, Gwyn; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2013-09-01

    We are developing an item bank assessing the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on quality of life (QoL) using a rigorous multi-staged process combining qualitative and quantitative methods. We describe here the first two qualitative phases: content development and item evaluation. After a comprehensive literature review, items were generated from four sources: (1) 34 previously validated patient-reported outcome measures; (2) five published qualitative articles; (3) eight focus groups and 18 semi-structured interviews with 57 DR patients; and (4) seven semi-structured interviews with diabetes or ophthalmic experts. Items were then evaluated during 3 stages, namely binning (grouping) and winnowing (reduction) based on key criteria and panel consensus; development of item stems and response options; and pre-testing of items via cognitive interviews with patients. The content development phase yielded 1,165 unique items across 7 QoL domains. After 3 sessions of binning and winnowing, items were reduced to a minimally representative set (n = 312) across 9 domains of QoL: visual symptoms; ocular surface symptoms; activity limitation; mobility; emotional; health concerns; social; convenience; and economic. After 8 cognitive interviews, 42 items were amended resulting in a final set of 314 items. We have employed a systematic approach to develop items for a DR-specific QoL item bank. The psychometric properties of the nine QoL subscales will be assessed using Rasch analysis. The resulting validated item bank will allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the QoL impact of DR and DR therapies from the patient's perspective.

  15. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  17. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scired Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk

    1988-01-01

    A loglinear item response theory (IRT) model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. Each item may have a different response function where each item response may be explained by one or more latent traits. Item response functions may follow a

  18. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  19. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: A comparison of gender differences on eighth-grade science items in the United States and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Tasha

    Despite the attention that has been given to gender and science, boys continue to outperform girls in science achievement, particularly by the end of secondary school. Because it is unclear whether gender differences have narrowed over time (Leder, 1992; Willingham & Cole, 1997), it is important to continue a line of inquiry into the nature of gender differences, specifically at the international level. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in science achievement across two countries: United States and Spain. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate an alternative method for exploring gender differences based on the many-faceted Rasch model (1980). A secondary analysis of the data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to examine the relationship between gender DIF (differential item functioning) and item characteristics (item type, content, and performance expectation) across both countries. Nationally representative samples of eighth grade students in the United States and Spain who participated in TIMSS were analyzed to answer the research questions in this study. In both countries, girls showed an advantage over boys on life science items and most extended response items, whereas boys, by and large, had an advantage on earth science, physics, and chemistry items. However, even within areas that favored boys, such as physics, there were items that were differentially easier for girls. In general, patterns in gender differences were similar across both countries although there were a few differences between the countries on individual items. It was concluded that simply looking at mean differences does not provide an adequate understanding of the nature of gender differences in science achievement.

  20. Counterfeit and Fraudulent Items - Mitigating the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This presentation (slides) provides an overview of the industry's challenges and activities. Firstly, it outlines the differences between counterfeit, fraudulent, suspect, and also substandard items. Notice is given that items could be found not to meet the standard, but the difference in the intent to deceive with counterfeit and fraudulent items is the critical element. Examples from other industries are used which also rely heavily on the assurance of quality for safety. It also informs that EPRI has just completed a report in October 2009 in coordination with other US government agencies and industry organizations; this report, entitled Counterfeit, Substandard and Fraudulent Items, number 1019163, is available for free on the EPRI web site. As a follow-up to this report, EPRI is developing a CFSI Database; any country interested in a collaborative agreement is invited to use and contribute to the database information. Finally, it stresses the importance of the oversight of contractors, training to raise the awareness of the employees and the inspectors, and having a response plan for identified items

  1. Mechanism Design for the Online Allocation of Items without Monetary Payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalilzadeh, B.; Planken, L.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider online mechanism design without money, where agents are allowed to trade items with other agents, in an attempt to improve their own allocation. In an off-line context, this problem is known as the House Allocation Problem (HAP). We extend HAP to an online problem and call it the Online

  2. Verification of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Status of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test item bias and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of West African ... items in chemistry function differentially with respect to gender and location. In Aba education zone of Abia, 50 secondary schools were purposively ...

  3. Conjunctive and Disjunctive Item Response Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    fed set ofvaluesof a, b, AI , B1 A2 2 . 2 A3 , and 13 , the f ’. g ’a. nd h’a in (7) are fied. Equation (7) must still hold for S - e19029e3,..* . Thus...for Item I Is -- b ?(a:1 , b1 ,O) (1 + ’)(I + e4 (22 where a and pi are arbitrary constants. These constants mst be the sam for all Items In a given...NETHERLIS I E3I1 Focility-Acquisitions 4133 Rugby Avnue 1 Lee Cronbach Bethesda, NO 20014 16 Laburnue Road Atherton, CA 94205 1 Dr. Benjamin A. Fairbank

  4. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  5. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  7. Standardization of beam line representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, David C.

    1998-01-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed

  8. Standardization of beam line representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed

  9. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... international sample of cancer patients. This included evaluations of dimensionality, item response theory (IRT) model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), and of measurement precision/statistical power. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1,023 cancer patients from four countries. The evaluations showed...... that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...

  10. Differential item functioning magnitude and impact measures from item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Marjorie; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    Measures of magnitude and impact of differential item functioning (DIF) at the item and scale level, respectively are presented and reviewed in this paper. Most measures are based on item response theory models. Magnitude refers to item level effect sizes, whereas impact refers to differences between groups at the scale score level. Reviewed are magnitude measures based on group differences in the expected item scores and impact measures based on differences in the expected scale scores. The similarities among these indices are demonstrated. Various software packages are described that provide magnitude and impact measures, and new software presented that computes all of the available statistics conveniently in one program with explanations of their relationships to one another.

  11. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  12. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... extraordinary. Extraordinary events and transactions are distinguished by both their unusual nature and by the infrequency of their occurrence, taking into account the environment in which the company operates. This...

  13. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  14. Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…

  15. In-Process Items on LCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thyra K.

    Morris Library at Southern Illinois University computerized its technical processes using the Library Computer System (LCS), which was implemented in the library to streamline order processing by: (1) providing up-to-date online files to track in-process items; (2) encouraging quick, efficient accessing of information; (3) reducing manual files;…

  16. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance,

  17. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  18. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  19. Item Response Theory: A Basic Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Jumailiyah

    2017-01-01

    With the development in computing technology, item response theory (IRT) develops rapidly, and has become a user friendly application in psychometrics world. Limitation in classical theory is one aspect that encourages the use of IRT. In this study, the basic concept of IRT will be discussed. In addition, it will briefly review the ability…

  20. Item Response Theory for Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Masaki; Ueno, Maomi

    2016-01-01

    As an assessment method based on a constructivist approach, peer assessment has become popular in recent years. However, in peer assessment, a problem remains that reliability depends on the rater characteristics. For this reason, some item response models that incorporate rater parameters have been proposed. Those models are expected to improve…

  1. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 2 (Parts 201--299), revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 73, in section 212.504, paragraph (a) is...

  2. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational

  3. Aging and Confidence Judgments in Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…

  4. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... quantitatively measured, the validity of that measurement independently confirmed, and that additionally have..., except for reactor components measuring at least one meter in length and weighing in excess of 30...

  5. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  6. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  7. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  8. Safeguard Application Options for the Laser-Based Item Monitoring System (LBIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughter, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are developing a Laser-Based Item Monitoring System (LBIMS) for advanced safeguards at nuclear facilities. LBIMS uses a low-power laser transceiver to monitor the presence and position of items with retroreflective tags. The primary advantages of LBIMS are its scalability to continuously monitor a wide range of items, its ability to operate unattended, its low cost of implementation, and its inherent information security due to its line-of-sight and non-broadcasting operation. The primary proposed safeguard application of LBIMS is described in its name: item monitoring. LBIMS could be implemented in a storage area to continuously monitor containers of nuclear material and the area in which they are stored. The system could be configured to provide off-site notification if any of the containers are moved or removed or if the area is accessed. Individual tags would be used to monitor storage containers, and additional tags could be used to record information regarding secondary storage units and room access. The capability to register small changes in tag position opens up the possibility of several other uses. These include continuously monitoring piping arrangements for design information verification or recording equipment positions for other safeguards systems, such as tracking the opening and closing of autoclaves as part of a cylinder tracking system or opening and closing valves on a sample or product take-off line. Combined with attribute tags, which transmit information from any kind of sensor by modulating the laser signal, LBIMS provides the capability to wirelessly and securely collect safeguards data, even in areas where radio-frequency or other wireless communication methods are not practicable. Four application types are described in this report: static item monitoring, in-process item monitoring with trigger tags, multi-layered integration with trigger tags, and line-of-sight data transfer with

  9. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Calibration of Automatically Generated Items Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip

    For complex educational assessments, there is an increasing use of "item families," which are groups of related items. However, calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that take into account the dependence structure inherent among the items that belong to the same item family. C. Glas and W. van der Linden…

  11. Applying Hierarchical Model Calibration to Automatically Generated Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip; Bejar, Isaac I.

    This study explored the application of hierarchical model calibration as a means of reducing, if not eliminating, the need for pretesting of automatically generated items from a common item model prior to operational use. Ultimately the successful development of automatic item generation (AIG) systems capable of producing items with highly similar…

  12. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers to...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.404 - Review of items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Review of items. 101-27.404 Section 101-27.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.404 Review of items. Except for standby or reserve stocks, items...

  14. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 & 12. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER…

  15. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  16. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  17. A Review of Classical Methods of Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christine L.

    Item analysis is a very important consideration in the test development process. It is a statistical procedure to analyze test items that combines methods used to evaluate the important characteristics of test items, such as difficulty, discrimination, and distractibility of the items in a test. This paper reviews some of the classical methods for…

  18. A comparison of item response models for accuracy and speed of item responses with applications to adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Peter W; Ali, Usama S

    2017-05-01

    We compare three modelling frameworks for accuracy and speed of item responses in the context of adaptive testing. The first framework is based on modelling scores that result from a scoring rule that incorporates both accuracy and speed. The second framework is the hierarchical modelling approach developed by van der Linden (2007, Psychometrika, 72, 287) in which a regular item response model is specified for accuracy and a log-normal model for speed. The third framework is the diffusion framework in which the response is assumed to be the result of a Wiener process. Although the three frameworks differ in the relation between accuracy and speed, one commonality is that the marginal model for accuracy can be simplified to the two-parameter logistic model. We discuss both conditional and marginal estimation of model parameters. Models from all three frameworks were fitted to data from a mathematics and spelling test. Furthermore, we applied a linear and adaptive testing mode to the data off-line in order to determine differences between modelling frameworks. It was found that a model from the scoring rule framework outperformed a hierarchical model in terms of model-based reliability, but the results were mixed with respect to correlations with external measures. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  20. Item analysis and evaluation in the examinations in the faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-05

    Nov 5, 2014 ... Key words: Classical test theory, item analysis, item difficulty, item discrimination, item response theory, reliability ... the probability of answering an item correctly or of attaining ..... A Monte Carlo comparison of item and person.

  1. Development of the Open Items Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located on the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in USA, has the directed objectives of solidifying the high-level radioactive waste into a durable, solid form for shipment; decontaminating and decommissioning the tanks and facilities; and disposing of the resulting low-level and transuranic wastes. Since an escalating trend of open work items was noticed in the Fall of 1988, and there was no control mechanism for tracking and closing the open items, a Work Control System was developed for this purpose. It is self-contained system on a mainframe ARTEMIS 9000, which tracks, monitors, and closes out external commitments in a timely manner. Audits, surveillances, site appraisals, preventive maintenance, instrument calibration recall, and scheduling are covered

  2. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Verhelst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

  3. Effect of study context on item recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-07-01

    We examined how visual context information provided during encoding, and unrelated to the target word, affected later recollection for words presented alone using a remember-know paradigm. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that participants had better overall memory-specifically, recollection-for words studied with pictures of intact faces than for words studied with pictures of scrambled or inverted faces. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that recollection was higher for words studied with pictures of faces than when no image accompanied the study word. In Experiment 3 participants showed equivalent memory for words studied with unique faces as for those studied with a repeatedly presented face. Results suggest that recollection benefits when visual context information high in meaningful content accompanies study words and that this benefit is not related to the uniqueness of the context. We suggest that participants use elaborative processes to integrate item and meaningful contexts into ensemble information, improving subsequent item recollection.

  4. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and...

  5. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  6. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  7. Pengendalian Persediaan Primary Items dalam Logistik Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment  of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.

  8. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  9. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  10. Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of the effects on IRT item parameter estimates with a focus on misbehaving common items in test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis P Michaelides

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of Item Response Theory. Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  12. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  13. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  14. Cash Impact of the Consumable Item Transfer, Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...). This report is the third in a series of reports regarding the consumable item transfer (CIT), phase II. The Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the transfer of the management of consumable items to Defense Logistics Agency...

  15. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as it..., and § 301.6511(g)-1, the term “partnership item” means— (1) Any item required to be taken into account...

  17. On multidimensional item response theory -- a coordinate free approach

    OpenAIRE

    Antal, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    A coordinate system free definition of complex structure multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) for dichotomously scored items is presented. The point of view taken emphasizes the possibilities and subtleties of understanding MIRT as a multidimensional extension of the ``classical'' unidimensional item response theory models. The main theorem of the paper is that every monotonic MIRT model looks the same; they are all trivial extensions of univariate item response theory.

  18. Tailored Cloze: Improved with Classical Item Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1988-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a cloze procedure used as an English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test in China were improved by applying traditional item analysis and selection techniques. The 'best' test items were chosen on the basis of item facility and discrimination indices, and were administered as a 'tailored cloze.' 29 references listed.…

  19. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  20. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  1. Assessing difference between classical test theory and item ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing difference between classical test theory and item response theory methods in scoring primary four multiple choice objective test items. ... All research participants were ranked on the CTT number correct scores and the corresponding IRT item pattern scores from their performance on the PRISMADAT. Wilcoxon ...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the criteria...

  3. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  4. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  5. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  6. 12 CFR 210.8 - Presenting noncash items for acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for acceptance. (a) A Reserve Bank or a subsequent collecting bank may, if instructed by the sender, present a noncash item for acceptance in any manner authorized by law if— (1) The item provides that it... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presenting noncash items for acceptance. 210.8...

  7. Writing, Evaluating and Assessing Data Response Items in Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the problems in writing data response items in economics for use by A Level and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) students. Examines the experience of two series of workshops on writing items, evaluating them and assessing responses from schools. Offers suggestions for producing packages of data response items as…

  8. A scale purification procedure for evaluation of differential item functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, Muhammad Naveed; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test

  9. Comparing Two Versions of the MEOCS Using Differential Item Functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truhon, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ...) from item response theory (IRT). DIF was found for the majority of the 40 items examined, although in many cases the DIF indicated improvements in the revised items. Implications for these scales and for the use of IRT with the MEOCS are discussed.

  10. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  11. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  12. Examination of the PROMIS upper extremity item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Voss, Maren W; Bounsanga, Jerry; Crum, Anthony B; Tyser, Andrew R

    Clinical measurement. The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis. The UE item bank fits a unidimensional model (outfit MNSQ range from 0.64 to 1.70) and has adequate reliabilities (person = 0.84; item = 0.82) and local independence (item residual correlations range from -0.37 to 0.34). Only one item exhibits gender differential item functioning. Most items target low levels of function. The UE item bank is a useful clinical assessment tool. Additional items covering higher functions are needed to enhance validity. Supplemental testing is recommended for patients at higher levels of function until more high function UE items are developed. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  14. A simple and fast item selection procedure for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, W.J.J.; Veerkamp, Wim J.J.; Berger, Martijn; Berger, Martijn P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Items with the highest discrimination parameter values in a logistic item response theory (IRT) model do not necessarily give maximum information. This paper shows which discrimination parameter values (as a function of the guessing parameter and the distance between person ability and item

  15. Optimal item discrimination and maximum information for logistic IRT models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, W.J.J.; Veerkamp, Wim J.J.; Berger, Martijn P.F.; Berger, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    Items with the highest discrimination parameter values in a logistic item response theory model do not necessarily give maximum information. This paper derives discrimination parameter values, as functions of the guessing parameter and distances between person parameters and item difficulty, that

  16. Data Supporting the Environmental Liability Line Item on the FY 1999 DoD Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    We performed this audit in response to the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994, which requires DoD and other Government agencies to prepare...

  17. 48 CFR 514.270-4 - Grouping line items for aggregate award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may have sufficient requirements so that individual shipments involve economic production runs and... franchises in certain territories, grouping different territories could tend to restrict competition. (3...

  18. Data Supporting the DOD Environmental Line Item Liability on the FY 1998 Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... consolidated financial statements. This audit supports our audit of the FY 1998 DoD Agency wide financial statements and future audits of financial statements that are required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended...

  19. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale: Latent structure of 8-item and 4-item versions in Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.

  20. Non-ignorable missingness item response theory models for choice effects in examinee-selected items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-11-01

    Examinee-selected item (ESI) design, in which examinees are required to respond to a fixed number of items in a given set, always yields incomplete data (i.e., when only the selected items are answered, data are missing for the others) that are likely non-ignorable in likelihood inference. Standard item response theory (IRT) models become infeasible when ESI data are missing not at random (MNAR). To solve this problem, the authors propose a two-dimensional IRT model that posits one unidimensional IRT model for observed data and another for nominal selection patterns. The two latent variables are assumed to follow a bivariate normal distribution. In this study, the mirt freeware package was adopted to estimate parameters. The authors conduct an experiment to demonstrate that ESI data are often non-ignorable and to determine how to apply the new model to the data collected. Two follow-up simulation studies are conducted to assess the parameter recovery of the new model and the consequences for parameter estimation of ignoring MNAR data. The results of the two simulation studies indicate good parameter recovery of the new model and poor parameter recovery when non-ignorable missing data were mistakenly treated as ignorable. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  2. Methods for Assessing Item, Step, and Threshold Invariance in Polytomous Items Following the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement invariance in the partial credit model (PCM) can be conceptualized in several different but compatible ways. In this article the authors distinguish between three forms of measurement invariance in the PCM: step invariance, item invariance, and threshold invariance. Approaches for modeling these three forms of invariance are proposed,…

  3. Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning by Item-Focused Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…

  4. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  5. Dependability of technical items: Problems of standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.

  6. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  7. Are great apes able to reason from multi-item samples to populations of food items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Johanna; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2017-10-01

    Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples. In the present study, we investigated whether great apes (Pongo abelii, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) also draw inductive inferences in the opposite direction, from samples to populations. In two experiments, apes saw an experimenter randomly drawing one multi-item sample from each of two populations of food items. The populations differed in their proportion of preferred to neutral items (24:6 vs. 6:24) but apes saw only the distribution of food items in the samples that reflected the distribution of the respective populations (e.g., 4:1 vs. 1:4). Based on this observation they were then allowed to choose between the two populations. Results show that apes seemed to make inferences from samples to populations and thus chose the population from which the more favorable (4:1) sample was drawn in Experiment 1. In this experiment, the more attractive sample not only contained proportionally but also absolutely more preferred food items than the less attractive sample. Experiment 2, however, revealed that when absolute and relative frequencies were disentangled, apes performed at chance level. Whether these limitations in apes' performance reflect true limits of cognitive competence or merely performance limitations due to accessory task demands is still an open question. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. Research Report. ETS RR-15-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usama S.; Chang, Hua-Hua; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Polytomous items are typically described by multiple category-related parameters; situations, however, arise in which a single index is needed to describe an item's location along a latent trait continuum. Situations in which a single index would be needed include item selection in computerized adaptive testing or test assembly. Therefore single…

  9. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Two. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  10. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  11. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  12. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Seventeen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  13. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  14. Criteria for eliminating items of a Test of Figural Analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steps taken to eliminate two of the items in a Test of Figural Analogies (TFA. The main guidelines of psychometric analysis concerning Classical Test Theory (CTT and Item Response Theory (IRT are explained. The item elimination process was based on both the study of the CTT difficulty and discrimination index, and the unidimensionality analysis. The a, b, and c parameters of the Three Parameter Logistic Model of IRT were also considered for this purpose, as well as the assessment of each item fitting this model. The unfavourable characteristics of a group of TFA items are detailed, and decisions leading to their possible elimination are discussed.

  15. Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Constructing the 32-item Fitness-to-Drive Screening Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhizadah, Shabnam; Classen, Sherrilene; Johnson, Andrew M

    2018-04-01

    The Fitness-to-Drive Screening Measure © (FTDS) enables proxies to identify at-risk older drivers via 54 driving-related items, but may be too lengthy for widespread uptake. We reduced the number of items in the FTDS and validated the shorter measure, using 200 caregiver responses. Exploratory factor analysis and classical test theory techniques were used to determine the most interpretable factor model and the minimum number of items to be used for predicting fitness to drive. The extent to which the shorter FTDS predicted the results of the 54-item FTDS was evaluated through correlational analysis. A three-factor model best represented the empirical data. Classical test theory techniques lead to the development of the 32-item FTDS. The 32-item FTDS was highly correlated ( r = .99, p = .05) with the FTDS. The 32-item FTDS may provide raters with a faster and more efficient way to identify at-risk older drivers.

  17. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  18. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Burgess, Neil

    2013-12-17

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 demonstrated that item memory was facilitated by emotional affect, whereas memory for an associated context was reduced. In Experiment 2, arousal was manipulated independently of the memoranda, by a threat of shock, whereby encoding trials occurred under conditions of threat or safety. Memory for context was equally impaired by the presence of negative affect, whether induced by threat of shock or a negative item, relative to retrieval of the context of a neutral item in safety. In Experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral and negative items as paired associates, including all combinations of neutral and negative items. The results showed both above effects: compared to a neutral item, memory for the associate of a negative item (a second item here, context in Experiments 1 and 2) is impaired, whereas retrieval of the item itself is enhanced. Our findings suggest that negative affect impairs associative memory while recognition of a negative item is enhanced. They support dual-processing models in which negative affect or stress impairs hippocampal-dependent associative memory while the storage of negative sensory/perceptual representations is spared or even strengthened.

  19. Development and validation of a novel patient-reported treatment satisfaction measure for hyperfunctional facial lines: facial line satisfaction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilus, Farrah; Burgess, Somali; Hudgens, Stacie; Banderas, Benjamin; Daniels, Selena

    2015-12-01

    Facial lines or wrinkles are among the most visible signs of aging, and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Facial Line Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLSQ) for use in adults with upper facial lines (UFL). A literature review, concept elicitation interviews (n = 33), and cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 23) of adults with UFL were conducted to develop the FLSQ. The FLSQ comprises Baseline and Follow-up versions and was field-tested with 150 subjects in a US observational study designed to assess its psychometric performance. Analyses included acceptability (item and scale distribution [i.e. missingness, floor, and ceiling effects]), reliability, and validity (including concurrent validity). In total, 69 concepts were elicited during patient interviews. Following cognitive debriefing interviews, the FLSQ-Baseline version included 11 items and the Follow-up version included 13 items. Response rates for the FLSQ were 100% and 73% at baseline and follow-up, respectively; no items had excessive missing data. Questionnaire scale scores were normally distributed. Most domain scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70). Most items within their respective domains exhibited good convergent (item-scale correlations > 0.40) and discriminant (items had higher correlation with their hypothesized scales than other scales) validity. Concurrent validity correlation coefficients of the FLSQ domain scores with the associated concurrent measures were acceptable (range: r = 0.40-0.70). Six FLSQ items demonstrated reliability and validity as stand-alone items outside their domains. The FLSQ is a valid questionnaire for assessing treatment expectations, satisfaction, impact, and preference in adults with UFL. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  1. Which Statistic Should Be Used to Detect Item Preknowledge When the Set of Compromised Items Is Known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-09-01

    Benefiting from item preknowledge is a major type of fraudulent behavior during educational assessments. Belov suggested the posterior shift statistic for detection of item preknowledge and showed its performance to be better on average than that of seven other statistics for detection of item preknowledge for a known set of compromised items. Sinharay suggested a statistic based on the likelihood ratio test for detection of item preknowledge; the advantage of the statistic is that its null distribution is known. Results from simulated and real data and adaptive and nonadaptive tests are used to demonstrate that the Type I error rate and power of the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test are very similar to those of the posterior shift statistic. Thus, the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test appears promising in detecting item preknowledge when the set of compromised items is known.

  2. Editorial Changes and Item Performance: Implications for Calibration and Pretesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Stoffel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the impact of text and formatting changes on test-item performance has produced mixed results. This matter is important because it is generally acknowledged that any change to an item requires that it be recalibrated. The present study investigated the effects of seven classes of stylistic changes on item difficulty, discrimination, and response time for a subset of 65 items that make up a standardized test for physician licensure completed by 31,918 examinees in 2012. One of two versions of each item (original or revised was randomly assigned to examinees such that each examinee saw only two experimental items, with each item being administered to approximately 480 examinees. The stylistic changes had little or no effect on item difficulty or discrimination; however, one class of edits -' changing an item from an open lead-in (incomplete statement to a closed lead-in (direct question -' did result in slightly longer response times. Data for nonnative speakers of English were analyzed separately with nearly identical results. These findings have implications for the conventional practice of repretesting (or recalibrating items that have been subjected to minor editorial changes.

  3. A note on monotonicity of item response functions for ordered polytomous item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Su, Ya-Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2018-03-08

    A monotone relationship between a true score (τ) and a latent trait level (θ) has been a key assumption for many psychometric applications. The monotonicity property in dichotomous response models is evident as a result of a transformation via a test characteristic curve. Monotonicity in polytomous models, in contrast, is not immediately obvious because item response functions are determined by a set of response category curves, which are conceivably non-monotonic in θ. The purpose of the present note is to demonstrate strict monotonicity in ordered polytomous item response models. Five models that are widely used in operational assessments are considered for proof: the generalized partial credit model (Muraki, 1992, Applied Psychological Measurement, 16, 159), the nominal model (Bock, 1972, Psychometrika, 37, 29), the partial credit model (Masters, 1982, Psychometrika, 47, 147), the rating scale model (Andrich, 1978, Psychometrika, 43, 561), and the graded response model (Samejima, 1972, A general model for free-response data (Psychometric Monograph no. 18). Psychometric Society, Richmond). The study asserts that the item response functions in these models strictly increase in θ and thus there exists strict monotonicity between τ and θ under certain specified conditions. This conclusion validates the practice of customarily using τ in place of θ in applied settings and provides theoretical grounds for one-to-one transformations between the two scales. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Efficient Algorithms for Segmentation of Item-Set Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundi, Parvathi; Rosenkrantz, Daniel J.

    We propose a special type of time series, which we call an item-set time series, to facilitate the temporal analysis of software version histories, email logs, stock market data, etc. In an item-set time series, each observed data value is a set of discrete items. We formalize the concept of an item-set time series and present efficient algorithms for segmenting a given item-set time series. Segmentation of a time series partitions the time series into a sequence of segments where each segment is constructed by combining consecutive time points of the time series. Each segment is associated with an item set that is computed from the item sets of the time points in that segment, using a function which we call a measure function. We then define a concept called the segment difference, which measures the difference between the item set of a segment and the item sets of the time points in that segment. The segment difference values are required to construct an optimal segmentation of the time series. We describe novel and efficient algorithms to compute segment difference values for each of the measure functions described in the paper. We outline a dynamic programming based scheme to construct an optimal segmentation of the given item-set time series. We use the item-set time series segmentation techniques to analyze the temporal content of three different data sets—Enron email, stock market data, and a synthetic data set. The experimental results show that an optimal segmentation of item-set time series data captures much more temporal content than a segmentation constructed based on the number of time points in each segment, without examining the item set data at the time points, and can be used to analyze different types of temporal data.

  5. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  6. The basics of item response theory using R

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item re...

  7. Attention restores discrete items to visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna C; Clark, Ian A; Cravo, André M; Stokes, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    When a memory is forgotten, is it lost forever? Our study shows that selective attention can restore forgotten items to visual short-term memory (VSTM). In our two experiments, all stimuli presented in a memory array were designed to be equally task relevant during encoding. During the retention interval, however, participants were sometimes given a cue predicting which of the memory items would be probed at the end of the delay. This shift in task relevance improved recall for that item. We found that this type of cuing improved recall for items that otherwise would have been irretrievable, providing critical evidence that attention can restore forgotten information to VSTM. Psychophysical modeling of memory performance has confirmed that restoration of information in VSTM increases the probability that the cued item is available for recall but does not improve the representational quality of the memory. We further suggest that attention can restore discrete items to VSTM.

  8. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  10. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  11. Healthy Checkout Lines: A Study in Urban Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine

    2017-09-01

    To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P < .001). When healthier products were available, the proportion of healthy purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  13. Quantum partial search for uneven distribution of multiple target items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Korepin, Vladimir

    2018-06-01

    Quantum partial search algorithm is an approximate search. It aims to find a target block (which has the target items). It runs a little faster than full Grover search. In this paper, we consider quantum partial search algorithm for multiple target items unevenly distributed in a database (target blocks have different number of target items). The algorithm we describe can locate one of the target blocks. Efficiency of the algorithm is measured by number of queries to the oracle. We optimize the algorithm in order to improve efficiency. By perturbation method, we find that the algorithm runs the fastest when target items are evenly distributed in database.

  14. Data Visualization of Item-Total Correlation by Median Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ho Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate how data visualization could be utilized to identify errors prior to modeling, using an example with multi-dimensional item response theory (MIRT. MIRT combines item response theory and factor analysis to identify a psychometric model that investigates two or more latent traits. While it may seem convenient to accomplish two tasks by employing one procedure, users should be cautious of problematic items that affect both factor analysis and IRT. When sample sizes are extremely large, reliability analyses can misidentify even random numbers as meaningful patterns. Data visualization, such as median smoothing, can be used to identify problematic items in preliminary data cleaning.

  15. A survey and comparison of heuristics for the 2D oriented on-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two dimensional oriented on-line strip packing problem requires items to be packed, one at a time, into a strip of fixed width and infinite height so as to minimise the total height of the packing. The items may neither be rotated nor overlap. In this paper, ten heuristics from the literature are considered for the special case ...

  16. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya; Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi.

    1982-01-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  19. Description of individual data items and codes in CRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Eleanor K.; Calkins, James Alfred

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  20. Republic of Croatia's Experiences in the Implementation of the EU Directive About Dual-Use Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidas, Z.; Orehovec, Z.; Superina, V.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia is undergoing a process of adjusting its own legislation to the legislation of EU. It is one of the most important obligations of the EU-Croatia Stabilization and Association Agreement. It is also a basic prerequisite for the practical realization of the modern, unique and integral Export and Import Control system of the Sensitive Items. At the same time, it is a very important step towards better understanding of real and great danger of the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) proliferation and their possible usage in terrorism. That means that Republic of Croatia will act along with EU in the complex activities to prevent and minimize the WMD proliferation, to participate in antiterrorism activities, and to maintain regional and global security. In the year 2004, along the lines of the EU Legislation, the Croatian Parliament adopted the basic legal act - Act on export of Dual-use Items and its accompanying rules and regulations. The existing act on dual-purpose items in Croatia is mostly in harmony with the 2000 and 2003 EU Decrees which regulate te regime of the dual-purpose items export control. Nevertheless, the EU legislation experiences constant amendments in the field. And the Croatian Government is committed to following the improvements of te system and adjusting its own. However, during this process, a series of vague wordings and inconsistencies were noticed in the WMD nonproliferation policy and in the legislation to control the export of high technology products which could be abused for the WMD development. In addition, there is neither regulation on import control system nor control on the export of knowledge through scientific and professional cooperation. The purpose of this article is to professionally elaborate the value wordings and inconsistencies. It can be done on the basis of Croatia's experiences in the export and import control system of the dual-purpose items and knowledge and experience acquired through the

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  2. Maintenance of item and order information in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Lagner, Prune; Loaiza, Vanessa M

    2017-09-01

    Although verbal recall of item and order information is well-researched in short-term memory paradigms, there is relatively little research concerning item and order recall from working memory. The following study examined whether manipulating the opportunity for attentional refreshing and articulatory rehearsal in a complex span task differently affected the recall of item- and order-specific information of the memoranda. Five experiments varied the opportunity for articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing in a complex span task, but the type of recall was manipulated between experiments (item and order, order only, and item only recall). The results showed that impairing attentional refreshing and articulatory rehearsal similarly affected recall regardless of whether the scoring procedure (Experiments 1 and 4) or recall requirements (Experiments 2, 3, and 5) reflected item- or order-specific recall. This implies that both mechanisms sustain the maintenance of item and order information, and suggests that the common cumulative functioning of these two mechanisms to maintain items could be at the root of order maintenance.

  3. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  4. The development of a single-item Food Choice Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Reinders, M.J.; Verain, M.C.D.; Snoek, H.M.

    2019-01-01

    Based on the multi-item Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) originally developed by Steptoe and colleagues (1995), the current study developed a single-item FCQ that provides an acceptable balance between practical needs and psychometric concerns. Studies 1 (N = 1851) and 2 (2a (N = 3290), 2b (N =

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative control of sensitive items assigned for general use within an organizational unit as appropriate... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of sensitive...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1010 - (Item 1010) Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1010 (Item 1010) Financial statements. (a) Financial information. Furnish the following financial information: (1) Audited financial statements for the two fiscal years required to be filed with the company's... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1010) Financial...

  7. Item Construction and Psychometric Models Appropriate for Constructed Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    which involve only one attribute per item. This is especially true when we are dealing with constructed-response items, we have to measure much more...Service University of Ilinois Educacional Testing Service Rosedal Road Capign. IL 61801 Princeton. K3 08541 Princeton. N3 08541 Dr. Charles LeiS Dr

  8. 17 CFR 229.406 - (Item 406) Code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 406) Code of ethics. 229... 406) Code of ethics. (a) Disclose whether the registrant has adopted a code of ethics that applies to... code of ethics, explain why it has not done so. (b) For purposes of this Item 406, the term code of...

  9. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  10. Elu kui näitemäng / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-

    2007-01-01

    VI kihelkonnapäevadest Juurus. Juuru Mihkli kirikus esines ansambel Resonabilis. Konverentsil räägiti Järlepa mõisast, Anu Allikvee pidas ettekande "August von Kotzebue elu nagu näitemäng" jm. Näitemängu "Pärmi Jaagu unenägu" nägi kohalike asjaarmastajate esituses

  11. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  12. The Influence of Item Properties on Association-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Caplan, Jeremy B.

    2010-01-01

    Word properties like imageability and word frequency improve cued recall of verbal paired-associates. We asked whether these enhancements follow simply from prior effects on item-memory, or also strengthen associations between items. Participants studied word pairs varying in imageability or frequency: pairs were "pure" (high-high, low-low) or…

  13. Procedures for Selecting Items for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, G. Gage; Zara, Anthony R.

    1989-01-01

    Several classical approaches and alternative approaches to item selection for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are reviewed and compared. The study also describes procedures for constrained CAT that may be added to classical item selection approaches to allow them to be used for applied testing. (TJH)

  14. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  15. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  16. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  17. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  18. The Role of Item Feedback in Self-Adapted Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Linda L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The importance of item feedback in self-adapted testing was studied by comparing feedback and no feedback conditions for computerized adaptive tests and self-adapted tests taken by 363 college students. Results indicate that item feedback is not necessary to realize score differences between self-adapted and computerized adaptive testing. (SLD)

  19. Characterizing Sources of Uncertainty in Item Response Theory Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Traditional estimators of item response theory scale scores ignore uncertainty carried over from the item calibration process, which can lead to incorrect estimates of the standard errors of measurement (SEMs). Here, the authors review a variety of approaches that have been applied to this problem and compare them on the basis of their statistical…

  20. Practical Guide to Conducting an Item Response Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) is a psychometric technique used in the development, evaluation, improvement, and scoring of multi-item scales. This pedagogical article provides the necessary information needed to understand how to conduct, interpret, and report results from two commonly used ordered polytomous IRT models (Samejima's graded…

  1. Item Response Theory Modeling of the Philadelphia Naming Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Kellough, Stacey; Hula, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the fit of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) to an item-response-theory measurement model, estimated the precision of the resulting scores and item parameters, and provided a theoretical rationale for the interpretation of PNT overall scores by relating…

  2. 48 CFR 53.212 - Acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of commercial... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.212 Acquisition of commercial items. SF 1449 (Rev. 3/2005), Solicitation/Contract/Order for Commercial Items. SF 1449 is prescribed for use in...

  3. 48 CFR 52.212-2 - Evaluation-Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation-Commercial....212-2 Evaluation—Commercial Items. As prescribed in 12.301(c), the Contracting Officer may insert a provision substantially as follows: Evaluation—Commercial Items (JAN 1999) (a) The Government will award a...

  4. 48 CFR 46.202-1 - Contracts for commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts for commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-1 Contracts for commercial items. When acquiring commercial items (see part 12), the Government shall rely on contractors' existing...

  5. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Panpan; Li Youhai; Ma Huijuan; Xi Chunhua; Chen Xianwen; Wang Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory.Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD),and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory.Methods We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory.Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery.Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character,picture,and image) of objects.Results Compared with the controls,the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.06 vs.0.72±0.09,P=0.001),but not impaired in item memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.07 vs.0.67±0.08,P=0.240).Conclusions The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients,thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures.PD patients show poor source memory,in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  6. Semiparametric Item Response Functions in the Context of Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carl F.; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    We present a logistic function of a monotonic polynomial with a lower asymptote, allowing additional flexibility beyond the three-parameter logistic model. We develop a maximum marginal likelihood-based approach to estimate the item parameters. The new item response model is demonstrated on math assessment data from a state, and a computationally…

  7. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the

  8. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scored items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk; Rijkes, Carl P.M.; Rijkes, Carl

    1994-01-01

    A loglinear IRT model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. The analyst may specify a response function for each response, indicating which latent abilities are necessary to arrive at that response. Each item may have a different number of

  9. Graphical modeling for item difficulty in medical faculty exams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Conclusion: The ... difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ..... assumed that 68% of the values fall in the interval ± 1.S; .... The balance of the construction of items of exam has ...

  10. A person fit test for IRT models for polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dagohoy, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A person fit test based on the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for three item response theory models for polytomous items: the generalized partial credit model, the sequential model, and the graded response model. The test can also be used in the framework of multidimensional ability

  11. Bayes factor covariance testing in item response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, J.P.; Mulder, J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning

  12. Bayes Factor Covariance Testing in Item Response Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Joris; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning

  13. Optimizing incomplete sample designs for item response model parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    Several models for optimizing incomplete sample designs with respect to information on the item parameters are presented. The following cases are considered: (1) known ability parameters; (2) unknown ability parameters; (3) item sets with multiple ability scales; and (4) response models with

  14. Algorithms for computerized test construction using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Jos J.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, linear programming models for test construction were developed. These models were based on the information function from item response theory. In this paper another approach is followed. Two 0-1 linear programming models for the construction of tests using classical item and test

  15. Analysis of differential item functioning in the depression item bank from the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS: An item response theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH P. EIMICKE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to present findings related to differential item functioning (DIF in the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS depression item bank, and to discuss potential threats to the validity of results from studies of DIF. The 32 depression items studied were modified from several widely used instruments. DIF analyses of gender, age and education were performed using a sample of 735 individuals recruited by a survey polling firm. DIF hypotheses were generated by asking content experts to indicate whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to the studied comparison groups. Primary analyses were conducted using the graded item response model (for polytomous, ordered response category data with likelihood ratio tests of DIF, accompanied by magnitude measures. Sensitivity analyses were performed using other item response models and approaches to DIF detection. Despite some caveats, the items that are recommended for exclusion or for separate calibration were "I felt like crying" and "I had trouble enjoying things that I used to enjoy." The item, "I felt I had no energy," was also flagged as evidencing DIF, and recommended for additional review. On the one hand, false DIF detection (Type 1 error was controlled to the extent possible by ensuring model fit and purification. On the other hand, power for DIF detection might have been compromised by several factors, including sparse data and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, practical and not just statistical significance should be considered. In this case the overall magnitude and impact of DIF was small for the groups studied, although impact was relatively large for some individuals.

  16. Geriatric Anxiety Scale: item response theory analysis, differential item functioning, and creation of a ten-item short form (GAS-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anne E; Segal, Daniel L; Gavett, Brandon; Marty, Meghan A; Yochim, Brian; June, Andrea; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS; Segal et al. (Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709-714. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002) is a self-report measure of anxiety that was designed to address unique issues associated with anxiety assessment in older adults. This study is the first to use item response theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of a measure of anxiety in older adults. A large sample of older adults (n = 581; mean age = 72.32 years, SD = 7.64 years, range = 60 to 96 years; 64% women; 88% European American) completed the GAS. IRT properties were examined. The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or measurement bias by age and sex was assessed, and a ten-item short form of the GAS (called the GAS-10) was created. All GAS items had discrimination parameters of 1.07 or greater. Items from the somatic subscale tended to have lower discrimination parameters than items on the cognitive or affective subscales. Two items were flagged for DIF, but the impact of the DIF was negligible. Women scored significantly higher than men on the GAS and its subscales. Participants in the young-old group (60 to 79 years old) scored significantly higher on the cognitive subscale than participants in the old-old group (80 years old and older). Results from the IRT analyses indicated that the GAS and GAS-10 have strong psychometric properties among older adults. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions.

  17. Remembered but Unused: The Accessory Items in Working Memory that Do Not Guide Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2009-01-01

    If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects while they maintained a second item in memory for…

  18. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  19. More is not Always Better: The Relation between Item Response and Item Response Time in Raven’s Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of response time in completing an item can have very different interpretations. Responding more slowly could be positively related to success as the item is answered more carefully. However, the association may be negative if working faster indicates higher ability. The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of each assumption for reasoning items considering the mode of processing. A total of 230 persons completed a computerized version of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results revealed that response time overall had a negative effect. However, this effect was moderated by items and persons. For easy items and able persons the effect was strongly negative, for difficult items and less able persons it was less negative or even positive. The number of rules involved in a matrix problem proved to explain item difficulty significantly. Most importantly, a positive interaction effect between the number of rules and item response time indicated that the response time effect became less negative with an increasing number of rules. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the error type influenced the response time effect.

  20. The medial temporal lobes distinguish between within-item and item-context relations during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2015-12-01

    During autobiographical memory retrieval, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) relate together multiple event elements, including object (within-item relations) and context (item-context relations) information, to create a cohesive memory. There is consistent support for a functional specialization within the MTL according to these relational processes, much of which comes from recognition memory experiments. In this study, we compared brain activation patterns associated with retrieving within-item relations (i.e., associating conceptual and sensory-perceptual object features) and item-context relations (i.e., spatial relations among objects) with respect to naturalistic autobiographical retrieval. We developed a novel paradigm that cued participants to retrieve information about past autobiographical events, non-episodic within-item relations, and non-episodic item-context relations with the perceptuomotor aspects of retrieval equated across these conditions. We used multivariate analysis techniques to extract common and distinct patterns of activity among these conditions within the MTL and across the whole brain, both in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of activity. The anterior MTL (perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating within-item relations later in retrieval whereas the posterior MTL (posterior parahippocampal cortex and posterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating item-context relations across the retrieval phase. These findings provide novel evidence for functional specialization within the MTL with respect to naturalistic memory retrieval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...

  2. Modeling Item-Level and Step-Level Invariance Effects in Polytomous Items Using the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement invariance is a common consideration in the evaluation of the validity and fairness of test scores when the tested population contains distinct groups of examinees, such as examinees receiving different forms of a translated test. Measurement invariance in polytomous items has traditionally been evaluated at the item-level,…

  3. Mixture Item Response Theory-MIMIC Model: Simultaneous Estimation of Differential Item Functioning for Manifest Groups and Latent Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Mustafa Kuzey

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new psychometric model (mixture item response theory-MIMIC model) that simultaneously estimates differential item functioning (DIF) across manifest groups and latent classes. Current DIF detection methods investigate DIF from only one side, either across manifest groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, etc.), or across latent classes…

  4. Instemmingsgeneigdheid en verskillende item- en responsformate in 'n gesommeerde selfbeoordelingskaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadene Hanekom

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the degree of acquiescence present when the item and response formats of a summated rating scale are varied. It is often recommended that acquiescence response bias in rating scales may be controlled by using both positively and negatively worded items. Such items are generally worded in the Likert-type format of statements. The purpose of the study was to establish whether items in question format would result in a smaller degree of acquiescence than items worded as statements. the response format was also varied (five- and seven-point options to determine whether this would influence the reliability and degree of acquiescence in the scales. A twenty-item Locus of Control (LC questionnaire was used, but each item was complemented by its opposite, resulting in 40 items. The subjects, divided randomly into two groups, were second year students who had to complete four versions of the questionnaire, plus a shortened version of Bass's scale for measuring acquiescence. The LC version were questions or statements each combined with a five- or seven-point respons format. Partial counterbalancing was introduced by testing on two separate occasions, presenting the tests to the two groups in the opposite order. The degree of acquiescence was assessed by correlating the items with their opposite, and by correlating scores on each version with scores on the acquiescence questionnaire. No major difference were found between the various item and response format in relation to acquiescence. Opsomming Hierdie ondersoek is uitgevoer om te bepaal of die mate van instemmingsgeneigdheid deur die item- en responsformaat van 'n gesommeerde selfbeoordelingskaal beinvloed word. Daar word dikwels aanbeveel dat die gebruik van positief- sowel as negatiefbewoorde items in 'n vraelys instemmingsgeneigdheid beperk. Suike items word gewoonlik in die tradisionele Likertformaat as stellings geformuleer. Die doel van die ondersoek was om te bepaal of items

  5. Macrostructural Treatment of Multi-word Lexical Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the macrostructural treatment of multi-word lexical items in mono- and bilingual dictionaries. First, the classification of multi-word lexical items is presented, and special attention is paid to the discussion of compounds – a specific group of multi-word lexical items that is most commonly afforded headword status but whose inclusion in the headword list may also depend on spelling. Then the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in monolingual dictionaries is dealt with in greater detail, while the results of a short survey on the inclusion of five randomly chosen multi-word lexical items in seven English monolingual dictionaries are presented. The proposals as to how to treat these five multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries are presented in the section about the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries. The conclusion is that it is most important to take the users’ needs into consideration and to make any dictionary as user friendly as possible.

  6. Can Item Keyword Feedback Help Remediate Knowledge Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A; Clauser, Amanda L

    2016-10-01

    In graduate medical education, assessment results can effectively guide professional development when both assessment and feedback support a formative model. When individuals cannot directly access the test questions and responses, a way of using assessment results formatively is to provide item keyword feedback. The purpose of the following study was to investigate whether exposure to item keyword feedback aids in learner remediation. Participants included 319 trainees who completed a medical subspecialty in-training examination (ITE) in 2012 as first-year fellows, and then 1 year later in 2013 as second-year fellows. Performance on 2013 ITE items in which keywords were, or were not, exposed as part of the 2012 ITE score feedback was compared across groups based on the amount of time studying (preparation). For the same items common to both 2012 and 2013 ITEs, response patterns were analyzed to investigate changes in answer selection. Test takers who indicated greater amounts of preparation on the 2013 ITE did not perform better on the items in which keywords were exposed compared to those who were not exposed. The response pattern analysis substantiated overall growth in performance from the 2012 ITE. For items with incorrect responses on both attempts, examinees selected the same option 58% of the time. Results from the current study were unsuccessful in supporting the use of item keywords in aiding remediation. Unfortunately, the results did provide evidence of examinees retaining misinformation.

  7. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  8. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2012-01-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60 Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items. - Highlights: ► We applied gamma radiation on several kinds of packaged food items. ► Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. ► All ready-to-eat food items assayed were approved for microbial and sensory characteristics. ► Most ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were also acceptable. ► Dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were considered not acceptable.

  9. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  10. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnija Muratovic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal

  11. Item-Based Top-N Recommendation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-20

    basket of items, utilized by many e-commerce sites, cannot take advantage of pre-computed user-to-user similarities. Finally, even though the...not discriminate between items that are present in frequent itemsets and items that are not, while still maintaining the computational advantages of...453219 0.02% 7.74 ccard 42629 68793 398619 0.01% 9.35 ecommerce 6667 17491 91222 0.08% 13.68 em 8002 1648 769311 5.83% 96.14 ml 943 1682 100000 6.31

  12. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  13. QA in the procurement of items and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, H.

    1980-01-01

    Procurement of items and services is one of the important elements during the design and construction of Nuclear Power Plants. The purchaser has to establish and implement controls over the procurement process to ensure that the quality criteria, quality level and other quality requirements specified for the particuliar item or service are taken into account. The effect on safety of an error in service or the malfunction of an item is the most important factor to be considered in determining the extent of quality assurance efforts. A typical example of a procurement process will be demonstrated for safety related mechanical components. (orig./RW)

  14. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  15. P2-19: The Effect of item Repetition on Item-Context Association Depends on the Prior Exposure of Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmi Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported conflicting findings on whether item repetition has beneficial or detrimental effects on source memory. To reconcile such contradictions, we investigated whether the degree of pre-exposure of items can be a potential modulating factor. The experimental procedures spanned two consecutive days. On Day 1, participants were exposed to a set of unfamiliar faces. On Day 2, the same faces presented on the previous day were used again in half of the participants, whereas novel faces were used for the other half. Day 2 procedures consisted of three successive phases: item repetition, source association, and source memory test. In the item repetition phase, half of the face stimuli were repeatedly presented while participants were making male/female judgments. During the source association phase, both the repeated and the unrepeated faces appeared in one of the four locations on the screen. Finally, participants were tested on the location in which a given face was presented during the previous phase and reported the confidence of their memory. Source memory accuracy was measured as the percentage of correct non-guess trials. As results, we found a significant interaction between prior exposure and repetition. Repetition impaired source memory when the items had been pre-exposed on Day 1, while it led to greater accuracy in novel ones. These results show that pre-experimental exposure can modulate the effects of repetition on associative binding between an item and its contextual information, suggesting that pre-existing representation and novelty signal interact to form new episodic memory.

  16. Do animals and furniture items elicit different brain responses in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschonek, Susanna; Marinovic, Vesna; Hoehl, Stefanie; Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina

    2010-11-01

    One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, were presented in a semi-randomized order for 1000ms each. Infants' brain responses to exemplars from both categories differed systematically regarding the negative central component (Nc: 400-600ms) at anterior channels. More specifically, the Nc was enhanced for animals in one subgroup of infants, and for furniture items in another subgroup of infants. Explorative analyses related to categorical priming further revealed category-specific differences in brain responses in the late time window (650-1550ms) at right frontal channels: Unprimed stimuli (preceded by a different-category item) elicited a more positive response as compared to primed stimuli (preceded by a same-category item). In sum, these findings suggest that the infant's brain discriminates exemplars from both global domains. Given the design of our task, we conclude that processes of category identification are more likely to account for our findings than processes of on-line category formation during the experimental session. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  18. Purchases of Consumable Items Transferred to the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1995-01-01

    Defense Management Report Decision 926, "Consolidation of Inventory Control Points," included a recommendation to transfer all consumable items managed by the Military Departments to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA...

  19. Storage options for Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    A review of the Washington state requirements for the storage of long equipment items removed from tanks indicate that if the contaminated materials on the long equipment items are analyzed and determined to be DW, and not EHW, the containers can be stored on an uncovered, RCRA approved, storage pad. Long equipment items contaminated with reportable levels of EHW, or suspected of being contaminated with EHW, must be protected from the elements by means of a building or other protective covering that otherwise allows adequate inspection of the containers. Storage of the long equipment item containers on an uncovered storage pad is recommended and will reduce construction costs for new storage by an estimated 60 percent when compared to construction costs for enclosed storage

  20. 47 CFR 36.224 - Extraordinary items-Account 7600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Revenues and Certain... account of an operating nature are apportioned on a basis consistent with the nature of these items. ...

  1. Etendatakse 10-aastase kirjamehe näitemäng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tartu katoliku kooli 3. klassi poisi Mario Raitari näitemäng "Kristoph Silvester von Tenderi lugu", mis on esimene lugu sarjast "Mario Raitari kroonika". Näidendit etendab Linnupuu Lastepereteatri trupp

  2. Consumable Item Transfer, Phase 2, Cash Imbalance Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    We are providing this report for your information and use. The Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the transfer of the management of consumable items to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) in July 1990...

  3. 17 CFR 229.402 - (Item 402) Executive compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which its securities are listed or traded. (2) All compensation covered. This Item requires clear... different currency, a footnote must be provided to identify that currency and describe the rate and...

  4. Item-Based Top-N Recommendation Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deshpande, Mukund; Karypis, George

    2003-01-01

    ... items that will be of interest to a certain user. User-based collaborative filtering is the most successful technology for building recommender systems to date, and is extensively used in many commercial recommender systems...

  5. Evaluation of Item-Based Top-N Recommendation Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karypis, George

    2000-01-01

    ... items that will be of interest to a certain user. User-based Collaborative filtering is the most successful technology for building recommender systems to date, and is extensively used in many commercial recommender systems...

  6. 41 CFR 101-28.306-6 - Sensitive items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 28-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION... accountable item of personal property. Each customer activity shall take all appropriate measures necessary to... Government use. ...

  7. Analyzing force concept inventory with item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Item response theory is a popular assessment method used in education. It rests on the assumption of a probability framework that relates students' innate ability and their performance on test questions. Item response theory transforms students' raw test scores into a scaled proficiency score, which can be used to compare results obtained with different test questions. The scaled score also addresses the issues of ceiling effects and guessing, which commonly exist in quantitative assessment. We used item response theory to analyze the force concept inventory (FCI). Our results show that item response theory can be useful for analyzing physics concept surveys such as the FCI and produces results about the individual questions and student performance that are beyond the capability of classical statistics. The theory yields detailed measurement parameters regarding the difficulty, discrimination features, and probability of correct guess for each of the FCI questions.

  8. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The amount of the total bill assessed as a franchise fee and the identity of the franchising authority... fees and costs itemized pursuant to this section. (c) Local franchising authorities may adopt...

  9. Creating a Database for Test Items in National Examinations (pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    different programmers create files and application programs over a long period. .... In theory or essay questions, alternative methods of solving problems are explored and ... Unworthy items are those that do not focus on the central concept or.

  10. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. ... Sufficient food intake aids optimal growth in fish, resulting ... It covers a surface area of 255 km2 with ... examination was carried out.

  11. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  12. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Debra E; Gross, Heather E; Stucky, Brian D; Thissen, David; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; Khastou, Leyla; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A

    2012-02-22

    Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO) among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric proxy-report item banks. The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact). Caregivers (n = 25) of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads). Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432). In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%), married (70%), Caucasian (64%) and had at least a high school education (94%). Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily asthma, which was diagnosed or treated within 6

  13. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Debra E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact. Caregivers (n = 25 of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432. In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%, married (70%, Caucasian (64% and had at least a high school education (94%. Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily

  14. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast...... sedimentation rate of the Chelex beads. Here, we present a simple method that can be used on an Eppendorf epMotion liquid handler resolving these issues...

  15. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect that is, better recogni...

  16. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs.

  17. Numerosity estimates for attended and unattended items in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Troy D; Cassenti, Daniel N; Marusich, Laura R; Ghirardelli, Thomas G

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this research was to examine memories created for the number of items during a visual search task. Participants performed a visual search task for a target defined by a single feature (Experiment 1A), by a conjunction of features (Experiment 1B), or by a specific spatial configuration of features (Experiment 1C). On some trials following the search task, subjects were asked to recall the total number of items in the previous display. In all search types, participants underestimated the total number of items, but the severity of the underestimation varied depending on the efficiency of the search. In three follow-up studies (Experiments 2A, 2B, and 2C) using the same visual stimuli, the participants' only task was to estimate the number of items on each screen. Participants still underestimated the numerosity of the items, although the degree of underestimation was smaller than in the search tasks and did not depend on the type of visual stimuli. In Experiment 3, participants were asked to recall the number of items in a display only once. Subjects still displayed a tendency to underestimate, indicating that the underestimation effects seen in Experiments 1A-1C were not attributable to knowledge of the estimation task. The degree of underestimation depends on the efficiency of the search task, with more severe underestimation in efficient search tasks. This suggests that the lower attentional demands of very efficient searches leads to less encoding of numerosity of the distractor set.

  18. MMPI-2 Item Endorsements in Dissociative Identity Disorder vs. Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S; Palermo, Cori A; Donato, Frank M; Rhodes, Kyle P; Voorhees, Emily F

    2016-03-01

    Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), which raises questions about the validity of their responses. Such patients show elevated scores on atypical answers (F), F-psychopathology (Fp), atypical answers in the second half of the test (FB), schizophrenia (Sc), and depression (D) scales, with Fp showing the greatest utility in distinguishing them from coached and uncoached DID simulators. In the current study, we investigated the items on the MMPI-2 F, Fp, FB, Sc, and D scales that were most and least commonly endorsed by participants with DID in our 2014 study and compared these responses with those of coached and uncoached DID simulators. The comparisons revealed that patients with DID most frequently endorsed items related to dissociation, trauma, depression, fearfulness, conflict within family, and self-destructiveness. The coached group more successfully imitated item endorsements of the DID group than did the uncoached group. However, both simulating groups, especially the uncoached group, frequently endorsed items that were uncommonly endorsed by the DID group. The uncoached group endorsed items consistent with popular media portrayals of people with DID being violent, delusional, and unlawful. These results suggest that item endorsement patterns can provide useful information to clinicians making determinations about whether an individual is presenting with DID or feigning. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Combining item and bulk material loss-detection uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Loss detection requirements, such as five formula kilograms with 99% probability of detection, which apply to the sum of losses from material in both item and bulk form, constitute a special problem for the nuclear material statistician. Requirements of this type are included in the Material Control and Accounting Reform Amendments described in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (Federal Register, 46(175):45144-46151). Attribute test sampling of items is the method used to detect gross defects in the inventory of items in a given control unit. Attribute sampling plans are designed to detect a loss of a specificed goal quantity of material with a given probability. In contrast to the methods and statistical models used for item loss detection, bulk material loss detection requires all the material entering and leaving a control unit to be measured and the calculation of a loss estimator that will be tested against an appropriate alarm threshold. The alarm threshold is determined from an estimate of the error inherent in the components of the loss estimator. In this paper a simple grahical method of evaluating the combined capabilities of bulk material loss detection methods and item attribute testing procedures will be described. Quantitative results will be given for several cases, indicating how a decrease in the precision of the item loss detection method tends to force an increase in the precision of the bulk loss detection procedure in order to meet the overall detection requirement. 4 figures

  20. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Caroline N.; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel T.; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.

  2. Promoting Cold-Start Items in Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs. PMID:25479013

  3. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 4 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by state. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN TES BERPIKIR KRITIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi Fajrianthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah alat ukur (tes berpikir kritis yang valid dan reliabel untuk digunakan, baik dalam lingkup pendidikan maupun kerja di Indonesia. Tahapan penelitian dilakukan berdasarkan tahap pengembangan tes menurut Hambleton dan Jones (1993. Kisi-kisi dan pembuatan butir didasarkan pada konsep dalam tes Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. Pada WGCTA, berpikir kritis terdiri dari lima dimensi yaitu Inference, Recognition Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation dan Evaluation of arguments. Uji coba tes dilakukan pada 1.453 peserta tes seleksi karyawan di Surabaya, Gresik, Tuban, Bojonegoro, Rembang. Data dikotomi dianalisis dengan menggunakan model IRT dengan dua parameter yaitu daya beda dan tingkat kesulitan butir. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan program statistik Mplus versi 6.11 Sebelum melakukan analisis dengan IRT, dilakukan pengujian asumsi yaitu uji unidimensionalitas, independensi lokal dan Item Characteristic Curve (ICC. Hasil analisis terhadap 68 butir menghasilkan 15 butir dengan daya beda yang cukup baik dan tingkat kesulitan butir yang berkisar antara –4 sampai dengan 2.448. Sedikitnya jumlah butir yang berkualitas baik disebabkan oleh kelemahan dalam menentukan subject matter experts di bidang berpikir kritis dan pemilihan metode skoring. Kata kunci: Pengembangan tes, berpikir kritis, item response theory   DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING TEST UTILISING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY Abstract The present study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument in assesing critical thinking which can be implemented both in educational and work settings in Indonesia. Following the Hambleton and Jones’s (1993 procedures on test development, the study developed the instrument by employing the concept of critical thinking from Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The study included five dimensions of critical thinking as adopted from the WGCTA: Inference, Recognition

  5. Few items in the thyroid-related quality of life instrument ThyPRO exhibited differential item functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Grønvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis.......To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis....

  6. Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length and Composition of Common-Item Set, and Group Ability Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under…

  7. A Case Study on an Item Writing Process: Use of Test Specifications, Nature of Group Dynamics, and Individual Item Writers' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Chi, Youngshin; Huensch, Amanda; Jun, Heesung; Li, Hongli; Roullion, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a case study on an item writing process that reflects on our practical experience in an item development project. The purpose of the article is to share our lessons from the experience aiming to demystify item writing process. The study investigated three issues that naturally emerged during the project: how item writers use…

  8. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  9. Validity and Reliability of the 8-Item Work Limitations Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Timothy J; Tullar, Jessica M; Diamond, Pamela M; Kohl, Harold W; Amick, Benjamin C

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To evaluate factorial validity, scale reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the 8-item Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) among employees from a public university system. Methods A secondary analysis using de-identified data from employees who completed an annual Health Assessment between the years 2009-2015 tested research aims. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (n = 10,165) tested the latent structure of the 8-item WLQ. Scale reliability was determined using a CFA-based approach while test-retest reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Convergent/discriminant validity was tested by evaluating relations between the 8-item WLQ with health/performance variables for convergent validity (health-related work performance, number of chronic conditions, and general health) and demographic variables for discriminant validity (gender and institution type). Results A 1-factor model with three correlated residuals demonstrated excellent model fit (CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03, and SRMR = 0.01). The scale reliability was acceptable (0.69, 95% CI 0.68-0.70) and the test-retest reliability was very good (ICC = 0.78). Low-to-moderate associations were observed between the 8-item WLQ and the health/performance variables while weak associations were observed between the demographic variables. Conclusions The 8-item WLQ demonstrated sufficient reliability and validity among employees from a public university system. Results suggest the 8-item WLQ is a usable alternative for studies when the more comprehensive 25-item WLQ is not available.

  10. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  11. Rats Remember Items in Context Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Corbin, Hannah E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Sluka, Christina M; Wu, Jie-En; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-10-24

    Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory. Here, we show that rats remember many unique events and the contexts in which the events occurred using episodic memory. We used an olfactory memory assessment in which new (but not old) odors were rewarded using 32 items. Rats were presented with 16 odors in one context and the same odors in a second context. To attain high accuracy, the rats needed to remember item in context because each odor was rewarded as a new item in each context. The demands on item-in-context memory were varied by assessing memory with 2, 3, 5, or 15 unpredictable transitions between contexts, and item-in-context memory survived a 45 min retention interval challenge. When the memory of item in context was put in conflict with non-episodic familiarity cues, rats relied on item in context using episodic memory. Our findings suggest that rats remember multiple unique events and the contexts in which these events occurred using episodic memory and support the view that rats may be used to model fundamental aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-01-01

    to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...

  13. Remembered but unused: the accessory items in working memory that do not guide attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C.; Goebel, Rainer; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2009-01-01

    If we search for an item, a representation of this item in our working memory guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. We can hold multiple items in working memory. Do all these items guide attention in parallel? We asked participants to detect a target object in a stream of objects

  14. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  15. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  18. Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Goliath-Yarde

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company. Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question. Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions. Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa. Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.

  19. Optimal lot sizing in screening processes with returnable defective items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishkaei, Behzad Maleki; Niaki, S. T. A.; Farhangi, Milad; Rashti, Mehdi Ebrahimnezhad Moghadam

    2014-07-01

    This paper is an extension of Hsu and Hsu (Int J Ind Eng Comput 3(5):939-948, 2012) aiming to determine the optimal order quantity of product batches that contain defective items with percentage nonconforming following a known probability density function. The orders are subject to 100 % screening process at a rate higher than the demand rate. Shortage is backordered, and defective items in each ordering cycle are stored in a warehouse to be returned to the supplier when a new order is received. Although the retailer does not sell defective items at a lower price and only trades perfect items (to avoid loss), a higher holding cost incurs to store defective items. Using the renewal-reward theorem, the optimal order and shortage quantities are determined. Some numerical examples are solved at the end to clarify the applicability of the proposed model and to compare the new policy to an existing one. The results show that the new policy provides better expected profit per time.

  20. INTERDEPENDENCE OF COST AND QUALITY OF ITEMS OF REAL ESTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukmanova Inessa Galeevna

    2012-10-01

    Calculation of reduction of the overall cost of the real estate item that has improved quality indicators in comparison with the overall cost of the real estate item of satisfactory quality, taken as a benchmark, is made. The nature of interrelation between the quality of building works and maintenance expenses is provided. The overall cost of the item increases alongside with the increase of its quality, therefore the pre-set quality indicator should be defined by taking account of the market conditions, rates charged for building works and payable by buyers, and the amount of building works that sell at a higher price. The indicator of the overall cost of the item of real estate, if forthcoming operational expenses are taken into account, i.e. calculated for the course of the overall life cycle of the item, is essential if the investor is going to maintain the building. Investors often act as sellers of completed buildings; therefore, the product price set at the time when it is offered for sale is of particular importance.

  1. Large Item Disposal At The Drigg Low Level Waste Repository, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Currently the UK operates only one repository for low level radioactive waste, the LLWR near Drigg in Cumbria. It is located on the West Cumbrian coast near the village of Drigg. LLWR is designed for the management of solid LLW and has operated as the principal national disposal facility for LLW since 1959. LLWR is managed and operated on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) by UK Nuclear Waste Management Ltd. (UKNWM), parent body of LLW Repository Ltd. UKNWM is a consortium led by URS, Studsvik and AREVA. Waste is accepted at LLWR based on conditions for acceptance (1). Although there is some history of disposal of non-containerised 'large items' at the Drigg site these are anecdotally described as 'not quite fitting into an ISO container (2)' and enquiries indicate that their disposal was restricted to the legacy times when items were tumble-tipped into open trenches at the site, a practise now long ceased. The feasibility of true single large item disposal at the LLWR presents complex problems arising from the poor suitability of both rail and road infrastructure in UK. LLWR is serviced both by road and rail links. The static weight of large items being taken nominally as up to ∼300 metric tons would not necessarily preclude transportation by rail but the practicalities of this route are limited. The ageing rail infrastructure includes numerous tunnels, bridges and sections of line with overhead electrification. All these would require either careful justification or significant work to ensure the safe transit of large loads. Nuclear facilities in UK are by design in remote locations, not all of which are serviced by rail connections and the rail network itself has evolved to service inter-city transportation rather than heavy freight and as such tends to route through town centres, exacerbating the tunnel, bridge and pantograph concerns already identified. Within only a few miles of the LLWR itself there are requirements to pass both over and

  2. Few items in the thyroid-related quality of life instrument ThyPRO exhibited differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Torquil; Groenvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis. A total of 838 patients with benign thyroid diseases completed the ThyPRO questionnaire (84 five-point items, 13 scales). Uniform and nonuniform DIF were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, testing for both statistical significance and magnitude (∆R(2) > 0.02). Scale level was estimated by the sum score, after purification. Twenty instances of DIF in 17 of the 84 items were found. Eight according to diagnosis, where the goiter scale was the one most affected, possibly due to differing perceptions in patients with auto-immune thyroid diseases compared to patients with simple goiter. Eight DIFs according to age were found, of which 5 were in positively worded items, which younger patients were more likely to endorse; one according to gender: women were more likely to report crying, and three according to educational level. The vast majority of DIF had only minor influence on the scale scores (0.1-2.3 points on the 0-100 scales), but two DIF corresponded to a difference of 4.6 and 9.8, respectively. Ordinal logistic regression identified DIF in 17 of 84 items. The potential impact of this on the present scales was low, but items displaying DIF could be avoided when developing abbreviated scales, where the potential impact of DIF (due to fewer items) will be larger.

  3. ‘Forget me (not?’ – Remembering forget-items versus un-cued items in directed forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian eZwissler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. Here, we investigate the underlying processes in item-method directed forgetting and compare the classic active memory cues in this paradigm with a passive instruction. Typically, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR. This is thought to result from selective rehearsal of TBR, or from active inhibition of TBF, or from both. However, evidence suggests that if a forget instruction initiates active processing, paradoxical effects may also arise. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI were introduced and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully matched variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants used a more conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, ironically, the F cue results in active processing, but this does not have inhibitory effects that would impair recognition memory beyond a un-cued baseline condition. This casts doubts on inhibitory accounts of item-method directed forgetting and is also difficult to reconcile with pure selective rehearsal of TBR. While the F-cue does induce active processing, this does not result in particularly successful forgetting. The pattern seems most consistent with the notion of ironic processing.

  4. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  5. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  6. An EPQ model with imperfect items using interval grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic economic production quantity (EPQ model has been widely used to determine the optimal production quantity. However, the analysis for finding an EPQ model has many weaknesses which lead many researchers and practitioners to make extensions in several aspects on the original EPQ model. The basic assumption of EPQ model is that 100% of manufactured products are non-defective that is not valid for many production processes generally. The purpose of this paper is to develop an EPQ model with grey demand rate and cost values with maximum backorder level allowed with the good quality items in units under an imperfect production process. The imperfect items are considered to be low quality items which are sold to a particular purchaser at a lower price and, the others are reworked and scrapped. A mathematical model is developed and then an industrial example is presented on the wooden chipboard production process for illustration of the proposed model.

  7. Safety classification of items in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yongbin

    2005-01-01

    The principle of integrality, moderation and equilibrium should be considered in the safety classification of items in nuclear power plant. The basic ways for safety classification of items is to classify the safety function based on the effect of the outside enclosure damage of the items (parts) on the safety. Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant adopts Russian VVER-1000/428 type reactor, it safety classification mainly refers to Russian Guidelines and standards. The safety classification of the electric equipment refers to IEEE-308(80) standard, including 1E and Non 1E classification. The safety classification of the instrumentation and control equipment refers to GB/T 15474-1995 standard, including safety 1E, safety-related SR and NC non-safety classification. The safety classification of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant has to be approved by NNSA and satisfy Chinese Nuclear Safety Guidelines. (authors)

  8. Assessing Differential Item Functioning on the Test of Relational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The test of relational reasoning (TORR is designed to assess the ability to identify complex patterns within visuospatial stimuli. The TORR is designed for use in school and university settings, and therefore, its measurement invariance across diverse groups is critical. In this investigation, a large sample, representative of a major university on key demographic variables, was collected, and the resulting data were analyzed using a multi-group, multidimensional item-response theory model-comparison procedure. No significant differential item functioning was found on any of the TORR items across any of the demographic groups of interest. This finding is interpreted as evidence of the cultural fairness of the TORR, and potential test-development choices that may have contributed to that cultural fairness are discussed.

  9. Matrix Sampling of Items in Large-Scale Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Matrix sampling of items -' that is, division of a set of items into different versions of a test form..-' is used by several large-scale testing programs. Like other test designs, matrixed designs have..both advantages and disadvantages. For example, testing time per student is less than if each..student received all the items, but the comparability of student scores may decrease. Also,..curriculum coverage is maintained, but reporting of scores becomes more complex. In this paper,..matrixed designs are compared with more traditional designs in nine categories of costs:..development costs, materials costs, administration costs, educational costs, scoring costs,..reliability costs, comparability costs, validity costs, and reporting costs. In choosing among test..designs, a testing program should examine the costs in light of its mandate(s, the content of the..tests, and the financial resources available, among other considerations.

  10. Differential Weighting of Items to Improve University Admission Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an evaluation of different ways to increase university admission test criterion-related validity, by differentially weighting test items. We compared four methods of weighting multiple-choice items of the Basic Skills and Knowledge Examination (EXHCOBA: (1 punishing incorrect responses by a constant factor, (2 weighting incorrect responses, considering the levels of error, (3 weighting correct responses, considering the item’s difficulty, based on the Classic Measurement Theory, and (4 weighting correct responses, considering the item’s difficulty, based on the Item Response Theory. Results show that none of these methods increased the instrument’s predictive validity, although they did improve its concurrent validity. It was concluded that it is appropriate to score the test by simply adding up correct responses.

  11. 77 FR 59968 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY... the cultural items may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center. DATES: Representatives of... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Stanford University Archaeology Center that...

  12. Policy for the treatment of insulting and sensitive lexical items in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: policy, treatment, insulting lexical items, sensitive lexical items, dictionary, woordeboek van die afrikaanse taal, simplexes, compounds, expressions, general usage criterion, labelling, synonyms, metalanguage, collocations, editorial usage examples, citations, advisors, racist lexical items, neutral lemmas, ...

  13. Item response theory scoring and the detection of curvilinear relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Guan, Li; LoPilato, Alexander C; Withrow, Scott A

    2017-03-01

    Psychologists are increasingly positing theories of behavior that suggest psychological constructs are curvilinearly related to outcomes. However, results from empirical tests for such curvilinear relations have been mixed. We propose that correctly identifying the response process underlying responses to measures is important for the accuracy of these tests. Indeed, past research has indicated that item responses to many self-report measures follow an ideal point response process-wherein respondents agree only to items that reflect their own standing on the measured variable-as opposed to a dominance process, wherein stronger agreement, regardless of item content, is always indicative of higher standing on the construct. We test whether item response theory (IRT) scoring appropriate for the underlying response process to self-report measures results in more accurate tests for curvilinearity. In 2 simulation studies, we show that, regardless of the underlying response process used to generate the data, using the traditional sum-score generally results in high Type 1 error rates or low power for detecting curvilinearity, depending on the distribution of item locations. With few exceptions, appropriate power and Type 1 error rates are achieved when dominance-based and ideal point-based IRT scoring are correctly used to score dominance and ideal point response data, respectively. We conclude that (a) researchers should be theory-guided when hypothesizing and testing for curvilinear relations; (b) correctly identifying whether responses follow an ideal point versus dominance process, particularly when items are not extreme is critical; and (c) IRT model-based scoring is crucial for accurate tests of curvilinearity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Item response theory analysis of the life orientation test-revised: age and gender differential item functioning analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; Monzani, Dario; Greco, Andrea; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties. The equivalence of the items across gender and age was assessed by analyzing differential item functioning. Discrimination and severity parameters indicated that all items were able to distinguish people with different levels of optimism and adequately covered the spectrum of the latent trait. Additionally, the LOT-R appears to be gender invariant and, with minor exceptions, age invariant. Results provided evidence that the LOT-R is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  16. Evaluation of Item-Based Top-N Recommendation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-15

    Furthermore, one of the advantages of the item-based algorithm is that it has much smaller computational require- 11 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 ecommerce ...items, utilized by many e-commerce sites, cannot take advantage of pre-computed user-to-user similarities. Consequently, even though the throughput of...Non-Zeros ecommerce 6667 17491 91222 catalog 50918 39080 435524 ccard 42629 68793 398619 skills 4374 2125 82612 movielens 943 1682 100000 Table 1: The

  17. Applying automatic item generation to create cohesive physics testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindyarto, B. N.; Nugroho, S. E.; Linuwih, S.

    2018-03-01

    Computer-based testing has created the demand for large numbers of items. This paper discusses the production of cohesive physics testlets using an automatic item generation concepts and procedures. The testlets were composed by restructuring physics problems to reveal deeper understanding of the underlying physical concepts by inserting a qualitative question and its scientific reasoning question. A template-based testlet generator was used to generate the testlet variants. Using this methodology, 1248 testlet variants were effectively generated from 25 testlet templates. Some issues related to the effective application of the generated physics testlets in practical assessments were discussed.

  18. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  19. Assessing errors related to characteristics of the items measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggett, W.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that are related to some intrinsic property of the items measured are often encountered in nuclear material accounting. An example is the error in nondestructive assay measurements caused by uncorrected matrix effects. Nuclear material accounting requires for each materials type one measurement method for which bounds on these errors can be determined. If such a method is available, a second method might be used to reduce costs or to improve precision. If the measurement error for the first method is longer-tailed than Gaussian, then precision might be improved by measuring all items by both methods. 8 refs

  20. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  1. Software for automated tracking of open items at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWispelare, A.R.; Mackin, P.C.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Open Item Tracking System (OITS) was developed in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) need for a reliable, easy to use automated database system, to track all open (awaiting resolution) items related to regulatory, institutional, and technical uncertainties for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) high-level waste (HLW) disposal program. The OITS system was integrated with the Regulatory Program Database (RPD) Version 1.1, resulting in the RPD/OITS Version 2.0 system. RPD/OITS is a network bases system with client server architecture and a graphical user interface. This paper outlines the system and results of its implementation

  2. 77 FR 13624 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. History and Description of the Cultural...; Items 7 and 12: eagle bone whistle; Item 15: dance club; Item 16: dance staff; Items 23-25: replica... feather headdress; Item 65: medicine bundle; and Item 69: leather tipi bag and contents. Item 16 (dance...

  3. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  4. Children's Incidental Memory for Pictures: Item Processing Versus List Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Levin, Joel R.

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments which tested recall differences among young children indicated: (1) organizational factors, not item processing per se, influenced previously found differences in children's recall of pictures following semantic and physical orienting tasks; and (2) physical orienting tasks may effectively inhibit subjects' processing of words, but…

  5. Identifying the Source of Misfit in Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    When an item response theory model fails to fit adequately, the items for which the model provides a good fit and those for which it does not must be determined. To this end, we compare the performance of several fit statistics for item pairs with known asymptotic distributions under maximum likelihood estimation of the item parameters: (a) a mean and variance adjustment to bivariate Pearson's X(2), (b) a bivariate subtable analog to Reiser's (1996) overall goodness-of-fit test, (c) a z statistic for the bivariate residual cross product, and (d) Maydeu-Olivares and Joe's (2006) M2 statistic applied to bivariate subtables. The unadjusted Pearson's X(2) with heuristically determined degrees of freedom is also included in the comparison. For binary and ordinal data, our simulation results suggest that the z statistic has the best Type I error and power behavior among all the statistics under investigation when the observed information matrix is used in its computation. However, if one has to use the cross-product information, the mean and variance adjusted X(2) is recommended. We illustrate the use of pairwise fit statistics in 2 real-data examples and discuss possible extensions of the current research in various directions.

  6. No evidence for an item limit in change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaiyan Keshvari

    Full Text Available Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items ("item-limit models". Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size ("continuous-resource models". Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

  7. Inventory control in multi-item production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the analysis and construction of control policies in multiitem production systems. In such systems, multiple items can be made to stock, but they have to share the finite capacity of a single machine. This machine can only produce one unit at a time and if it is set-up for

  8. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  9. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229.1115 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF...

  10. WIPDash: Work Item and People Dashboard for Software Development Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fernandez, R.; Czerwinski, M.; Inkpen, K.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Robertson, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present WIPDash, a visualization for software development teams designed to increase group awareness of work items and code base activity. WIPDash was iteratively designed by working with two development teams, using interviews, observations, and focus groups, as well as sketches of the

  11. A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…

  12. 75 FR 63695 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... pain relief products; and turbine drip oils. Today's final rule designates the proposed items (with the... political subdivisions or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various government... between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or * * * the distribution of power and responsibilities...

  13. Computing replenishment cycle policy parameters for a perishable item

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many industrial environments there is a significant class of problems for which the perishable nature of the inventory cannot be ignored in developing replenishment order plans. Food is the most salient example of a perishable inventory item. In this work, we consider the periodic-review,

  14. IRT-Estimated Reliability for Tests Containing Mixed Item Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lianghua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    As a global measure of precision, item response theory (IRT) estimated reliability is derived for four coefficients (Cronbach's a, Feldt-Raju, stratified a, and marginal reliability). Models with different underlying assumptions concerning test-part similarity are discussed. A detailed computational example is presented for the targeted…

  15. Sales Models For Many Items Using Attribute Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSales models are mainly used to analyze markets with a fairly small number of items, obtained after aggregating to the brand level. In practice one may require analyses at a more disaggregate level. For example, brand managers may be interested in a comparison across product

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301-1 Section 101-26.301-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  17. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clauses in subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and.... (e) To the maximum extent practicable, when the Contractor acts as a purchasing agent for the Government with respect to a purchase that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold, the Contractor shall...

  18. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis...... on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression....

  19. How did Danish students solve the PISA CBAS items?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helene; Andersen, Annemarie Møller

    2009-01-01

    ’ and boys’ answers. Twelve items were chosen for focus group interviews with two groups of students – three girls and three boys. The analysis shows that the students need other competencies than in the paper-and-pencil test and another problem solving strategy. In the Danish context this may be one...

  20. 17 CFR 229.905 - (Item 905) comparative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 905) comparative...) comparative information. (a)(1) Describe the voting and other rights of investors in the successor under the successor's governing instruments and under applicable law. Compare such rights to the voting and other...

  1. Procurement Engineering Process for Commercial Grade Item Dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Park, Jong-Eun; Kwak, Tack-Hun; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item dedication plays an increasingly important role in operation management of Korea Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of the Procurement Engineering Process is the provision and assurance of a high quality and quantity of spare, replacement, retrofit and new parts and equipment while maximizing plant availability, minimizing downtime due to parts unavailability and providing reasonable overall program and inventory cost. In this paper, we will review the overview requirements, responsibilities and the process for demonstrating with reasonable assurance that a procured item for potential nuclear safety related services or other essential plant service is adequate with reasonable assurance for its application. This paper does not cover the details of technical evaluation, selecting critical characteristics, selecting acceptance methods, performing failure modes and effects analysis, performing source surveillance, performing quality surveys, performing special tests and inspections, and the other aspects of effective Procurement Engineering and Commercial Grade Item Dedication. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the provision of an overview of Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item

  2. Web items recommendation using hybridized content-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommender Systems are software agent developed to tackle the problem of information overload by providing recommendations that assist individual users identify contents of interest by using the opinions of a community of users, similarities between items contents or the user's preferences. The exponential growth of ...

  3. Building an Evaluation Scale using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, John P; Wu, Hao; Yu, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of NLP methods requires testing against a previously vetted gold-standard test set and reporting standard metrics (accuracy/precision/recall/F1). The current assumption is that all items in a given test set are equal with regards to difficulty and discriminating power. We propose Item Response Theory (IRT) from psychometrics as an alternative means for gold-standard test-set generation and NLP system evaluation. IRT is able to describe characteristics of individual items - their difficulty and discriminating power - and can account for these characteristics in its estimation of human intelligence or ability for an NLP task. In this paper, we demonstrate IRT by generating a gold-standard test set for Recognizing Textual Entailment. By collecting a large number of human responses and fitting our IRT model, we show that our IRT model compares NLP systems with the performance in a human population and is able to provide more insight into system performance than standard evaluation metrics. We show that a high accuracy score does not always imply a high IRT score, which depends on the item characteristics and the response pattern.

  4. Racial differences in hypertension knowledge: effects of differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Trivedi, Ranak; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2009-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is an important component in the self-management of chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to more accurately assess racial differences in hypertension knowledge by using a latent variable modeling approach that controlled for sociodemographic factors and accounted for measurement issues in the assessment of hypertension knowledge. Cross-sectional data from 1,177 participants (45% African American; 35% female) were analyzed using a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling approach. Available sociodemographic data included race, education, sex, financial status, and age. All participants completed six items on a hypertension knowledge questionnaire. Overall, the final model suggested that females, Whites, and patients with at least a high school diploma had higher latent knowledge scores than males, African Americans, and patients with less than a high school diploma, respectively. The model also detected differential item functioning (DIF) based on race for two of the items. Specifically, the error rate for African Americans was lower than would be expected given the lower level of latent knowledge on the items, on the questions related to: (a) the association between high blood pressure and kidney disease, and (b) the increased risk African Americans have for developing hypertension. Not accounting for DIF resulted in the difference between Whites and African Americans to be underestimated. These results are discussed in the context of the need for careful measurement of health-related constructs, and how measurement-related issues can result in an inaccurate estimation of racial differences in hypertension knowledge.

  5. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extruding). Examples of items excluded include teriyaki flavored pork loin, roasted peanuts, breaded chicken... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... includes cooking (e.g., frying, broiling, grilling, boiling, steaming, baking, roasting), curing (e.g...

  6. Projective Item Response Model for Test-Independent Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Chen, Shyh-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The problem of fitting unidimensional item-response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that contains a major dimension of interest but that may also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Because fitting a unidimensional model to multidimensional data results in…

  7. The variety, popularity and nutritional quality of tuck shop items ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional tuck shop survey. Nutritional analyses were conducted using the ... Results: Savoury pies were the most popular lunch item for all learners for both breaks (n = 5, 45%, and n = 3, 27.3%), selling the most number of units (43) per day at eight schools (72.7%). Iced popsicles were sold at almost every ...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1207 - (Item 1207) Delivery commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information required by this Item: (1) In a form understandable to investors; and (2) Based upon the facts and... subject to priorities or curtailments which may affect quantities delivered to certain classes of... factors beyond the registrant's control that may affect the registrant's ability to meet its contractual...

  9. Design patterns for digital item types in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in

  10. Image-Based Collection and Measurements for Construction Pay Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Prior to each payment to contractors and suppliers, measurements are made to document the actual amount of pay items placed at the site. This manual process has substantial risk for personnel, and could be made more efficient and less prone to human ...

  11. 17 CFR 229.102 - (Item 102) Description of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... segment(s), as reported in the financial statements, that use the properties described. If any such... by the registrant. Detailed descriptions of the physical characteristics of individual properties or... qualitative factors. See Instruction 1 to Item 101 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.101). 3. In the case of an...

  12. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  13. Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2016-01-01

    David Thissen, a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Quantitative Program at the University of North Carolina, has consulted and served on technical advisory committees for assessment programs that use item response theory (IRT) over the past couple decades. He has come to the conclusion that there are usually two purposes…

  14. Using SAS PROC MCMC for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Samonte, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    Interest in using Bayesian methods for estimating item response theory models has grown at a remarkable rate in recent years. This attentiveness to Bayesian estimation has also inspired a growth in available software such as WinBUGS, R packages, BMIRT, MPLUS, and SAS PROC MCMC. This article intends to provide an accessible overview of Bayesian…

  15. Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

  16. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  17. Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The article provides an overview of goodness-of-fit assessment methods for item response theory (IRT) models. It is now possible to obtain accurate "p"-values of the overall fit of the model if bivariate information statistics are used. Several alternative approaches are described. As the validity of inferences drawn on the fitted model…

  18. Large Sample Confidence Intervals for Item Response Theory Reliability Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; Xin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    In applications of item response theory (IRT), an estimate of the reliability of the ability estimates or sum scores is often reported. However, analytical expressions for the standard errors of the estimators of the reliability coefficients are not available in the literature and therefore the variability associated with the estimated reliability…

  19. Modular Open-Source Software for Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritikin, Joshua N.; Hunter, Micheal D.; Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an item factor analysis (IFA) module for "OpenMx," a free, open-source, and modular statistical modeling package that runs within the R programming environment on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. The IFA module offers a novel model specification language that is well suited to programmatic generation…

  20. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional information. 229.1011 Section 229.1011 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1000 - (Item 1000) Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1000) Definitions. 229.1000 Section 229.1000 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1016 - (Item 1016) Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1016) Exhibits. 229.1016 Section 229.1016 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-...

  3. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranties of commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting officer should take advantage of commercial warranties, including extended warranties, where appropriate...

  4. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  5. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: In the present paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or Rao’s efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of IRT models such as the Rasch model, the OPLM, the 2-parameter logistic model, the

  6. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  7. Using item response theory to address vulnerabilities in FFQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazman, Josh B; Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    The limitations for self-reporting of dietary patterns are widely recognised as a major vulnerability of FFQ and the dietary screeners/scales derived from FFQ. Such instruments can yield inconsistent results to produce questionable interpretations. The present article discusses the value of psychometric approaches and standards in addressing these drawbacks for instruments used to estimate dietary habits and nutrient intake. We argue that a FFQ or screener that treats diet as a 'latent construct' can be optimised for both internal consistency and the value of the research results. Latent constructs, a foundation for item response theory (IRT)-based scales (e.g. Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) are typically introduced in the design stage of an instrument to elicit critical factors that cannot be observed or measured directly. We propose an iterative approach that uses such modelling to refine FFQ and similar instruments. To that end, we illustrate the benefits of psychometric modelling by using items and data from a sample of 12 370 Soldiers who completed the 2012 US Army Global Assessment Tool (GAT). We used factor analysis to build the scale incorporating five out of eleven survey items. An IRT-driven assessment of response category properties indicates likely problems in the ordering or wording of several response categories. Group comparisons, examined with differential item functioning (DIF), provided evidence of scale validity across each Army sub-population (sex, service component and officer status). Such an approach holds promise for future FFQ.

  8. Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.

    This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…

  9. 17 CFR 229.909 - (Item 909) Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conflicts of interest. (a) Briefly describe the general partner's fiduciary duties to each partnership subject to the roll-up transaction and each actual or potential material conflict of interest between the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 909) Conflicts of...

  10. Human resource management in the delivery of postal items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Momčilo D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of postal items is the last phase in the postal conveyance process. This phase involved up to 57% in total costs of postal items conveyance. In order to reduce the costs of delivery phase, postal organizations apply different methods and techniques. Legal and technological regulations, various restrictions regarding the selection and deployment of employees influence the choice of appropriate methods. Also, the principle of availability of the universal postal service is an essential factor in defining the optimal model. In this paper, the model for assessing and planning of the number of employees in the delivery service observed postal operator has been proposed, with respect to the principles of productivity and accessibility constraints of the universal postal service. This paper will analyze the impact of daily fluctuations in the number of full-time employees and the possibility of hiring a part-time workers in the days with increased traffic volume in the delivery of items, when usually the items from large customers are delivered.

  11. 26 CFR 1.461-5 - Recurring item exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a taxpayer using an accrual method... method of accounting for one or more types of recurring items incurred by the taxpayer. In the case of... basis in the future. (4) Materiality requirement. For purposes of this paragraph (b): (i) In determining...

  12. Tag-Driven Online Novel Recommendation with Collaborative Item Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghuan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Online novel recommendation recommends attractive novels according to the preferences and characteristics of users or novels and is increasingly touted as an indispensable service of many online stores and websites. The interests of the majority of users remain stable over a certain period. However, there are broad categories in the initial recommendation list achieved by collaborative filtering (CF. That is to say, it is very possible that there are many inappropriately recommended novels. Meanwhile, most algorithms assume that users can provide an explicit preference. However, this assumption does not always hold, especially in online novel reading. To solve these issues, a tag-driven algorithm with collaborative item modeling (TDCIM is proposed for online novel recommendation. Online novel reading is different from traditional book marketing and lacks preference rating. In addition, collaborative filtering frequently suffers from the Matthew effect, leading to ignored personalized recommendations and serious long tail problems. Therefore, item-based CF is improved by latent preference rating with a punishment mechanism based on novel popularity. Consequently, a tag-driven algorithm is constructed by means of collaborative item modeling and tag extension. Experimental results show that online novel recommendation is improved greatly by a tag-driven algorithm with collaborative item modeling.

  13. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  14. Closed-loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  15. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  16. 17 CFR 229.903 - (Item 903) Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect on investors, including, but not limited to: (i) Changes in the business plan, voting rights, cash... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 903) Summary. 229.903 Section 229.903 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD...

  17. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  18. Item Response Theory: Overview, Applications, and Promise for Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge; Sharkness, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) is a measurement theory that is ideal for scale and test development in institutional research, but it is not without its drawbacks. This chapter provides an overview of IRT, describes an example of its use, and highlights the pros and cons of using IRT in applied settings.

  19. Differential item functioning of the patient-reported outcomes information system (PROMIS®) pain interference item bank by language (Spanish versus English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Reise, Steven P; Hays, Ron D

    2017-06-01

    About 70% of Latinos, 5 years old or older, in the United States speak Spanish at home. Measurement equivalence of the PROMIS ® pain interference (PI) item bank by language of administration (English versus Spanish) has not been evaluated. A sample of 527 adult Spanish-speaking Latinos completed the Spanish version of the 41-item PROMIS ® pain interference item bank. We evaluate dimensionality, monotonicity and local independence of the Spanish-language items. Then we evaluate differential item functioning (DIF) using ordinal logistic regression with item response theory scores estimated from DIF-free "anchor" items. One of the 41 items in the Spanish version of the PROMIS ® PI item bank was identified as having significant uniform DIF. English- and Spanish-speaking subjects with the same level of pain interference responded differently to 1 of the 41 items in the PROMIS ® PI item bank. This item was not retained due to proprietary issues. The original English language item parameters can be used when estimating PROMIS ® PI scores.

  20. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  1. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  2. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  3. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  4. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  5. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  6. Evaluating the quality of medical multiple-choice items created with automated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis

    2013-07-01

    Computerised assessment raises formidable challenges because it requires large numbers of test items. Automatic item generation (AIG) can help address this test development problem because it yields large numbers of new items both quickly and efficiently. To date, however, the quality of the items produced using a generative approach has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether automatic processes yield items that meet standards of quality that are appropriate for medical testing. Quality was evaluated firstly by subjecting items created using both AIG and traditional processes to rating by a four-member expert medical panel using indicators of multiple-choice item quality, and secondly by asking the panellists to identify which items were developed using AIG in a blind review. Fifteen items from the domain of therapeutics were created in three different experimental test development conditions. The first 15 items were created by content specialists using traditional test development methods (Group 1 Traditional). The second 15 items were created by the same content specialists using AIG methods (Group 1 AIG). The third 15 items were created by a new group of content specialists using traditional methods (Group 2 Traditional). These 45 items were then evaluated for quality by a four-member panel of medical experts and were subsequently categorised as either Traditional or AIG items. Three outcomes were reported: (i) the items produced using traditional and AIG processes were comparable on seven of eight indicators of multiple-choice item quality; (ii) AIG items can be differentiated from Traditional items by the quality of their distractors, and (iii) the overall predictive accuracy of the four expert medical panellists was 42%. Items generated by AIG methods are, for the most part, equivalent to traditionally developed items from the perspective of expert medical reviewers. While the AIG method produced comparatively fewer plausible

  7. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. FINANCIAL LITERACY: A STUDY USING THE APPLICATION OF ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Hipólito Bernardes do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the level of financial literacy of Business Administration course students at a federal Higher Education Institution (HEI. To this end, a survey was conducted on 307 students. The Item Response Theory (IRT was employed for data analysis and the findings support the conclusion that the students show a low level of financial literacy, as well as the existence of a conservative investment profile among students. This scenario, in line with previous empirical studies conducted in the Brazil, is worrying given the potential negative externalities resulting from poor financial decisions, especially those related to home financing and retirement preparations. This study contributes to the empirical evaluation, within the national context, of the use of IRT in estimating financial literacy, and shows that it is, indeed, an important methodological option in the estimation of this latent trait. Furthermore, this enables financial knowledge to be compared through consistent and reliable means, using studies, populations, realities and separate programs.

  9. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  10. Estimating Non-Normal Latent Trait Distributions within Item Response Theory Using True and Estimated Item Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, D. A.; Schmitt, T. A.; Walker, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) procedures have been used extensively to study normal latent trait distributions and have been shown to perform well; however, less is known concerning the performance of IRT with non-normal latent trait distributions. This study investigated the degree of latent trait estimation error under normal and non-normal…

  11. DRD4 long allele carriers show heightened attention to high-priority items relative to low-priority items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Worthy, Darrell A; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a "risk" gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here, selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span (OSPAN) task, a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a "plasticity" gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context.

  12. Using personality item characteristics to predict single-item reliability, retest reliability, and self-other agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    The use of reliability estimates is increasingly scrutinized as scholars become more aware that test–retest stability and self–other agreement provide a better approximation of the theoretical and practical usefulness of an instrument than its internal reliability. In this study, we investigate item

  13. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  14. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  15. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  16. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  17. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Mangan, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  18. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  19. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  20. Evaluating the Psychometric Characteristics of Generated Multiple-Choice Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2016-01-01

    Item development is a time- and resource-intensive process. Automatic item generation integrates cognitive modeling with computer technology to systematically generate test items. To date, however, items generated using cognitive modeling procedures have received limited use in operational testing situations. As a result, the psychometric…

  1. Intentional Forgetting Reduces Color-Naming Interference: Evidence from Item-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-shiow; Lee, Huang-mou; Fawcett, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    In an item-method-directed forgetting task, Chinese words were presented individually, each followed by an instruction to remember or forget. Colored probe items were presented following each memory instruction requiring a speeded color-naming response. Half of the probe items were novel and unrelated to the preceding study item, whereas the…

  2. Method using a density field for locating related items for data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method makes use of numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. The items are given initial coordinates in the space. An energy is then determined for each item from the item's distance and similarity to other items, and from the density of items assigned coordinates near the item. The distance and similarity component can act to draw items with high similarities close together, while the density component can act to force all items apart. If a terminal condition is not yet reached, then new coordinates can be determined for one or more items, and the energy determination repeated. The iteration can terminate, for example, when the total energy reaches a threshold, when each item's energy is below a threshold, after a certain amount of time or iterations.

  3. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  4. 16 CFR 304.6 - Marking requirements for imitation numismatic items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements for imitation... for imitation numismatic items. (a) An imitation numismatic item which is manufactured in the United... the item. (3) An imitation numismatic item of incusable material shall be incused with the word “COPY...

  5. Representation of Item Position in Immediate Serial Recall: Evidence from Intrusion Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In immediate serial recall, participants are asked to recall novel sequences of items in the correct order. Theories of the representations and processes required for this task differ in how order information is maintained; some have argued that order is represented through item-to-item associations, while others have argued that each item is…

  6. 26 CFR 301.6222(a)-1 - Consistent treatment of partnership items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent treatment of partnership items. 301... Consistent treatment of partnership items. (a) In general. The treatment of a partnership item on the partner's return must be consistent with the treatment of that item by the partnership on the partnership...

  7. Polytomous latent scales for the investigation of the ordering of items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, R.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bergsma, W. P.; Sijtsma, K.

    2011-01-01

    We propose three latent scales within the framework of nonparametric item response theory for polytomously scored items. Latent scales are models that imply an invariant item ordering, meaning that the order of the items is the same for each measurement value on the latent scale. This ordering

  8. Item Response Theory Models for Wording Effects in Mixed-Format Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…

  9. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 and 12. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    The second volume of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the…

  10. Detection of person misfit in computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. For computerized adaptive tests (CAT) with dichotomous items, several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting item score patterns have been proposed. Both for

  11. A Model-Free Diagnostic for Single-Peakedness of Item Responses Using Ordered Conditional Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Marike; De Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929) "criterion…

  12. Designing a Virtual Item Bank Based on the Techniques of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey

    2011-01-01

    One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…

  13. Reliability and norms for the 10-item self-motivation inventory: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) has been shown to be a predictor of exercise dropout. The original SMI of 40 items has been shortened to 10 items and the psychometric qualities of the 10-item SMI are not known. To estimate the reliability of a 10-item SMI and develop norms for an ethnically dive...

  14. Test Score Equating Using Discrete Anchor Items versus Passage-Based Anchor Items: A Case Study Using "SAT"® Data. Research Report. ETS RR-14-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Zu, Jiyun; Curley, Edward; Carey, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of discrete anchor items versus passage-based anchor items on observed score equating using empirical data.This study compares an "SAT"® critical reading anchor that contains more discrete items proportionally, compared to the total tests to be equated, to another anchor that…

  15. Item bias detection in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using structural equation modeling: comparison with other item bias detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, M.G.E.; Oort, F.J.; Sprangers, M.A.G.

    Purpose Comparison of patient-reported outcomes may be invalidated by the occurrence of item bias, also known as differential item functioning. We show two ways of using structural equation modeling (SEM) to detect item bias: (1) multigroup SEM, which enables the detection of both uniform and

  16. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  17. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  18. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  19. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-One. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  20. Dissociative effects of orthographic distinctiveness in pure and mixed lists: an item-order account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Cahill, Michael; Bugg, Julie M; Meadow, Nathaniel G

    2011-10-01

    We apply the item-order theory of list composition effects in free recall to the orthographic distinctiveness effect. The item-order account assumes that orthographically distinct items advantage item-specific encoding in both mixed and pure lists, but at the expense of exploiting relational information present in the list. Experiment 1 replicated the typical free recall advantage of orthographically distinct items in mixed lists and the elimination of that advantage in pure lists. Supporting the item-order account, recognition performances indicated that orthographically distinct items received greater item-specific encoding than did orthographically common items in mixed and pure lists (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, order memory (input-output correspondence and sequential contiguity effects) was evident in recall of pure unstructured common lists, but not in recall of unstructured distinct lists (Experiment 1). These combined patterns, although not anticipated by prevailing views, are consistent with an item-order account.

  1. A Placement Algorithm for Capital Items that Depreciate with Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wweru, R.M

    1999-01-01

    The replacement algorithm is centred on the prediction of the replacement cost and the determination of the most economical replacement policy. For items whose efficiency depreciates over their life spans e.g. machine tools, vehicles et.c; the prediction of costs involves those factors which contribute to increase operating cost, forced idle time, increase scrap, increased repair cost etc. The alternative to increased cost of operating an aging equipment is the cost of replacing the old equipment with a new one. There is some age at which the replacement of the old equipment is more economical than continuation (of the old one) at the increased operating cost (Johnson R D, Siskin B R, 1989). This algorithm uses certain cost relationships that are vital in minimization of total costs and is focused on capital equipment that depreciates with time as opposed to items with a probabilistic life span

  2. Functionally unidimensional item response models for multivariate binary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ip, Edward; Molenberghs, Geert; Chen, Shyh-Huei

    2013-01-01

    The problem of fitting unidimensional item response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that have a strong dimension but also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Fitting a unidimensional model to such multidimensio......The problem of fitting unidimensional item response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that have a strong dimension but also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Fitting a unidimensional model...... to such multidimensional data is believed to result in ability estimates that represent a combination of the major and minor dimensions. We conjecture that the underlying dimension for the fitted unidimensional model, which we call the functional dimension, represents a nonlinear projection. In this article we investigate...... tool. An example regarding a construct of desire for physical competency is used to illustrate the functional unidimensional approach....

  3. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2015-12-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  4. A Fast Recommender System for Cold User Using Categorized Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jazayeriy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recommender systems (RS provide a considerable progress to users. RSs reduce the cost of a user’s time in order to reach to desired results faster. The main issue of RSs is the presence of cold users which are less active and their preferences are more difficult to detect. The aim of this study is to provide a new way to improve recall and precision in recommender systems for cold users. According to the available categories of items, prioritization of the proposed items is improved and then presented to the cold user. The obtained results show that in addition to increased speed of processing, recall and precision have an acceptable improvement.

  5. An ascending multi-item auction with financially constrained bidders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van der Laan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several heterogeneous items are to be sold to a group of potentially budget- constrained bidders. Every bidder has private knowledge of his own valuation of the items and his own budget. Due to budget constraints, bidders may not be able to pay up to their values and typically no Walrasian equilibrium exists. To deal with such markets, we propose the notion of 'equilibrium under allotment' and develop an ascending auction mechanism that always finds such an equilibrium assignment and a corresponding system of prices in finite time. The auction can be viewed as a novel generalization of the ascending auction of Demange et al. (1986 from settings without financial constraints to settings with financial constraints. We examine various strategic and efficiency properties of the auction and its outcome.

  6. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demortier, G [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium). Lab. d` Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires

    1996-06-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.).

  8. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  9. Profile-likelihood Confidence Intervals in Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, R Philip; Pek, Jolynn; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) are fundamental inferential devices which quantify the sampling variability of parameter estimates. In item response theory, CIs have been primarily obtained from large-sample Wald-type approaches based on standard error estimates, derived from the observed or expected information matrix, after parameters have been estimated via maximum likelihood. An alternative approach to constructing CIs is to quantify sampling variability directly from the likelihood function with a technique known as profile-likelihood confidence intervals (PL CIs). In this article, we introduce PL CIs for item response theory models, compare PL CIs to classical large-sample Wald-type CIs, and demonstrate important distinctions among these CIs. CIs are then constructed for parameters directly estimated in the specified model and for transformed parameters which are often obtained post-estimation. Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that PL CIs perform consistently better than Wald-type CIs for both non-transformed and transformed parameters.

  10. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Response Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Johnson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT models are a class of statistical models used by researchers to describe the response behaviors of individuals to a set of categorically scored items. The most common IRT models can be classified as generalized linear fixed- and/or mixed-effect models. Although IRT models appear most often in the psychological testing literature, researchers in other fields have successfully utilized IRT-like models in a wide variety of applications. This paper discusses the three major methods of estimation in IRT and develops R functions utilizing the built-in capabilities of the R environment to find the marginal maximum likelihood estimates of the generalized partial credit model. The currently available R packages ltm is also discussed.

  11. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  12. The measurement of tritium in Canadian food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    Food items locally grown near Perth, Ontario and grocery store produce and locally grown items from the Pickering-Ajax area in the vicinity of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) have been analyzed for free water tritium (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT). The technique of measuring 3 He ingrowth in samples by mass spectrometry has been used because of its sensitivity and freedom from opportunity for contamination during processing and measurement. Concentrations observed at each site were of the order expected on the basis of known levels of tritium in the local atmosphere and precipitation. There was considerable variation between different materials and limited correlation between materials of a single type. (author). 10 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Pricing policy for declining demand using item preservation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedlekar, Uttam Kumar; Shukla, Diwakar; Namdeo, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    We have designed an inventory model for seasonal products in which deterioration can be controlled by item preservation technology investment. Demand for the product is considered price sensitive and decreases linearly. This study has shown that the profit is a concave function of optimal selling price, replenishment time and preservation cost parameter. We simultaneously determined the optimal selling price of the product, the replenishment cycle and the cost of item preservation technology. Additionally, this study has shown that there exists an optimal selling price and optimal preservation investment to maximize the profit for every business set-up. Finally, the model is illustrated by numerical examples and sensitive analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters.

  14. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Moosavi Tabatabaei

    Full Text Available Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  15. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  16. SERENITY in e-Business and Smart Item Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Azzedine; Khoury, Paul El; Seguran, Magali; Sinha, Smriti Kumar

    SERENITY Artefacts, like Class, Patterns, Implementations and Executable Components for Security & Dependability (S&D) in addition to Serenity Runtime Framework (SRF) are discussed in previous chapters. How to integrate these artefacts with applications in Serenity approach is discussed here with two scenarios. The e-Business scenario is a standard loan origination process in a bank. The Smart Item scenario is an Ambient intelligence case study where we take advantage of Smart Items to provide an electronic healthcare infrastructure for remote healthcare assistance. In both cases, we detail how the prototype implementations of the scenarios select proper executable components through Serenity Runtime Framework and then demonstrate how these executable components of the S&D Patterns are deployed.

  17. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  18. Automatic item generation implemented for measuring artistic judgment aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Automatic item generation (AIG) is a broad class of methods that are being developed to address psychometric issues arising from internet and computer-based testing. In general, issues emphasize efficiency, validity, and diagnostic usefulness of large scale mental testing. Rapid prominence of AIG methods and their implicit perspective on mental testing is bringing painful scrutiny to many sacred psychometric assumptions. This report reviews basic AIG ideas, then presents conceptual foundations, image model development, and operational application to artistic judgment aptitude testing.

  19. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  20. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Production Model for Deteriorating Inventory Items with Production Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Yong He; Ju He

    2010-01-01

    Disruption management has recently become an active area of research. In this study, an extension is made to consider the fact that some products may deteriorate during storage. A production-inventory model for deteriorating items with production disruptions is developed. Then the optimal production and inventory plans are provided, so that the manufacturer can reduce the loss caused by disruptions. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the model.

  2. Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) second generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.; Baumann, M.J.; Fox, L.J.; Jenkins, C.D.; Perlinsk, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is in the final stages of developing a Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS). When completed, AIMS will provide applicable agencies in the US government, and those in the International arena, with a secure and convenient method of monitoring the physical status of selected items. The benefit derived from this development activity will be the commercial availability of an item monitoring system with the capability for ''quick set-up'' monitoring, as well as long-term unattended monitoring. The AIMS includes a variety of sensors, a robust and authenticated radio frequency (RF) communication link, a Receiver Processing Unit (RPU), and an inspector-friendly personal computer (PC) interface for collecting, sorting, viewing and archiving pertinent event histories. The system will provide the capability to monitor selected items in a real-time mode, a remotely interrogated mode, and a stand-alone, unattended data collection mode. The sensor suite under development includes advanced motion sensors, interior volumetric intrusion sensors, Re-usable, In-situ Verifiable Authenticated (RIVA) fiber-optic seal sensors, generic utility sensors (to accommodate contact closure inputs), and radiation and environmental sensors. A new generation authentication algorithm recently has been developed that provides a high degree of system security 121. The AIMS has potential safeguards applications in the areas of arms control and treaty verification military asset control, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom safeguards verification activities, as well as domestic nuclear safeguard activities. Commercial applications could include high-value inventory control and security systems. This paper describes the second-generation AIMS along with its recently expanded sensor suite and enhanced data collection capabilities

  3. Acceptance issues for large items and difficult waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.; Lock, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Lock described some particular cases which had given rise to difficult acceptance issues at NIREX, ranging from large size items to the impacts of chemicals used during decontamination on the mobility of radionuclides in a disposal facility: The UK strategy for intermediate level and certain low level radioactive waste disposal is based on production of cementitious waste-forms packaged in a standard range of containers as follows: 500 litre Drum - the normal container for most operational ILW (0.8 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Box - a larger container for solid wastes (1.72 m x 1.72 m plan x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Drum - a larger container for in-drum mixing and immobilisation of sludge waste-forms (1.72 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 4 m Box - for large items of waste, especially from decommissioning (4.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high); 2 m LLW Box - for higher-density wastes (2.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high). In addition the majority of LLW is packaged by supercompaction followed by grouting in modified ISO freight containers (6 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m). Some wastes do not fit easily into this strategy. These wastes include: very large items, (too big for the 4 m box) which, if dealt with whole, pose transport and disposal problems. These items are discussed further in Section 2; waste whose characteristics make packaging difficult. Such wastes are described in more detail in Section 3

  4. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  5. Modeling Composite Assessment Data Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Composite assessments aim to combine different aspects of a disease in a single score and are utilized in a variety of therapeutic areas. The data arising from these evaluations are inherently discrete with distinct statistical properties. This tutorial presents the framework of the item response theory (IRT) for the analysis of this data type in a pharmacometric context. The article considers both conceptual (terms and assumptions) and practical questions (modeling software, data requirements, and model building). PMID:29493119

  6. The nuclear safeguards data flow for the item facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongjun; Chen Desheng

    1994-04-01

    The constitution of nuclear safeguards data flow for the item facilities is introduced and the main contents are the data flow of nuclear safeguards. If the data flow moves positively, i.e. from source data →supporting documents→accounting records→accounting reports, the systems of records and reports will be constituted. If the data flow moves negatively, the way to trace inspection of nuclear material accounting quality will be constituted

  7. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  8. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  9. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  11. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  12. Managing suspect and counterfeit items in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Some manufacturers and suppliers use inferior materials and processes to make substandard supplies whose properties can vary significantly from established standards and specifications. Other suppliers distribute items that they know do not meet the purchase requirements or provide documentation that misrepresent actual conformance to established specifications and standards. These substandard supplies, or suspect/counterfeit items (S/CIs), pose potential threats to the safety of workers, the public and the environment and may also have a detrimental effect on security and operations at nuclear facilities. Nuclear facilities often procure and use commercial-grade items and the quality assurance policies/procedures and procurement methods are not always properly applied to avoid the entry of S/Cls into those facilities. This publication offers practical guidance on how to apply existing quality assurance programmes to effectively prevent the procurement and use of S/Cls. In particular, it provides a practical method of applying the requirements and guidance contained in the IAEA Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q: Code and Safety Guides on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996), to the S/CIs issue

  13. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisa, A. U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2013-07-15

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  14. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  15. Bayes Factor Covariance Testing in Item Response Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Joris; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-12-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning the underlying covariance structure are evaluated using (fractional) Bayes factor tests. The support for a unidimensional factor (i.e., assumption of local independence) and differential item functioning are evaluated by testing the covariance components. The posterior distribution of common covariance components is obtained in closed form by transforming latent responses with an orthogonal (Helmert) matrix. This posterior distribution is defined as a shifted-inverse-gamma, thereby introducing a default prior and a balanced prior distribution. Based on that, an MCMC algorithm is described to estimate all model parameters and to compute (fractional) Bayes factor tests. Simulation studies are used to show that the (fractional) Bayes factor tests have good properties for testing the underlying covariance structure of binary response data. The method is illustrated with two real data studies.

  16. Development and validation of 26-item dysfunctional attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Samouei, Rahele; Mousavii, Sayyed Ghafour; Bornamanesh, Ali Reza

    2013-06-01

    Dysfunctional Attitude Scale is one of the most common instruments used to assess cognitive vulnerability. This study aimed to develop and validate a short form of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale appropriate for an Iranian clinical population. Participants were 160 psychiatric patients from medical centers affiliated with Isfahan Medical University, as well as 160 non-patients. Research instruments were clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-TR, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data was analyzed using multicorrelation calculations and factor analysis. Based on the results of factor analysis and item-total correlation, 14 items were judged candidates for omission. Analysis of the 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. Evidence for the concurrent criterion validity was obtained through calculating the correlation between the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and psychiatric diagnosis (r = 0.55), GHQ -28 (r = 0.56) and somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression subscales (0.45,0.53,0.48, and 0.57, respectively). Factor analysis deemed a four-factor structure the best. The factors were labeled as success-perfectionism, need for approval, need for satisfying others, and vulnerability-performance evaluation. The results showed that the Iranian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) bears satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this cognitive instrument is appropriate for use in an Iranian cultural context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  18. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  19. Three Modeling Applications to Promote Automatic Item Generation for Examinations in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hollis; Gierl, Mark J; Byrne, B Ellen; Spielman, Andrew I; Waldschmidt, David M

    2016-03-01

    Test items created for dentistry examinations are often individually written by content experts. This approach to item development is expensive because it requires the time and effort of many content experts but yields relatively few items. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how items can be generated using a systematic approach. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an alternative method that allows a small number of content experts to produce large numbers of items by integrating their domain expertise with computer technology. This article describes and illustrates how three modeling approaches to item content-item cloning, cognitive modeling, and image-anchored modeling-can be used to generate large numbers of multiple-choice test items for examinations in dentistry. Test items can be generated by combining the expertise of two content specialists with technology supported by AIG. A total of 5,467 new items were created during this study. From substitution of item content, to modeling appropriate responses based upon a cognitive model of correct responses, to generating items linked to specific graphical findings, AIG has the potential for meeting increasing demands for test items. Further, the methods described in this study can be generalized and applied to many other item types. Future research applications for AIG in dental education are discussed.

  20. The Effects of Goal Relevance and Perceptual Features on Emotional Items and Associative Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei B. Mao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top–down goal relevance and bottom–up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.

  1. The Effects of Goal Relevance and Perceptual Features on Emotional Items and Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei B; An, Shu; Yang, Xiao F

    2017-01-01

    Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top-down goal relevance and bottom-up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene) and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity) in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items) could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.

  2. National soft science research task item-organization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiming

    2014-01-01

    International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, as the most large-scale science project and research cooperation plan in the human history, has brought together major world-wide scientific and technological achievements in current controlled magnetic confinement fusion research. The project is aiming at validating the scientific and technological feasibility of the peaceful use of fusion energy, laying a science and technology foundation for the realization of the fusion energy commercialization. Promoted by the ITER project, the nuclear fusion frontier science researches and experiments in China have made a deep development, and have made remarkable achievements. Based on this situation, the Fusion Information Division of the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) has undertaken the soft science research task item -Prediction of Nuclear Fusion Energy Research and Development Technology in China,issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. The research team has gone through these processes such as documentation collection and investigation, documentation reading and refining, outline determination, the first draft writing, content analysis and optimization for the draft, and the internal trial within the research team, review and revise from the experts at SWIP and out of SWIP, evaluation from China International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program Execution Center (ITER China DA), as well as evaluation from the famous experts in domestic fusion community by means of letters and mail. Finally, the research team has completed the research report successfully. In this report, the fusion development strategies of the world's leading fusion research countries and organizations participating in ITER project have been described. Moreover, some comparisons and analysis in this report have been made in order to provide scientific and technological research, analysis base, as well as strategic decision references for exploring medium and long term

  3. Simplified automatic on-line document searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    The author proposed searching method for users who need not-comprehensive retrieval. That is to provide flexible number of related documents for the users automatically. A group of technical terms are used as search terms to express an inquiry. Logical sums of the terms in the ascending order of frequency of the usage are prepared sequentially and automatically, and then the search formulas, qsub(m) and qsub(m-1) which meet certain threshold values are selected automatically also. Users justify precision of the search output up to 20 items retrieved by the formula qsub(m). If a user wishes more than 30% of recall ratio, the serach result should be output by qsub(m), and if he wishes less than 30% of it, it should be output by qsub(m-1). The search by this method using one year volume of INIS Database (76,600 items) and five inquiries resulted in 32% of recall ratio and 36% of precision ratio on the average in the case of qsub(m). The connecting time of a terminal was within 15 minutes per an inquiry. It showed more efficiency than that of an inexperienced searcher. The method can be applied to on-line searching system for database in which natural language only or natural language and controlled vocabulary are used. (author)

  4. Connecting Lines of Research on Task Model Variables, Automatic Item Generation, and Learning Progressions in Game-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Edith Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games," Almond, Kim, Velasquez, and Shute have prepared a thought-provoking piece contrasting the roles of task model variables in a traditional assessment of mathematics word problems to their roles in "Newton's Playground," a game designed…

  5. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  6. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  7. K-line photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  8. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  9. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  10. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  11. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  12. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  13. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  14. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  15. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  16. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  17. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  18. Building with a Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  19. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  20. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined