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Sample records for line intensity measurements

  1. On the inversion problem of the plasma line intensity measurements in terms of photoelectron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, G.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming that the unidimensional distribution function of the photoelectron flux can be determined from plasma line intensity measurement, it is shown that the photoelectron flux distribution is not uniquely determined if additional hypotheses are not made. The limitations of the inversion procedure are shown: in particular, plasma line measurements cannot allow the determination of more than the first two Legendre components of the photoelectron flux. Experimental procedures for this determination are finally reviewed. (author)

  2. The measurement and interpretation of Ne VII spectral line intensity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for the measurement, using the branching ratios calibration method, of the spectral intensities of Ne VII lines emitted from a theta-pinch plasma whose electron temperature and density have been found by laser scattering and alternate techniques. (author)

  3. Measurement of the profile and intensity of the solar He I lambda 584-A resonance line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. O.; Hartmann, U. G.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disk of the sun was investigated by using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve-of-growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 + or - 10 mA, while the integrated intensity was measured to be 2.6 + or - 1.3 billion photons/s per sq cm at solar activity levels of F(10.7) = 90.8 x 10 to the -22nd per sq m/Hz and Rz = 27. The measured line width is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurements, but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of 20 + or - 10 billion photons/s per sq cm/A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  4. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  5. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  6. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  7. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  8. Intensity and bunch length measurement for lepton beam in the injection lines of the SPS and LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Boccard, C; Papis, J P; Vos, L

    1995-01-01

    We describe a system which is used operationally to measure the absolute intensity of single lepton bunches in a beam transfer line. It is based on the detailed knowledge of every single item of a complex measuring chain that comprises a beam coupler on one end and an acquisition system on the other end. This knowledge can be acquired by a well tested theoretical model and careful measurement of the transfer function of each processing module. A precision better than 3 % can be obtained and no external calibration is required. A value for the bunch length can be deduced from a spectral intensity measurement at two well chosen frequencies.

  9. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  10. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  12. Effective line intensity measurements of trans-nitrous acid (HONO) of the ν1 band near 3600 cm-1 using laser difference-frequency spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Fourmentin, Marc; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Chen, Changshui; Chen, Weidong

    2017-07-01

    We report on the measurements of the effective line intensities of the ν1 fundamental band of trans-nitrous acid (trans-HONO) in the infrared near 3600 cm-1 (2.78 μm). A home-made widely tunable laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) was used for this study. The strengths of 28 well-resolved absorption lines of the ν1 band were determined by scaling their absorption intensities to the well referenced absorption line intensity of the ν3 band of trans-HONO around 1250 cm-1 recorded simultaneously with the help of a DFB quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectrometer. The maximum measurement uncertainty of 12% in the line intensities is mainly determined by the uncertainty announced in the referenced line intensities, while the measurement precision in frequency positions of the absorption lines is better than 6×10-4 cm-1. The cross-measurement carried out in the present work allows one to perform intensity calibration using well referenced line parameters.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  3. Line Intensity Measurements in 14N 216O and Their Treatment Using the Effective Dipole Moment Approach . I. The 4300- to 5200-cm -1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumont, L.; Auwera, J. Vander; Teffo, J.-L.; Perevalov, V. I.; Tashkun, S. A.

    2001-08-01

    This work continues a series of publications devoted to the application of the effective operator approach to the vibrational-rotational treatment of linear triatomic molecules, aiming at the analysis and prediction of their infrared spectra. In that frame work, we have started a large-scale work aiming at the global description of line intensities of cold and hot bands of 14N216O in its ground electronic state in the spectral range above 3600 cm-1. In 14N216O, vibrational interacting levels group in polyads as a result of the relation 2ω1≈4ω2≈ω3 existing between the harmonic frequencies. The polyads are identified by the so-called polyad number P=2V1+V2+4V3. The work described in the present paper concerns bands associated with transitions corresponding to ΔP=7, 8, and 9. The absorption spectra of N2O at room temperature have been recorded at a resolution of 0.007 cm-1 in the range from 4300 to 5200 cm-1 using a Bruker IFS120HR Fourier transform spectrometer. Sample pressure/absorption path length products ranging from 7 to 1753 mbar × m have been used. More than 3000 absolute line intensities have been measured in 66 different bands belonging to the ΔP=7, 8, and 9 series. Dicke narrowing has been observed in the high-pressure spectra. Using wavefunctions previously determined from a global fit of an effective Hamiltonian to about 18,000 line positions (S. A. Tashkun, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo to be published), the experimental intensities measured in this work and by R. A. Toth (J. Mol. Spectrosc.197, 158-187 (1999)) were fitted to 47 parameters of a corresponding effective dipole moment, with residuals very close to the experimental uncertainty. Exa mples are given showing that the modeling reproduces intensities of perturbed lines well.

  4. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  9. The Association of State Legal Mandates for Data Submission of Central Line-associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with Process and Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Reagan, Julie; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn T.A; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process/outcome measures. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices i.e. compliance with checklist and bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate Standardized Infection Ratios (SIR). The association between mandates and process/outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) NICUs were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place for 3 or more years for half. More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least one CLABSI prevention practice (52.3% – 66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9% – 48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the prevention practices but not with lower CLABSI rates. PMID:25111921

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  19. Accurate line intensities of methane from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Andrei V.; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report first-principle theoretical predictions of methane spectral line intensities that are competitive with (and complementary to) the best laboratory measurements. A detailed comparison with the most accurate data shows that discrepancies in integrated polyad intensities are in the range of 0.4%-2.3%. This corresponds to estimations of the best available accuracy in laboratory Fourier Transform spectra measurements for this quantity. For relatively isolated strong lines the individual intensity deviations are in the same range. A comparison with the most precise laser measurements of the multiplet intensities in the 2ν3 band gives an agreement within the experimental error margins (about 1%). This is achieved for the first time for five-atomic molecules. In the Supplementary Material we provide the lists of theoretical intensities at 269 K for over 5000 strongest transitions in the range below 6166 cm-1. The advantage of the described method is that this offers a possibility to generate fully assigned exhaustive line lists at various temperature conditions. Extensive calculations up to 12,000 cm-1 including high-T predictions will be made freely available through the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru) that contains ab initio born line lists and provides a user-friendly graphical interface for a fast simulation of the absorption cross-sections and radiance.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  1. Line intensities for diagnosing laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Whitten, B.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured relative line intensities of the K x-ray spectra of Si, Cl, and Ca from laser-produced plasmas to assess their usefulness as a plasma diagnostic. The different elements are added at low concentrations to CH disks which are irradiated at 5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 with a 0.53 μm laser pulse of 20 Joules at 1 nsec. The concentration of each element is kept low in order not to change the Z of the plasma, and therefore the plasma dynamics. The various spectra are measured with a time-resolved spectrograph to obtain line intensities as a function of time over the length of the laser pulse. These relative intensities of various He-like and H-like lines are compared with calculations from a steady-state level population code. The results give good consistency among the various line ratios. Agreement is not as good for analysis of the Li-like satellite lines. Modelling of the Li-like lines need further investigation. 10 references, 9 figures

  2. Density dependence of line intensities and application to plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Kuniaki.

    1993-02-01

    Electron density dependence of spectral lines are discussed in view of application to density diagnostics of plasmas. The dependence arises from competitive level population processes, radiative and collisional transitions from the excited states. Results of the measurement on tokamak plasmas are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of line intensity ratios for density diagnostics. Also general characteristics related to density dependence are discussed with atomic-number scaling for H-like and He-like systems to be helpful for application to higher density plasmas. (author)

  3. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  4. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  5. FT-IR measurements of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region: line positions, intensities and their quantum assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Huang, X.; Schwenke, D. W.; Lee, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of an effort to provide a complete set of spectroscopic line parameters of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region, we have analyzed the laboratory spectra recorded at various temperatures (200 - 299 K) with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona. The integrated sum of observed line strengths is measured to be 4.7×10-19 cm/molecule in the 6300 - 7000 cm-1 region. In this poster, we present line positions and strengths for the lines from four strong bands (2v1, 2v3, v1+v3, v1+2v4 and v3+2v4), which contribute more than 65% of opacity in the region. Lower state energies and quantum assignments determined by constructing combination differences are also presented. A theoretical IR linelist (X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, and T. J. Lee. J. Chem. Phys., 134, 044320/044321, 2011) built upon the recent HSL-2 potential energy surface (nonadiabatic corrections included) is complementarily used for the quantum assignments. This work will support spectroscopic studies of atmospheres of outer planets, low mass brown dwarfs, and possibly extrasolar planets, in the 1.5 μm region (the H-band), where ammonia is one of significant opacity sources. (Research described in this talk was performed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was supported by the Planetary Atmospheric Research Program under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The AMES group acknowledges support from the NASA APRA & Herschel GO Program, and X.H. acknowledges the support by NASA/SETI Institute Co-operative Agreement.)

  6. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  7. Raman overtone intensities measured for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the vibrational fundamental, first overtone and second overtone transitions of the H 2 molecule were recorded using visible and ultraviolet argon--ion laser excitation. The ratios of transition polarizability matrix elements, α 01,21 /α 01,11 and α 01,31 /α 01,11 , were determined from the measured intensities of the Q(1) Raman lines v,J=0,1→v',1 for v'=1,2,3. The experimentally determined value of the Raman first overtone matrix element is in good agreement with the value from the best ab initio calculation

  8. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  9. Intensities of decimetric-wavelength radio recombination lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, A.; Pankonin, V.

    1975-01-01

    We summarize the intensity results of some of the 221 and 248α recombination-line observations taken with the Arecibo telescope, and report additional results including 166α observations from the NRAO 300-foot (91 m) telescope. The brightness temperatures of these lines increase sharply with wavelength. We show that these results require that the upper levels of the recombining atoms be overpopulated with respect to LTE conditions. The most reasonable interpretation of the results is that the line emission at these decimetric wavelengths is stimulated by a background source of continuum radiation

  10. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    behaviour of data results as discussed by Tsubaki (1988) in the green corona line intensity. ... This work was partly supported by the Grant Agency (5017/98) of the Slovak. Academy of Sciences. One of us (M. M.) thanks IAU for travel support.

  11. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  12. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-04-19

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth\\'s atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Deli, Meriem; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth's atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  15. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  16. Line intensity ratios of helium atom in an ionizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Kato, Takako; Takamura, Shuichi

    1998-10-01

    Effective emission rate coefficients C em eff (λ), line intensity ratios, C em eff (λ 1 )/C em eff (λ 2 ), and S eff /C em eff (λ), with S eff the ionization rate coefficient, are obtained by the collisional radiative model for an ionizing plasma using new excitation and ionization rate coefficients. In the plasma with electron density n e > 10 4 cm -3 , C em eff (λ) for various lines are enlarged, since the normalized population densities for the metastable states, n(2 1,3 S)/n He , becomes large, and the excitation rate coefficients from 2 1,3 S, C 21,3S→i , are large compared to that from the ground state C 11S→i . In high n e plasma (n e > 10 12 cm -3 ), with frequent electron impacts on the excited heliums, n(i)/n He become constant to n e , which results in the decrease of C em eff (λ). Hot electrons and resonance scattering, which are often important for the experimental applications, are included in this model. A small amount of hot electrons (several percents) can enhance the line emission and ionization rates for low electron temperature plasma with T e (T e 1 S - n 1 P) and enlarges n 1 P and 2 1 S populations when the column density of helium gas n He x L exceeds 2x10 13 [cm -2 ]. (author)

  17. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  18. Electron temperature determination from the HeI 3889 angstroem and 5016 angstroem line intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of determining electron temperature by helium spectro scopy in low-density (n(sub e) 2 m - ) plasmas is discussed. It is concluded that most lines can only be used at very low densities (n(sub e) 1 m - ) because the line intensities are highly influenced by secondary processes, such as electron impact induced transitions between excited levels or excitations from metastable levels. The density range where measurements are possible can extended if the influence of these secondary processes on the line intensities can be determined. For most helium I lines this is impossible for lack of atomic data. However, there are two exceptions, the 3889 angstroem (3 3 P yields 2 3 S) and the 5016 angstroem (3 1 yields 2 1 S) lines. The influence from secondary processes on these lines is calculated, and methods are developed which can be used for measurement of electron temperatures T(sub e 1 m - . The use of the methods is illustrated by a experiment where they have been successfully applied. (author)

  19. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  20. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  1. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  2. Line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients for the ν5 band of methyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectra have been recorded around 6.9 μm at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer (unapodized Bruker resolution=0.005 cm −1 ). Transitions of both 12 CH 3 35 Cl and 12 CH 3 37 Cl isotopologues belonging to the ν 5 perpendicular band have been studied. Line positions, intensities, and self-broadening coefficients have been retrieved using a multispectrum fitting procedure that allowed to fit simultaneously the whole set of experimental spectra recorded at various pressures of CH 3 Cl. The wavenumber calibration has been performed using the frequencies of CO 2 transitions. The transition dipole moments squared have been determined for each measured line and the whole set of measurements has been compared with previous measurements and with values from HITRAN and GEISA databases. The rotational J and K dependencies of the self-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and modeled using empirical polynomial expansions. The average accuracy of the line parameters obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 0.1×10 −3 and 1×10 −3 cm −1 for line positions, between 2% and 5% for line intensities and between 5% and 10% for self-broadening coefficients depending on the transitions. -- Highlights: ► Fourier-transform spectra of the ν 5 band of CH 3 Cl at room temperature. ► Measurements of line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients. ► Analysis of the J- and K-rotational dependences of self-widths. ► Comparisons with literature

  3. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  4. Symmetries and rotational line intensities in diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veseth, L.

    1986-02-01

    The general theory of angular momenta and the full rotation group is used to reconsider the theory of the intensity factors of rotational lines in the spectra of diatomic molecules (Hoenl-London factors). It is shown that the use of the rotational symmetry (rotation matrices) leads to compact derivations of the symmetry properties of the molecular wave functions, as well as the matrix elements of the transitions operator. The present work is restricted to spin-allowed electric dipole transitions, and the general sum rule characteristic of this type of transitions is rederived by use of the general angular momentum theory. A main purpose of the present work has been to provide a unified theoretical basis for exact numerical computations of Hoenl-London factors for all types of spin-allowed electric dipole transitions in diatomic molecules. The computed Hoenl-London factors are then in the next step intended to be the basis for construction of synthetic molecular band spectra, with particular applications to upper atmosperic emissions (aurora)

  5. Generation of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines in the nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Takeuchi, I.; Kato, Y.; Aoyama, I.

    1984-02-01

    The cause of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines is studied. Intensity covariations are compared with the auroral-electrojet-activity index AE, the substorm Pi2, and the magnetogram. It is suggested that intensity covariations or double-intensity maxima of the red line occur in association with intense auroral substorms, and that they are the direct experimental evidences of Testud's theory (1973).

  6. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Doschek, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Fe XVII. The data pertain to the 73 levels of the configurations, 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3s, 2s 2 2p 5 3p 2s 2 2p 5 3d, 2s2p 6 3s, 2s2p 6 3p, 2s2p 6 3d, 2s 2 2p 5 4s, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4d, 2s2p 6 4s, 2s2p 6 4p, and 2s2p 6 4d. Collision strengths are calculated at 11 incident electron energies: 58.5, 65.0, 70.0, 76.0, 85.0, 127.5, 170.0, 212.5, 255.0, 340.0, and 425.0 Ry. This work is an improvement over our earlier work on Fe XVII in two respects: (1) configurations involving 4s, 4p, and 4d electrons have been added and (2) a broader range of incident electron energies is used in the computation of collision strengths and excitation rate coefficients. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated for astrophysically important transitions. These are obtained by computing the excitation rate coefficients (cm 3 s -1 ), i.e., the collision strengths integrated over a Maxwellian electron distribution, and then solving the equations of detailed balance for the populations of the 73 energy levels, assuming a collisional excitation model and an electron temperature of 4 x 10 6 K. This temperature is typical for Fe XVII when formed in equilibrium by collisional ionization and recombination. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative decay rates, level populations are computed for five electron densities and are given in this paper

  7. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of L-Edge White Line Intensities: The Influence of Saturation and Transverse Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahlin, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe, Ni, and Co L2,3 edges of in situ grown thin magnetic films. We compare electron yield measurements performed at SSRL and BESSY-I. Differences in the L2,3 white line intensities are found for all three elements, comparing data from the two facilities. We propose a correlation between spectral intensities and the degree of spatial coherence of the exciting radiation. The electron yield saturation effects are stronger for light with a higher degree of spatial coherence. Therefore the observed, coherence related, intensity variations are due to an increase in the absorption coefficient, and not to secondary channel related effects

  9. Quantitative analysis of L-edge white line intensities: the influence of saturation and transverse coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlin, A; Karis, O; Brena, B; Dunn, J H; Arvantis, D

    2001-03-01

    We have performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe, Ni, and Co L2,3 edges of in situ grown thin magnetic films. We compare electron yield measurements performed at SSRL and BESSY-I. Differences in the L2,3 white line intensities are found for all three elements, comparing data from the two facilities. We propose a correlation between spectral intensities and the degree of spatial coherence of the exciting radiation. The electron yield saturation effects are stronger for light with a higher degree of spatial coherence. Therefore the observed, coherence related, intensity variations are due to an increase in the absorption coefficient, and not to secondary channel related effects.

  10. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  11. Study of NH3 Line Intensities in the THz and Far-IR Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan

    Ammonia (NH3) exists in the interstellar medium, late-type stars and giant planets of our solar system. Its temperature and abundance profiles in these environments, which are derived with its line parameters as fixed input , are commonly used to provide constraints on retrieving minor species. Therefore NH3 line parameters are essential for interpreting astrophysical and planetary spectra from Herschel, SOFIA, ALMA and JWST. However, our work under a predecessor grant with the APRA program revealed significant deficiencies in NH3 intensities in the terahertz and FIR region, including some weak Delta(K)=3 forbidden transitions predicted to be 100 times stronger. The Delta(K)=3 transitions are the ones connecting levels with different K values and therefore the only way other than collisions and l-doubled states to excite NH3 to K>0 levels. Their intensities have to be corrected to explain the observed high K excitation, such as the detection of NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2)&(14,14) and (18,18) transitions toward the galactic center star forming region Sgr B2, and to provide insights into the radiative- transfer vs. collision excitation mechanics of interstellar NH3. This proposal will remedy the serious deficiencies in the current databases involving NH3 line parameters in the terahertz and FIR region. We will target transitions with intensities greater than 10^{-23} cm-1/ (molecule/cm2) at 296 K, which will be among new astrophysical detections made by SOFIA, ALMA and JWST, and are 1000 times weaker than the strongest ground state transitions. We will retrieve new positions and intensities from existing laboratory spectra, use them to evaluate the current databases and ab initio calculations, and repair the line positions and intensities by replacing poorly calculated values with our new measurements. The proposed research will result in (1) a validated linelist containing the positions, intensities and lower state energies for the very important Delta(K)=3 NH3 FIR

  12. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensity Mapping of the [CII] Fine Structure Line during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, A.; Silva, M.; Santos, M. G.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-01-01

    The atomic CII fine-structure line is one of the brightest lines in a typical star-forming galaxy spectrum with a luminosity 0.1% to 1% of the bolometric luminosity. It is otentially a reliable tracer of the dense gas distribution at high edshifts and could provide an additional probe to the era of reionization. By taking into account of the spontaneous, stimulated and collisional emission of the CII line, we calculate the spin temperature and the mean intensity as a function of the redshift. When averaged over a cosmologically large volume, we find that the CII emission from ionized carbon in individual galaxies is larger than the signal generated by carbon in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Assuming that the CII luminosity is proportional to the carbon mass in dark matter halos, we also compute the power spectrum of the CII line intensity at various redshifts. In order to avoid the contamination from CO rotational lines at low redshift when targeting a CII survey at high redshifts, we propose the cross-correlation of CII and 21-cm line emission from high redshifts. To explore the detectability of the CII signal from reionization, we also evaluate the expected errors on the CII power spectrum and CII-21 cm cross power spectrum based on the design of the future milimeter surveys. We note that the CII-21 cm cross power spectrum contains interesting features that captures physics during reionization, including the ionized bubble sizes and the mean ionization fraction, which are challenging to measure from 21-cm data alone. We propose an instrumental concept for the reionization CII experiment targeting the frequency range of 200 to 300 GHz with 1, 3 and 10 meter apertures and a bolometric spectrometer array with 64 independent spectral pixels with about 20,000 bolometers.

  14. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  15. Use of Six Sigma strategies to pull the line on central line-associated bloodstream infections in a neurotrauma intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Kelli; Tilley, Terry; Hoffman, Jason; Bradburn, Eric; Harvey, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The creation of a consistent culture of safety and quality in an intensive care unit is challenging. We applied the Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) model for quality improvement (QI) to develop a long-term solution to improve outcomes in a high-risk neurotrauma intensive care unit. We sought to reduce central line utilization as a cornerstone in preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). This study describes the successful application of the DMAIC model in the creation and implementation of evidence-based quality improvement designed to reduce CLABSIs to below national benchmarks.

  16. Recent development in the evaluation of Moessbauer line intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiering, H.

    1985-01-01

    The angular dependence of the intensities of pure or mixed multipole transitions is formulated in a new fashion, which takes into account arbitrary texture of the Moessbauer absorber ranging from complete orientation (single crystals) over preferred orientation to random powders and an anisotropic absorption fraction of the nuclei. The application of the theory is demonstrated by means of typical examples from the literature. (orig.)

  17. On the Transmission Line Pulse Measurement Technique

    OpenAIRE

    X. Rodriguez; M. Eduardo; M. Harington

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Line Pulse is a short pulse (25ns to 150ns) measurement of the current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of the ESD protection built into an integrated circuit. The short TLP pulses are used to simulate the short ESD pulse threats and integrated circuit must tolerate without being damaged. In this work the fundamental principles of how the TLP pulse is generated and used to create I-V characteristic plots will be explored. The measurement will be then used to characterize the I-V cha...

  18. Intensity and shape of spectral lines from laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamelot, G; Jaegle, P; Carillon, A; Wehenkel, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France); Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France))

    1979-01-01

    In starting from spectral studies of multicharged ions in dense laser-produced plasmas, the main processes which determine the intensity and the shape of lines in the X-UV range are described. The role of radiation transfer is underlined. Intensity anomalies resulting from occurrence of population inversions are considered and a recent experiment performed for investigating such anomalies is described.

  19. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  20. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  1. Moving droplets : The measurement of contact lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line

  2. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray line emission from neon-like Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2006-01-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array

  3. Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available

  4. Electric dipole moment function and line intensities for the ground state of carbon monxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Cheng Xin-Lu; Wu Jie; Liu Hao

    2015-01-01

    An accurate electric dipole moment function (EDMF) is obtained for the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule (X 1 Σ + ) by fitting the experimental rovibrational transitional moments. Additionally, an accurate ab initio EDMF is found using the highly accurate, multi-reference averaged coupled-pair functional (ACPF) approach with the basis set, aug-cc-pV6Z, and a finite-field with ±0.005 a.u. (The unit a.u. is the abbreviation of atomic unit). This ab initio EDMF is very consistent with the fitted ones. The vibrational transition matrix moments and the Herman–Wallis factors, calculated with the Rydberg–Klein–Rees (RKR) potential and the fitted and ab initio EDMFs, are compared with experimental measurements. The consistency of these line intensities with the high-resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular database demonstrates the improved accuracy of the fitted and ab initio EDMFs derived in this work. (paper)

  5. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  6. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  7. Measurement of intensity distribution of CSR in LEBRA PXR beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Keisuke; Sakai, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu; Sei, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Last year, the intensity of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) in LEBRA PXR beamline was measured. As a result, it turned out that the intensity of CSR was stronger than anticipation. It is suggested that Coherent Edge Radiation (CER) is mixed with CSR. Then, in order to confirm whether CER is contained, the intensity distribution of CSR was measured. The result of the experiment is reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Appearance of low signal intensity lines in MRI of silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, P W; Rolland, C; Dufour, M; Grondin, P; Guidoin, R G

    1996-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of five explanted mammary prostheses were obtained with a 1.5 T GE Signa system using a conventional spin-echo pulse sequence, in order to investigate the low-intensity curvilinear lines which may be observed in MR images of silicone gel-filled breast implants under pressure from fibrous capsules. MR images showed ellipsoid prostheses, often containing multiple low-intensity curvilinear lines which in some cases presented an appearance very similar to that of the linguine sign. Upon opening the fibrous capsules, however, all of the prostheses were found to be completely intact demonstrating that the appearance of multiple low signal intensity curvilinear lines in MR images of silicone gel-filled prostheses is not necessarily a sign of prosthesis rupture. The MR image features which are specific to the linguine sign must be more precisely defined.

  9. Improvement in dose escalation using off-line and on-line image feedback in the intensity modulated beam design for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Birkner, M.; Nuesslin, F.; Wong, J.; Martinez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the capability of dose escalation in the IMRT process where the organ/patient temporal geometric variation, measured using either off-line or on-line treatment CT and portal images, are adapted for the optimal design of intensity modulated beam. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was performed on five prostate cancer patients with multiple CT scans (14∼17/patient) and daily portal images obtained during the treatment course. These images were used to determine the displacements of each subvolume in the organs of interest caused by the daily patient setup and internal organ motion/deformation. The temporal geometric information was processed in order of treatment time and fed into an inverse planning system. The inverse planning engine was specifically implemented to adapt the design of intensity modulated beam to the temporal subvolume displacement and patient internal density changes. Three image feedback strategies were applied to each patient and evaluated with respect to the capability of safe dose escalation. The first one is off-line image feedback, which designs the beam intensity based on the patient images measured within the first week of treatment. The second is an on-line 'the target of the day' strategy, which designs the beam intensity in daily bases by using 'the image of the day' alone. The last one is also the on-line based. However, it designs the instantaneous beam intensity based on also dose distribution in each organ of interest received prior to the current treatment. For each of the treatment strategies, the minimum dose delivered to the CTV was determined by applying the identical normal tissue constraints of partial dose/volumes. This minimum dose was used to represent the treatment dose for each patient. Results: The off-line strategy appears feasible after 5 days of image feedback. The average treatment dose among the patients can be 10% higher than the one in the conventional IMRT treatment where the inverse

  10. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  11. Gamma-line intensity difference method for sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn at high resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Remeikis, V; Mazeika, K

    1998-01-01

    The method for detection of small differences in the gamma-spectrum line intensity for the radionuclide in different environments has been developed for measurements at high resolution. The experiments were realized with the pure germanium planar detector. Solution of the methodical problems allowed to measure the relative difference DELTA IOTA subgamma/IOTA subgamma=(3.4+-1.5)*10 sup - sup 4 of the sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn 156.02 keV gamma-line intensity for the radionuclide in SnO sub 2 with respect to SnS from the difference in the gamma-spectra. The error of the result is caused mainly by the statistical accuracy. It is limited by the highest counting rate at sufficiently high energy resolution and relatively short half-life of sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn. (author)

  12. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  13. Measures of Competitive Intensity – Analysis Based on Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kwieciński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To systematize the existing approaches and tools used for measuring competitive intensity. Methodology: Systematic literature review along with critical literature review. Findings: Identifcation of two main approaches to measuring competition intensity: the frst pertains to research based on experts’ opinions and involves the use of questionnaires (primary sources, while the second is based on structural variables used with a variety of indexes (secondary sources. In addition, variables applied for the purpose of measuring the intensity of competition are divided into structural and behavioural. Research implications: Research implications are two-fold. Firstly, a distinction is made between various types of existing approaches to measuring competitive intensity. Secondly, research is carried out, inter alia, with regard to the actual object of certain measures, as opposed to their object stemming from commonly accepted defnitions. Practical implications: The issue of measuring competition intensity occupies a prominent place in the discussion on the effectiveness of inter-organizational relationships. The fndings outlined in this paper may help managers to develop/adopt the right approach supporting their strategic decisions. Originality: The paper provides a complex review of the existing methods and measures of competitive intensity. It systematizes recent knowledge about competitive intensity measurements.

  14. Facial feature tracking: a psychophysiological measure to assess exercise intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kathleen H; Clark, Bradley; Périard, Julien D; Goecke, Roland; Thompson, Kevin G

    2018-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether facial feature tracking reliably measures changes in facial movement across varying exercise intensities. Fifteen cyclists completed three, incremental intensity, cycling trials to exhaustion while their faces were recorded with video cameras. Facial feature tracking was found to be a moderately reliable measure of facial movement during incremental intensity cycling (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.65-0.68). Facial movement (whole face (WF), upper face (UF), lower face (LF) and head movement (HM)) increased with exercise intensity, from lactate threshold one (LT1) until attainment of maximal aerobic power (MAP) (WF 3464 ± 3364mm, P exercise intensities (UF minus LF at: LT1, 1048 ± 383mm; LT2, 1208 ± 611mm; MAP, 1401 ± 712mm; P exercise intensity.

  15. Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, L A; Bailey, M R; Kaczkowski, P; McAteer, J A; Pishchalnikov, Y A; Sapozhnikov, O A

    2004-01-01

    In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data

  16. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: dongwooc@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  17. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  18. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  19. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Keenan, F. P., E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  20. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  1. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  2. Quantization analysis of speckle intensity measurements for phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maallo, Anne Margarette S.; Almoro, Percival F.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Speckle intensity measurements utilized for phase retrieval (PR) are sequentially taken with a digital camera, which introduces quantization error that diminishes the signal quality. Influences of quantization on the speckle intensity distribution and PR are investigated numerically...... and experimentally in the static wavefront sensing setup. Resultsshowthat 3 to 4 bits are adequate to represent the speckle intensities and yield acceptable reconstructions at relatively fast convergence rates. Computer memory requirements may be eased down by 2.4 times if a 4 bit instead of an 8 bit camera is used...

  3. Sustained reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infections outside the intensive care unit with a multimodal intervention focusing on central line maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Concannon, Cathleen; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; Graman, Paul; Pettis, Ann Marie; Greene, Linda; El-Daher, Nayef; Farnsworth, Donna; Quinlan, Gail; Karr, Gloria; Ward, Lynnette; Knab, Robin; Shelly, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Central venous catheter use is common outside the intensive care units (ICUs), but prevention in this setting is not well studied. We initiated surveillance for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) outside the ICU setting and studied the impact of a multimodal intervention on the incidence of CLABSIs across multiple hospitals. This project was constructed as a prospective preintervention-postintervention design. The project comprised 3 phases (preintervention [baseline], intervention, and postintervention) over a 4.5-year period (2008-2012) and was implemented through a collaborative of 37 adult non-ICU wards at 6 hospitals in the Rochester, NY area. The intervention focused on engagement of nursing staff and leadership, nursing education on line care maintenance, competence evaluation, audits of line care, and regular feedback on CLABSI rates. Quarterly rates were compared over time in relation to intervention implementation. The overall CLABSI rate for all participating units decreased from 2.6/1000 line-days preintervention to 2.1/1,000 line-days during the intervention and to 1.3/1,000 line-days postintervention, a 50% reduction (95% confidence interval, .40-.59) compared with the preintervention period (P .0179). A multipronged approach blending both the adaptive and technical aspects of care including front line engagement, education, execution of best practices, and evaluation of both process and outcome measures may provide an effective strategy for reducing CLABSI rates outside the ICU. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-06-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  5. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  6. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P. Van der; Oosterveld, P.; Schols, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation

  7. A comparison of two different sound intensity measurement principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; de Bree, Hans-Elias

    2005-01-01

    , and compares the two measurement principles with particular regard to the sources of error in sound power determination. It is shown that the phase calibration of intensity probes that combine different transducers is very critical below 500 Hz if the measurement surface is very close to the source under test...

  8. An intensity-monitoring technique for measuring ellipsometric transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, J.M.M.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Intensity-monitoring techniques make possible the measurement of rapid changes in the ellipsometric parameters. Methods used hitherto have been suitable for measuring slight changes only and require prior knowledge of the Δ and Ψ values for the initial surface. It is shown that larger changes can

  9. X-ray polarization measurements at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Mancini, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    An effort has been started to measure the short pulse laser absorption and energy partition at relativistic laser intensities up to 10 21 W/cm 2 . Plasma polarization spectroscopy is expected to play an important role in determining fast electron generation and measuring the electron distribution function. (author)

  10. Material Control and Accountability Measurements for FB-Line Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides an overview of FB-Line processes and nuclear material accountability measurements. Flow diagrams for the product, waste, and packaging and stabilization processes are given along with the accountability measurements done before and after each of these processes. Brief descriptions of these measurements are provided. This information provides a better understanding of the general FB-Line processes and how MC and A measurements are used to keep track of the accountable material inventory

  11. Implementation of the Electronics Chain for the Bunch by Bunch Intensity Measurement Devices for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; Ludwig, M; Savioz, J J; Thoulet, S

    2009-01-01

    The fast beam intensity measurements for the LHC are provided by eight Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Four FBCTs installed in the LHC rings are capable of providing both bunch-by-bunch and total turn-by-turn beam intensity information. A further four FBCTs, two in each of the LHC dump lines, are used to measure the total extracted beam intensity. In addition to providing intensity information the ring FBCTs also send signals to the machine protection system. This increases the complexity of both the RF front-end and the digital acquisition parts of the signal processing chain. The aim of this paper is to discuss the implemented hardware solution for the FBCT system, in particular with respect to the signal distribution, FPGA signal processing, calibration, and interaction of the FBCTs with the machine protection chain.

  12. Statistical evaluation and measuring strategy for extremely small line shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    For a measuring situation limited by counting statistics, but where the level of precision is such that possible systematic errors are a major concern, it is proposed to determine the position of a spectral line from a measured line segment by applying a bias correction to the centre of gravity of the segment. This procedure is statistically highly efficient and not sensitive to small errors in assumptions about the line shape. The counting strategy for an instrument that takes data point by point is also considered. It is shown that an optimum (''two-point'') strategy exists; a scan of the central part of the line is 68% efficient by this standard. (Auth.)

  13. Intensity autocorrelation measurements of frequency combs in the terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea-Chelmus, Ileana-Cristina; Rösch, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2017-09-01

    We report on direct measurements of the emission character of quantum cascade laser based frequency combs, using intensity autocorrelation. Our implementation is based on fast electro-optic sampling, with a detection spectral bandwidth matching the emission bandwidth of the comb laser, around 2.5 THz. We find the output of these frequency combs to be continuous even in the locked regime, but accompanied by a strong intensity modulation. Moreover, with our record temporal resolution of only few hundreds of femtoseconds, we can resolve correlated intensity modulation occurring on time scales as short as the gain recovery time, about 4 ps. By direct comparison with pulsed terahertz light originating from a photoconductive emitter, we demonstrate the peculiar emission pattern of these lasers. The measurement technique is self-referenced and ultrafast, and requires no reconstruction. It will be of significant importance in future measurements of ultrashort pulses from quantum cascade lasers.

  14. Stark broadening measurements of Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    This work reports measured Stark widths of doubly ionized xenon lines. Pulsed arc was used as a plasma source. Measured electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges of (0.2 - 1.6) x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively. Stark halfwidths of lines from 6s-6p, 6s-4f and 5d-6p transitions have been measured and compared with available experimental and theoretical data

  15. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  16. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.

  17. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  18. Simulation and Efficient Measurements of Intensities for Complex Imaging Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2014-01-01

    on the sequence to simulate both intensity and mechanical index (MI) according to FDA rules. A 3 MHz BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer is used with the SARUS scanner. An Onda HFL-0400 hydrophone and the Onda AIMS III system measures the pressure field for three imaging schemes: a fixed focus, single...

  19. On a low intensity 241 Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  20. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  1. Photometric intensity and polarization measurements of the solar corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a satellite photometric observatory (SPO) to measure the solar corona from Miahuatlan, Mexico during the Mar. 7, 1970, total eclipse of the sun. The SPO is equipped with a 24-in. Cassegrainian telescope, a four-channel photoelectric photometer, a Wollaston prism, and a rotating half-wave plate. Simultaneous measurements were made of the two orthogonal components of coronal light in the B and R bands of the UBVRI system. A 1-minute arc aperture was scanned from the lunar disk center out to five solar radii in a series of spirals of gradually increasing radius. For the first time, simultaneous multicolor intensity, degree, and angle of polarization profiles are computed from photoelectric measurements. Comparison of the variations of the measurements for each spiral scan yield a detailed picture of the intensity and polarization features in the K corona.

  2. Measuring the Carbon Intensity of the South African Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Makrelov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the carbon intensity of industries, products and households in South Africa using data from a high resolution supply-use table. Direct and indirect carbon usage is measured using multiplier methods that capture inter-industry linkages and multi-product supply chains. Carbon intensity ...... or poorer households. Seven percent of emissions arise through marketing margins, implying that carbon pricing should be accompanied by supporting public policies and investments.......We estimate the carbon intensity of industries, products and households in South Africa using data from a high resolution supply-use table. Direct and indirect carbon usage is measured using multiplier methods that capture inter-industry linkages and multi-product supply chains. Carbon intensity...... is found to be high for exports but low for major employing sectors. Middle-income households are the most carbon-intensive consumers. These results suggest that carbon pricing policies (without border tax adjustments) would adversely affect export earnings, but should not disproportionately hurt workers...

  3. [FRC measurement in intensive care patients. A definition of standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, H J; Lorenz, B A; Kox, W J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) can be performed through washout methods, indicator gas dilution or bodyplethysmography. Some of these techniques have been adapted for use in intensive care patients whilst being mechanically ventilated. However, most measurement setups are bulky, cumbersome to use and their running costs are high. Hence FRC measurement has not become a routine method in intensive care although it offers considerable advantages in the management of ventilated patients such as the determination of "best PEEP", the detection of progressive alveolar collapse in the course of acute lung injury and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Up to now most efforts to improve and simplify FRC measurement were made at the expense of accuracy. An ideal method ought to be accurate, easy to handle and cost-effective. It should supply not only FRC data but also information about intrapulmonary gas distribution and dead space. These demands can be met using modern data acquisition software. The pros and cons of all methods available for FRC measurement are discussed in view of their suitability for intensive care patients. A conventional nitrogen washout using emission spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen concentration gives satisfying exact values for the determination of the parameters mentioned above. The measurement error can be lowered under 5% by special corrections for flow and nitrogen signal (delay and rise times, changes of gas viscosity). For flow measurement a normal pneumotachograph can be used. Using a laptop computer for data acquisition the bed-side monitor fulfills most of the demands in intensive care. It is then also possible to measure indices of intrapulmonary gas distribution such as Alveolar Mixing Efficiency and Lung Clearance Index.

  4. The Saturne beam measurement system for orbit corrections and high and low intensity beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueurce, L.; Nakach, A.; Sole, J.

    1980-07-01

    This paper summarizes the dipolar and multipolar correction system and the main beam diagnostics of Saturne II: wide-band RF electrostatic pick-up electrode for observation of bunches, beam position and tune measurement systems, special electrodes for observation of emittance blow-up when particles cross a resonance line. For low intensity beams, special electrodes and electronics have been developed. All this instrumentation is computer controlled

  5. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  6. Anomalous intensities of Ne-like ion resonance line in plasma produced by picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Kalashnikov, M.P.; Nikles, P.; Shnyupep, M.

    1995-01-01

    An anomalous structure of intensities of spectral lines of CuXX and GeXXX Ne-like ions emitted by plasma produced by laser pulses of picosecond duration and up to 2x10 18 W/cm 2 flux density is recorded for the first time. It is shown that spectrum maximum of these ions is emitted from a plasma region whose density is significantly above the critical value of the length of heating laser radiation wave. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  8. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  9. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NH3 quantum rotators in Hofmann clathrates: intensity and width of rotational transition lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorderwisch, Peter; Sobolev, Oleg; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic structure factors for rotational transitions of uniaxial NH 3 quantum rotators, measured in a Hofmann clathrate with biphenyl as guest molecule, agree with those calculated for free rotators. A finite intrinsic line width, found for rotational transitions involving the rotational level j=3 at low temperature, supports a recently suggested model based on resonant rotor-rotor coupling

  11. Calculated L-shell x-ray line intensities for proton and helium ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Harrigan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical L-shell X-ray line intensities have been calculated for proton and helium bombardment of atoms from nickel (Z 2 = 28) to curium (Z 2 = 96). The ionization cross sections for the three L subshells were obtained from the recent calculations by Cohen and Harrigan in the ECPSSR theory, which uses the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed-stationary-state (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects. The fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities were taken from M. O. Krause (Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307 (1979)) and the L-subshell emission rates from S. I. Salem, S. L. Panosian, and R. A. Krause (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 14, 91 (1974)). The line intensities Ll, Lα, Leta, Lβ 1 to Lβ 6 , Lβ/sub 9,10/, and Lγ 1 to Lgg 6 are tabulated for selected ion energies from 0.2 to 10 MeV

  12. Implementing a multifaceted intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in SEHA (Abu Dhabi Health Services Company) intensive care units: the Abu Dhabi experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asad; Kelly, Bernadette; Edrees, Hanan; Kent, Paula S; Weaver, Sallie J; Jovanovic, Branislava; Attallah, Hadeel; de Grouchy, Kristin K; Al-Obaidli, Ali; Goeschel, Christine A; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether implementation of a multifaceted intervention would significantly reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort collaborative. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Intensive care units of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. INTERVENTIONS A bundled intervention consisting of 3 components was implemented as part of the program. It consisted of a multifaceted approach that targeted clinician use of evidence-based infection prevention recommendations, tools that supported the identification of local barriers to these practices, and implementation ideas to help ensure patients received the practices. Comprehensive unit-based safety teams were created to improve safety culture and teamwork. Finally, the measurement and feedback of monthly infection rate data to safety teams, senior leaders, and staff in participating intensive care units was encouraged. The main outcome measure was the quarterly rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections. RESULTS Eighteen intensive care units from 7 hospitals in Abu Dhabi implemented the program and achieved an overall 38% reduction in their central line-associated bloodstream infection rate, adjusted at the hospital and unit level. The number of units with a quarterly central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of less than 1 infection per 1,000 catheter-days increased by almost 40% between the baseline and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION A significant reduction in the global morbidity and mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections is possible across intensive care units in disparate settings using a multifaceted intervention.

  13. Estimation of signal intensity for online measurement X-ray pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Liu Shenye; Yang Guohong; Yu Yanning

    2009-01-01

    The signal intensity was estimated for on-line measurement X-ray pinhole camera with CCD as measurement equipment. The X-ray signal intensity counts after the attenuation of thickness-varied Be filters and different material flat mirrors respectively were estimated using the energy spectrum of certain laser prototype and the quantum efficiency curve of PI-SX1300 CCD camera. The calculated results indicate that Be filters no thicker than 200 μm can only reduce signal intensity by one order of magnitude, and so can Au flat mirror with 3 degree incident angle, Ni, C and Si flat mirrors with 5 degree incident angle,but the signal intensity counts for both attenuation methods are beyond the saturation counts of the CCD camera. We also calculated the attenuation of signal intensity for different thickness Be filters combined with flat mirrors, indicates that the combination of Be filters with the thickness between 20 and 40 μm and Au flat mirror with 3 degree incident angle or Ni flat mirror with 5 degree incident angle is a good choice for the attenuation of signal intensity. (authors)

  14. Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically.

    The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be

  15. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF WHITE DWARF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRAL LINES: Hβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Nagayama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, n e , and n = 2 level population, n 2 . Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from n e ∼ 4 to ∼30 × 10 16 cm −3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n 2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ∼55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of T e ∼ 1.3 eV (∼15,000 K) after this time. At n e ≳ 10 17 cm −3 , we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ 2 ) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines

  16. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  17. 124Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-01

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of 124 Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4πγ method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  18. Introducing an on-line adaptive procedure for prostate image guided intensity modulate proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Westerly, D C; Mackie, T R

    2011-08-07

    With on-line image guidance (IG), prostate shifts relative to the bony anatomy can be corrected by realigning the patient with respect to the treatment fields. In image guided intensity modulated proton therapy (IG-IMPT), because the proton range is more sensitive to the material it travels through, the realignment may introduce large dose variations. This effect is studied in this work and an on-line adaptive procedure is proposed to restore the planned dose to the target. A 2D anthropomorphic phantom was constructed from a real prostate patient's CT image. Two-field laterally opposing spot 3D-modulation and 24-field full arc distal edge tracking (DET) plans were generated with a prescription of 70 Gy to the planning target volume. For the simulated delivery, we considered two types of procedures: the non-adaptive procedure and the on-line adaptive procedure. In the non-adaptive procedure, only patient realignment to match the prostate location in the planning CT was performed. In the on-line adaptive procedure, on top of the patient realignment, the kinetic energy for each individual proton pencil beam was re-determined from the on-line CT image acquired after the realignment and subsequently used for delivery. Dose distributions were re-calculated for individual fractions for different plans and different delivery procedures. The results show, without adaptive, that both the 3D-modulation and the DET plans experienced delivered dose degradation by having large cold or hot spots in the prostate. The DET plan had worse dose degradation than the 3D-modulation plan. The adaptive procedure effectively restored the planned dose distribution in the DET plan, with delivered prostate D(98%), D(50%) and D(2%) values less than 1% from the prescription. In the 3D-modulation plan, in certain cases the adaptive procedure was not effective to reduce the delivered dose degradation and yield similar results as the non-adaptive procedure. In conclusion, based on this 2D phantom

  19. Secondary beam line phase space measurement and modeling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described

  20. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  1. Design and Validation with Measurements of the LEIR Injection Line

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Scrivens, R

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) commissioning started in the year 2005. O4+and Pb54+ion beams are transferred at 4.2 MeV/nucleon from Linac 3 to LEIR through a low energy transfer line, for which the constraints and the resulting optics design are presented. First trajectory and dispersion measurements agreed only poorly with the theoretical model. Iterations of a refined optics model and further measurements improved the agreement between experimental observations and expectations. In particular, the effect of quadrupole errors in the line dipole magnets is discussed.

  2. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa [National Astronomical Observatory, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru [SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) Hayama, Miura-gun, Kanagawa, 240-0193 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai Aichi, 487-0027 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: watanabe@uvlab.mtk.nao.ac.jp [The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe xvii) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe xvii λ 204.6/ λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe xiii and xii line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  4. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  5. Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material

  6. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Lin, J. W.; Sheu, R. J.; Lin, U. T.; Jiang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated 3He detector, high pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h -1 . (authors)

  7. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  8. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  9. Measurement of the deuterium Balmer series line emission on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, P. F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Gao, W.; Gao, W.; Chang, J. F.; Xu, J. C.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Z. W.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hou, Y. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Volume recombination plays an important role towards plasma detachment for magnetically confined fusion devices. High quantum number states of the Balmer series of deuterium are used to study recombination. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two visible spectroscopic measurements are applied for the upper/lower divertor with 13 channels, respectively. Both systems are coupled with Princeton Instruments ProEM EMCCD 1024B camera: one is equipped on an Acton SP2750 spectrometer, which has a high spectral resolution ∼0.0049 nm with 2400 gr/mm grating to measure the D{sub α}(H{sub α}) spectral line and with 1200 gr/mm grating to measure deuterium molecular Fulcher band emissions and another is equipped on IsoPlane SCT320 using 600 gr/mm to measure high-n Balmer series emission lines, allowing us to study volume recombination on EAST and to obtain the related line averaged plasma parameters (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) during EAST detached phases. This paper will present the details of the measurements and the characteristics of deuterium Balmer series line emissions during density ramp-up L-mode USN plasma on EAST.

  10. Mechanical Design of the Intensity Measurement Devices for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Belorhad, D; Odier, P; Thoulet, S

    2008-01-01

    The intensity measurement for the LHC ring is provided by eight current transformers (2×DCCT, 2×FBCT per beam). The measurement resolution of 1?Arms at 1s average for the DCCTs and ±10^9p in 25ns for the FBCTs is required. Such constraints call for low noise electronics and a compact magnetically shielded mechanical design. Correct integration of these devices into the vacuum system also requires the vacuum chambers equipped with the non-evaporable getter (NEG) film. The NEG is activated by heating the vacuum chamber to 200?C and more. Such temperatures affect the structure of the magnetic materials, which form the base part of the intensity measurement devices, and degrade their performace. A cooling circuit is needed. Due to the mechanical constraints, the cooling circuit, as well as heating element must form an integral part of the design. The aim of this paper is to present the solutions to these problems and discuss the mechanical construction of the DCCTs and FBCTs currently being installed in the LH...

  11. Measurement of extent of intense ion beam charge neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR

    1997-12-31

    Various diagnostic tools were employed to study and optimize the extent of space charge neutralization in the pulsed intense proton beam facility PROFA, comprising Langmuir probes, capacitive probes, and a novel type of the three electrode collector. The latter does not only allow us to measure ion and electron beam current densities in a high magnetic field environment, but also to deduce the density spectrum of the beam electrons. Appropriate operating conditions were identified to attain a complete space charge neutralisation. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Ibarra, Alejandro [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Weniger, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  13. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  14. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  15. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities

  16. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    conductance that the absolute compensated error is −1.05% and −1.07% for both representations, as opposed to the expected uncompensated error of −79.68%. Identification of a laboratory distribution line using real measurement data grid yields a deviation of 6.75% and 4.00%, respectively, from a calculation...

  17. Linearized spectrum correlation analysis for line emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D; Den Hartog, D J; Sarff, J S

    2017-08-01

    A new spectral analysis method, Linearized Spectrum Correlation Analysis (LSCA), for charge exchange and passive ion Doppler spectroscopy is introduced to provide a means of measuring fast spectral line shape changes associated with ion-scale micro-instabilities. This analysis method is designed to resolve the fluctuations in the emission line shape from a stationary ion-scale wave. The method linearizes the fluctuations around a time-averaged line shape (e.g., Gaussian) and subdivides the spectral output channels into two sets to reduce contributions from uncorrelated fluctuations without averaging over the fast time dynamics. In principle, small fluctuations in the parameters used for a line shape model can be measured by evaluating the cross spectrum between different channel groupings to isolate a particular fluctuating quantity. High-frequency ion velocity measurements (100-200 kHz) were made by using this method. We also conducted simulations to compare LSCA with a moment analysis technique under a low photon count condition. Both experimental and synthetic measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of LSCA.

  18. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  19. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  20. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jeffrey A. [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)], E-mail: jaw7@cornell.edu; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring.

  1. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Jeffrey A.; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring

  2. Gasdynamic measurements for the LASL intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.C.

    1978-02-01

    Measurements made on a two-dimensional simulation of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Intense Neutron Source (INS) experiment are discussed. The purpose of this work was to characterize the supersonic INS channel flow under conditions of large amounts of energy deposition. Nozzle channel wall pressure measurements, cold flow leakage rates, vacuum channel pressure and Mach number, leakage flow rates with mass addition to and momentum extraction from the main flow, and flow visualization photographs are given. Energy addition up to thirty percent of the theoretical maximum was achieved via mass addition to and momentum extraction from the main channel flow. In this range, both a weak and strong regime for leakage flow were identified. These regimes differed by about twenty percent in leakage flow rates

  3. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  4. Analysis of the quadrupolar coupling effect on the line intensities using single-crystal nutation NMR in α-Al2O3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ae Ja; Cho, So Hyun; Han, Duk Young

    2000-01-01

    With 1D-nutation NMR for a spin I = 5/2 system, the relative line intensities of central and the inner- and outer-satellite transitions are calculated as functions of quadrupolar coupling ω Q and rf pulse strength ω rf . Experimentally measured line intensities including both central and satellites are used to extract the values of ω Q and ω rf from nonlinear least-squares fits. The method is illustrated in α-Al 2 O 3 crystals (ruby and corundum) with the single-crystal 27 Al nutation NMR spectra. As a result, the new feature that the rf pulse strength shows reduced effect on the satellite transition lines according to the quadrupolar coupling is discussed by using fictitious spin-1/2 operator

  5. Effect of solar flare ans sunspot numbers on the intensity of 5577A line in the night airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, N.; Ghosh, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solar flare and sunspot number on the intensity of 5577 A line emission are presented. The time lag between the occurrence of a flare and the enhancement of 5577 A line intensity is determined by observing the intensity of the line on three successive nights- the night preceding the flare and the two nights following it. The velocity of the solar corpuscles is then calculated. The value obtained at Allahabad (2400 Km/sec) is in agreement with the De Jager's prediction for explosive flare. Day-to-day analyses of the observations taken at Allahabad exhibit high correlation of the intensity of 5577 A line emission with sunspot number. Also, correlation is found for the intensity of 5577 A with the change in sunspot number (DELTA R) from the day preceding the night of observation to the day following it. The intensity appears to vary with the magnetic field produced by the sunspot and not with the spot area. (author)

  6. A comparison of theoretical and solar-flare intensity ratios for the Fe XIX X-ray lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Mason, H.E.; Fawcett, B.C.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Atomic data consisting of energy levels, g f-values and wavelengths are presented for the Fe XIX 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3s, 2s 2 2p 3 3d arrays that give rise to lines in solar flare and active-region X-ray spectra. Collision strengths and theoretical intensity ratios are given for the 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3d lines, which occur in the 13.2-14.3 A range. Solar spectra in this range include a large number of other intense lines, notably those due to He-like Ne (Ne IX). Although the Ne IX lines are potentially the most useful indicators of electron density in solar X-ray spectra, blending with the Fe XIX lines has been a major problem for previous analyses. Comparison of observed spectra with those calculated from the Fe XIX atomic data presented here and Ne IX lines from other work indicates that there is generally good agreement. We use the calculated Fe XIX and Ne IX line spectra and several observed spectra during a flare previously analysed to estimate electron density from Ne IX line ratios, thus for the first time properly taking into account blends with Fe XIX lines. (author)

  7. The AD and ELENA orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Hernández, R.; Alves, D.; Angoletta, M. E.; Marqversen, O.; Molendijk, J.; Oponowicz, E.; Ruffieux, R.; Sánchez-Quesada, J.; SØby, L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) orbit measurement system and the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement system. The AD machine at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presently being used to decelerate antiprotons from 3.57 GeV/c to 100 MeV/c for matter vs anti-matter comparative studies. The ELENA machine, presently under commissioning, has been designed to provide an extra deceleration stage down to 13.7 MeV/c. The AD orbit system is based on 32 horizontal and 27 vertical electrostatic Beam Position Monitor (BPM) fitted with existing low noise front-end amplifiers while the ELENA system consists of 24 \\gls{BPM}s equipped with new low-noise head amplifiers. In both systems the front-end amplifiers generate a difference (delta) and a sum (sigma) signal which are sent to the digital acquisition system, placed tens of meters away from the AD or ELENA rings, where they are digitized and further processed. The beam position is calculated by dividing the difference signal by the sum signal either using directly the raw digitized data for measuring the turn-by-turn trajectory in the ELENA system or after down-mixing the signals to baseband for the orbit measurement in both machines. The digitized sigma signal will be used in the ELENA system to calculate the bunched beam intensity and the Schottky parameters with coasting beam after passing through different signal processing chain. The digital acquisition arrangement for both systems is based on the same hardware, also used in the ELENA Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system, which follows the VME Switched Serial (VXS) enhancement of the Versa Module Eurocard 64x extension (VME64x) standard and includes VITA 57 standard Field Programmable Gate Array Mezzanine Card (FMC). The digital acquisition Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) firmware shares many common functionalities with the LLRF system but

  8. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  9. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  10. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  11. Structure and intensities of microwave lines in the spectra of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the rotational levels in a diatomic molecule, and the intensities of microwave transitions between them, are reviewed. Attention is given to the statistical weights of levels that may have hyperfine structure on account of one or two nuclear spins, in the case of heteronuclear molecules and of homonuclear molecules. A new treatment is given, involving the concept of energy surfaces in a ternary diagram in the form of a triangular prism, in which the three vertices represent three limiting cases, while the interior of the prism displays energy levels where all three intermediate coupling parameters are of comparable magnitude. An example is given of a simple J = 2 to J = 1 transition in a molecule with nuclear spins 3/2 and 1, showing the 56 hyperhyperfine components into which the rotational line is split, and a movie film is described which shows how the resulting ''fingerprint'' varies with the relative strengths of the interactions between the nuclear and electronic angular momenta

  12. Precision measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines and determination of neutron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braumandl, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper first discusses the energy accuracy of the BILL conversion electron spectrometer at the Grenoble high flux reactor. With an improved temperature stabilisation of the magnets, an energy accuracy of ΔE/E -5 can be reached. After this, highly exact measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines of the 200 Hg, 114 Cd, 165 Dy, 168 Er, 239 U nuclei and the 13 C, 28 Al 3 H and 92 Zr photoelectron lines were carried out. Energy calibration of the spectrometer was carried out in the 1.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV range with intensive high-energy transitions of the 200 Hg nucleus. Systematic calibration errors could be investigated by means of combinations between the calibration lines. A calibration for absolute energies was obtained by comparing low-energy gamma transitions of 200 Hg with the 411.8 keV gold standard. (orig.) [de

  13. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  14. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  15. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  16. A high intensity beam line of γ-rays up to 22MeV energy based on Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Xu, W.; Chen, J.G.; Ma, Y.G.; Cai, X.Z.; Wang, H.W.; Xu, Y.; Wang, C.B.; Lu, G.C.; Tian, W.D.; Yuan, R.Y.; Xu, J.Q.; Wei, Z.Y.; Yan, Z.; Shen, W.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source, a high intensity beam line of γ-ray, has been proposed recently. The beam line is expected to generate γ-rays up to the maximum energy of 22MeV by Compton backscattering between a CO 2 laser and electrons in the 3.5 GeV storage ring of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The flux of non-collimated γ-rays is estimated to be 10 9 -10 10 s -1 when a CO 2 laser of several hundred Watt power is employed. We will discuss physics issues in the design and optimization of the beam line

  17. In-line measurement of transparent micro membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Jimmy; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a new measuring principle to bring down the time for quality assurance, and obtain larger uniformity of the end product, in a specific production line. The production concerns thin transparent micro membranes (approx 35 micron thickness) dispensed...... in micro cavities, each membrane consisting of several membrane layers. A quality control should be performed every time a new layer is dispensed. The paper describes a new way of measuring membrane thickness. The method was achieved through the use of a vision system, whereby the thickness of the thin...... transparent micro membrane is determined in terms of the light absorbance of the membrane substrate. The new and faster measuring method makes is possible to measure the thickness of individual membranes and perform a 100% quality control....

  18. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  19. Measurements of VUV lines on dense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, G.

    1980-01-01

    The transition n = 1 to n = 2 has the most simple structure of all hydrogen transitions and the corresponding spectralline Ly-α is therefore very appropriate to reveal discrepancies between theory and experiment. In this work mainly the Ly-α spectral line of neutral hydrogen has been studied. The electron density of the Z-pinch amounts to 1.5 x 10 24 m -3 with an electron temperature of about 1.2 x 10 5 K. In this parameter range the plasma can still be studied with spectroscopic methods in the visible spectral region. Based on a space and time resolved measurement of the continuous emission spectra the plasma parameters can be determined independent of line broadening. (orig./HT) [de

  20. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  1. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  2. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  3. Using grey intensity adjustment strategy to enhance the measurement accuracy of digital image correlation considering the effect of intensity saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang-Jian; Wang, Quan-Bao; Duan, Deng-Ping; Chen, Ji-An

    2018-05-01

    Intensity saturation can cause decorrelation phenomenon and decrease the measurement accuracy in digital image correlation (DIC). In the paper, the grey intensity adjustment strategy is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of DIC considering the effect of intensity saturation. First, the grey intensity adjustment strategy is described in detail, which can recover the truncated grey intensities of the saturated pixels and reduce the decorrelation phenomenon. The simulated speckle patterns are then employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, which indicates that the displacement accuracy can be improved by about 40% by the proposed strategy. Finally, the true experimental image is used to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy, which indicates that the displacement accuracy can be increased by about 10% by the proposed strategy.

  4. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  5. Optimal ground motion intensity measure for long-period structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Zeng, Qingli; Cui, Jie; Jiang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to select the most appropriate ground motion intensity measure (IM) that is used in selecting earthquake records for the dynamic time history analysis of long-period structures. For this purpose, six reinforced concrete frame-core wall structures, designed according to modern seismic codes, are studied through dynamic time history analyses with a set of twelve selected earthquake records. Twelve IMs and two types of seismic damage indices, namely, the maximum seismic response-based and energy-based parameters, are chosen as the examined indices. Selection criteria such as correlation, efficiency, and proficiency are considered in the selection process. The optimal IM is identified by means of a comprehensive evaluation using a large number of data of correlation, efficiency, and proficiency coefficients. Numerical results illustrate that peak ground velocity is the optimal one for long-period structures and peak ground displacement is also a close contender. As compared to previous reports, the spectral-correlated parameters can only be taken as moderate IMs. Moreover, the widely used peak ground acceleration in the current seismic codes is considered inappropriate for long-period structures. (paper)

  6. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  7. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  8. 4He abundances: Optical versus radio recombination line measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.; Bania, T. M.

    2010-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the 4He/H abundance ratio are important in constraining Big Bang nucleosynthesis, models of stellar and Galactic evolution, and H ii region physics. We discuss observations of radio recombination lines using the Green Bank Telescope toward a small sample of H ii regions and planetary nebulae. We report 4He/H abundance ratio differences as high as 15-20% between optical and ratio data that are difficult to reconcile. Using the H ii regions S206 and M17 we determine 4He production in the Galaxy to be dY/dZ = 1.71 ± 0.86.

  9. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  10. Non-intercepting beam intensity measurements towards pico-ampere. Cryogenic current comparators for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurian, Febin [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena (Germany); Schwickert, Marcus; Sieber, Thomas; Kowina, Piotr; Reeg, Hansjoerg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Geithner, Rene; Neubert, Ralf; Seidel, Paul; Golm, Jessica [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To satisfy the requirement of non-interceptive measurement of beam intensity down to nA range foreseen in the upcoming FAIR accelerator facility, several Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) systems are planned to be installed in its beam transfer lines and storage rings. As a test bench for the development of advanced CCC systems for these installations, the existing CCC system at GSI has been recommissioned and upgraded with advanced sensor components. Successful beam intensity measurements using this upgraded CCC system will be reported in this contribution. Apart from the beam measurements, several operational aspects of the CCC system were investigated, such as the baseline drifts and various noise influences. Combining the operational experiences and boundary conditions given at various installation locations in the FAIR facility, an advanced CCC system is currently under development and is planned to be installed at the Cryring facility at GSI for test measurements. Details on the development of this advanced CCC system will also be presented in this contribution.

  11. Intensity measurement of automotive headlamps using a photometric vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Balvant; Cruz, Jose; Perry, David L.; Himebaugh, Frederic G.

    1996-01-01

    Requirements for automotive head lamp luminous intensity tests are introduced. The rationale for developing a non-goniometric photometric test system is discussed. The design of the Ford photometric vision system (FPVS) is presented, including hardware, software, calibration, and system use. Directional intensity plots and regulatory test results obtained from the system are compared to corresponding results obtained from a Ford goniometric test system. Sources of error for the vision system and goniometer are discussed. Directions for new work are identified.

  12. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  13. Interferometric measurement of lines shift in flames in connection with interpretation of lined absorption method in atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, B.V.; Polzik, L.K.; Katskov, D.A.; Kruglikova, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interferometric measuring of the line shift in flames in the view of interpretation of absorption lines in the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The newly measured line shifts were compared to the known data on Lorentz broadening of the same lines obtained by methods free of the systematic errors. The resonant lines of the alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ca, Ba) were investigated. To reduce self-absorption in the flame the solutions with minimum concentrations of the elements were used. The computation scheme includes the spectrometer apparatus width and line broadening due to the self-absorption. Formulae are given for computing the values studied. Good agreement was observed between the computed and experimental results. Error analysis was performed. It was concluded that any line shifts in the hydrocarbons were correctly taken into an account in the absolute computations of absorption

  14. Annular shape silver lined proportional counter for on-line pulsed neutron yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, P.M.; Das, D.

    2015-01-01

    An annular shape silver lined proportional counter is developed to measure pulsed neutron radiation. The detector has 314 mm overall length and 235 mm overall diameter. The central cavity of 150 mm diameter and 200 mm length is used for placing the neutron source. Because of annular shape the detector covers >3π solid angle of the source. The detector has all welded construction. The detector is developed in two halves for easy mounting and demounting. Each half is an independent detector. Both the halves together give single neutron pulse calibration constant of 4.5×10 4 neutrons/shot count. The detector operates in proportional mode which gives enhanced working conditions in terms of dead time and operating range compared to Geiger Muller based neutron detectors

  15. Radar and photometric measurements of an intense type A red aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. M.; Mende, S. B.; Vondrak, R. R.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    On the evening of March 5, 1981, an intense, type A red aurora appeared over southern Alaska. Radar and photometric measurements were made of the aurora from the Chatanika radar site. The line of sight intensity of the 630.0-nm emissions exceeded 150 kR and was accompanied by enhanced emissions at 486.1 and 427.8 nm. The Chatanika radar measured electron densities of 10 to the 6th per cu cm and electron temperatures of 6000 K at an altitude of 400 km and an invariant latitude of 59 deg in association with the aurora. Comparison of optical and radar measurements indicated that the 630.0-nm emissions were produced to a large degree by thermal excitation of O(1D) in the region of high electron temperatures and densities. Model calculations indicate that the observed density and temperature enhancements and the related optical emissions were the results of a relatively short duration (5-10 min) pulse of precipitating, low-energy (about 30 eV) electrons. Whereas conventional stable auroral red arcs are associated with a gradual decrease in ring current energy density during the recovery phase of a magnetic storm, the type A red aurora may be produced by impulsive ring current energy loss during the main phase.

  16. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  17. Comparing administrative and clinical data for central line associated blood stream infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jory Bond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU. Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011. The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD- 10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  18. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Usamentiaga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.

  19. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Garcίa, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  20. New analysis of the ν5 and 2 ν9 bands of HNO 3 by infrared and millimeter wave techniques: line positions and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, A.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Klee, S.; Mellau, G.; Mäder, H.; Walbrodt, D.; Winnewisser, M.

    2004-12-01

    ., 175 (1996) 395; J. Mol. Spectrosc., 208 (2001) 121; and references therein], as well as new centimeter wave measurements performed in Kiel and new Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded in Giessen. For the line intensities we have used an extensive set of individual line intensities measured recently [J. Mol. Spectrosc., 218 (2003) 151]. All these experimental data were very satisfactorily reproduced using the theoretical model described above and an improved set of line positions and intensities was generated for the ν5 and 2 ν9 bands allowing one to better model the HNO 3 absorption in the 11 μm spectral domain.

  1. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit measured by polysomnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J H; Boesen, Hans Christian Toft; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on most organ systems. Patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) report sleep deprivation as the second worst experience during their stay only superseded by pain. The aim of the review is to provide the clinician with knowledge of the optimal sleep-frien......-friendly care and environment.......Sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on most organ systems. Patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) report sleep deprivation as the second worst experience during their stay only superseded by pain. The aim of the review is to provide the clinician with knowledge of the optimal sleep...

  2. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  3. Line positions and intensities for the ν3 band of 5 isotopologues of germane for planetary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, V.; Grigoryan, T.; Philipot, F.; Richard, C.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Manceron, L.; Rizopoulos, A.; Auwera, J. Vander; Encrenaz, Th.

    2018-01-01

    The germane molecule, GeH4, is present in the atmospheres of giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. The ongoing NASA mission Juno has renewed interest in its spectroscopy, whose accurate modeling is essential for the retrieval of other tropospheric species. We present here the first complete analysis and modeling of line positions and intensities in the strongly absorbing ν1/ν3 stretching dyad region near 2100 cm-1 , for all five germane isotopologues in natural abundance. New infrared spectra were recorded, absolute intensities were extracted through a careful procedure and modeled thanks to the formalism and programs developed in the Dijon group. A database of calculated germane lines, GeCaSDa, has been build and is available online through the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) portal and at http://vamdc.icb.cnrs.fr/PHP/gecasda.php.

  4. The Use of Satellite Microwave Rainfall Measurements to Predict Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Derek

    1998-01-01

    .... Relationships between parameters obtained from an operational SSM/I based rainfall measuring algorithm and current intensity and ensuing 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hour intensity changes from best...

  5. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  6. Description and operation of the LEDA beam-position/intensity measurement module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.; Stettler, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the specification, design and preliminary operation of the beam-position/intensity measurement module being built for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The module, based on the VXI footprint, is divided into three sections: first, the analog front-end which consists of logarithmic amplifiers, anti-alias filters, and digitizers; second, the digital-to-analog section for monitoring signals on the front panel; and third, the DSP, error correction, and VXI-interface section. Beam position is calculated based on the log-ratio transfer function. The module has four, 2-MHz, IF inputs suitable for two-axis position measurements. It has outputs in both digital and analog format for x- and y-position and beam intensity. Real-time error-correction is performed on the four input signals after they are digitized and before calculating the beam position to compensate for drift, offsets, gain non-linearities, and other systematic errors. This paper also describes how the on-line error-correction is implemented digitally and algorithmically

  7. Fast-turnaround alkyl nitrate measurements during the PROPHET 1998 summer intensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostling, Kristi; Kelly, Brendan; Bird, Stephen; Bertman, Steven; Pippin, Margaret; Thornberry, Troy; Carroll, Mary Anne

    2001-10-01

    An automated gas chromatographic system for making fast-turnaround measurements of alkyl nitrates was developed and tested. Every 30 min, samples were automatically acquired on a 1/16-inch OD Tenax trap made from fused silica-lined stainless steel tubing and injected by thermal desorption into the gas chromatograph. The system exhibited good chromatographic resolution, minimal breakthrough, and on-trap stability for C3-C5 nitrates. The detection limit of the instrument was Biological Station in northern Michigan during the summer of 1998 from July 15 to August 22. Ambient results show a significant dynamic range with absolute levels affected by air mass history and pollution sources. The sum of measured C3-C5 alkyl nitrates obtained during this intensive ranged from 3.45 to 65.8 pptv, with a mean of 18.6 pptv and contributed 1% on average to total NOy, with a range of 0.5% to 3%. Differences in the contribution to NOy are found when the data are filtered according to air mass origin. A positive relationship between n-propyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate was observed over the course of the intensive.

  8. A 40 MHz Bunch by Bunch Intensity Measurement for the CERN SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakob, H; Jones, R; Jensen, L

    2003-01-01

    A new acquisition system has been developed to allow the measurement of the individual intensity of each bunch in a 40MHz bunch train. Such a system will be used for the measurement of LHC type beams after extraction from the CERN-PS right through to the dump lines of the CERN-LHC. The method is based on integrating the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40MHz. This has been made possible with the use of a fast integration ASIC developed by the University of Clermont-Ferrand, France, for the LHC-b pre-shower detector. The output of the integrator is digitised using a 12-bit ADC and fed into a Digital Acquisition Board (DAB) that was originally developed by TRIUMF, Canada, for use in the LHC orbit system. A full system set-up was commissioned during 2002 in the CERN-SPS, and following its success will now be extended in 2003 to cover the PS to SPS transfer lines and the new TT40 LHC extraction channel.

  9. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  10. On-line fibration measurements in lifting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    After a solenoid pilot valve had failed to open during a functional test, all of the 17 lifting magnets of the pilot valves were removed, inspected and overhauled during the refuelling of a BWR. Some lifting magnets were found to have deposits between rod (austenitic) and guide sleeve (brass). A relative movement (hammering) between both components was the suspected cause. Measurements confirmed the assumption of a laterally hammering movement of the rods, and also a correlation between acceleration intensity and deposit thickness. Local changes of design or modification of material pairing were suggested as remedial actions. The simulation of measured operation loads was effected on a test rig by means of vibration exciter and the acceleration-time factors known from operation. This resulted in a simple design modification which reduces the impact load between rod and bearing during operation, or else in a suitable material pairing which is optimized for impact load rather than sliding load. Building-up the wear area of the rod was found to interfere least with the existing design. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Measuring coding intensity in the Medicare Advantage program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Richard; Welch, W Pete

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004-2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006-2011. Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006-2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary.

  12. Prospects for UT1 Measurements from VLBI Intensive Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensives are one-hour single baseline sessions to provide Universal Time (UT1) in near real-time up to a delay of three days if a site is not e-transferring the observational data. Due to the importance of UT1 estimates for the prediction of Earth orientation parameters, as well as any kind of navigation on Earth or in space, there is not only the need to improve the timeliness of the results but also their accuracy. We identify the asymmetry of the tropospheric delays as the major error source, and we provide two strategies to improve the results, in particular of those Intensives which include the station Tsukuba in Japan with its large tropospheric variation. We find an improvement when (1) using ray-traced delays from a numerical weather model, and (2) when estimating tropospheric gradients within the analysis of Intensive sessions. The improvement is shown in terms of reduction of rms of length-of-day estimates w.r.t. those derived from Global Positioning System observations

  13. Fluctuations of the electron temperature measured by intensity interferometry on the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, S.

    1993-12-01

    Fluctuations of the electron temperature can cause a significant amount of the anomalous electron heat conductivity observed on fusion plasmas, even with relative amplitudes below one per cent. None of the standard diagnostics utilized for measuring the electron temperature in the confinement region of fusion plasmas is provided with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution and the sensitivity for small fluctuation amplitudes. In this work a new diagnostic for the measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the confinement region of fusion plasmas was developed, built up, tested and successfully applied on the W7-AS Stellarator. Transport relevant fluctuations of the electron temperature can in principle be measured by radiometry of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE), but they might be buried completely in natural fluctuations of the ECE due to the thermal nature of this radiation. Fluctuations with relative amplitudes below one per cent can be measured with a temporal resolution in the μs-range and a spatial resolution of a few cm only with the help of correlation techniques. The intensity interferometry method, developed for radio astronomy, was applied here: two independent but identical radiometers are viewing the same emitting volume along crossed lines of sight. If the angle between the sightlines is chosen above a limiting value, which is determined by the spatial coherence properties of thermal radiation, the thermal noise is uncorrelated while the temperature fluctuations remain correlated. With the help of this technique relative amplitudes below 0.1% are accessible to measurement. (orig.)

  14. Set up of an innovative methodology to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides under very high neutron sources in the frame of the future prospects of the nuclear waste transmutation; Mise au point d'une methodologie innovante pour la mesure du potentiel d'incineration d'actinides mineurs sous des sources tres intenses de neutrons, dans la perspective de transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, M

    2003-03-01

    This work deals generally with the problem of nuclear waste management and especially with the transmutation of it to reduce considerably its radiotoxicity potential. The principal objective of this thesis is to show the feasibility to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides irradiated under very high neutron flux. To realize this goal, we have developed fission micro-chambers able to operate, for the first time in the world, in saturation regime under a severe neutron flux. These new chambers use {sup 235}U as an active deposit. They were irradiated in the high flux reactor at Laue-Langevin Institute in Grenoble. The measurement of the saturation current delivered by these chambers during their irradiation for 26 days allowed to evaluate the burn-up of {sup 235}U. We have determined the neutron flux intensity of 1,6 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} in the bottom of the irradiation tube called 'V4'. The relative uncertainty of this value is less than 4 %. This is for the first time that such high neutron flux is measured with a fission chamber. To confirm this result, we have also performed independent measurements using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Nb and Co samples. Both results are in agreement within error bars. Simple Deposit Fission Chambers (SDFC) as above were the reference of the new generation of fission chambers that we have developed in the framework of this thesis: Double Deposit Fission Chambers (DDFC). The reference active deposit was {sup 235}U. The other deposit was the actinide that we wanted to study (e.g. {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am). At the end of the thesis, we present some suggestions to ameliorate the operation of the DDFC to be exploited in other transmutation applications in the future. (author)

  15. Emittance Measurements For Future LHC Beams Using The PS Booster Measurement Line

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, Jose; Mikulec, Bettina; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster measurement line contains three pairs of SEM grids separated by drift space that measures the beam size in both planes. The combined analysis of these grids allows calculating a value for the transverse beam emittances. The precision of such a measurement depends on the ratio of RMS beam size and wire spacing. Within the LIU-PSB upgrade the extraction kinetic energy of the PSB will be increased from the current 1.4 GeV to 2.0 GeV. This will result in smaller transverse beam sizes for some of the future beams. The present layout of the transverse emittance measurement line is reviewed to verify if it will satisfy future requirements.

  16. Argon line broadening by neutral atoms and application to the measurement of oscillator strengths of AI resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, O.; Ranson, P.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    AI line broadening was studied from collisions between neutral argon atoms (3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions) in a weakly ionised plasma jet (neutral atoms temperature T 0 approximately 4000K, electrons temperature Tsub(e) approximately 6000K, electronic density Nsub(e) 15 cm -3 , ionisation rate α -4 , and pressure range from 1 to 3 kg/cm 2 ). A satisfactory description of Van der Waals broadened lines is obtained by means of a Lennard-Jones potential. Measurement of line widths whose corresponding transitions occur on resonant levels, gives with relatively good accuracy the oscillator strength of the argon resonance lines [fr

  17. Aspirin is first-line treatment for migraine and episodic tension-type headache regardless of headache intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Christian; Voelker, Michael; Steiner, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    (1) To establish whether pre-treatment headache intensity in migraine or episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) predicts success or failure of treatment with aspirin; and (2) to reflect, accordingly, on the place of aspirin in the management of these disorders. Stepped care in migraine management uses symptomatic treatments as first-line, reserving triptans for those in whom this proves ineffective. Stratified care chooses between symptomatic therapy and triptans as first-line on an individual basis according to perceived illness severity. We questioned the 2 assumptions underpinning stratified care in migraine that greater illness severity: (1) reflects greater need; and (2) is a risk factor for failure of symptomatic treatment but not of triptans. With regard to the first assumption, we developed a rhetorical argument that need for treatment is underpinned by expectation of benefit, not by illness severity. To address the second, we reviewed individual patient data from 6 clinical trials of aspirin 1000 mg in migraine (N = 2079; 1165 moderate headache, 914 severe) and one of aspirin 500 and 1000 mg in ETTH (N = 325; 180 moderate, 145 severe), relating outcome to pre-treatment headache intensity. In migraine, for headache relief at 2 hours, a small (4.7%) and non-significant risk difference (RD) in therapeutic gain favored moderate pain; for pain freedom at 2 hours, therapeutic gains were almost identical (RD: -0.2%). In ETTH, for headache relief at 2 hours, RDs for both aspirin 500 mg (-4.2%) and aspirin 1000 mg (-9.7%) favored severe pain, although neither significantly; for pain freedom at 2 hours, RDs (-14.2 and -3.6) again favored severe pain. In neither migraine nor ETTH does pre-treatment headache intensity predict success or failure of aspirin. This is not an arguable basis for stratified care in migraine. In both disorders, aspirin is first-line treatment regardless of headache intensity. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  18. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with correlated source-light-intensity errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with correlated source-light-intensity errors. Numerical results show that the results here can greatly improve the key rate especially with large intensity fluctuations and channel attenuation compared with prior results if the intensity fluctuations of different sources are correlated.

  19. The proposed INEL intense slow positron source, beam line, and positron microscope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Denison, A.B.; Brown, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to design and construct an Intense Slow Positron Beam Facility with an associated Positron Microscope. Positron beams have been shown to be valuable research tools and have potential application in industrial processing and nondestructive evaluation (microelectronics, etc.). The limit of resolution or overall usefulness of the technique has been limited because of lack of sufficient intensity. The goal of the INEL positron beam is ≥ 10 12 slow e+/s over a 0.03 cm diameter which represents a 10 3 to 10 4 advancement in beam current over existing beam facilities. The INEL is an ideal site for such a facility because of the nuclear reactors capable of producing intense positron sources and the personnel and facilities capable of handling high levels of radioactivity. A design using 58 Co with moderators and remoderators in conjunction with electrostatic positron beam optics has been reached after numerous computer code studies. Proof-of-principle electron tests have demonstrated the feasibility of the large area source focusing optics. The positron microscope development is occurring in conjunction with the University of Michigan positron microscope group. Such a Beam Facility and associated Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) can also be utilized for the generation and study of positron, and positron electron plasmas at ≤ 10 14 particles/cm 3 with plasma temperatures ranging from an eV to many keV, as well as an intense x-ray source via positron channeling radiation. The possibility of a tunable x-ray laser based on channeling positron radiation also exists. In this discussion the authors will present a progress report on various activities associated with the INEL ISPS

  20. Principal component analysis of the main factors of line intensity enhancements observed in oscillating direct current plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, Milovan M.; Pasti, Igor A.; Momcilovic, Milos D.; Savovic, Jelena J.; Pavlovic, Mirjana S.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of emission line intensities by induced oscillations of direct current (DC) arc plasma with continuous aerosol sample supply was investigated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate enhancements of 34 atomic spectral lines belonging to 33 elements and 35 ionic spectral lines belonging to 23 elements. Correlation and classification of the elements were done not only by a single property such as the first ionization energy, but also by considering other relevant parameters. Special attention was paid to the influence of the oxide bond strength in an attempt to clarify/predict the enhancement effect. Energies of vaporization, atomization, and excitation were also considered in the analysis. In the case of atomic lines, the best correlation between the enhancements and first ionization energies was obtained as a negative correlation, with weak consistency in grouping of elements in score plots. Conversely, in the case of ionic lines, the best correlation of the enhancements with the sum of the first ionization energies and oxide bond energies was obtained as a positive correlation, with four distinctive groups of elements. The role of the gas-phase atom-oxide bond energy in the entire enhancement effect is underlined.

  1. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  2. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  3. Measurement of transition probabilities in Kr II UV and visible spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar, S; Val, J A del; RodrIguez, F; Pelaez, R J; Gonzalez, V R; Gonzalo, A B; Castro, A de; Aparicio, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work reports an extensive collection of 120 atomic transition probabilities of Kr II lines in the spectral region 350-720 nm, all of them measured in an emission experiment. For many of them, these are the first data up to the authors' knowledge. Relative intensity measurements have been obtained on a pulsed discharge lamp and the absolute A ki -values have been calculated by considering the available data from the literature as reference for the plasma temperature diagnosis. Excitation temperature (14 000-28 000 K) has been determined by using the Boltzmann-plot method. The plasma electron density (0.2-0.8 x 10 23 m -3 ) has been determined by two-wavelength interferometry. This work extends a previous one already published by our laboratory [1, 2]. Comparisons have also been made with previous literature values

  4. Optical Spectroscopy Measurements of Shock Waves Driven by Intense Z-Pinch Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.; Bernard, M.; Bailey, J.E.; Carlson, A.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Hall, C.A.; Hanson, D.; Johnston, R.; Lake, P.; Lawrence, J.

    1999-01-01

    Z-pinches created using the Z accelerator generate approximately220 TW, 1.7 MJ radiation pulses that heat large (approximately10 cm 3 ) hohlraums to 100-150 eV temperatures for times of order 10 nsec. We are performing experiments exploiting this intense radiation to drive shock waves for equation of state studies. The shock pressures are typically 1-10 Mbar with 10 nsec duration in 6-mm-diameter samples. In this paper we demonstrate the ability to perform optical spectroscopy measurements on shocked samples located in close proximity to the z-pinch. These experiments are particularly well suited to optical spectroscopy measurements because of the relatively large sample size and long duration. The optical emission is collected using fiber optics and recorded with a streaked spectrograph. Other diagnostics include VISAR and active shock breakout measurements of the shocked sample and a suite of diagnostics that characterize the radiation drive. Our near term goal is to use the spectral emission to obtain the temperature of the shocked material. Longer term objectives include the examination of deviations of the spectrum from blackbody, line emission from lower density regions, determination of kinetic processes in molecular systems, evaluation of phase transitions such as the onset of metalization in transparent materials, and characterization of the plasma formed when the shock exits the rear surface. An initial set of data illustrating both the potential and the challenge of these measurements is described

  5. Measuring service line competitive position. A systematic methodology for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, J

    1991-01-01

    To mount a broad effort aimed at improving their competitive position for some service or group of services, hospitals have begun to pursue product line management techniques. A few hospitals have even reorganized completely under the product line framework. The benefits include focusing accountability for operations and results, facilitating coordination between departments and functions, stimulating market segmentation, and promoting rigorous examination of new and existing programs. As part of its strategic planning process, a suburban Baltimore hospital developed a product line management methodology with six basic steps: (1) define the service lines (which they did by grouping all existing diagnosis-related groups into 35 service lines), (2) determine the contribution of each service line to total inpatient volume, (3) determine trends in service line volumes (by comparing data over time), (4) derive a useful comparison group (competing hospitals or groups of hospitals with comparable size, scope of services, payer mix, and financial status), (5) review multiple time frames, and (6) summarize the long- and short-term performance of the hospital's service lines to focus further analysis. This type of systematic and disciplined analysis can become part of a permanent strategic intelligence program. When hospitals have such a program in place, their market research, planning, budgeting, and operations will be tied together in a true management decision support system.

  6. Transient thermal stresses and stress intensity factors induced by thermal stratification in feedwater lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Pardo, E.

    1985-01-01

    General analytical solutions for the thermal stresses and circumferential crack propagation in piping branches of nuclear power plants, that connect two circuits of the same fluid at different temperatures, are presented in this paper. Under certain conditions, two regions of the fluid possessing both temperatures with a separating layer of small thickness are formed ('flow stratification'). Dimensionless analytical expressions for the steady state temperature distribution in the pipe wall and the corresponding thermal stress are here derived, in terms of the basic geometrical and physical parameters. The position and thickness of the separating layer are considered as data of the model. Stress intensity ranges at any point of the tube wall are then determined. Finally, thermally induced stress intensity factors are calculated for hipothetically inside surface cracks. (orig.)

  7. Soil measurements during HAPEX-Sahel intensive observation period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenca, R.H.; Brouwer, J.; Chanzy, A.; Droogers, P.; Galle, S.; Gaze, S.R.; Sicot, M.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Boyle, S.A.; Bromley, J.; Chebhouni, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes measurements made at each site and for each vegetation cover as part of the soils program for the HAPEX-Sahel regional scale experiment. The measurements were based on an initial sampling scheme and included profile soil water content, surface soil water content, soil water

  8. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Morita, Shigeru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe XVII) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe XVII λ 204.6/λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe XIII and XII line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  9. Measurement of X-ray emission efficiency for K-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, M

    2004-08-01

    Results for the X-ray emission efficiency (counts per C per sr) of K-lines for selected elements (C, Al, Si, Ti, Cu, Ge) and for the first time also for compounds and alloys (SiC, GaP, AlCu, TiAlC) are presented. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) of known detection efficiency (counts per photon) has been used to record the spectra at a takeoff angle of 25 degrees determined by the geometry of the secondary electron microscope's specimen chamber. Overall uncertainty in measurement could be reduced to 5 to 10% in dependence on the line intensity and energy. Measured emission efficiencies have been compared with calculated efficiencies based on models applied in standardless analysis. The widespread XPP and PROZA models give somewhat too low emission efficiencies. The best agreement between measured and calculated efficiencies could be achieved by replacing in the modular PROZA96 model the original expression for the ionization cross section by the formula given by Casnati et al. (1982) A discrepancy remains for carbon, probably due to the high overvoltage ratio.

  10. Relationship between the intensity of nonthermal radiation and widths of Balmer lines in the spectra of quasar-like nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komberg, B.V.; Shefer, E.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized by Steiner (1981) were used to derive the relationship between the intensity of nonthermal X-ray and radio emission and fullwidths of Balmer emission lines. It is shown that the existence of such dependences does not contradict the assumption on partition equidistribution of nonthermal radiation and motion of gas clouds energy in the region of formation of wide lines. Emphasis is given to similar dependence drived by Vayana (1981) for X-ray radiation from hot coronas of fast-rotating single stars, and a suggestion is made about radiation anisotropy from active nuclei (similar to that observed in the SS 433 system). The latter may imply the double nature of active nuclei

  11. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  12. A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2013-01-01

    Large knowledge gaps currently exist that limit our ability to understand and characterise dynamics and patterns of land-use intensity: in particular, a comprehensive conceptual framework and a system of measurement are lacking. This situation hampers the development of a sound understanding...... of the mechanisms, determinants, and constraints underlying changes in land-use intensity. On the basis of a review of approaches for studying land-use intensity, we propose a conceptual framework to quantify and analyse land-use intensity. This framework integrates three dimensions: (a) input intensity, (b) output...

  13. On a low intensity 241Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    determination of the Fermi momentum, measurements of elastic and inelastic ... days) and 137Cs (661.65 keV, T1/2 ∼ 30.1 yr) are also in use for the study .... electron Schrödinger equations are solved self-consistently for the one-electron wave ... [6] N I Papanicolaou, N C Bacalis and D A Papaconstantopoulos, Handbook ...

  14. Techniques for intense-proton-beam profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    In a collaborative effort with industry and several national laboratories, the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) facility and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac are presently being designed and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The APT facility is planned to accelerate a 100-mA H + cw beam to 1.7 GeV and the SNS linac is planned to accelerate a 1- to 4-mA-average, H - , pulsed-beam to 1 GeV. With typical rms beam widths of 1- to 3-mm throughout much of these accelerators, the maximum average-power densities of these beams are expected to be approximately 30- and 1-MW-per-square millimeter, respectively. Such power densities are too large to use standard interceptive techniques typically used for acquisition of beam profile information. This paper summarizes the specific requirements for the beam profile measurements to be used in the APT, SNS, and the Low Energy Development Accelerator (LEDA)--a facility to verify the operation of the first 20-MeV section of APT. This paper also discusses the variety of profile measurement choices discussed at a recent high-average-current beam profile workshop held in Santa Fe, NM, and will present the present state of the design for the beam profile measurements planned for APT, SNS, and LEDA

  15. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  16. A Solar-Pumped Fluorescence Model for Line-By-Line Emission Intensities in the B-X, A-X, and X-X Band Systems of 12C14N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new quantitative model for detailed solar-pumped fluorescent emission of the main isotopologue of CN. The derived fluorescence efficiencies permit estimation and interpretation of ro-vibrational infrared line intensities of CN in exospheres exposed to solar (or stellar) radiation. Our g-factors are applicable to astronomical observations of CN extending from infrared to optical wavelengths, and we compare them with previous calculations in the literature. The new model enables extraction of rotational temperature, column abundance, and production rate from astronomical observations of CN in the inner coma of comets. Our model accounts for excitation and de-excitation of rotational levels in the ground vibrational state by collisions, solar excitation to the A(sup 2)Pi(sub I) and B(sup 2)Sum(sup +) electronically excited states followed by cascade to ro-vibrational levels of X(sup 2)Sum(sup +), and direct solar infrared pumping of ro-vibrational levels in the X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) state. The model uses advanced solar spectra acquired at high spectral resolution at the relevant infrared and optical wavelengths and considers the heliocentric radial velocity of the comet (the Swings effect) when assessing the exciting solar flux for a given transition. We present model predictions for the variation of fluorescence rates with rotational temperature and heliocentric radial velocity. Furthermore, we test our fluorescence model by comparing predicted and measured line-by-line intensities for X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) (1-0) in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), thereby identifying multiple emission lines observed at IR wavelengths.

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOME BODY MEASURES OF LIPPIZANER STALLION PER LINES AT ĐAKOVO STUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rastija

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Body measures of Lippizaner line stallions and their correlation were processed in Đakovo stud. The measures performed by Lydtin rod and stock band included withers height, chest girth and cannon bone circumference on the total of 75 heads. Neapolitano line was characterized by the fewest number of stallions (4 whereas Tulip by the largest one (20. Data attained by the measuring were processed by the statistical program SPSS/PC (Nie et. al. 1975. Neapolitano line stallions had the lowest withers height (164.00 cm measured by the band whereas Conversano line stallions had the highest one (166.33 cm. Withers height measured by the rod was the lowest in the Maestoso line stallion (156.50 cm and the highest one in the Favory line (159.20 cm. Chest girth ranged between 183.82 cm (Pluto line and 186.89 cm (Conversano line. Cannon bone circumference was uniform with all lines ranged from 20.05 cm (Tulipan line and 20.65 cm (Maestoso lines. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod and that one measured by the rod and chest girth was positive and highly significant. However, correlation between others ranged from slight positive to slight negative. Neapolitano line was known for the most pronounced correlation per lines whereas Tulip line for the weakest one. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod was in all lines highly significant (except Tulip line whereas other correlation varied from positive to negative.

  18. Designing a Method for AN Automatic Earthquake Intensities Calculation System Based on Data Mining and On-Line Polls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo Sanchez, A. K.; Rojas, R.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic intensities can be calculated using the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale or the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98), among others, which are based on a serie of qualitative aspects related to a group of subjective factors that describe human perception, effects on nature or objects and structural damage due to the occurrence of an earthquake. On-line polls allow experts to get an overview of the consequences of an earthquake, without going to the locations affected. However, this could be a hard work if the polls are not properly automated. Taking into account that the answers given to these polls are subjective and there is a number of them that have already been classified for some past earthquakes, it is possible to use data mining techniques in order to automate this process and to obtain preliminary results based on the on-line polls. In order to achieve these goal, a predictive model has been used, using a classifier based on a supervised learning techniques such as decision tree algorithm and a group of polls based on the MMI and EMS-98 scales. It summarized the most important questions of the poll, and recursive divides the instance space corresponding to each question (nodes), while each node splits the space depending on the possible answers. Its implementation was done with Weka, a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks, using the J48 algorithm which is an implementation of the C4.5 algorithm for decision tree models. By doing this, it was possible to obtain a preliminary model able to identify up to 4 different seismic intensities with 73% correctly classified polls. The error obtained is rather high, therefore, we will update the on-line poll in order to improve the results, based on just one scale, for instance the MMI. Besides, the integration of automatic seismic intensities methodology with a low error probability and a basic georeferencing system, will allow to generate preliminary isoseismal maps

  19. Parameters of Carcass Cuts and Measurements of Martinik Lambs Managed under Intensive Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alexandre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Martinik sheep is selected for its good adaptive and reproductive traits. The production sector reproaches it with low carcass conformation, although its carcasses have been little described. Two intensive fattening experiments were conducted, whereby lambs were slaughtered for linear measurements and cuts. The variables were analyzed and allometric equations were determined. The database (n = 43 was adjusted for feeding levels and slaughter weight groups (SW: 28, 32 and 36 kg. Mean cold carcass (CC weights varied (P 0.05. The weights of all carcass cuts significantly (P < 0.01 increased with CC increase. Shoulders and legs represented 18 and 34% of CC, respectively. Various measurements taken on the carcass and pelvis width significantly increased (P < 0.05 with CC increase (near 9% difference between extreme weights. Indices of carcass and leg compactness (0.32 and 0.45, respectively did not vary with SW, whereas weight indices did. Allometric coefficients of the shoulder (0.915 and leg (0.891 were in line with those of the literature. This preliminary description of Martinik sheep carcasses could be made available to the sector actors in order to pursue the work and help to better select breeds and management systems.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Signal Intensity Ratio Measurement Before Uterine Artery Embolization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , 52 patients were included in this prospective study. The SI ratio before UFE was calculated using circular region of interests placed on the dominant fibroid and the iliac muscle. The SI fibroid-to-iliac muscle ratio was calculated as SI of the dominant fibroid/SI of the iliac muscle on T1-, T2......-, and T1 post-contrast-weighted sequences. The dominant fibroid volume was measured and analyzed before and after UFE. RESULTS: In all, 46 patients who completed the three-month follow-up MRI were available for analysis. The correlation between SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio at the T2-weighted sequence...... positive correlation (r = 0.439, p T2-weighted sequence. The area under curve (AUC) for SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio on T2-weighted sequence was 0.776. For the other parameters, the AUC values were 0.512, 0.671, and 0.578, respectively. CONCLUSION: SI...

  1. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  2. A tewlve detector coincidence spectrometer for on-line and off-line measurements of nuclear g-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfter, I.; Bodenstedt, E.; Hamer, B.; Hoff, J. van den; Knichel, W.; Muenning, H.; Piel, S.; Schueth, J.; Sajok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A twelve detector γ-γ directional correlation setup is described which has been designed and constructed for high precision on-line and off-line IPAC measurements. A ring of twelve BaF 2 detectors which may be replaced by Ge detectors is arranged around a superconducting magnet providing a maximum magnetic field of 4.5 T. In on-line experiments the magnetic field has the direction of the beam which passes through a central bore of the magnet. The data acquisition system stores directly the Esub(γ 1 )-Esub(γ 2 ) coincidence matrices for all 66 two-detector combinations in two 8 Mbyte RAMs, one for each of the two field directions. This allows a very fast data evaluation with a small on-line computer. The apparatus got into operation one-and-a-halve years ago and revealed excellent properties. (orig.)

  3. Fourier transform measurements of water vapor line parameters in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenouvrier, Alain [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: alain.jenouvrier@univ-reims.fr; Daumont, Ludovic [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Regalia-Jarlot, Laurence [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Carleer, Michel [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandaele, Ann Carine [Institut d' Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mikhailenko, Semen [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Av. Akademichesskii, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fally, Sophie [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    New high-resolution water vapor absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} spectral region by combining Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) with single and multiple reflection cells. With absorption paths from 0.3 to 1800 m in pure and air diluted water vapor, accurate measurements of about 10400 lines in an intensity range from 10{sup -29} to 10{sup -19} cm/molecule have been performed. Positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients and air-induced shifts were determined for the H{sub 2} {sup 16}O, H{sub 2} {sup 17}O, H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and HDO isotopologues. The rovibrational assignment of the observed lines was performed with the use of global variational predictions and allowed the identification of several new energy levels. One major contribution of this work consists of the identification of 3280 new weak lines. A very close agreement between the new measured parameters and those listed in the database is reported as well as between the observations and the most recent variational calculations for the positions and the intensities. The present parameters provide an extended and homogeneous data set for water vapor, which is shown to significantly improve the databases for atmospheric applications, especially in the transmission windows on both sides of the band centered at 5400 cm{sup -1}.

  4. Repetitive display system of line profiles for Doppler broadening measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, A.; Narihara, K.; Haba, K.

    1982-10-01

    Line profiles of impurities in visible and ultraviolet regions are repetitively displayed on a CRT with an interval of 250 mu s or 500 mu s, using a system composed of a Czerny-Turner monochromator with 1 m F.L., a self-resonant optical scanner, a photomultiplier shielded against hard X-rays and electronic circuits. The profile resolution is 0.035 nm FWHM. This system can be used in the environment of strong hard X-rays. (author)

  5. Observations of Fe XIV Line Intensity Variations in the Solar Corona During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Payton; Ladd, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    We present time- and spatially-resolved observations of the inner solar corona in the 5303 Å line of Fe XIV, taken during the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse from a field observing site in Crossville, TN. These observations are used to characterize the intensity variations in this coronal emission line, and to compare with oscillation predictions from models for heating the corona by magnetic wave dissipation.The observations were taken with two Explore Scientific ED 102CF 102 mm aperture triplet apochromatic refractors. One system used a DayStar custom-built 5 Å FWHM filter centered on the Fe XIV coronal spectral line and an Atik Titan camera for image collection. The setup produced images with a pixel size of 2.15 arcseconds (~1.5 Mm at the distance to the Sun), and a field of view of 1420 x 1060 arcseconds, covering approximately 20% of the entire solar limb centered near the emerging sunspot complex AR 2672. We obtained images with an exposure time of 0.22 seconds and a frame rate of 2.36 Hz, for a total of 361 images during totality.An identical, co-aligned telescope/camera system observed the same portion of the solar corona, but with a 100 Å FWHM Baader Planetarium solar continuum filter centered on a wavelength of 5400 Å. Images with an exposure time of 0.01 seconds were obtained with a frame rate of 4.05 Hz. These simultaneous observations are used as a control to monitor brightness variations not related to coronal line oscillations.

  6. Exploring Shared Measurement Properties and Score Comparability between Two Versions of the "Supports Intensity Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyojeong; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Hughes, Carolyn; Thompson, James R.; Little, Todd D.; Palmer, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences in measurement properties and score comparability of the "Supports Intensity Scale-Adult Version" (16-64 years) and the "Supports Intensity Scale-Children's Version" (5-16 years). Data were collected from 142 adolescents with intellectual disability with both versions of the…

  7. An evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the on-line measurement of coal ash content by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhong, Liu; Li, Kong; Tan, Qu; Jingjing, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a significant effect producing systematic errors in the on-line measurement using gamma-ray transmission is revealed. Ash content fluctuations or thickness changes lead to a permanent negative systematic error in the results of the measurements. To study uncertainties in the measurements applicable to time-independent ash content indicators and to investigate the characteristics of the radiation attenuation process, the behavior of the quantity in question is modeled with a stationary Gaussian distribution. A systematic error-producing effect has been found, and a quantitative correction is given to compensate for it. For some other quantities in question that vary in time, a linear model is used to discuss the systematic errors in the case of automated coal gangue separator. Results of experiments that demonstrate different systematic errors for different sampling intervals are presented. The reason for these errors is the nonlinearity of the relationship between the radiation intensity, on the one hand, and the sample thickness and mass attention, on the other

  8. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  9. L X-ray intensity ratio measurements using selective L sub-shell photo-ionisation on synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Himani; Tiwari, M. K.; Mittal, Raj

    2017-10-01

    Lα/Lℓ, Lβ /Lℓ and Lγ/Lℓ intensity ratios have been measured for elements in the range 66≤Z≤83 at tuned photon energies on synchrotron beam line-16 at Indus-2, India. For each element, three incident energies Ei were E3; EL3 EL1 where ELi are Li absorption edge energies of the element. Emitted L X-ray spectrum of an element constitutes a number of X-ray lines generally grouped into four main groups due to limited resolution of available detectors as Lℓ(L3-M1), Lα(L3-M4,5), Lβ(L1-M2,3,4,5,N4; L2-M3,4; L3-N1,4,5,O1,4,5) and Lγ(L2-N1,4,O1,4; L1-N2,3,5,O3,2). Lα and Lℓ both comprise only the lines feeding L3 level and Lβ group comprises X-ray lines feeding all the three sub-shells where as Lγ involves contribution from L1 and L2 feedings. Only E3 excitation gives the ratios free from intra sub-shell Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions while excitations E2 and E1 give CK affected Lβ/Lℓ and Lγ/Lℓ X-ray intensity ratios and Lα/Lℓ still remains free from CKs. The pattern of intensity ratios at three excitation energies of elements was well interpreted in terms of on/off of CK transitions (Bambynek et al., 1972; Campbell, 2003) and outer shell electron filling configuration (Scofield, 1973).

  10. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  11. TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Cornelsen, Sonja; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to mask visual stimuli, disrupting visual task performance or preventing visual awareness. While TMS masking studies generally fix stimulation intensity, we hypothesized that varying the intensity of TMS pulses in a masking paradigm might inform several ongoing debates concerning TMS disruption of vision as measured subjectively versus objectively, and pre-stimulus (forward) versus post-stimulus (backward) TMS masking. We here show that both pre-stimulus TMS pulses and post-stimulus TMS pulses could strongly mask visual stimuli. We found no dissociations between TMS effects on the subjective and objective measures of vision for any masking window or intensity, ruling out the option that TMS intensity levels determine whether dissociations between subjective and objective vision are obtained. For the post-stimulus time window particularly, we suggest that these data provide new constraints for (e.g. recurrent) models of vision and visual awareness. Finally, our data are in line with the idea that pre-stimulus masking operates differently from conventional post-stimulus masking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  13. Measurements on the He-Ne laser lines near 633 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David W.

    1983-09-01

    The red line from an inexpensive He-Ne laser is made up of several closely spaced lines. To separate these lines very high spectral resolution is required. This apparatus requirement can be met by a simple modification of a student Fabry-Perot interferometer. Laboratory measurements can then be made to verify the expected number, spacing, and polarization of these lines during a single afternoon laboratory session.

  14. Calculation and measurement of the intensity distribution of 60Co radiation behind block filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, R.; Kranepuhl, H.; Salewski, D.

    1987-01-01

    A method for determining the absorption length in block filters with non-focussing edges is described. It accounts for geometric parameters as source diameter, source-surface-distance and the position of the absorber relative to the central ray. The model was checked by intensity measurements. Behind the absorber as well as in the penumbra regions good agreement between calculation and measurement of the intensity distribution was observed. (author)

  15. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1963-11-01

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  16. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corran, E R; Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  17. Adaptive projection intensity adjustment for avoiding saturation in three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-03-01

    Phase-based fringe projection methods have been commonly used for three-dimensional (3D) measurements. However, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. Existing solutions are complex. This paper proposes an adaptive projection intensity adjustment method to avoid image saturation and maintain good fringe modulation in measuring objects with a high range of surface reflectivities. The adapted fringe patterns are created using only one prior step of fringe-pattern projection and image capture. First, a set of phase-shifted fringe patterns with maximum projection intensity value of 255 and a uniform gray level pattern are projected onto the surface of an object. The patterns are reflected from and deformed by the object surface and captured by a digital camera. The best projection intensities corresponding to each saturated-pixel clusters are determined by fitting a polynomial function to transform captured intensities to projected intensities. Subsequently, the adapted fringe patterns are constructed using the best projection intensities at projector pixel coordinate. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are projected for phase recovery and 3D shape calculation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high measurement accuracy even for objects with a high range of surface reflectivities.

  18. On-line pressure measurement using scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, A.G.; Watson, A.P.

    1978-08-01

    Data collection methods can be improved significantly by using pressure scanning systems in conjunction with transducers for the measurement of pressure distribution in fluid flow rigs. However, the response of pressure transducers to the slight random pressure fluctuations that occur in practice can cause some measurement problems, especially for accurate work. The nature of these pressure fluctuations is examined and suitable analysis techniques are recommended. Results obtained using these techniques are presented. It is concluded that by using the correct techniques pressure transducer systems can be used to measure pressure distributions accurately and are sufficiently sensitive to measure very small systematic effects with great precision. (author)

  19. Measurements of the internal magnetic field on DIII-D using intensity and spacing of the motional Stark multiplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H; Holcomb, C T

    2008-10-01

    We describe a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of Stark split D(alpha) emission from the neutral beams. This system, named B-Stark, has been recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak. To find the magnetic pitch angle, we use the ratio of the intensities of the pi(3) and sigma(1) lines. These lines originate from the same upper level and so are not dependent on the level populations. In future devices, such as ITER, this technique may have advantages over diagnostics based on MSE polarimetry. We have done an optimization of the viewing direction for the available ports on DIII-D to choose the installation location. With this placement, we have a near optimal viewing angle of 59.6 degrees from the vertical direction. All hardware has been installed for one chord, and we have been routinely taking data since January 2007. We fit the spectra using a simple Stark model in which the upper level populations of the D(alpha) transition are treated as free variables. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field obtained using this diagnostic technique compare well with measurements from MSE polarimetry and EFIT.

  20. Measurements of residual deformations of steel-aluminum conductors in operating overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.V.; Kesel' man, L.M.; Treiger, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    Experience in the operation of overhead power lines using steel-aluminum conductors is presented. Measurements were taken on the residual deformation of the steel-aluminum lines to determine the amount of sag increase and to forecast this increase for the entire period of operation. It is recommended that the work on measuring the residual deformation in the power lines be extended to a broader range of operating conditions such as conductors, spans, and climate conditions.

  1. Measurement of magnetically insulated line voltage using a Thomson Parabola Charged Particle Analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, T.D.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The absence of direct measurements of magnetically insulated line voltage necessitated reliance on inferred voltages based on theoretical calculation and current measurements. This paper presents some of the first direct measurements of magnetically insulated transmission line peak voltages. These measurements were made on the Sandia National Laboratories HydraMITE facility. The peak voltage is measured by observing the energy of negative ions produced at the line cathode and accelerated through the line voltage. The ion energy and the charge-to-mass ratio are measured using the Thomson Parabola mass spectrometry technique. This technique uses parallel E and B fields to deflect the ions. The deflected ions are detected using a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphor screen and photographic film. The Thomson Parabola results are compared to Faraday Cup measurements and to calculated voltages based on current measurements. In addition, the significance of observed positive ions is discussed

  2. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  3. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-10-19

    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  4. Beam position measurement in transport line-1 of Indus accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Avanish; Yadav, Surendra; Holikatti, Anil C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    In Indus Accelerator Complex at RRCAT Indore, 20 MeV electron beam is transported from injector Microtron to Booster Synchrotron through Transport Line-1 (TL-1). This beam has nominal pulse width of 500 ns with repetition rate of 1 Hz. A split electrode type beam position Indicator (BPI) is planned to be used to detect position of beam in TL-1, for which a four-channel processing electronics has been designed and developed. The circuit consists of microcontroller based four-channel peak detector circuit followed by multiplexer and ADC. The microcontroller is triggered from the timing system of microtron, which enables microcontroller to control and synchronize various parts of electronics. Microcontroller also sends the digitized data to a PC on serial link. During development, a problem of overcharging of capacitor was faced, which was resulting in false peak detection. Circuit was simulated and necessary modifications were incorporated in the circuit to solve this problem. A test setup with provision to simulate the beam signal using an antenna was used for testing the circuit in lab and a suitable Graphical User Interface (GUI) program was developed in LabVIEW. This GUI can also be used to calibrate the BPI. The prototype BPI was tested under simulated beam condition, which gave positional accuracy of ± 200 microns. (author)

  5. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, M.; Comelli, M.; Villalta, R.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting projected information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. (authors)

  6. Effect of resonance line shape on precision measurements of nuclear magnetic resonance shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, A.M.; Smelyanskij, A.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of resonance line shape on the systematic error of precision measurements of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of high resolution (on the center of NMR dispersion line) is analysed. Effect of the device resonance line form-function asymmetry is evaluated; the form-function is determined by configuration of the spectrometer magnetic field and enters the convolution, which describes the resonance line form. It is shown that with the increase of the relaxation line width the form-function effect on the measurement error yields to zero. The form-function effect on measurements and correction of a phase angle of NMR detection is evaluated. The method of semiquantitative evaluation of resonance line and NMR spectrometer parameters, guaranteeing the systematic error of the given infinitesimal, is presented

  7. A precision measurement of the Z0-line shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.

    1996-01-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e + e - → hadrons at energies around the Z 0 -resonance is performed. The aim is to achieve a systematic error of 0.1%. Data recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP during the years 1990 to 1994 are used. To achieve a small systematic luminosity error the OPAL detector was upgraded with a new luminosity monitor. The new luminosity detector, the luminosity measurement, and the selection of multi hadronic events is described in detail. The measured hadronic cross sections together with the leptonic cross sections are used to determine the mass and the width of the Z 0 -boson. The partial widths are used for a precision test of the standard model. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative stress measurement of elastic deformation using mechanoluminescent sensor: An intensity ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Guo, Songtao; Li, Yongzeng; Peng, Di; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yingzheng

    2018-04-01

    The mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor is a newly developed non-invasive technique for stress/strain measurement. However, its application has been mostly restricted to qualitative measurement due to the lack of a well-defined relationship between ML intensity and stress. To achieve accurate stress measurement, an intensity ratio model was proposed in this study to establish a quantitative relationship between the stress condition and its ML intensity in elastic deformation. To verify the proposed model, experiments were carried out on a ML measurement system using resin samples mixed with the sensor material SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+. The ML intensity ratio was found to be dependent on the applied stress and strain rate, and the relationship acquired from the experimental results agreed well with the proposed model. The current study provided a physical explanation for the relationship between ML intensity and its stress condition. The proposed model was applicable in various SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+-based ML measurement in elastic deformation, and could provide a useful reference for quantitative stress measurement using the ML sensor in general.

  9. Fast-electron-relaxation measurement for laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Shepherd, R.; Chung, H. K.; Kemp, A.; Hansen, S. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Ping, Y.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dyer, G.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the fast-electron-relaxation time in short-pulse (0.5 ps) laser-solid interactions for laser intensities of 10 17 , 10 18 , and 10 19 W/cm 2 , using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. We find that the laser coupling to hot electrons increases as the laser intensity becomes relativistic, and that the thermalization of fast electrons occurs over time scales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. The experimental data are analyzed using a combination of models that include Kα generation, collisional coupling, and plasma expansion

  10. Measuring gas concentration and wind intensity in a turbulent wind tunnel with a mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lacasa, Daniel; Moreno Blanc, Javier; Tresánchez, Marcel; Clotet Bellmunt, Eduard; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M.; Magrans, Rudys; Pardo Martínez, Antonio; Marco Colás, Santiago; Palacín Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents themeasurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with amobile robot in a customturbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources.This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber...

  11. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  12. Turbulence intensity measurement in the wind tunnel used for airfoil flutter investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on hot wire turbulence intensity measurements performed in the entry of a suction-type wind tunnel, used for investigation of flow-induced vibration of airfoils and slender structures. The airfoil is elastically supported with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge in the test section of the wind tunnel with lateral optical access for interferometric measurements, and free to oscillate. The turbulence intensity was measured for velocities up to M = 0.3 i with the airfoil blocked, ii with the airfoil self-oscillating. Measurements were performed for a free inlet and further with two different turbulence grids generating increased turbulence intensity levels. For the free inlet and static airfoil, the turbulence intensity lies below 0.4%. The turbulence grids G1 and G2 increase the turbulence level up to 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively. When the airfoil is free to oscillate due to fluid-structure interaction, its motion disturbs the surrounding flow field and increases the measured turbulence intensity levels up to 5%.

  13. Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches for the Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ciulla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.

  14. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10 nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.

  15. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S

    2015-07-01

    The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  17. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Torbica, Aleksandra; Franzetti, Fabio; Rosenthal, Victor D

    2010-05-10

    The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  18. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  19. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  20. A Time Difference Method for Measurement of Phase Shift between Distributed Feedback Laser Diode (DFB-LD Output Wavelength and Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A time difference method to conveniently measure the phase shift between output wavelength and intensity of distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs was proposed. This approach takes advantage of asymmetric absorption positions at the same wavelength during wavelength increase and decrease tuning processes in the intensity-time curve by current modulation. For its practical implementation, a measurement example of phase shift was demonstrated by measuring a time difference between the first time and the second time attendances of the same gas absorption line in the intensity-time curve during one sine or triangle modulation circle. The phase shifts at modulation frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 50 kHz were measured with a resolution of 0.001π. As the modulation frequency increased the shift value increased with a slowed growth rate.

  1. X-ray diffraction patterns and diffracted intensity of Kα spectral lines of He-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, Rinku; Mohan, Man

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated fine-structure energy levels related to the configurations 1s2s, 1s2p, 1s3s and 1s3p by employing GRASP2K code. We have also computed radiative data for transitions from 1s2p 1 P1o, 1s2p 3 P2o, 1s2p 3 P1o and 1s2s 3S1 to the ground state 1s2. We have made comparisons of our presented energy levels and transition wavelengths with available results compiled by NIST and good agreement is achieved. We have also provided X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Kα spectral lines, namely w, x, y and z of Cu XXVIII, Kr XXXV and Mo with diffraction angle and maximum diffracted intensity which is not published elsewhere in the literature. We believe that our presented results may be beneficial in determination of the order parameter, X-ray crystallography, solid-state drug analysis, forensic science, geological and medical applications.

  2. Implementation of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit using peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Ko, Suhui; An, Hye-Sun; Bang, Ji Hwan; Chung, Woo-Young

    2017-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P  = 0.102) and post-intervention (9 m; P  = 0.036) periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period ( P  tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.

  3. Differences in work environment for staff as an explanation for variation in central line bundle compliance in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuna S H; Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a common and costly quality problem, and their prevention is a national priority. A decade ago, researchers identified an evidence-based bundle of practices that reduce CLABSIs. Compliance with this bundle remains low in many hospitals. The aim of this study was to assess whether differences in core aspects of work environments-workload, quality of relationships, and prioritization of quality-are associated with variation in maximal CLABSI bundle compliance, that is, compliance 95%-100% of the time in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional study of hospital medical-surgical ICUs in the United States was done. Data on work environment and bundle compliance were obtained from the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined Survey completed in 2011 by infection prevention directors, and data on ICU and hospital characteristics were obtained from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Factor and multilevel regression analyses were conducted. Reasonable workload and prioritization of quality were positively associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance. High-quality relationships, although a significant predictor when evaluated apart from workload and prioritization of quality, had no significant effect after accounting for these two factors. Aspects of the staff work environment are associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance in ICUs. Our results suggest that hospitals can foster improvement in ensuring maximal CLABSI bundle compliance-a crucial precursor to reducing CLABSI infection rates-by establishing reasonable workloads and prioritizing quality.

  4. On the continuous measurement of the cosmic-ray intensity, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Kanno, Tsunekichi

    1974-01-01

    Since November 1971, the cosmic ray neutron intensity has been measured continuously with 3NM-64 neutron monitor at Fukushima University (140 0 29'E geographic longitude, 37 0 45'N geographic latitude, 27.6 0 N geomagnetic latitude and 10.55 GV cut-off rigidity). After the neutron monitor had been operated during the period of fourteen months at the ground floor of 3-storied ferro-reinforced concrete building, it was removed to the prefabricated house near the old position of the monitor at January 1973. As a result of the removement of the monitor, the expected values for the counting rate and barometric coefficient of our neutron monitor were obtained, 7.5x10 4 cph and -0.64% mb respectively. The monitor was moved out into a new place, the statistical accuracy of counting rate is altered from 0.44% (hourly counting rate) to 0.36%. It can be considered that there is no effect of concrete building near the monitor, for reason that the zenith angle is opened more than 60 0 over the monitor. The difference between the new and the old measurement - measurement environments, intensities, barometric coefficient and others - were discussed. The continuous measurement of the cosmic ray neutron intensity at Fukushima will be kept on beaten track, and the obtained data of the cosmic ray neutron intensity (uncorrected, corrected intensity and barometric pressure) will be sent to WDC-C2 in form of monthly tables. (author)

  5. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  6. Design of a Thermoacoustic Sensor for Low Intensity Ultrasound Measurements Based on an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jida; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-23

    In therapeutic ultrasound applications, accurate ultrasound output intensities are crucial because the physiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound are very sensitive to the intensity and duration of these applications. Although radiation force balance is a benchmark technique for measuring ultrasound intensity and power, it is costly, difficult to operate, and compromised by noise vibration. To overcome these limitations, the development of a low-cost, easy to operate, and vibration-resistant alternative device is necessary for rapid ultrasound intensity measurement. Therefore, we proposed and validated a novel two-layer thermoacoustic sensor using an artificial neural network technique to accurately measure low ultrasound intensities between 30 and 120 mW/cm2. The first layer of the sensor design is a cylindrical absorber made of plexiglass, followed by a second layer composed of polyurethane rubber with a high attenuation coefficient to absorb extra ultrasound energy. The sensor determined ultrasound intensities according to a temperature elevation induced by heat converted from incident acoustic energy. Compared with our previous one-layer sensor design, the new two-layer sensor enhanced the ultrasound absorption efficiency to provide more rapid and reliable measurements. Using a three-dimensional model in the K-wave toolbox, our simulation of the ultrasound propagation process demonstrated that the two-layer design is more efficient than the single layer design. We also integrated an artificial neural network algorithm to compensate for the large measurement offset. After obtaining multiple parameters of the sensor characteristics through calibration, the artificial neural network is built to correct temperature drifts and increase the reliability of our thermoacoustic measurements through iterative training about ten seconds. The performance of the artificial neural network method was validated through a series of experiments. Compared to our previous

  7. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  8. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  9. Study and development of a GANIL beam intensity measurement system with high resolution (<1 nA) and with high accuracy (<1%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, Geoffroy

    1999-01-01

    The GANIL beam intensity measurement System enables tuning and control of the accelerator system. All along the ion beam transport line, the intensity is measured continuously with low frequency current transformers. The performance as optimized today is not satisfactory to precisely determine the accelerator efficiency on-line. A first study showed that the only sensors usable at GANIL are sensors sensitive to magnetic field (current transformers) and to electric field (capacitive probes). The theoretical study searched to predict the output of these types of sensors and enabled to define a signal treatment which corresponds to the specifications. For every sensor, this calculation is validated experimentally. Moreover this study raised the problem of calibration. The different tests completed allowed a definition of the real characteristics of the current measurements and a choice of the appropriate system. (author) [fr

  10. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  11. DISCOVERY OF TIME VARIATION OF THE INTENSITY OF MOLECULAR LINES IN IRC+10216 IN THE SUBMILLIMETER AND FAR-INFRARED DOMAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla-Prieto, L. [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz N3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Teyssier, D.; García-Lario, P. [ESA, ESAC, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Daniel, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St-Martin d' Hères (France); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); De Beck, E. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE 439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pearson, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We report on the discovery of strong intensity variations in the high rotational lines of abundant molecular species toward the archetypical circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. The observations have been carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on board Herschel and with the IRAM30 m telescope. They cover several observing periods spreading over three years. The line intensity variations for molecules produced in the external layers of the envelope most likely result from time variations in the infrared pumping rates. We analyze the main implications this discovery has on the interpretation of molecular line emission in the envelopes of Mira-type stars. Radiative transfer calculations must take into account both the time variability of infrared pumping and the possible variation of the dust and gas temperatures with stellar phase in order to reproduce the observation of molecular lines at different epochs. The effect of gas temperature variations with stellar phase could be particularly important for lines produced in the innermost regions of the envelope. Each layer of the circumstellar envelope sees the stellar light radiation with a different lag time (phase). Our results show that this effect must be included in the models. The submillimeter and far infrared lines of asymptotic giant branch stars can no longer be considered as safe intensity calibrators.

  12. Properties of laser-produced GaAs plasmas measured from highly resolved X-ray line shapes and ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Fein, J.; Manuel, M.; Keiter, P.; Drake, P.; Kuranz, C.; Belancourt, Patrick; Ralchenko, Yu.; Hudson, L.; Feldman, U.

    2018-03-01

    The properties of hot, dense plasmas generated by the irradiation of GaAs targets by the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were determined by the analysis of high resolution K shell spectra in the 9 keV to 11 keV range. The laser parameters, such as relatively long pulse duration and large focal spot, were chosen to produce a steady-state plasma with minimal edge gradients, and the time-integrated spectra were compared to non-LTE steady state spectrum simulations using the FLYCHK and NOMAD codes. The bulk plasma streaming velocity was measured from the energy shifts of the Ga He-like transitions and Li-like dielectronic satellites. The electron density and the electron energy distribution, both the thermal and the hot non-thermal components, were determined from the spectral line ratios. After accounting for the spectral line broadening contributions, the plasma turbulent motion was measured from the residual line widths. The ionization balance was determined from the ratios of the He-like through F-like spectral features. The detailed comparison of the experimental Ga spectrum and the spectrum simulated by the FLYCHK code indicates two significant discrepancies, the transition energy of a Li-like dielectronic satellite (designated t) and the calculated intensity of a He-like line (x), that should lead to improvements in the kinetics codes used to simulate the X-ray spectra from highly-charged ions.

  13. Infiltration and Runoff Measurements on Steep Burned Hillslopes Using a Rainfall Simulator with Variable Rain Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, David A.; Moody, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple rainfall intensities were used in rainfall-simulation experiments designed to investigate the infiltration and runoff from 1-square-meter plots on burned hillslopes covered by an ash layer of varying thickness. The 1-square-meter plots were on north- and south-facing hillslopes in an area burned by the Overland fire northwest of Boulder near Jamestown on the Front Range of Colorado. A single-nozzle, wide-angle, multi-intensity rain simulator was developed to investigate the infiltration and runoff on steep (30- to 40-percent gradient) burned hillslopes covered with ash. The simulated rainfall was evaluated for spatial variability, drop size, and kinetic energy. Fourteen rainfall simulations, at three intensities (about 20 millimeters per hour [mm/h], 35 mm/h, and 50 mm/h), were conducted on four plots. Measurements during and after the simulations included runoff, rainfall, suspended-sediment concentrations, surface ash layer thickness, soil moisture, soil grain size, soil lost on ignition, and plot topography. Runoff discharge reached a steady state within 7 to 26 minutes. Steady infiltration rates with the 50-mm/h application rainfall intensity approached 20?35 mm/h. If these rates are projected to rainfall application intensities used in many studies of burned area runoff production (about 80 mm/h), the steady discharge rates are on the lower end of measurements from other studies. Experiments using multiple rainfall intensities (three) suggest that runoff begins at rainfall intensities around 20 mm/h at the 1-square-meter scale, an observation consistent with a 10-mm/h rainfall intensity threshold needed for runoff initiation that has been reported in the literature.

  14. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Doi, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Nishiura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum

  15. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Doi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 Japan (Japan); Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nishiura, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The Universtiy of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum.

  16. Design and performance evaluation of a broadband three dimensional acoustic intensity measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid H; Hixon, Elmer L

    2010-04-01

    A seven-microphone three dimensional (3D) intensity measuring system has been developed and evaluated for performance for a broad frequency band (200 Hz-6.5 kHz). Six microphones are arranged in a concentric array with one microphone at the center of the probe. The screw adjustable center microphone is the probe reference microphone, and is used for calibrations of the other microphones in the probe. This probe addresses limitations of the traditional two-microphone system in measuring acoustical properties in a 3D space from the one dimensional measurements. This probe also eliminates the need of spacers used in the existing 3D probes for broadband measurements. Diffraction and reflection effects on calibrations due to presence of the microphones and the probe supporting structure are negligible. This seven-microphone probe provided better results in the intensity measurements for the wide frequency band than that of a similar four-microphone array probe.

  17. Measurement of Auger electron energies and intensities from muonic transitions in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callies, R.; Daniel, H.; Egidy, T. von; Hagn, H.; Hartmann, F.J.; Neumann, W.

    1983-01-01

    There is now general agreement that Coulomb capture of mesonic particles and deexcitation of the formed exotic atom must be accompanied by Auger electron emission. Auger electrons from a thin silver foil were counted by Si-pn-junction detectors with an extraordinarily thin dead layer. Lines could be resolved and intensity ratios determined. Two types of experiments were performed simultaneously, (I) with the slow-muon telescope in coincidence with any e - detector of the array and (II) as above but with an additional Ag X-ray coincidence from a Ge(Li) detector placed close to the target. (Auth.)

  18. Objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during thermo-neutral and hot yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Corinne N; Lannan, Stephanie M; Zuhl, Micah N; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Nelson, Rachael K

    2018-04-01

    While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.

  19. On-line data processing apparatus for spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, E.; Levin, L.A.; Erez, G; Baumatz, D; Goren, I.; Shpancer, I.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based apparatus for on-line spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium is described. The system is capable of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio by averaging, and performing calculations. Computation flow charts and programs are included

  20. Process measuring techniques applying in-line and on-line analyzers. Betriebsmesstechnik unter Einsatz von in-line und on-line Analysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, F; Jola, M

    1982-01-01

    The measurement and control of classical physical parameters such as pressure, temperature etc, is frequently not sufficient now for optimum process control in chemistry and associated fields. Only the use of inline and online analysers makes it possible to maintain the narrow limits of chemical reaction conditions. This ABC pocket book should help the user to select the best from the large number of available methods of measurement. Using 120 alphabetically arranged key words with many cross-references, it has a well-thought-out treatment of basic measurements and descriptions of apparatus, and on the other hand, it contains selected typical examples of applications. Width rather than depth of information is aimed at. The electrochemical methods discussed are potentiometry (pH value, redox potential, direct potentiometry with ion selective electrodes), conductometry (measurement of conductivity) and voltammetry (polarography, ammetry). Photometry, the measurement of density, the refractive index, surface tension and viscosity are described. From the large number of applications, the examples of textile processing, the cellulose and paper industry, the surface treatment of materials and petrochemicals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the treatment of service water, drinking water and boiler feed water. In connection with questions of work and environmental protection, emission control and the treatment of domestic and industrial waste water are described. With 119 figs.

  1. Use of deformed intensity distributions for on-line modification of image-guided IMRT to account for interfractional anatomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Radhe; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang He; Kang Yixiu; Wang Xiaochun; Liu, Helen; Ang, K.; Kuban, Deborah; Dong Lei

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that there can be significant changes in anatomy from day to day and over the course of radiotherapy as a result of daily positioning uncertainties and physiologic and clinical factors. There are a number of strategies to minimize such changes, reduce their impact, or correct for them. Measures to date have included improved immobilization of external and internal anatomy or adjustment of positions based on portal or ultrasound images. Perhaps the most accurate way is to use CT image-guided radiotherapy, for which the possibilities range from simple correction of setup based on daily CT images to on-line near real-time intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) replanning. In addition, there are numerous intermediate possibilities. In this paper, we report the development of one such intermediate method that takes into account anatomic changes by deforming the intensity distributions of each beam based on deformations of anatomy as seen in the beam's-eye-view. Methods and materials: The intensity distribution deformations are computed based on anatomy deformations discerned from the changes in the current image relative to a reference image (e.g., the pretreatment CT scan). First, a reference IMRT plan is generated based on the reference CT image. A new CT image is acquired using an in-room CT for every fraction. The anatomic structure contours are obtained for the new image. (For this article, these contours were manually drawn. When image guided IMRT methods are implemented, anatomic structure contours on subsequent images will likely be obtained with automatic or semiautomatic means. This could be achieved by, for example, first deforming the original CT image to match today's image, and then using the same deformation transformation to map original contours to today's image.) The reference intensity distributions for each beam are then deformed so that the projected geometric relationship within the beam

  2. Measurement of guided light-mode intensity: An alternative waveguide sensing principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Skivesen, N.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    An alternative transduction mechanism for planar optical waveguide sensors is reported. Based on a simple measurement of the mode intensity, the presented transduction is an interesting alternative to the conventional mode-angle transduction, because the expensive, high-precision angular rotation...

  3. Electric field simulation and measurement of a pulse line ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaokang; Zhang Zimin; Cao Shuchun; Zhao Hongwei; Zhao Quantang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Wang Bo; Shen Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    An oil dielectric helical pulse line to demonstrate the principles of a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) has been designed and fabricated. The simulation of the axial electric field of an accelerator with CST code has been completed and the simulation results show complete agreement with the theoretical calculations. To fully understand the real value of the electric field excited from the helical line in PLIA, an optical electric integrated electric field measurement system was adopted. The measurement result shows that the real magnitude of axial electric field is smaller than that calculated, probably due to the actual pitch of the resister column which is much less than that of helix. (authors)

  4. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  5. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  6. Solar intensity measurement using a thermoelectric module; experimental study and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Nader; Asadi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar intensity could be explained as a linear function of voltage and ambient temperature. • The maximum output voltage is approximately 120 mV which was occurred in midday. • The average value of the heat-sink thermal resistance could be measured with this device. • The average values of total heat transfer coefficients could be measured with this device. • Two correlations were proposed to predict the solar intensity with the accuracy of 10%. - Abstract: The present study is intended to design, manufacture, and modeling an inexpensive pyranometer using a thermoelectric module. The governing equations relating the solar intensity, output voltage, and ambient temperature have been derived by applying the mathematical and thermodynamic models. According to the thermodynamics modeling, the output voltage is a function of solar intensity, ambient temperature, internal parameters of thermoelectric module, convection and radiation coefficients, and geometrical characteristics of the setup. Moreover, the solar intensity can be considered as a linear function of voltage and ambient temperature within an acceptable range of accuracy. The experiments have been carried out on a typical winter day under climatic conditions of Semnan (35°33′N, 53°23′E), Iran. The results also indicated that the output voltage is dependent on the solar intensity and its maximum value was 120 mV. Finally, based on the experimental results, two correlations, with the accuracy of 10%, have been proposed to predict the solar intensity as a function of output voltage and ambient temperature. The average values of total heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance of the heat-sink have been also calculated according to the thermodynamic modeling and experimental results.

  7. Measurements of neutron intensity from liquid deuterium moderator of the cold neutron source of KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Ebisawa, Toru; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Tasaki, Seiji

    1990-01-01

    The neutron spectra from the liquid deuterium moderator of the cold neutron source of KUR were measured by the time of flight (TOF) method similar to the previous measurements for the liquid hydrogen moderator. The cold neutron gain factor is found to be about 20 ∼ 28 times for the wavelength longer than 6 A. Cold neutron intensities from the liquid deuterium moderator and from the liquid hydrogen moderator are compared and discussed. (author)

  8. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  9. NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s 2 3p 5 4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

  10. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media......-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total......-and-vigorous nor vigorous) nor mean minutes of moderate-and-vigorous PA intensity was associated to the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence (p>0.05). However, a significant inverse association was observed between mean minutes of vigorous PA and the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence independent of gender...

  11. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, A

    2008-01-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 A and 6800 A using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 A and 6800 A. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  12. Phase shift errors in the theory and practice of surface intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, M. C.; Crocker, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The surface acoustical intensity method (sometimes known as the microphone-accelerometer cross-spectral method) is a relatively new noise source/path identification tool. Several researchers have had difficulties implementing this method because of instrumentation phase mis-match. A simple technique for measuring and correcting instrumentation phase mis-match has been developed. This new technique has been tested recently on a noise source identification problem of practical interest. The results of the experiments indicate that the surface acoustic intensity method produces reliable data and can be applied to a variety of noise source/path problems.

  13. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1975-11-01

    Measurements of the lambda 10830 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012, which may be singlet He or La II, are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes

  14. A comparison between Philips and Tomtec for left ventricular deformation and volume measurements in neonatal intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Koert; Phad, Nilkant

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique for analyzing cardiac function in newborns. Strain is a highly reliable and reproducible parameter, and reference values have been established for term and preterm newborns. Its implementation into clinical practice has been slow, partly due to lack of inter-vendor consistency. Our aim was to compare recent versions of Philips and Tomtec speckle tracking software for deformation and semiautomated volume and area measurements in neonatal intensive care patients. Longitudinal and circumferential deformation and cavity dimensions (volume, area) were determined off line from apical and short-axis images in 50 consecutive newborns with a median birthweight of 760 g (range 460-3200 g). Absolute mean endocardial global longitudinal strain measurements were similar between vendors, but with wide limits of agreement (Philips -18.9 [2.1]%, Tomtec -18.6 [2.5]%, bias -0.3 [1.7]%, and limits of agreement -3.6%-3.1%). Longitudinal strain rate and circumferential measurements showed poor correlation. All volume and area measurements correlated well between the vendors, but with significant bias. Global longitudinal strain measurements compared well between vendors but wide limits of agreement, suggesting that longitudinal measurements are preferred using similar hardware and software. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. On-line measurement with automatic emulsion analysis system and off-line data processing (E531 neutrino experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanishi, Motoaki

    1984-01-01

    The automatic emulsion analysis system developed by Nagoya cosmic ray observation group was practically used for the experiment (FNAL-E531) on determining the lifetime of charm particles for the first time in the world, and achieved a great successful result. The system consists of four large precise coordinate-measuring stages capable of conducting simultaneous measurement and multiple (currently four) DOMS (digitized on-line microscope), supported with one mini-computer (ECLIPS S/130). The purpose of E531 experiment was the determination of charm particle lifetime. The experiment was carried out at FNAL, USA, and by the irradiation of wide band ν sub(μ) beam equivalent to 7 x 10 18 of 350 GeV/c protons. The detector was a hybrid system of emulsions and a counter spectrometer. The scan of neutrino reaction, the scan of charm particles, and charm event measurement were analyzed in emulsions, and the on-line programs for-respective analyses were created. Nagoya group has found 726 neutrino reactions in the first run, obtained 37 charm particle candidates, and found 1442 neutrino reactions in the second run, and obtained 56 charm particle candidates. The capability of the automatic emulsion analysis system in terms of the time equired for analysis is in total 3.5 hours per event; 15 minutes for C.S. scan, 15 minutes for coupling to module, 20 minutes for tracing to vertex, 1 hour for neutrino reaction measurement, 10 minutes for offline data processing and 1.5 hours for charm particle scanning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Tune measurements with high intensity ion beams at GSI SIS-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Forck, Peter; Kowina, Piotr; Kaufmann, Wolfgang [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A precise tune measurement during a full accelerating cycle is required to achieve stable high current operation. A new system has been commissioned at GSI for position, orbit and tune measurements. It consists of three distinct parts; an exciter which provides power to excite coherent betatron oscillations in the bunched beam; Fast ADCs to digitize the BPM signals at 125 MSa/s; the post processing electronics uses digitized BPM signals to acquire one position value per bunch. Subsequently the baseband tune is determined by Fourier transformation of the position data. Experiments were conducted to understand the effects of high beam intensity on tune at injection plateau (11.4 MeV/u) and during acceleration ramp (11.4-600 MeV/u). These experiments were performed with U{sup 73+} and Ar{sup 18+} ion beam at highest achievable intensities of 2.10{sup 9} and 2.5.10{sup 10} respectively. Tune shift with increased intensity was observed. The working principle of the tune measurement system and observed high intensity effects on tune will be reported in this contribution.

  17. Measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin (2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAR. Babaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is considered one of the most important biological risk factors in the world. Most health damages from solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level are mainly caused by UVA and UVB spectrums. Objective: The aim of this study was to Measure the solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation type A and B was measured in Qazvin on years of 2013-14 (during one year every monthly at three times, in the morning, afternoon and evening by using a UV Radiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: The maximum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays during the one year with 28.36±1.88 W/m2 and 0.156±0.035 W/m2 respectively was in Tir month (June 22–July 22 and the minimum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays with 10.36±0.83 W/m2 and 0.041±0.010 W/m2 respectively was in Dai month (December 22–January 20. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is recommended that individuals were less exposed to exposure time with direct sunshine and use appropriate protective measures such as; wear appropriate clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen.

  18. A novel technique to measure intensity fluctuations in EUV images and to detect coronal sound waves nearby active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Marsch, E.; Vourlidas, A.; Howard, R.; Baldwin, K.

    2011-02-01

    Context. In the past years, evidence for the existence of outward-moving (Doppler blue-shifted) plasma and slow-mode magneto-acoustic propagating waves in various magnetic field structures (loops in particular) in the solar corona has been found in ultraviolet images and spectra. Yet their origin and possible connection to and importance for the mass and energy supply to the corona and solar wind is still unclear. There has been increasing interest in this problem thanks to the high-resolution observations available from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElationships Observatory (STEREO) and the EUV spectrometer on the Hinode mission. Aims: Flows and waves exist in the corona, and their signatures appear in EUV imaging observations but are extremely difficult to analyse quantitatively because of their weak intensity. Hence, such information is currently available mostly from spectroscopic observations that are restricted in their spatial and temporal coverage. To understand the nature and origin of these fluctuations, imaging observations are essential. Here, we present measurements of the speed of intensity fluctuations observed along apparently open field lines with the Extreme UltraViolet Imagers (EUVI) onboard the STEREO mission. One aim of our paper is to demonstrate that we can make reliable kinematic measurements from these EUV images, thereby complementing and extending the spectroscopic measurements and opening up the full corona for such an analysis. Another aim is to examine the assumptions that lead to flow versus wave interpretation for these fluctuations. Methods: We have developed a novel image-processing method by fusing well established techniques for the kinematic analysis of coronal mass ejections (CME) with standard wavelet analysis. The power of our method lies with its ability to recover weak intensity fluctuations along individual magnetic structures at any orientation , anywhere within the full solar disk , and

  19. Third-order optical intensity correlation measurements of pseudo-thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi-Hao; Wu Wei; Meng Shao-Ying; Li Ming-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Third-order Hanbrury Brown—Twiss and double-slit interference experiments with a pseudo-thermal light are performed by recording intensities in single, double and triple optical paths, respectively. The experimental results verifies the theoretical prediction that the indispensable condition for achieving a interference pattern or ghost image in Nth-order intensity correlation measurements is the synchronous detection of the same light field by each reference detector, no matter the intensities recorded in one, or two, or N optical paths. It is shown that, when the reference detectors are scanned in the opposite directions, the visibility and resolution of the third-order spatial correlation function of thermal light is much better than that scanned in the same direction, but it is no use for obtaining the Nth-order interference pattern or ghost image in the thermal Nth-order interference or ghost imaging. (general)

  20. The revised program for measurements in intense operation mode according to AVV-IMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieringer, J.; Wirth, E.; Buehling, A.; Mueller-Neumann, M.; Haase, G.; Heinrich, T.; Steinkopff, T.; Wiezorek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring program for measurements in intense operation mode has been revised recently by a working group at the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). The major issues of the revision are reported in this contribution. Measurements in intense operation must be appropriate for fast assessment of the radiological situation, for estimating the dose to the population and for decisions on countermeasures to minimize the dose. In order to meet these requirements the structure of the measurement program in intense operation mode was divided into three phases when different exposition paths are relevant: before and during dispersion of radioactive material, immediately after dispersion of radioactive material has ended and a late phase when contamination values have decreased in different environmental media. For each of these phases a special measurement program was defined that is tailored to achieve the above mentioned objectives. Minimum detectable activity concentrations were introduced similar to the measurement program in routine operation mode. They follow the intervention levels in the catalogue of countermeasures and maximum permitted values given by the European Union (EU) for food and animal feed. The minimum detectable activity concentrations were defined such that the detection of 1/10 of the intervention levels for countermeasures is ensured. (orig.)

  1. Influence of the operating parameters and of the sample introduction system on time correlation of line intensities using an axially viewed CCD-based ICP-AES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco, E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally

  2. Measurement of angular distributions of K x-ray intensity of Ti and Cu thick targets following impact of 10–25 keV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Kumar, Sunil; Prajapati, Suman; Singh, Bhartendu K. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Llovet, Xavier [Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • New results on the angular distributions of relative intensities of K-X-rays lines of Ti and Cu thick targets under electron bombardment are reported. • An increase of relative intensity of Kα and Kβ X-ray lines has been found to be about 60–70% in the detection range θ = 105{sup 0}–165{sup 0}. • There is a slight impact energy dependence of Cu Kα X-ray line. • A reasonable agreement between experimental and PENELOPE MC Calculations are obtained. - Abstract: We present new results on angular distributions of the relative intensity of K{sub α} and K{sub β} x-ray lines of thick targets of Ti (Z = 22) and Cu (Z = 29) pure elements following impact of 10–25 keV electrons. The angular measurements of the K x-radiations were accomplished by rotating the target surface with respect to the electron beam direction. The x-rays emerging from the target surface in reflection mode were detected by an energy dispersive Si P-I-N photodiode detector. The resulting variation of the relative intensity of the characteristic lines as a function of angle of detection and impact energy has been found to be anisotropic and it is considered to arise due to change in path lengths at a given incidence angle α for the photons generated by direct as well as by indirect K shell ionization processes. The measured angular variations of relative intensity of K{sub α} and K{sub β} x-ray lines of both targets are found to increase by about 60–70% in going from θ = 105{sup 0} to 165{sup 0} at a given impact energy; however there is a slight indication of impact energy dependence of Cu K{sub α} x-ray line as also noted by the earlier workers. We compare the experimental results with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using PENELOPE calculations; the agreement between experiment and theory is found to be satisfactory within uncertainties involved in the measurements and the theoretical results.

  3. Development and validation of a novel patient-reported treatment satisfaction measure for hyperfunctional facial lines: facial line satisfaction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilus, Farrah; Burgess, Somali; Hudgens, Stacie; Banderas, Benjamin; Daniels, Selena

    2015-12-01

    Facial lines or wrinkles are among the most visible signs of aging, and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Facial Line Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLSQ) for use in adults with upper facial lines (UFL). A literature review, concept elicitation interviews (n = 33), and cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 23) of adults with UFL were conducted to develop the FLSQ. The FLSQ comprises Baseline and Follow-up versions and was field-tested with 150 subjects in a US observational study designed to assess its psychometric performance. Analyses included acceptability (item and scale distribution [i.e. missingness, floor, and ceiling effects]), reliability, and validity (including concurrent validity). In total, 69 concepts were elicited during patient interviews. Following cognitive debriefing interviews, the FLSQ-Baseline version included 11 items and the Follow-up version included 13 items. Response rates for the FLSQ were 100% and 73% at baseline and follow-up, respectively; no items had excessive missing data. Questionnaire scale scores were normally distributed. Most domain scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70). Most items within their respective domains exhibited good convergent (item-scale correlations > 0.40) and discriminant (items had higher correlation with their hypothesized scales than other scales) validity. Concurrent validity correlation coefficients of the FLSQ domain scores with the associated concurrent measures were acceptable (range: r = 0.40-0.70). Six FLSQ items demonstrated reliability and validity as stand-alone items outside their domains. The FLSQ is a valid questionnaire for assessing treatment expectations, satisfaction, impact, and preference in adults with UFL. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measurements of national radiation exposure rates on train lines in Tokai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    For data accumulation of natural radiation exposure rate derived from gamma-ray and cosmic-ray to evaluate population dose, the author measured the rate in the running vehicles of 12 JR Tokai lines, 17 Nagoya Railway lines, 4 Kinkinippon Railway lines and 1 line of Nagoya City Bus. A portable gamma spectrometer equipped with 3' in diameter x 3' NaI (Tl) scintillation detector was placed on the seat of the vehicle for measurement in the period of December, 1992-August, 1995. Gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates in air were assessed separately as reported before and expressed in Gy/h. The average exposure rate of gamma-ray in JR Tokai lines was 19.8 nGy/h and of cosmic-ray, 28.5 nGy/h, both of which were markedly varied from line to line. The average rates of gamma-and cosmic-ray were 21.6 nGy/h and 29.0 nGy/h, respectively, in Nagoya Railway lines and 20.9 nGy/h and 28.7 nGy/h, respectively, in Kinkinippon lines. In the city bus, the respective rates were 27.2 nGy/h and 27.0 nGy/h. Thus, the average rates of gamma-ray (about 20 nGy/h) and cosmic-ray (about 29 nGy/h) were not so different between JR and other private railway lines. In the bus, the former rate was slightly lower and the latter, slightly higher. However, the total rates of both rays were in the range of about 50-55 nGy/h in all vehicles examined. (H.O.)

  5. Automated measurement of bolometer line of sight alignment and characteristics for application in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Florian Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The line of sight (LOS) alignment and characteristic of a bolometer camera used in a fusion experiment is a crucial parameter for the measurement accuracy of the diagnostic. A robot based LOS measurement device has been developed which allows the fully automatic measurement of the two dimensional transmission function of a bolometer camera. It has been used to optimize camera prototypes for ITER and has been successfully operated in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade in order to measure the LOS alignment.

  6. Design of a Thermoacoustic Sensor for Low Intensity Ultrasound Measurements Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In therapeutic ultrasound applications, accurate ultrasound output intensities are crucial because the physiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound are very sensitive to the intensity and duration of these applications. Although radiation force balance is a benchmark technique for measuring ultrasound intensity and power, it is costly, difficult to operate, and compromised by noise vibration. To overcome these limitations, the development of a low-cost, easy to operate, and vibration-resistant alternative device is necessary for rapid ultrasound intensity measurement. Therefore, we proposed and validated a novel two-layer thermoacoustic sensor using an artificial neural network technique to accurately measure low ultrasound intensities between 30 and 120 mW/cm2. The first layer of the sensor design is a cylindrical absorber made of plexiglass, followed by a second layer composed of polyurethane rubber with a high attenuation coefficient to absorb extra ultrasound energy. The sensor determined ultrasound intensities according to a temperature elevation induced by heat converted from incident acoustic energy. Compared with our previous one-layer sensor design, the new two-layer sensor enhanced the ultrasound absorption efficiency to provide more rapid and reliable measurements. Using a three-dimensional model in the K-wave toolbox, our simulation of the ultrasound propagation process demonstrated that the two-layer design is more efficient than the single layer design. We also integrated an artificial neural network algorithm to compensate for the large measurement offset. After obtaining multiple parameters of the sensor characteristics through calibration, the artificial neural network is built to correct temperature drifts and increase the reliability of our thermoacoustic measurements through iterative training about ten seconds. The performance of the artificial neural network method was validated through a series of experiments. Compared

  7. A laboratory assessment of the measurement accuracy of weighing type rainfall intensity gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Chan, P. W.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the WMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) fostered noticeable advancements in the accuracy of precipitation measurement issue by providing recommendations on the standardization of equipment and exposure, instrument calibration and data correction as a consequence of various comparative campaigns involving manufacturers and national meteorological services from the participating countries (Lanza et al., 2005; Vuerich et al., 2009). Extreme events analysis is proven to be highly affected by the on-site RI measurement accuracy (see e.g. Molini et al., 2004) and the time resolution of the available RI series certainly constitutes another key-factor in constructing hyetographs that are representative of real rain events. The OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge (WG) and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire precipitation gauge demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts (Lanza et al., 2005). Although WGs do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain gauges (TBR) under continuous and constant reference intensity, dynamic effects seem to affect the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions (Vuerich et al., 2009). The most relevant is due to the response time of the acquisition system and the derived systematic delay of the instrument in assessing the exact weight of the bin containing cumulated precipitation. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rain intensity time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications. This work reports the laboratory evaluation of Pluvio2 and T-200 rainfall intensity measurements accuracy. Tests are carried out by simulating different artificial precipitation events, namely non-stationary rainfall intensity, using a highly accurate dynamic rainfall generator. Time series measured by an Ogawa drop counter (DC) at a field test site

  8. Development of apparatus for high-intensity beam lines at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    The new counter experimental hall was constructed at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (the KEK-PS) in order to handle high-intensity primary proton beams of up to 1 x 10 13 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1 x 10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the new hall construction. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beam is briefly reported. (author)

  9. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  10. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  11. A Bayesian framework for estimating moment magnitude and its uncertainty from macroseismic intensity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, E.; Main, I. G.; Naylor, M.; Chandler, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In moderate to low seismicity areas such as the UK, earthquakes represent a small but not negligible risk to sensitive structures such as nuclear power plants. As a part of the safety case in the planning and regulation of such structures, seismic activity must first be monitored and quantified to form a catalogue of past events. In a low or moderate seismicity zone, most of our knowledge of the most significant events comes from macroseismic intensity measures from the pre-instrumental period (before 1900). These historical records must then be combined and calibrated with modern analogue and digitally-recorded instrumental data on a common source magnitude scale, the most useful of which is the moment magnitude. The result is a unified catalogue that can be used for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. An isoseismal map involves a set of contours that enclose the areas at which the event was felt at particular intensity values or higher, called felt areas. It has been common practice to draw these contours by hand with varying degrees of subjectivity. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method for constructing such maps objectively from macroseismic intensity measures and their observed locations. It involves using mathematical expressions to represent concentric ellipses and estimating their optimal parameters and uncertainties in a Bayesian framework. Inferred fault orientations in the UK are predominantly vertical, so the elliptical assumption is reasonable at least to first order or as a null hypothesis. Relevant physical constraints are used as priors where available. The resulting posterior distributions are used to calculate felt area at a given intensity, as well as a probability density function for the inferred epicentre. We then describe another Bayesian approach for deriving moment magnitude from felt areas based on their relationship and known constraints such as the frequency-magnitude distribution. The use of Bayesian inference allows us to quantify

  12. Time-resolved and temperature tuneable measurements of fluorescent intensity using a smartphone fluorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Yu, Zhikang; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J; Wong, Joseph K-H; Jamalipour, Abbas; Crossley, Maxwell J

    2017-05-30

    A smartphone fluorimeter capable of time-based fluorescence intensity measurements at various temperatures is reported. Excitation is provided by an integrated UV LED (λ ex = 370 nm) and detection obtained using the in-built CMOS camera. A Peltier is integrated to allow measurements of the intensity over T = 10 to 40 °C. All components are controlled using a smartphone battery powered Arduino microcontroller and a customised Android application that allows sequential fluorescence imaging and quantification every δt = 4 seconds. The temperature dependence of fluorescence intensity for four emitters (rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin and 6-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)2-ethyl-naphthalimide) are characterised. The normalised fluorescence intensity over time of the latter chemosensor dye complex in the presence of Zn 2+ is observed to accelerate with an increasing rate constant, k = 1.94 min -1 at T = 15 °C and k = 3.64 min -1 at T = 30 °C, approaching a factor of ∼2 with only a change in temperature of ΔT = 15 °C. Thermally tuning these twist and bend associated rates to optimise sensor approaches and device applications is proposed.

  13. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  14. Implementation of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit using peer tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. Methods A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. Results The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102 and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036 periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period (P < 0.001, with incidence-rate ratios of 0.348 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.23 in the intervention period and 0.257 (95% CI, 0.07–0.91 in the post-intervention period. However, after the 9-month post-intervention period, the yearly CLABSI rates reverted to 3.0–5.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days over 3 years. Conclusions Implementation of CLABSI prevention bundles using peer tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.

  15. An apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Meifen; Mao Shunjuan

    1986-01-01

    The method and apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper are described. The design of the coating gauge was based on the technique of charcateristic X-ray fluorescence preferential absorption. The gauge was equipped with a TP-801 micro-computer which makes the gauge capable of showing and typing the data in different forms. The measurement is quick, continuous, accurate and non-destructive. Analysis period is 10 seconds. In on-line measuring, the reproducibility is +- 1 g/m 2 and the relative error of this method amounts to +- 5% with the weighing method as a standard

  16. Simultaneous measurement of line electron density and Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A new diagnostic system utilizing a submillimetre-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer has been used to simultaneously measure the time evolution of the line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The measurements, performed along four chords of the plasma column, have been correlated with poloidal field changes associated with a ramp in the Ohmic-heating current and by neutral-beam injection. These are the first simultaneous measurements of line electron density and Faraday rotation to be made along a chord of submillimetre laser beam in a tokamak plasma. (author)

  17. DNA fingerprinting of glioma cell lines and considerations on similarity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bady, Pierre; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Castella, Vincent; Kalt, Stefanie; Heinimann, Karl; Hamou, Marie-France; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2012-06-01

    Glioma cell lines are an important tool for research in basic and translational neuro-oncology. Documentation of their genetic identity has become a requirement for scientific journals and grant applications to exclude cross-contamination and misidentification that lead to misinterpretation of results. Here, we report the standard 16 marker short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fingerprints for a panel of 39 widely used glioma cell lines as reference. Comparison of the fingerprints among themselves and with the large DSMZ database comprising 9 marker STRs for 2278 cell lines uncovered 3 misidentified cell lines and confirmed previously known cross-contaminations. Furthermore, 2 glioma cell lines exhibited identity scores of 0.8, which is proposed as the cutoff for detecting cross-contamination. Additional characteristics, comprising lack of a B-raf mutation in one line and a similarity score of 1 with the original tumor tissue in the other, excluded a cross-contamination. Subsequent simulation procedures suggested that, when using DNA fingerprints comprising only 9 STR markers, the commonly used similarity score of 0.8 is not sufficiently stringent to unambiguously differentiate the origin. DNA fingerprints are confounded by frequent genetic alterations in cancer cell lines, particularly loss of heterozygosity, that reduce the informativeness of STR markers and, thereby, the overall power for distinction. The similarity score depends on the number of markers measured; thus, more markers or additional cell line characteristics, such as information on specific mutations, may be necessary to clarify the origin.

  18. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F A

    2002-01-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has bee...

  19. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-jarad, F

    2002-10-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the calculations.

  20. Influence of Laser Radiation Power Density on the Intensity of Spectral Lines for Main Components in a Clay Laser-Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the intensity of the spectral lines for the main components in clay: Al I 309.4 nm, Al II 358.7 nm, Mg II 279.6 nm, Ti II 323.6 nm vs. the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system when the samples are exposed to single laser pulses from a YAG:Nd3+ laser. We have determined the permissible ranges for positioning the object relative to the focus of the optical system (positive and negative defocusing) for which there is practically no change in the reproducibility of the intensity for the spectral lines for red and white clay samples. We show that the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system should be within the range ΔZ ±1.5 mm for optimal laser pulse energies for the analyte spectral lines. We have calculated the radiation flux density for different laser pulse energies and different distances from the focus to the object. We have shown experimentally that reducing the radiation flux density leads to a decrease in the intensity of the analyte spectral lines.

  1. Diffusion effects on the line intensities of He I and He II in the solar transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, R.; Gerola, H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of diffusion in the solar chromosphere-corona transition region is developed. Diffusion becomes increasingly important with steeper temperature gradients, in active and quiet regions relative to coronal holes, and with increasing excitation potential. Numerical calculations are made for the resonance lines of He i and He ii and show that diffusion can enhance these lines. Thus the helium lines may appear relatively weak in coronal holes due to a weakening of the enhancement mechanism. Most transition region lines will be less affected by diffusion than He i or He ii

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  3. Measurement of the vacuum decay rate of orthopositronium formed in an MgO-lined cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidley, D.W.; Zitzewitz, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Orthopositronium decay rates are measured in MgO-lined cavities with various volumes and entrance apertures. Systematic effects of the entrance aperture, cavity geometry, and collisional pick-off are measured. The vacuum decay rate is determined to be 7.050+-0.013 μs -1 . (Auth.)

  4. Current-zero measurements of vacuum circuit breakers interrupting short-line faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Linden, van der W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Current zero measurements are performed during short-line fault interruption tests of vacuum circuit breakers. This switching cycle is characterized by a very steep transient recovery voltage. High-resolution measurements of near current-zero arc current and voltage were carried out. Various

  5. Evaluation of the monitor cursor-line method for measuring pulmonary artery and central venous pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Editha; Good, Levell; Tizon, Jisebelle; Krieger, Staci; O'Kier, Catherine; Taylor, Nicole; Johnson, Jennifer; Horton, Carrie M; Peterson, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To determine if the monitor cursor-line feature on bedside monitors is accurate for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures in cardiac surgery patients. Central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were measured via 3 methods (end-expiratory graphic recording, monitor cursor-line display, and monitor digital display) in a convenience sample of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Pressures were measured twice during both mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between measurement methods and the percentage of monitor pressures that differed by 4 mm Hg or more from the measurement obtained from the graphic recording. Significance level was set at P less than .05. Twenty-five patients were studied during mechanical ventilation (50 measurements) and 21 patients during spontaneous breathing (42 measurements). Measurements obtained via the 3 methods did not differ significantly for either type of pressure (P > .05). Graphically recorded pressures and measurements obtained via the monitor cursor-line or digital display methods differed by 4 mm Hg or more in 4% and 6% of measurements, respectively, during mechanical ventilation and 4% and 11%, respectively, during spontaneous breathing. The monitor cursor-line method for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures may be a reasonable alternative to the end-expiratory graphic recording method in hemodynamically stable, postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Use of the digital display on the bedside monitor may result in larger discrepancies from the graphically recorded pressures than when the cursor-line method is used, particularly in spontaneously breathing patients.

  6. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.

  7. Non-perturbative measurement of low-intensity charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M.; Geithner, R.; Golm, J.; Neubert, R.; Schwickert, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Tan, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-perturbative measurements of low-intensity charged particle beams are particularly challenging to beam diagnostics due to the low amplitude of the induced electromagnetic fields. In the low-energy antiproton decelerator (AD) and the future extra low energy antiproton rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor the operation efficiency. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based cryogenic current comparators (CCC) have been used for measuring slow charged beams in the nA range, showing a very good current resolution. But these were unable to measure fast bunched beams, due to the slew-rate limitation of SQUID devices and presented a strong susceptibility to external perturbations. Here, we present a CCC system developed for the AD machine, which was optimised in terms of its current resolution, system stability, ability to cope with short bunched beams, and immunity to mechanical vibrations. This paper presents the monitor design and the first results from measurements with a low energy antiproton beam obtained in the AD in 2015. These are the first CCC beam current measurements ever performed in a synchrotron machine with both coasting and short bunched beams. It is shown that the system is able to stably measure the AD beam throughout the entire cycle, with a current resolution of 30 {nA}.

  8. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadian, Simin; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Abdi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients' body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (Ptemperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%). Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132), left (P=0.18) and right (P=0.318) tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00), and axillary (P=1.00) methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left) for assessing a patient's body temperature in the intensive care units because of high accuracy and acceptable precision.

  9. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C; Chankow, N; Srisatit, S; Thong-Aram, D

    2015-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable. (paper)

  10. Measuring and accounting for the intensity of nursing care: is it worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Steven A

    2008-05-01

    In June 2007, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sponsored a conference titled "The Economics of Nursing: Paying for Quality Nursing Care." The second topic at the conference was "the appropriateness and feasibility of measuring and accounting for the intensity of nursing care." Drs. Welton and Sermeus presented papers on that topic. This response to those papers focuses on why the hospital industry has not always accounted for and measured nursing intensity. Then it asks, "Why do we want more accurate information about nursing resources used by different patients?" It is not sufficient to say the data regarding nursing costs are not accurate. Nor is it sufficient to say that we now can improve the accuracy of the data. To move forward in this area, we need to develop compelling evidence and arguments that indicate that nursing-cost data of greater accuracy have a benefit that will exceed the costs of that data collection.

  11. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Taiee [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  12. Real-time line-width measurements: a new feature for reticle inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran, Yair; Greenberg, Gad; Joseph, Amnon; Lustig, Cornel; Mizrahi, Eyal

    1997-07-01

    The significance of line width control in mask production has become greater with the lessening of defect size. There are two conventional methods used for controlling line widths dimensions which employed in the manufacturing of masks for sub micron devices. These two methods are the critical dimensions (CD) measurement and the detection of edge defects. Achieving reliable and accurate control of line width errors is one of the most challenging tasks in mask production. Neither of the two methods cited above (namely CD measurement and the detection of edge defects) guarantees the detection of line width errors with good sensitivity over the whole mask area. This stems from the fact that CD measurement provides only statistical data on the mask features whereas applying edge defect detection method checks defects on each edge by itself, and does not supply information on the combined result of error detection on two adjacent edges. For example, a combination of a small edge defect together with a CD non- uniformity which are both within the allowed tolerance, may yield a significant line width error, which will not be detected using the conventional methods (see figure 1). A new approach for the detection of line width errors which overcomes this difficulty is presented. Based on this approach, a new sensitive line width error detector was developed and added to Orbot's RT-8000 die-to-database reticle inspection system. This innovative detector operates continuously during the mask inspection process and scans (inspects) the entire area of the reticle for line width errors. The detection is based on a comparison of measured line width that are taken on both the design database and the scanned image of the reticle. In section 2, the motivation for developing this new detector is presented. The section covers an analysis of various defect types, which are difficult to detect using conventional edge detection methods or, alternatively, CD measurements. In section 3

  13. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadian S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simin Asadian,1 Alireza Khatony,1 Gholamreza Moradi,2 Alireza Abdi,1 Mansour Rezaei,3 1Nursing and Midwifery School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Introduction: An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. Methods: In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients’ body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. Results: There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (P<0.001. Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between the temperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%. Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132, left (P=0.18 and right (P=0.318 tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00, and axillary (P=1.00 methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. Conclusion: The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left for

  14. Measurement accuracy of weighing and tipping-bucket rainfall intensity gauges under dynamic laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.; Chan, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of any single uncertainty factor in the resulting performance of infield rain gauge measurements still has to be comprehensively assessed due to the high number of real world error sources involved, such as the intrinsic variability of rainfall intensity (RI), wind effects, wetting losses, the ambient temperature, etc. In recent years the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) addressed these issues by fostering dedicated investigations, which revealed further difficulties in assessing the actual reference rainfall intensity in the field. This work reports on an extensive assessment of the OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge accuracy when measuring rainfall intensity under laboratory dynamic conditions (time varying reference flow rates). The results obtained from the weighing rain gauge (WG) were also compared with a MTX tipping-bucket rain gauge (TBR) under the same test conditions. Tests were carried out by simulating various artificial precipitation events, with unsteady rainfall intensity, using a suitable dynamic rainfall generator. Real world rainfall data measured by an Ogawa catching-type drop counter at a field test site located within the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) were used as a reference for the artificial rain generation system. Results demonstrate that the differences observed between the laboratory and field performance of catching-type gauges are only partially attributable to the weather and operational conditions in the field. The dynamics of real world precipitation events is responsible for a large part of the measurement errors, which can be accurately assessed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. This allows for new testing methodologies and the development of instruments with enhanced performance in the field.

  15. The use of a CCD imaging system for X-ray film intensity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a simple CCD-based imaging system for digitizing and x-ray film image is demonstrated. A method of extending the region of linear response of the film based upon an analytic representation of the observed response to a series of increasing exposures is described. The validity of the procedure is illustrated through an example of the absolute intensity measurement of a reflection of cadmium sulphide. 3 refs., 7 figs

  16. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  17. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  18. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  19. Dependence of the muon intensity on the atmospheric temperature measured by the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunbabu, K. P.; Ahmad, S.; Chandra, A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hariharan, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Jhansi, V. B.; Kawakami, S.; Kojima, H.; Mohanty, P. K.; Morris, S. D.; Nayak, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Shibata, S.; Tanaka, K.; Zuberi, M.

    2017-09-01

    The large area (560 m2) GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope has been operating uninterruptedly at Ooty, India since 2001. Every day, it records 4 × 109 muons of ≥1 GeV with an angular resolution of ∼4°. The variation of atmospheric temperature affects the rate of decay of muons produced by the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which in turn modulates the muon intensity. By analyzing the GRAPES-3 data of six years (2005-2010), a small (amplitude ∼0.2%) seasonal variation (1 year (Yr) period) in the intensity of muons could be measured. The effective temperature 'Teff' of the upper atmosphere also displays a periodic variation with an amplitude of ∼1 K which was responsible for the observed seasonal variation in the muon intensity. At GeV energies, the muons detected by the GRAPES-3 are expected to be anti-correlated with Teff. The anti-correlation between the seasonal variation of Teff, and the muon intensity was used to measure the temperature coefficient αT by fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. The magnitude of αT was found to scale with the assumed attenuation length 'λ' of the hadrons in the range λ = 80-180 g cm-2. However, the magnitude of the correction in the muon intensity was found to be almost independent of the value of λ used. For λ = 120 g cm-2 the value of temperature coefficient αT was found to be (- 0.17 ± 0.02)% K-1.

  20. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  1. Low-cost vibration sensor based on dual fiber Bragg gratings and light intensity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueqing; Wang, Yongjiao; Yuan, Bo; Yuan, Yinquan; Dai, Yawen; Xu, Gang

    2013-09-20

    A vibration monitoring system based on light intensity measurement has been constructed, and the designed accelerometer is based on steel cantilever frame and dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). By using numerical simulations for the dual FBGs, the dependence relationship of the area of main lobes on the difference of initial central wavelengths is obtained and the most optimal choice for the initial value and the vibration amplitude of the difference of central wavelengths of two FBGs is suggested. The vibration monitoring experiments are finished, and the measured data are identical to the simulated results.

  2. Density and potential measurements in an intense ion-beam-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, N.E.

    1982-05-01

    Neutral beams are created by intense large area ion beams which are neutralized in a gas cell. The interaction of the beam with the gas cell creates a plasma. Such a plasma is studied here. The basic plasma parameters, electron temperature, density, and plasma potential, are measured as a function of beam current and neutral gas pressure. These measurements are compared to a model based on the solution of Poisson's equation. Because of the cylindrical geometry the equation cannot be solved analytically. Details of the numerical method are presented

  3. The design of a measuring system for soft X ray absolute intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Congwu; Cui Mingqi

    1997-01-01

    The design of a measuring system for soft X ray absolute intensity in detail is presented. The system consists of two parts: the ionization chamber, the silicon photodiode and its transferring system. The system can be used as the primary standard detector for the measurement of soft X ray absolute radiation flux in the energy range of 50 to 2000 eV after being calibrated. The whole system will be installed to the newly built beamline of 3W1B at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

  4. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  6. Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with 44 beam-lines of Nike KrF Laser^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.

    2009-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  7. Measuring the quality of therapeutic apheresis care in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmane, Jeffrey B; Torbati, Dan; Gitlow, Howard S

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to measure the quality of care provided in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during Therapeutic Apheresis (TA). We described the care as a step by step process. We designed a flow chart to carefully document each step of the process. We then defined each step with a unique clinical indictor (CI) that represented the exact task we felt provided quality care. These CIs were studied and modified for 1 year. We measured our performance in this process by the number of times we accomplished the CI vs. the total number of CIs that were to be performed. The degree of compliance, with these clinical indicators, was analyzed and used as a metric for quality by calculating how close the process is running exactly as planned or "in control." The Apheresis Process was in control (compliance) for 47% of the indicators, as measured in the aggregate for the first observational year. We then applied the theory of Total Quality Management (TQM) through our Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) model. We were able to improve the process and bring it into control by increasing the compliance to > 99.74%, in the aggregate, for the third and fourth quarter of the second year. We have implemented TQM to increase compliance, thus control, of a highly complex and multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care therapy. We have shown a reproducible and scalable measure of quality for a complex clinical process in the PICU, without additional capital expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Propagation based phase retrieval of simulated intensity measurements using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Z. D. C.

    2018-04-01

    Determining the phase of a wave from intensity measurements has many applications in fields such as electron microscopy, visible light optics, and medical imaging. Propagation based phase retrieval, where the phase is obtained from defocused images, has shown significant promise. There are, however, limitations in the accuracy of the retrieved phase arising from such methods. Sources of error include shot noise, image misalignment, and diffraction artifacts. We explore the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to improve the accuracy of propagation based phase retrieval algorithms applied to simulated intensity measurements. We employ a phase retrieval algorithm based on the transport-of-intensity equation to obtain the phase from simulated micrographs of procedurally generated specimens. We then train an ANN with pairs of retrieved and exact phases, and use the trained ANN to process a test set of retrieved phase maps. The total error in the phase is significantly reduced using this method. We also discuss a variety of potential extensions to this work.

  9. Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084531; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-02-23

    The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c) and intensity (10^2 to 10^8 particles per second). The profile, position, and intensity of these beams are measured utilising particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of this kind of monitoring. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the best detector technology that could replace the existing monitors and build a first prototype of it. A review of the existing detection techniques has led to the choice of Scintillating Fibres (SciFi) read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). This detection technology has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured, and active area size. In addition, it has particle counting capabilities, which could extend its application to momentum spectrometry or Time...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on intensity demodulation using matching grating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liang; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Kang, Juan; Jin, Yongxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Ye, Manping; Jin, Shangzhong

    2013-07-01

    A solution refractive index (SRI) and temperature simultaneous measurement sensor with intensity-demodulation system based on matching grating method were demonstrated. Long period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber (LPG-PCF), provides temperature stable and wavelength dependent optical intensity transmission. The reflective peaks of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), one of which is etched then sensitive to both SRI and temperature, another (FBG2) is only sensitive to temperature, were located in the same linear range of the LPG-PCF's transmission spectrum. An identical FBG with FBG2 was chosen as a matching FBG. When environments (SRI and temperature) change, the wavelength shifts of the FBGs are translated effectively to the reflection intensity changes. By monitoring output lights of unmatching and matching paths, the SRI and temperature were deduced by a signal processing unit. Experimental results show that the simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement system work well. The proposed sensor system is compact and suitable for in situ applications at lower cost.

  11. On-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakir, D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent techniques for on-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil exchange of CO 2 and/or water vapor are briefly reviewed. For CO 2 , these techniques provide means for on-line measurements of isotopic discrimination during CO 2 exchange by leaves in the laboratory and in the field, of isotopic discrimination during soil respiration and during soil-atmosphere CO 2 exchange, and of isotopic discrimination in O 2 during plant respiration. For water vapor, these techniques provide means to measure oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor during leaf transpiration and for the analysis of sub microliter condensed water vapor samples. Most of these techniques involve on-line sampling of CO 2 and water vapor from a dynamic, intact soil or plant system. In the laboratory, these systems also allow on-line isotopic analysis by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The information obtained with these on-line techniques is becoming increasingly valuable, and often critical, for ecophysiologial research and in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. (author)

  12. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl'nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  13. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Position and Intensity Measurements (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  14. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitive, intense-ion beam for active spectroscopic measurements on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Barnes, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe the design of an intense, pulsed, repetitive, neutral beam based on magnetically insulated diode technology for injection into ITER for spectroscopic measurements of thermalizing alpha particle and thermal helium density profiles, ion temperature, plasma rotation, and low Z impurity concentrations in the confinement region. The beam is being developed to enhance low signal-to-noise ratios expected with conventional steady-state ion beams because of severe beam attenuation and intense bremstrahlung emission. A 5 GW (e.g., 100 keV, 50 kA) one-microsecond-duration beam would increase the signal by 10 3 compared to a conventional 5 MW beam with signal-to-noise ratios comparable to those from a chopped conventional beam in one second

  15. Measurements of magnetic fields generated in underdense plasmas by intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmudin, Z.; Walton, B. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Dangor, A. E.; Krushelnick, K.; Fritzler, S.; Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Tatarakis, M.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the magnetic field generated by the passage of high intensity short laser pulses through underdense plasmas. For a 30 fs, 1 J, 800 nm linearly-polarised laser pulse, an azimuthal magnetic field is observed at a radial extent of approximately 200 μm. The field is found to exceed 2.8 MG. For a 1 ps, 40 J, 1054 nm circularly-polarised laser pulse, a solenoidal field is observed that can exceed 7 MG. This solenoidal field is absent with linear polarised light, and hence can be considered as an Inverse Faraday effect. Both types of field are found to decay on the picosecond timescale. For both the azimuthal and solenoidal fields produced by such intense lasers, the production of energetic electrons by the interaction is thought to be vital for magnetic field generation

  16. An Industrial Radipgraphy Exposure Device Based on Measurement of Transmitted Gamma-Ray Intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2014-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking knowledge of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a D3372 Hamamatsu small GM tube. Application software is developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display the counting data via Bluetooth. Prior to placing film, the device is placed behind the specimen to be radiographed to determine the exposure time from the transmitted intensity which is independent on source activity, source-to-film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  17. Measurement of irradiation doses secondary to bedside radiographs in a medical intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J M; Boussert, F; Manens, J P; Le Cam, B; Bellet, M; Garre, M

    1987-01-01

    The authors prospectively studied the radiation doses to radio-sensitive organs secondary to bedside radiographs in intensive care patients and in a control phantom. Dosimeters were taped on different organs during each bedside X-ray. The mean radiation doses, expressed in 10(-5) Gy (m-rad), for an ''average patient'' who was hospitalized 9 days and had 6 chest X-rays were respectively: 292 to the sternal bone marrow; 239 to the thyroid gland; 3 to the testes; 1 to the ovaries; 605 to the eye for 2 maxillary sinus X-rays. No diffused irradiation was measured during a 2-month period in the intensive care unit nor on dosimeters worn by four nurses.

  18. Direct measurement of the energy spectrum of an intense proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Lee, J.R.; Kissel, L.; Johnson, D.J.; Stygar, W.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Roose, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A time-resolved magnetic spectrometer has been used to measure the energy spectrum of an intense (0.5 TW/cm 2 ) proton beam. A thin (2400 A) gold foil placed at the focus of an ion diode Rutherford scattered protons by 90 0 into the spectrometer, reducing the beam intensity to a level suitable for magnetic analysis. The scattered beam was collimated by two 1 mm diameter apertures separated by 12.3 cm. The collimated protons were deflected in a 12.7 cm diameter, 6.65 Kg samarium-cobalt permanent magnet. The deflected protons were recorded simultaneously on CR-39 and eight 1 mm 2 by 35 μm thick PIN diodes. A Monte Carlo computer code was used to calculate the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer. Data taken on Proto-I show a 150 keV to 250 keV wide proton energy spectrum at each instant in time

  19. In vivo measurements with MOSFET detectors in oropharynx and nasopharynx intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcie, Serge; Charpiot, Elisabeth; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Ciais, Gaston; Herault, Joel; Costa, Andre; Gerard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of in vivo measurements with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters for oropharynx and nasopharynx intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: During a 1-year period, in vivo measurements of the dose delivered to one or two points of the oral cavity by IMRT were obtained with MOSFET dosimeters. Measurements were obtained during each session of 48 treatment plans for 21 patients, all of whom were fitted with a custom-made mouth plate. Calculated and measured values were compared. Results: A total of 344 and 452 measurements were performed for the right and left sides, respectively, of the oral cavity. Seventy percent of the discrepancies between calculated and measured values were within ±5%. Uncertainties were due to interfraction patient positions, intrafraction patient movements, and interfraction MOSFET positions. Nevertheless, the discrepancies between the measured and calculated means were within ±5% for 92% and 95% of the right and left sides, respectively. Comparison of these discrepancies and the discrepancies between calculated values and measurements made on a phantom revealed that all differences were within ±5%. Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates the feasibility of in vivo measurements with MOSFET dosimeters for oropharynx and nasopharynx IMRT

  20. Measuring Gas Concentration and Wind Intensity in a Turbulent Wind Tunnel with a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with a mobile robot in a custom turbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources. This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber. The information layers have been generated from the measurements gathered by individual onboard gas and wind sensors carried out by an autonomous mobile robot. On the one hand, the assumption was that the size and cost of these specialized sensors do not allow the creation of a net of sensors or other measurement alternatives based on the simultaneous use of several sensors, and on the other hand, the assumption is that the information layers created will have application on the development and test of automatic gas source location procedures based on reactive or nonreactive algorithms.

  1. High-effective position time spectrometer in actual measurements of low intensity region of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic position-time spectrometer was proposed in previous work, where not only electron coordinates in focal plane are measured by position sensitive detector (PSD) but places of their birth in beta source plane of a large area are fixed using another PSD, situated behind it, by quick effects, accompanying radioactive decay. PSD on the basis of macro-channel plates are used. It is succeeded in position-time spectrometer to combine beta sources of a large area with multichannel registration for a wide energy interval, that efficiency of measurements was two orders of magnitude increase d in comparison magnetic apparatus having PSD only in focal plane. Owing to two detectors' switching on coincidence the relation effect/background in increased minimum on two orders of magnitude in comparison with the same apparatus. At some complication of mathematical analysis it was obtained, that high characteristics of position-time spectrometer are kept during the use the magnetic field, providing double focusing. Owning to this focusing the gain the efficiency of measurements will make one more order of magnitude. Presented high-effective position-time spectrometer is supposed to use in the measurements of low-intensity region of electron spectra, which are important for development of fundamental physics. This is the first of all estimation of electron anti-neutrino mass by the form of beta spectrum of tritium in the region of boundary energy. Recently here there was problem of non physical negative values. This problem can be solved by using in measurement of different in principle high-effective spectrometers, which possess improved background properties. A position-time spectrometers belongs to these apparatus, which provides the best background conditions at very large effectiveness of the measurements of tritium beta spectrum in the region of boundary energy with acceptable high resolution. An important advantage of position-time spectrometer is the possibility of

  2. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  3. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  4. On-line measurement and control in sustainable mineral processing and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development can be defined as development that 'meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (WCED, 1987). A sustainable minerals and energy industry will need to achieve a number of related objectives including greater energy efficiency, improved utilisation of ore deposits, improved utilisation of existing plant, improved product quality, reduction of waste material, reduction of pollution levels and improved safety margins. These objectives all relate in varying degrees to the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits. One critical component in achieving these objectives is to develop and apply improved control systems across the full range of industry applications from mining to processing and utilisation. However process control relies heavily on the availability of suitable on-line process instrumentation to provide the data and feedback necessary for its implementation. There is a lot of truth in the saying 'if you can't measure it you can't control it'. In the past measurement was achieved by manual sampling followed by sample preparation (such as drying, mixing, crushing and dividing) and off-line laboratory analysis. However this procedure is often subject to significant sampling errors and, most importantly, the measurements are too slow for control purposes. By contrast, on-line analysis can provide rapid and accurate measurement in real time thus opening up new possibilities for improved process control. As a result, there has been a rapid increase in the industrial application of on-line analysis instrumentation over the past few decades. The main purpose of this paper is to briefly review some past Australian developments of on-line analysis systems in the mineral and coal industries and to discuss present developments and future trends

  5. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  6. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  8. Correlation of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Performance Across Multiple Measures of Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Zupancic, JAF; Gould, JB; Pietz, K; Kowalkowski, MA; Draper, D; Hysong, SJ; Petersen, LA

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether high performance on one measure of quality is associated with high performance on others and to develop a data-driven explanatory model of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) performance. Design We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis of a statewide perinatal care database. Risk-adjusted NICU ranks were computed for each of 8 measures of quality selected based on expert input. Correlations across measures were tested using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine whether underlying factors were driving the correlations. Setting Twenty-two regional NICUs in California. Patients In total, 5445 very low-birth-weight infants cared for between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007. Main Outcomes Measures Pneumothorax, growth velocity, health care–associated infection, antenatal corticosteroid use, hypothermia during the first hour of life, chronic lung disease, mortality in the NICU, and discharge on any human breast milk. Results The NICUs varied substantially in their clinical performance across measures of quality. Of 28 unit-level correlations only 6 were significant (P quality measures were strong (ρ > .5) for 1 pair, moderate (.3 quality in this sample. Pneumothorax, mortality in the NICU, and antenatal corticosteroid use loaded on factor 1; growth velocity and health care–associated infection loaded on factor 2; chronic lung disease loaded on factor 3; and discharge on any human breast milk loaded on factor 4. Conclusion In this sample, the ability of individual measures of quality to explain overall quality of neonatal intensive care was modest. PMID:23403539

  9. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  10. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  11. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  12. On line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patient using SPND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Gonzalez, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first on-line neutron flux measurement on a patient using a self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was assessed during the fourth clinical trial of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project carried out at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) and the medical center Angel H. Roffo. The SPND was specially developed and assembled for BNCT by CNEA. Its small size, 1 cm sensible length and 1.9 mm diameter, allowed performing a localized measurement. Since the treated tumors were cutaneous melanomas of nodular type, the SPND was located on the patient's skin. The patient was exposed to three different and consecutive fields and in each of them the SPND was used to measure local thermal neutron fluxes at selected dosimetric reference points. The values of the measured fluxes agreed with the ones estimated by calculation. This trial also demonstrated the usefulness of the SPND for assessing flux on-line. (author)

  13. Electron temperature measurements by the plasma line technique at the French incoherent scatter radar facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, W.; Lejeune, G.; Hagfors, T.; Bauer, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experiments aimed at the determination of the electron temperature by a plasma line technique are presented. Using the multistatic capabilities of the French incoherent scatter radar, the plasma line frequencies were simultaneously measured at two receiving stations (Mende and Nancay) at the altitude corresponding to the maximum of the F layer. Different plasma line frequencies are measued because of different effective k vectors that appear in the thermal term of the plasma dispersion relation. We derive and apply two data analysis procedures that enable us to determine this frequency difference. Comparison of this measured frequency difference to that calculated using the ion component electron temperature demonstrates that the plasma lines could indeed be used to determine the electron temperature. A strong dependence of the power in the plasma line as a function of the angle between k vector and magnetic field is observed in agreement with the theory. The future developments of this technique with the EISCAT radar facilities are discussed

  14. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  15. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cui; Liang, Zhenhu; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Six MSPE algorithms-derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis-were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect changes. CG-based multiscale permutation

  16. Optical fiber-spectrophotometer coupling: when will the measurement be on line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Ten years of research and development made at CEA in colorimetry and remote spectrometry by optical fibers allow to define more precisely the best conditions for on-line measurement in industrial process controls and in laboratory analysis in adverse environment. This article presents the new possibilities brought by this type of measurement. One of them is the simultaneous determination of many components; current studies concern the control ''in situ'' of uranium (IV) and (VI) and plutonium (III) and (IV) mixtures [fr

  17. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  18. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  19. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3.0 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30 0 and +- 40 0 . 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables

  20. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  1. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  2. Correlation of neonatal intensive care unit performance across multiple measures of quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Zupancic, John A F; Gould, Jeffrey B; Pietz, Kenneth; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Draper, David; Hysong, Sylvia J; Petersen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether high performance on one measure of quality is associated with high performance on others and to develop a data-driven explanatory model of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) performance. We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis of a statewide perinatal care database. Risk-adjusted NICU ranks were computed for each of 8 measures of quality selected based on expert input. Correlations across measures were tested using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine whether underlying factors were driving the correlations. Twenty-two regional NICUs in California. In total, 5445 very low-birth-weight infants cared for between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007. Pneumothorax, growth velocity, health care-associated infection, antenatal corticosteroid use, hypothermia during the first hour of life, chronic lung disease, mortality in the NICU, and discharge on any human breast milk. The NICUs varied substantially in their clinical performance across measures of quality. Of 28 unit-level correlations, 6 were significant (ρ < .05). Correlations between pairs of measures of quality of care were strong (ρ ≥ .5) for 1 pair, moderate (range, ρ ≥ .3 to ρ < .5) for 8 pairs, weak (range, ρ ≥ .1 to ρ < .3) for 5 pairs, and negligible (ρ < .1) for 14 pairs. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 underlying factors of quality in this sample. Pneumothorax, mortality in the NICU, and antenatal corticosteroid use loaded on factor 1; growth velocity and health care-associated infection loaded on factor 2; chronic lung disease loaded on factor 3; and discharge on any human breast milk loaded on factor 4. In this sample, the ability of individual measures of quality to explain overall quality of neonatal intensive care was modest.

  3. Analysis and comparison model for measuring tropospheric scintillation intensity for Ku-band frequency in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep JS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been based on understanding local propagation signal data distribution characteristics and identifying and predicting the overall impact of significant attenuating factors regarding the propagation path such as impaired propagation for a signal being transmitted. Predicting propagation impairment is important for accurate link budgeting, thereby leading to better communication network system designation. This study has thus used sample data for one year concerning beacon satellite operation in Malaysia from April 2008 to April 2009. Data concerning 12GHz frequency (Ku-band and 40° elevation angle was collected and analysed, obtaining average signal amplitude value, ÷ and also standard deviation ó which is normally measured in dB to obtain long-term scintillation intensity distribution. This analysis showed that scintillation intensity distribution followed Gaussian distribution for long-term data distribution. A prediction model was then selected based on the above; Karasawa,
    ITU-R, Van de Kamp and Otung models were compared to obtain the best prediction model performance for selected data regarding specific meteorological conditions. This study showed that the Karasawa model had the best performance for predicting scintillation intensity for the selected da ta.

  4. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  5. Intensity measurements of slowly extracted heavy ion beams from the SIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeg, P.; Peters, A.; Strehl, P.

    1994-11-01

    The paper reports about performance tests of newly designed Secondary Electron Monitors (SEM), Ionization Chambers (IC) and Multi Diode Counters (MDC). Especially the linearity of the detectors with respect to the specific energy loss will be discussed. Calibration has been performed by means of scintillation particle counters at the lower end of the intensity region. The status of the Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC), which is provided for absolute measurements and calibration of detectors above some nA of beam current is reported, too. (orig.)

  6. Phase and synchronous detector theory as applied to beam position and intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    A popular signal processing technique for beam position measurements uses the principle of amplitude-to-phase (AM/PM) conversion and phase detection. This technique processes position-sensitive beam-image-current probe-signals into output signals that are proportional to the beam's position. These same probe signals may be summed and processed in a different fashion to provide output signals that are proportional to the peak beam current which is typically referred to as beam intensity. This paper derives the transfer functions for the AM/PM beam position and peak beam current processors

  7. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Celio, P.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tassoni, F.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R.

    1995-01-01

    The vertical underground muon intensity has been measured in the slant depth range 3200--7000 hg cm -2 (standard rock) with the completed lower part of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso laboratory, using a large sample of data. These observations are used to compute the surface muon flux and the primary ''all-nucleon'' spectrum. An analysis of systematic uncertainties introduced by the interaction models in the atmosphere and the underground propagation of muons is presented. A comparison of our results with published data is also presented

  8. Measurement Of Ultrafast Ionisation From Intense Laser Interactions With Gas-Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Antonio; Giulietti, Danilo; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Tomassini, Paolo; Martin, Philippe; Ceccotti, Tiberio; De Oliveira, Pascal; Monot, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse with a gas-jet target is investigated through femtosecond optical interferometry to study the dynamics of ionization of the gas. Experimental results are presented in which the propagation of the pulse in the gas and the consequent plasma formation is followed step by step with high temporal and spatial resolution. We demonstrate that, combining the phase shift with the measurable depletion of fringe visibility associated with the transient change of refractive index in the ionizing region and taking into account probe travel time can provide direct information on gas ionization dynamics

  9. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Development of a baby friendly non-contact method for measuring vital signs: First results of clinical measurements in an open incubator at a neonatal intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H.; van den Born, Marlies; van der Veen, Albert; Sikkens-van de Kraats, Janine; van den Dungen, Frank A.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2014-02-01

    For infants and neonates in an incubator vital signs, such as heart rate, breathing, skin temperature and blood oxygen saturation are measured by sensors and electrodes sticking to the skin. This can damage the vulnerable skin of neonates and cause infections. In addition, the wires interfere with the care and hinder the parents in holding and touching the baby. These problems initiated the search for baby friendly 'non-contact' measurement of vital signs. Using a sensitive color video camera and specially developed software, the heart rate was derived from subtle repetitive color changes. Potentially also respiration and oxygen saturation could be obtained. A thermal camera was used to monitor the temperature distribution of the whole body and detect small temperature variations around the nose revealing the respiration rate. After testing in the laboratory, seven babies were monitored (with parental consent) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) simultaneously with the regular monitoring equipment. From the color video recordings accurate heart rates could be derived and the thermal images provided accurate respiration rates. To correct for the movements of the baby, tracking software could be applied. At present, the image processing was performed off-line. Using narrow band light sources also non-contact blood oxygen saturation could be measured. Non-contact monitoring of vital signs has proven to be feasible and can be developed into a real time system. Besides the application on the NICU non-contact vital function monitoring has large potential for other patient groups.

  11. Line width measurement below 60 nm using an optical interferometer and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Chung W.; Smith, Richard J.; Somekh, Michael G.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    We have recently described a technique for optical line-width measurements. The system currently is capable of measuring line-width down to 60 nm with a precision of 2 nm, and potentially should be able to measure down to 10nm. The system consists of an ultra-stable interferometer and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The former is used to generate optical profiles which are input to the ANNs. The outputs of the ANNs are the desired sample parameters. Different types of samples have been tested with equally impressive results. In this paper we will discuss the factors that are essential to extend the application of the technique. Two of the factors are signal conditioning and sample classification. Methods, including principal component analysis, that are capable of performing these tasks will be considered.

  12. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  13. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  14. Linear polarization measurements at H. beta. of early-type emission line stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D; McLean, I S [Glasgow Univ. (UK)

    1976-02-01

    Linear polarization measurements across the H..beta.. emission lines of the stars ..gamma.. Cas, zeta Tau and 48 Per are presented. For the first two stars there is a marked reduction of the polarization at the centre of the line and for ..gamma.. Cas, this varies from night to night. During the H..beta.. observations of zeta Tau, a change of polarization over tens of minutes was indicated in a monitor channel tuned to the continuum on the blue side of H..beta... For the fainter star, 48 Per, the uncertainties of the polarimetry were increased in relation to ..gamma.. Cas and zeta Tau by a factor of about two and at this precision, no differential effects across the line were recorded. Observations of ..cap alpha.. Cyg are also given to demonstrate the reliability of the polarimeter.

  15. Transport measurements on superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckly, B.H.; Lathrop, D.K.; Redinbo, G.F.; Russek, S.E.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical current densities, magnetic field response, and microwave response have been measured for laser ablated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film lines on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates. Films on SrTiO 3 have critical current densities > 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show uniform transport properties in lines of all sizes. Films on MgO have critical current densities which range between 10 2 and 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show considerable variation from device to device on the same chip. Narrow lines on MgO with low critical current densities show Josephson weak link structure which includes RSJ-like IV curves, microwave induced constant voltage steps, and a high sensitivity to magnetic field. The presence of the Josephson weak links if correlated with small amounts of misaligned grains in film on MgO

  16. Measurement of the 0.511 MeV #betta# ray line from the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, J.O.D.; Benson, J.L.; Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.

    1981-02-01

    The detection of the 0.511 MeV electron-positron annihilation line coming from the Galactic Center can provide the means to estimate the rate of positron production and to test some theoretical sources of positrons. The result of the measurements of the 0.511 MeV line flux made in a gamma-ray experiment on board a stratospheric balloon is presented. Thedetector field of view looked at the galactic longitude range-31 0 0 . The observed flux is (6.70 + - 0.85)x10 - 3 photons cm - 2 s - 1 , which is in good agreement with the expected flux when assuming that the Galactic Center is a line source emitting uniformly. (Author) [pt

  17. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  18. Scatterometry measurement of nested lines, dual space, and rectangular contact CD on phase-shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung M.; Yedur, Sanjay; Henrichs, Sven; Tavassoli, Malahat; Baik, Kiho

    2007-03-01

    Evaluation of lithography process or stepper involves very large quantity of CD measurements and measurement time. In this paper, we report on a application of Scatterometry based metrology for evaluation of binary photomask lithography. Measurements were made on mask level with ODP scatterometer then on wafer with CD-SEM. 4 to 1 scaling from mask to wafer means 60nm line on wafer translates to 240nm on mask, easily measurable on ODP. Calculation of scatterometer profile information was performed by a in-situ library-based analysis (5sec/site). We characterized the CD uniformity, linearity, and metal film thickness uniformity. Results show that linearity measured from fixed-pitch, varying line/space ratio targets show good correlation to top-down CD-SEM with R2 of more than 0.99. ODP-SEM correlation results for variable pitch shows that careful examination of scatterometer profile results in order to obtain better correlation to CD SEM, since both tools react differently to the target profile variation. ODP results show that global CD distribution is clearly measurable with less outliers compared to CD SEM data. This is thought to be due to 'averaging' effect of scatterometer. The data show that Scatterometry provides a nondestructive and faster mean of characterizing lithography stepper performanceprofiles. APSM 1st level (before Cr removal) 'dual-space' CDs and EPSM rectangular contacts were also measured with and results demonstrates that Scatterometer is capable of measuring these targets with reasonable correlation to SEM.

  19. Measurement of rain intensity by means of active-passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkova, Anna; Khlopov, Grygoriy

    2014-05-01

    Measurement of rain intensity is of great interest for municipal services and agriculture, particularly because of increasing number of floods and landslides. At that monitoring of amount of liquid precipitation allows to schedule work of hydrological services to inform the relevant public authorities about violent weather in time. That is why development of remote sensing methods for monitoring of rains is quite important task. The inverse problem solution of rain remote sensing is based on the measurements of scattering or radiation characteristics of rain drops. However liquid precipitation has a difficult structure which depends on many parameters. So using only scattering or radiation characteristics obtained by active and passive sensing at a single frequency does not allow to solve the inverse problem. Therefore double frequency sensing is widely used now for precipitation monitoring. Measurement of reflected power at two frequencies allows to find two parameters of drop size distribution of rain drops. However three-parameter distributions (for example gamma distribution) are the most prevalent now as a rain model, so in this case solution of the inverse problem requires the measurement of at least three uncorrelated variables. That is why a priori statistical meteorological data obtained by contact methods are used additionally to the double frequency sensing to solve the inverse problem. In particular, authors proposed and studied the combined method of double frequency sensing of rains based on dependence of the parameters of gamma distribution on rain intensity. The numerical simulation and experimental study shown that the proposed method allows to retrieve the profile of microstructure and integral parameters of rain with accuracy less than 15%. However, the effectiveness of the proposed method essentially depends on the reliability of the used statistical data which are tend to have a strong seasonal and regional variability led to significant

  20. Measuring the global distribution of intense convection over land with passive microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.; Santek, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The global distribution of intense convective activity over land is shown to be measurable with satellite passive-microwave methods through a comparison of an empirical rain rate algorithm with a climatology of thunderstorm days for the months of June-August. With the 18 and 37 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the strong volume scattering effects of precipitation can be measured. Even though a single frequency (37 GHz) is responsive to the scattering signature, two frequencies are needed to remove most of the effect that variations in thermometric temperatures and soil moisture have on the brightness temperatures. Because snow cover is also a volume scatterer of microwave energy at these microwavelengths, a discrimination procedure involving four of the SMMR channels is employed to separate the rain and snow classes, based upon their differences in average thermometric temperature.

  1. Simple method based on intensity measurements for characterization of aberrations from micro-optical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Stephane; Baranski, Maciej; Froehly, Luc; Albero, Jorge; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    We report a simple method, based on intensity measurements, for the characterization of the wavefront and aberrations produced by micro-optical focusing elements. This method employs the setup presented earlier in [Opt. Express 22, 13202 (2014)] for measurements of the 3D point spread function, on which a basic phase-retrieval algorithm is applied. This combination allows for retrieval of the wavefront generated by the micro-optical element and, in addition, quantification of the optical aberrations through the wavefront decomposition with Zernike polynomials. The optical setup requires only an in-motion imaging system. The technique, adapted for the optimization of micro-optical component fabrication, is demonstrated by characterizing a planoconvex microlens.

  2. Interrelationships between measured running intensities and agility performance in subelite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Sullivan, Lee O; Davies, Bruce; Wiltshire, Huw; Baker, Julien S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate agility performance of rugby players using various intensity running tests. A further aim was to investigate if any differences existed between playing positions in relation to agility performance. Nineteen subelite players (mean +/- SD age, 23.0 +/- 5.4 years) participated in the study. Players underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of four skinfolds). Running tests investigated were speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), agility (T Test and Illinois), and multistage fitness tests (20 m, 10 m, and 5 m), with all tests for agility measured against the Illinois agility test. Results indicated that backline players produced significant correlations (P rugby-specific agility programs to aid performance may be of greater benefit and of higher priority in training programs designed for backs rather than forwards.

  3. Disparity in formulations used for fluorescent X-ray intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Raj; Gupta, Sheenu

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a problem in computations of X-ray fluorescence cross-sections, shell/sub-shell fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig yields, vacancy alignment, etc. from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies. While using barn/atom as a unit for cross-sections if the atomic masses are not considered it causes a discrepancy in the measured cross-section, yield and alignment values. Most of the earlier publications are being quoted where such an oversight has occurred and discrepancy is evident. - Highlights: → Manuscript gives basic formulation for measurements of fluorescent X-ray intensities. → Most publications ignored the fact that use of barn/atom units for cross-sections requires atomic masses. → Published experimental results higher by a factor ≥2 or less by factor 1/M K . → Inspection of published data on XRF parameters needed.

  4. Theoretical background and experimental measurements of human brain noise intensity in perception of ambiguous images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical approach associated with an experimental technique to quantitatively characterize cognitive brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. Based on the developed theoretical background and the obtained experimental data, we introduce the concept of effective noise intensity characterizing cognitive brain activity and propose the experimental technique for its measurement. The developed theory, using the methods of statistical physics, provides a solid experimentally approved basis for further understanding of brain functionality. The rather simple way to measure the proposed quantitative characteristic of the brain activity related to the interpretation of ambiguous images will hopefully become a powerful tool for physicists, physiologists and medics. Our theoretical and experimental findings are in excellent agreement with each other.

  5. Review of intense-ion-beam propagation with a view toward measuring ion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this review is intense ion beam propagation and the possibilities of measuring time dependent ion energy in the beam. Propagation effects discussed include charge separation, charge and current autoneutralization, electron thermalization and current neutralization decay. The interaction of a plasma beam with material obstacles, like collimators, and with transverse magnetic fields is also described. Depending on beam energy, density and pulse length, these interactions can include material ablation with plasmadynamic flow and undeflected propagation across transverse magnetic fields by a polarization drift. On the basis of this review I conclude that three diagnostics: a single floating potential probe, net current probes (Faraday cups) and a Rutherford scattering spectrometer appear capable of giving prompt, time dependent ion energy measurements

  6. Polarization measurement of iron L-shell lines on EBIT-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Robbins, Darron; Smith, A.J.; Gu, Ming Feng

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the line polarization of Ne-like and F-like of iron n=3 to n=2 transitions in the x-ray region. We used the ''two-crystal technique'' developed in previous polarization measurements in our laboratory. Preliminary results from our measurements are presented together with the theoretical calculations using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Our calculations show that contributions from cascades play an important role in the polarization calculations of most of the transitions. The uncertainties and difficulties of our experiments are also discussed. (author)

  7. Resolution of sonographic B-lines as a measure of pulmonary decongestion in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Objective noninvasive measures of dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure are lacking. In this review, we describe lung ultrasound as a tool to estimate the degree of pulmonary congestion in patients presenting with acute heart failure and to monitor therapeutic efficacy. Serial semiquantitative measures of sonographic B-lines in acute heart failure patients can be converted to pulmonary edema scores obtained at admission and hospital discharge. These scores provide prognostic information for short-term clinical outcomes. Lung ultrasound has the potential to measure changes in pulmonary edema during acute heart failure management and improve risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  9. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  10. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 10^{9} particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E_{0} at FWHM. A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90  deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  11. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  12. Distribution measurement of radiation intensity with optical fiber at narrow space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Chizuo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    Recently, in the field or radiation measurement, optical fiber and scintillation fiber are also begun to use. In order to investigate a new application method of the optical fiber to radiation measurement, a lithium compound for neutron converter and a ZnS(Ag) scintillator are kneaded with epoxy type adhesives, and much few weight of them is coated at an end of optical fiber with 1 to 2 mm in diameter, which is further overcoated with black paint or an aluminum cap for its shielding light to produce a thermal neutron detector. The thermal neutron detector is found to be measurable to neutron flux distribution very rapidly and in high position resolution by moving with computer automatically. This method can be measured selctively aimed radiation such as thermal neutron, rapid neutron, {gamma}-ray, and so forth by means of changing the neutron converter. And, the developed fiber method could be widely used for measurement of neutron and {gamma}-ray intensity distribution at fine interval in the nuclear radiation facilities such as neighbors of accelerator facilities, medical radiation facilities. (G.K.)

  13. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  14. Validation of a measurement tool for self-assessment of teamwork in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P

    2013-09-01

    Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.

  15. On-line velocity measurements using phase probes at the SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-12-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non- destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The system uses three probes in each line to obtain accurate velocity measurements at all beam energies. Automatic gain control and signal analysis are performed so that the energy/nucleon along with up to three probe signals are displayed on a vector graphics display with a refresh rate better than twice per second. The system uses a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, features simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and is controlled by a touch-screen operator interface. It is accurate to within /+-/0.25% and has provisions for on-line calibration tests. The phase probes thus provide a velocity measurement independent of the mass defect associated with the use of crystal detectors, which can become significant for heavy elements. They are now used as a routine tuning aid to ensure proper bunch structure, and as a beam velocity monitor. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Comparison of Echo 7 field line length measurements to magnetospheric model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzek, R.J.; Winckler, J.R.; Malcolm, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Echo 7 sounding rocket experiment injected electron beams on central tail field lines near L = 6.5. Numerous injections returned to the payload as conjugate echoes after mirroring in the southern hemisphere. The authors compare field line lengths calculated from measured conjugate echo bounce times and energies to predictions made by integrating electron trajectories through various magnetospheric models: the Olson-Pfitzer Quiet and Dynamic models and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model. Although Kp at launch was 3-, quiet time magnetic models est fit the echo measurements. Geosynchronous satellite magnetometer measurements near the Echo 7 field lies during the flight were best modeled by the Olson-Pfitzer Dynamic Model and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model for Kp = 3. The discrepancy between the models that best fit the Echo 7 data and those that fit the satellite data was most likely due to uncertainties in the small-scale configuration of the magnetospheric models. The field line length measured by the conjugate echoes showed some temporal variation in the magnetic field, also indicated by the satellite magnetometers. This demonstrates the utility an Echo-style experiment could have in substorm studies

  17. On-line tritium production and heat deposition rate measurements at the Lotus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Scherrer, P.; Anand, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Integral tritium production and heat deposition measurement in a prototype fusion blanket would enable verification of the computational codes and the data based employed for the calculations. A large number of tritium production rate measurements have been reported for different type of blankets, whereas the direct heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field in the fusion environment, is still in its infancy. In order to ascertain the kerma factors and the photon production libraries, suitable techniques must be developed to directly measure the nuclear heat deposition rates in the materials required for the fusion systems. In this context, at the Lotus facility, we have developed an extremely efficient double ionizing chamber, for the on-line tritium production measurements and employed a pure graphite calorimeter to measure the nuclear heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field of the 14 MeV, Haefely neutron generator. This paper presents both systems and some of the recent measurements. (authors). 8 refs., 13 figs

  18. Fiber optic adaptation of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN for in-line measurements in PUREX process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.; Kraemer, K.; Koenig, W.

    1990-02-01

    The multicomponent version of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN was adapted by radiation resistant quartz glass optical fibers to in-line flow cells in the aqueous and organic bypass stream of an uranium laboratory extraction column. A combined photometric/electrolytical conductivity measurement allows this modified process instrument to be used as uranium/plutonium in-line monitor in radioactive process streams. By applying a high performance 100 W quartz halogen lamp and suitable light focussing optics the light intensity, attenuated by coupling losses, could be increased to the desired level even when 1000 μm-single strand fibers (2x18 m) were used to transmit the light. In a series of calibration experiments the U(VI)- and U(IV)-extinction coefficients were determined as a function of nitric acid molarity (for U(VI) also in TBP/kerosene). Furthermore the validity of Lambert-Beer's law was examined for both oxidation states at different optical path lengths and nitric acid/electrolytical conductivity calibration functions between 0-100 g/l U(VI) and 0-4 mol/l HNO 3 were set up. (orig./EF) [de

  19. Measurements of line overlap for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Elliott, S.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-06-01

    High-precision measurements are presented of candidate line pairs for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions in the nickel-like W 46+ , the neon-like Fe 16+ , and the neon-like La 47+ x-ray lasers. Our measurements were carried out with high-resolution crystal spectrometers, and a typical precision of 20--50 ppM was achieved. While most resonances appear insufficient for effective photo-spoiling, two resonance pairs are identified that provide a good overlap. These are the 4p 1/2 → 3d 3/2 transition in nickel-like W 46+ with the 2p 3/2 → 1s 1/2 transition in hydrogenic Al 12+ , and the 3s 1/2 → 2p 3/2 transition in neon-like La 47+ with the 1 1 S 0 -2 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Ti 20+

  20. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  1. Line overlap measurements for resonant photo-pumping of x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement taken on the LLNL EBIT to search for the possible photo-pumping of the 3p-3s lasing transitions in Ni-like ions of elements with Z=30--40 and the 4d-4p lasing transitions in Ne-like ions of elements with Z=47-73 are reported. A high-resolution crystral spectrometer was used to measure wavelengths of the Ne-like 2p-4d and the Ni-like 3d-5f and 3d-6f laser level feeding transitions relative to candidate pump lines in various H-, He-, and Ni-like ions. To date, the most promising candidate is Ni-like Pt pumping Ne-like Rb at 2512 eV. The line energies differ by 0.4±0.1 eV or by 160 ppm

  2. On the Use of Line Depth Ratios to Measure Starspot Properties on Magnetically Active Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be effective ways to measure the properties of dark, cool starspots on magnetically active stars. Recently, a technique was introduced using atomic line depth ratios (LDRs) to measure starspot properties. Carefully reproducing this technique using a new set of spectroscopic observations of active stars, we find that the LDR technique encounters difficulties, specifically by overestimating spot temperatures (because the atomic lines blend with titanium oxide absorption in cooler spots) and by not tightly constraining the filling factor of spots. While the use of LDRs for active star studies has great promise, we believe that these concerns need to be addressed before the technique is more widely applied. This paper includes data taken at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  3. Construction and psychometric testing of the EMPATHIC questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, Jos M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; de Neef, Marjorie; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.

    To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument

  4. Construction and psychometric testing of the EMPATHIC questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, J.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Albers, M.J.I.J.; van Dam, N.A.M.; Dullaart, E.; van Heerde, M.; de Neef, M.; Verlaat, C.W.M.; van Vught, E.M.; Hazelzet, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument

  5. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  6. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakakis, E.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2012-01-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  7. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakakis, E. [Technological Educational Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Karabourniotis, D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2012-09-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  8. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-01-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft–Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  9. Inpatient Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications: Should Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Lines Be Placed in the Intensive Care Unit Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyak, Michael; Kabir, Ishraq; Britt, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are now commonly used for central access in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting; however, there is a paucity of data evaluating the complication rates associated with these lines. We performed a retrospective review of all PICCs placed in the inpatient setting at our institution during a 1-year period from January 2013 to December 2013. These were divided into two groups: those placed at the bedside in the ICU and those placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients. Data regarding infectious and thrombotic complications were collected and evaluated. During the study period, 1209 PICC line placements met inclusion criteria and were evaluated; 1038 were placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients, and 171 were placed at the bedside in ICU patients. The combined thrombotic and central line associated blood stream infection rate was 6.17 per cent in the non-ICU group and 10.53 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.035). The thrombotic complication rate was 5.88 per cent in the non-ICU group and 7.60 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.38), whereas the central line associated blood stream infection rate was 0.29 per cent in the non-ICU group and 2.92 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.002). This study seems to suggest that PICC lines placed at the bedside in the ICU setting are associated with higher complication rates, in particular infectious complications, than those placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients. The routine placement of PICC lines in the ICU settings needs to be reevaluated given these findings.

  10. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  11. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Busschots

    2015-01-01

    • The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3 was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01 and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01 cell lines.

  12. Modified thermogravimetric apparatus to measure magnetic susceptibility on-line during annealing of metastable ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.; Constantini, A.; Branda, F.; Ausanio, G.; Hison, C.; Iannotti, V.; Luponio, C.; Lanotte, L.

    2004-01-01

    The insertion of proper coils to generate a magnetic field, with controlled gradient, in a standard thermogravimetric apparatus is shown to be a valid solution to measure on-line, upon heat treatment, the magnetic susceptibility in ribbon shaped samples of a metastable ferromagnetic material. The method is very useful to individuate the annealing conditions that optimise soft or hard magnetic properties without using separate apparatuses for heat treatment, control of the structural phase transition and characterization of magnetic susceptibility

  13. Displacements and intensities of the components of hydrogenic lines of the helium atom in the presence of exterior uniform electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Herman, L.; Nguyen, H.; Drawin, H.W.

    1967-01-01

    The Waller-Foster method for hydrogenic lines of neutral helium is extended in order to take into account an external magnetic field (vector K) having an arbitrary angle with an external constant electric field (vector F). The diagonal correction has been evaluated numerically taking into account recent experimental data. A Fortran IV program written for the CDC 3600 computer allows to calculate the displacements and the intensities for any hydrogenic transition. Special attention is given to the {2-4} transitions in neutral helium. (authors) [fr

  14. Effect of Intensive Education and Training of Nurses on Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection Incidence in Intensive Care Unit at a Tertiary Care Center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Neeru; Biswal, Manisha; Gandhi, Komal; Kaur, Kulbeer; Saini, Vikas; Yaddanapudi, Lakshminarayana N

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to analyze the impact of education and training of nurses on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). A prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital included adult patients with Intensive Care Unit stay >48 h. The study was done in three phases: in Phase 1, baseline VAP and CLABSI incidence was calculated; in Phase 2, education and training of nurses; and in Phase 3, data were recollected for the incidence of VAP and CLABSI. The baseline incidence of VAP in Phase 1 was 28.86/1000 ventilator days and that of CLABSI was 7.89/1000 central-line days. In Phase 3, the incidence of VAP increased to 35.06 and that of CLABSI decreased significantly, 1.73. Intensive education and training sessions with feedback from nurses over a period of 6 months led to significant reduction in the incidence of CLABSI; however, the incidence of VAP increased.

  15. Reliability of a new method for measuring coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xue; Liu, Qian; He, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane plays a key role in an evaluation of patients with trunk imbalance, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. An established, widely used practice in evaluating trunk imbalance is to drop a plumb line from the C7 vertebra to a key reference axis, the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs, and measuring the distance between them, the C7-CSVL. However, measuring the CSVL is subject to intraobserver differences, is error-prone, and is of poor reliability. Therefore, the development of a different way to measure trunk imbalance is needed. This study aimed to describe a new method to measure coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), which measures the angle at the intersection between the C7 plumb line and an axis line drawn from the vertebral centroid of the C7 to the middle of the superior border of the symphysis pubis, and to compare the reliability of the ALAT with that of the C7-CSVL. A prospective study at a university hospital was used. The patient sample consisted of sixty-nine consecutively enrolled men and women patients, aged 10-18 years, who had trunk imbalance defined as C7-CSVL longer than 20 mm on computed full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities. Using a picture archiving and communication system, three radiologists independently evaluated trunk imbalance on the 69 computed radiographs by measuring the C7-CSVL and by measuring the angle determined by the ALAT. Data were analyzed to determine the correlations between the two measures of trunk imbalance, and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each of them. Overall results from the measurements by the C7-CSVL and the ALAT were significantly moderately correlated

  16. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  17. Plasma core electron density and temperature measurements using CVI line emissions in TCABR Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, F. do, E-mail: fellypen@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Componentes Semicondutores; Machida, M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Severo, J.H.F.; Sanada, E.; Ronchi, G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we present results of electron temperature (T{sub e} ) and density (n {sub e} ) measurements obtained in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR) tokamak using visible spectroscopy from CVI line emissions which occurs mainly near the center of the plasma column. The presented method is based on a well-known relationship between the particle flux (Γ {sub ion}) and the photon flux (ø {sub ion}) emitted by an ion species combined with ionizations per photon atomic data provided by the atomic data and analysis structure (ADAS) database. In the experiment, we measured the photon fluxes of three different CVI spectral line emissions, 4685.2, 5290.5, and 6200.6 Å (one line per shot). Using this method it was possible to find out the temporal evolution of T{sub e} and n{sub e} in the plasma. The results achieved are in good agreement with T{sub e} and n{sub e} measurements made using other diagnostic tools. (author)

  18. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  19. Examining Acoustic and Kinematic Measures of Articulatory Working Space: Effects of Speech Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Jason A; Dromey, Christopher; Palmer, Panika

    2018-04-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of speech intensity on acoustic and kinematic vowel space measures and conduct a preliminary examination of the relationship between kinematic and acoustic vowel space metrics calculated from continuously sampled lingual marker and formant traces. Young adult speakers produced 3 repetitions of 2 different sentences at 3 different loudness levels. Lingual kinematic and acoustic signals were collected and analyzed. Acoustic and kinematic variants of several vowel space metrics were calculated from the formant frequencies and the position of 2 lingual markers. Traditional metrics included triangular vowel space area and the vowel articulation index. Acoustic and kinematic variants of sentence-level metrics based on the articulatory-acoustic vowel space and the vowel space hull area were also calculated. Both acoustic and kinematic variants of the sentence-level metrics significantly increased with an increase in loudness, whereas no statistically significant differences in traditional vowel-point metrics were observed for either the kinematic or acoustic variants across the 3 loudness conditions. In addition, moderate-to-strong relationships between the acoustic and kinematic variants of the sentence-level vowel space metrics were observed for the majority of participants. These data suggest that both kinematic and acoustic vowel space metrics that reflect the dynamic contributions of both consonant and vowel segments are sensitive to within-speaker changes in articulation associated with manipulations of speech intensity.

  20. The split-cross-bridge resistor for measuring the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing of conducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Hershey, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    A new test structure was developed for evaluating the line spacing between conductors on the same layer using an electrical measurement technique. This compact structure can also be used to measure the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line pitch of the conducting layer. Using an integrated-circuit fabrication process, this structure was fabricated in diffused polycrystalline silicon and metal layers and measured optically and electrically. For the techniques used, the optical measurements were typically one-quarter micron greater than the electrical measurements. Most electrically measured line pitch values were within 2 percent of the designed value. A small difference between the measured and designed line pitch is used to validate sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing values.

  1. Evidence for the field line reconnection process in the particle and magnetic field measurements obtained during the Giotto-Halley encounter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, E.; Daly, P.; Korth, A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Neubauer, F.M.; O' Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Wenzel, K.P.

    1989-04-01

    Measurements of low (E = 250-1000 eV) and high (E = 60 to > 300 keV) energy particles as well as the magnetic field obtained by 3 different instruments (Reme Plasma Analyser, Energetic Particle Analyser, MAGnetometer) during the Giotto-Halley encounter on 13/14 March 1986 are used to study the field line merging process. Spikes of 5-15 min duration in the high energy particle flux which are superimposed on the general intensity time profile are correlated with minima in the low energy particle flux and time periods of oppositely directed magnetic field lines. Strong changes in the pitch angle distribution of energetic ions are observed simultaneously. The observations are considered as evidence for sporadic field line merging processes in the front side of Halley's cometosheath which can accelerate ions and electrons up to E /similar to/ 300 keV.

  2. Theodolite Polar measurements system and definition of the grid-lines method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Seixas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of construction quality, mainly in the car and airplane industries, accelerate the development of new 3D-Measurement Systems and Measurement Processes that make possible the automatic object recording and it’s post-processing on the basis, for example, on deformations. The geometrical reconstruction of objects or surface requires a minimal number of points, which abstracts and will be fulfill through interpolation its exact form and quality of the object in each case. The applications of the laser for the active signalization of a point object in combination with the directional measurement make possible in such way the determination of objects or surfaces, including also, places where the use of artificial targets is dangerous or impossible. This work describes the development of such measurement system based on two measurement robots or a reflector-free measuring tachymeter. The system is capable of reaching the intersections points of a grid-line that is defined in an appropriate coordinate system. The aim of this paper is to present the development of measurement methods that can reconstruct unknown three-dimensional and not signalized objects. The existing deformation-measurement, based on Pointer Theodolite and a Video Theodolite Measurement System and the other reflector-free Tachymeter Measurement System in context with the problematic analysis of deformation will be presented. The grid-lines Methods appear a solution and stand as new alternative for the geometrical reconstruction of the object surfaces. Its definition and preparations in a suitable coordinate system are discussed in detail.

  3. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  4. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  5. Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: theory, precedence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Mary; Gibbins, Sharyn; Hoath, Steven

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a discussion of evidence-based core measures for developmental care in neonatal intensive care units. Inconsistent definition, application and evaluation of developmental care have resulted in criticism of its scientific merit. The key concept guiding data organization in this paper is the United States of America's Joint Commission's concept of 'core measures' for evaluating and accrediting healthcare organizations. This concept is applied to five disease- and procedure-independent measures based on the Universe of Developmental Care model. Electronically accessible, peer reviewed studies on developmental care published in English were culled for data supporting the selected objective core measures between 1978 and 2008. The quality of evidence was based on a structured predetermined format that included three independent reviewers. Systematic reviews and randomized control trials were considered the strongest level of evidence. When unavailable, cohort, case control, consensus statements and qualitative methods were considered the strongest level of evidence for a particular clinical issue. Five core measure sets for evidence-based developmental care were evaluated: (1) protected sleep, (2) pain and stress assessment and management, (3) developmental activities of daily living, (4) family-centred care, and (5) the healing environment. These five categories reflect recurring themes that emerged from the literature review regarding developmentally supportive care and quality caring practices in neonatal populations. This practice model provides clear metrics for nursing actions having an impact on the hospital experience of infant-family dyads. Standardized disease-independent core measures for developmental care establish minimum evidence-based practice expectations and offer an objective basis for cross-institutional comparison of developmental care programmes.

  6. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  7. [Measurement and analysis of smile line of 62 Han-Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiu-lian; Heberer, Susanne; Nelson, Katja; Lin, Ye

    2011-11-01

    To analyze smile features in maximum lip-dynamic in Chinese. Sixty-two Han-Chinese, travelling in Germany, with a mean age of 28.5 years were enrolled and photographed. Standardized digital photos were made to measure the height of displayed maxillary gingiva, papilla and tooth during an enjoyment smile. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney-U Test and non-parametric analysis. The mean height of tooth display for the central incisors was 10 mm, with no significant difference between the gender (P > 0.05). The mean height of gingival display was 1.3 mm and the mean papilla height was 3.4 mm. There was no significant difference between the genders (P > 0.05). 31% (19/62) of the subjects belonged to high smile line type, 50% (31/62) to medium smile line type and 19% (12/62) to low smile line type. The red esthetics is a paramount factor for Chinese men and women in the esthetic restoration. 81% of the Chinese studied showed various degree of gingival exposure from central incisor to the premolars, which defined the esthetic area for Chinese people. Papilla is a critical parameter for esthetic evaluation and treatment design. The ratio of high smile line in Chinese may be higher than that in Caucasian.

  8. In-line bulk supersaturation measurement by electrical conductometry in KDP crystal growth from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordui, P. F.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1984-07-01

    A method is presented for in-line bulk supersaturation measurement in crystal growth from aqueous solution. The method is based on a computer-controlled concentration measurement exploiting an experimentally predetermined cross-correlation between the concentration, electrical conductivity, and temperature of the growth solution. The method was applied to Holden crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). An extensive conductivity-temperature-concentration data base was generated for this system over a temperature range of 31 to 41°C. The method yielded continous, automated bulk supersaturation output accurate to within ±0.05 g KDP100 g water (±0.15% relative supersaturation).

  9. Direct measurement of the quantum state of the electromagnetic field in a superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F. de; Aolita, L.; Davidovich, L.; Toscano, F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an experimental procedure to directly measure the state of an electromagnetic field inside a resonator, corresponding to a superconducting transmission line, coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB). The measurement protocol is based on the use of a dispersive interaction between the field and the CPB, and the coupling to an external classical field that is tuned to resonance with either the field or the CPB. We present a numerical simulation that demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, which is within reach of present technology

  10. Measurement of magnetic fields in the direct proximity of power line conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamishev, A.V.; Russell, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and managing of power frequency magnetic fields requires verification of theory with actual measurements. Measurements only at ground level are not always sufficient for comprehensive studies. The technique and the results of three-dimensional mapping of the power frequency magnetic fields high above ground level are presented in this paper. Comparative calculations illustrate relevance and approximations of the existing theoretical approach to field modeling. The influence of harmonics on the elliptical rotation of the magnetic field vector is illustrated. The possibility of use of the magnetic fields for the power line proximity detection is discussed

  11. On-line measurement of microwave power in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang; Li Xiaoyun

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology to apply an ECR ion source to the neutron generator. Because of the structure limitation, working state of the ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharge chamber. Therefore, it was hard to estimate if the ECR ion source was working properly in the neutron generator. The method to resolve the problem was described in this paper. The microwave power was measured on-line by a directional coupler and a small microwave power meter. The ion beam current could be educed from the measured incidence microwave power, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be determined. (authors)

  12. Results of cosmic ray intensity measurements by the ''Luna-19'' space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuchkov, E.A.; Lyubimov, G.P.; Myagchenkova, O.G.; Novichkova, A.D.; Pereslegina, N.V.; Kontor, N.N.; Nikolaev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reviewed of measurements of low energy cosmic-ray characteristics obtained by means of the equipment installed on the ''Luna-19'' space station over the period from 28 November, 1971 to August 20, 1972. Proton fluxes with the energy of 1-5, 5-10, 10-40 MeV were mainly detected. A brief analysis both of individual events in cosmic rays and the general variation of intensity over the period from 1971 to 1972 is presented. Solar and geophysical data are used for the analysis. It is demonstrated that the period of the ''Luna-19'' operation corresponded to the secondary (anomalous) maximum on the decay of the solar activity in the 20th cycle. Assumptions concerning the nature of this maximum are formulated

  13. A comparison of synthetic and measured solar continuum intensities and limb darkening coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute continuum intensities and wavelength-dependent low-order polynomial fits to optical and infrared continuum limb darkening provide useful discriminants among single-component models of the solar photosphere. The thermal structure in best quantitative agreement with the recent center-limb measurements by Pierce and Slaughter (1977) and by Pierce et.al. (1977) is the semi-empirical model by Vernazza, Avrett and Loeser (VAL). However, the VAL model M temperatures must be scaled upward by a factor of 1.015+-0.005 to be consistent with the Labs and Neckel absolute calibration of continuum high points in the optical region 0.40-0.65 μm. (Auth.)

  14. Measuring a Fiber-Optic Delay Line Using a Mode-Locked Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meirong; McKee, Michael R.; Pak, Kyung S.; Yu, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a laboratory setup for determining the optical length of a fiber-optic delay line at a precision greater than that obtainable by use of optical time-domain reflectometry or of mechanical measurement of length during the delay-line-winding process. In this setup, the delay line becomes part of the resonant optical cavity that governs the frequency of oscillation of a mode-locked laser. The length can then be determined from frequency-domain measurements, as described below. The laboratory setup is basically an all-fiber ring laser in which the delay line constitutes part of the ring. Another part of the ring - the laser gain medium - is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a diode laser at a wavelength of 980 nm. The loop also includes an optical isolator, two polarization controllers, and a polarizing beam splitter. The optical isolator enforces unidirectional lasing. The polarization beam splitter allows light in only one polarization mode to pass through the ring; light in the orthogonal polarization mode is rejected from the ring and utilized as a diagnostic output, which is fed to an optical spectrum analyzer and a photodetector. The photodetector output is fed to a radio-frequency spectrum analyzer and an oscilloscope. The fiber ring laser can generate continuous-wave radiation in non-mode-locked operation or ultrashort optical pulses in mode-locked operation. The mode-locked operation exhibited by this ring is said to be passive in the sense that no electro-optical modulator or other active optical component is used to achieve it. Passive mode locking is achieved by exploiting optical nonlinearity of passive components in such a manner as to obtain ultra-short optical pulses. In this setup, the particular nonlinear optical property exploited to achieve passive mode locking is nonlinear polarization rotation. This or any ring laser can support oscillation in multiple modes as long as sufficient gain is present to overcome

  15. Measurements of radiation near an atomic spectral line from the interaction of a 30 GeV electron beam and a long plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catravas, P.E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a ∼ 1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creating of plasma, and estimates of neutral and plasma density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation, consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields, were simultaneously measured

  16. First experiences with model based iterative reconstructions influence on quantitative plaque volume and intensity measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Broersen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model- based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) im- ages on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. Methods...

  17. Plasma Temperature Determination of Hydrogen Containing High-Frequency Electrodeless Lamps by Intensity Distribution Measurements of Hydrogen Molecular Band

    OpenAIRE

    Gavare, Zanda; Revalde, Gita; Skudra, Atis

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was the investigation of the possibility to use intensity distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher-α diagonal band (d3Πu−→a3∑g+ electronic transition; Q-branch with v=v′=2) to determine the temperature of hydrogen containing high-frequency electrodeless lamps (HFEDLs). The values of the rotational temperatures have been obtained from the relative intensity distributions for hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-argon HFEDLs depending on the applied curren...

  18. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  19. Precision Measurement of the Energies and Line Shapes of Antiprotonic Lyman and Balmer Transitions From Hydrogen and Helium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS207 \\\\ \\\\ For the study of the antiproton-proton and antiproton-nuclear spin-spin and spin-orbital interaction at threshold a high resolution measurement is proposed of the line shapes and energy shifts of antiprotonic K$\\alpha$ and L$\\alpha$ transitions of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The intense LEAR beam, stopped in the cyclotron trap at low gas pressure, provides a unique~X-ray~source with sufficient brightness. Charge coupled devices with their excellent background rejection and energy resolution allow a precise determination of the strong shifts and widths of the 1s hyperfine states of protonium, in addition the detection of the $\\bar{p}$D K$\\alpha$ transition should be possible. A focussing crystal spectrometer with a resolution $\\Delta$E/E of about l0$ ^- ^{4} $, which is superior in the accuracy of the energy determination by two orders of magnitude as compared to the present detection methods, will be used to measure the energies of the L$\\alpha$ transitions. This permits a first direct measure...

  20. On-line measurement of mechanical, optical properties and roughness parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman, H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On-line measurements become a central importance for the control of production line output. The target is to replace traditional single local destructive quality checks by a continuous survey of the product properties. Other traditional like pyrometric temperature measurements suffer of well-known but non-soluble weakness points. New methods need the unambiguous correlation with the results of traditional testing to be representative for valid proof standards.EKO Stahl GmbH introduces several methods of on-line measurements focused actually on temperature measurement means of FTIR-Spectrometer, prediction of the mechanical properties of steel strips using the information of residual magnetization after a magnetization pulse and optical roughness measurements. The correlation between the results of the new methods and the classical proof processes has been established in a satisfactory manner.

    Las medidas on line van tomando una importancia central para el control de la calidad de la producción . El objetivo es reemplazar las pruebas destructivas puntuales tradicionales por un control continuo de las características del producto. Otros métodos tradicionales, como la medida de la temperatura con pirómetros, adolecen de conocidos pero insolubles puntos débiles. Los nuevos métodos necesitan la correlación inequívoca con los resultados de los métodos corrientes clásicos para obtener la autoridad de un estándar de prueba. La EKO Stahl GmbH ha introducido varios métodos de medidas on line y actualmente concentrados en la medida de la temperatura con espectrómetro FTIR, predicción de las características mecánicas usando la información del magnetismo residual, a partir de un impulso magnético inicial así como la medida óptica de la rugosidad. La correlación entre los resultados de los nuevos métodos y los métodos clásicos ha quedado establecida de manera satisfactoria.

  1. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author)

  2. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K. (Ghana Univ., Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Physics)

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author).

  3. Infrastructure for quality transformation: measurement and reporting in veterans administration intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Render, Marta L; Freyberg, Ron W; Hasselbeck, Rachael; Hofer, Timothy P; Sales, Anne E; Deddens, James; Levesque, Odette; Almenoff, Peter L

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Veterans Health Administration (VA) intensive care units (ICUs) develop an infrastructure for quality improvement using information technology and recruiting leadership. METHODS Setting Participation by the 183 ICUs in the quality improvement program is required. Infrastructure includes measurement (electronic data extraction, analysis), quarterly web-based reporting and implementation support of evidence-based practices. Leaders prioritise measures based on quality improvement objectives. The electronic extraction is validated manually against the medical record, selecting hospitals whose data elements and measures fall at the extremes (10th, 90th percentile). results are depicted in graphic, narrative and tabular reports benchmarked by type and complexity of ICU. RESULTS The VA admits 103 689±1156 ICU patients/year. Variation in electronic business practices, data location and normal range of some laboratory tests affects data quality. A data management website captures data elements important to ICU performance and not available electronically. A dashboard manages the data overload (quarterly reports ranged 106-299 pages). More than 85% of ICU directors and nurse managers review their reports. Leadership interest is sustained by including ICU targets in executive performance contracts, identification of local improvement opportunities with analytic software, and focused reviews. CONCLUSION Lessons relevant to non-VA institutions include the: (1) need for ongoing data validation, (2) essential involvement of leadership at multiple levels, (3) supplementation of electronic data when key elements are absent, (4) utility of a good but not perfect electronic indicator to move practice while improving data elements and (5) value of a dashboard.

  4. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  5. Measurements of decay heat and gamma-ray intensity of spent LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.; Agrenius, L.; Jansson, P.; Baecklin, A.; Haakansson, A.; Jacobsson, S.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the decay heat of a number of BWR and PWR fuel assemblies have been performed in the pools at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel, CLAB. Gamma-ray measurements, using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), have been carried out on the same fuel assemblies in order to test if it is possible to find a simple and accurate correlation between the 137 CS -intensity and the decay heat for fuel with a cooling time longer than 10-12 years. The results up to now are very promising and may ultimately lead to a qualified method for quick and accurate determination of the decay heat of old fuel by gamma-ray measurements. By means of the gamma spectrum the operator declared data on burnup, cooling time and initial enrichment can be verified as well. CLAB provides a unique opportunity in the world to follow up the decay heat of individual fuel assemblies during several decades to come. The results will be applicable for design and operation of facilities for wet and dry interim storage and subsequent encapsulation for final disposal of the fuel. (author)

  6. A new approach to preparation of standard LEDs for luminous intensity and flux measurement of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Nam; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2006-09-01

    This work presents an alternative approach for preparing photometric standard LEDs, which is based on a novel functional seasoning method. The main idea of our seasoning method is simultaneously monitoring the light output and the junction voltage to obtain quantitative information on the temperature dependence and the aging effect of the LED emission. We suggested a general model describing the seasoning process by taking junction temperature variation and aging effect into account and implemented a fully automated seasoning facility, which is capable of seasoning 12 LEDs at the same time. By independent measurements of the temperature dependence, we confirmed the discrepancy of the theoretical model to be less than 0.5 % and evaluate the uncertainty contribution of the functional seasoning to be less than 0.5 % for all the seasoned samples. To demonstrate assigning the reference value to a standard LED, the CIE averaged LED intensity (ALI) of the seasoned LEDs was measured with a spectroradiometer-based instrument and the measurement uncertainty was analyzed. The expanded uncertainty of the standard LED prepared by the new approach amounts to be 4 % ~ 5 % (k=2) depending on color without correction of spectral stray light in the spectroradiometer.

  7. Windowless microfluidic platform based on capillary burst valves for high intensity x-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Enevoldsen, Nikolaj; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Eriksen, Johan; Kristensen, Anders; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2009-01-01

    We propose and describe a microfluidic system for high intensity x-ray measurements. The required open access to a microfluidic channel is provided by an out-of-plane capillary burst valve (CBV). The functionality of the out-of-plane CBV is characterized with respect to the diameter of the windowless access hole, ranging from 10 to 130 μm. Maximum driving pressures from 22 to 280 mbar corresponding to refresh rates of the exposed sample from 300 Hz to 54 kHz is demonstrated. The microfluidic system is tested at beamline ID09b at the ESRF synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, and x-ray scattering measurements are shown to be feasible and to require only very limited amounts of sample, <1 ml/h of measurements without recapturing of sample. With small adjustments of the present chip design, scattering angles up to 30 deg. can be achieved without shadowing effects and integration on-chip mixing and spectroscopy appears straightforward.

  8. Intensity Modulation Techniques for Continuous-Wave Lidar for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Dobler, J. T.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Linear Swept Frequency modulations to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that take advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. We compare BPSK to linear swept frequency and introduce a new technique to eliminate sidelobes in situations from linear swept frequency where the SNR is high with results that rival BPSK. We also investigate the effects of non-linear modulators, which can in some circumstances degrade the orthogonality of the waveforms, and show how to avoid this. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture written in

  9. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  10. AUTOMATED INSPECTION OF POWER LINE CORRIDORS TO MEASURE VEGETATION UNDERCUT USING UAV-BASED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maurer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power line corridor inspection is a time consuming task that is performed mostly manually. As the development of UAVs made huge progress in recent years, and photogrammetric computer vision systems became well established, it is time to further automate inspection tasks. In this paper we present an automated processing pipeline to inspect vegetation undercuts of power line corridors. For this, the area of inspection is reconstructed, geo-referenced, semantically segmented and inter class distance measurements are calculated. The presented pipeline performs an automated selection of the proper 3D reconstruction method for on the one hand wiry (power line, and on the other hand solid objects (surrounding. The automated selection is realized by performing pixel-wise semantic segmentation of the input images using a Fully Convolutional Neural Network. Due to the geo-referenced semantic 3D reconstructions a documentation of areas where maintenance work has to be performed is inherently included in the distance measurements and can be extracted easily. We evaluate the influence of the semantic segmentation according to the 3D reconstruction and show that the automated semantic separation in wiry and dense objects of the 3D reconstruction routine improves the quality of the vegetation undercut inspection. We show the generalization of the semantic segmentation to datasets acquired using different acquisition routines and to varied seasons in time.

  11. Automated Inspection of Power Line Corridors to Measure Vegetation Undercut Using Uav-Based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M.; Hofer, M.; Fraundorfer, F.; Bischof, H.

    2017-08-01

    Power line corridor inspection is a time consuming task that is performed mostly manually. As the development of UAVs made huge progress in recent years, and photogrammetric computer vision systems became well established, it is time to further automate inspection tasks. In this paper we present an automated processing pipeline to inspect vegetation undercuts of power line corridors. For this, the area of inspection is reconstructed, geo-referenced, semantically segmented and inter class distance measurements are calculated. The presented pipeline performs an automated selection of the proper 3D reconstruction method for on the one hand wiry (power line), and on the other hand solid objects (surrounding). The automated selection is realized by performing pixel-wise semantic segmentation of the input images using a Fully Convolutional Neural Network. Due to the geo-referenced semantic 3D reconstructions a documentation of areas where maintenance work has to be performed is inherently included in the distance measurements and can be extracted easily. We evaluate the influence of the semantic segmentation according to the 3D reconstruction and show that the automated semantic separation in wiry and dense objects of the 3D reconstruction routine improves the quality of the vegetation undercut inspection. We show the generalization of the semantic segmentation to datasets acquired using different acquisition routines and to varied seasons in time.

  12. Comparison of maximum intensity projection and digitally reconstructed radiographic projection for carotid artery stenosis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, Derek E.; Habets, Damiaan F.; Fox, Allan J.; Gulka, Irene; Kalapos, Paul; Lee, Don H.; Pelz, David M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography is being supplanted by three-dimensional imaging techniques in many clinical applications, leading to extensive use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images to depict volumetric vascular data. The MIP algorithm produces intensity profiles that are different than conventional angiograms, and can also increase the vessel-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the effect of the MIP algorithm in a clinical application where quantitative vessel measurement is important: internal carotid artery stenosis grading. Three-dimensional computed rotational angiography (CRA) was performed on 26 consecutive symptomatic patients to verify an internal carotid artery stenosis originally found using duplex ultrasound. These volumes of data were visualized using two different postprocessing projection techniques: MIP and digitally reconstructed radiographic (DRR) projection. A DRR is a radiographic image simulating a conventional digitally subtracted angiogram, but it is derived computationally from the same CRA dataset as the MIP. By visualizing a single volume with two different projection techniques, the postprocessing effect of the MIP algorithm is isolated. Vessel measurements were made, according to the NASCET guidelines, and percentage stenosis grades were calculated. The paired t-test was used to determine if the measurement difference between the two techniques was statistically significant. The CRA technique provided an isotropic voxel spacing of 0.38 mm. The MIPs and DRRs had a mean signal-difference-to-noise-ratio of 30:1 and 26:1, respectively. Vessel measurements from MIPs were, on average, 0.17 mm larger than those from DRRs (P<0.0001). The NASCET-type stenosis grades tended to be underestimated on average by 2.4% with the MIP algorithm, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.09). The mean interobserver variability (standard deviation) of both the MIP and DRR images was 0.35 mm. It was concluded that the MIP

  13. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  14. Wavelength Measurements of Ni L-shell Lines between 9 and 15 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming F.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Thorn, D. B.; Kahn, S. M.

    2006-09-01

    We present accurate wavelength measurements of nikel L-shell X-ray lines resulting from Δ n ≥ 1 transitions (mostly, 2 - 3 transitions) between 9 and 15 Å. We have used the electron beam ion trap, SuperEBIT, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a flat field grating spectrometer to record the spectra. Most significant emission lines of Ni XIX -- XXVI in our spectral coverage are identified. The resulting data set provides valuable input in the analyses of high resolution X-ray spectra of stellar coronae sources, including the Sun. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, and supported by NASA APRA Grant NAG5-5419.

  15. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    water quality changes. In situ monitoring locations that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths greater than seven meters and were located over five kilometers from shore. Water quality parameter of total nitrogen, phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand had high correlations with these sites, as well. Satellite FLH estimates show improving water quality from 2003-2007 with a slight decline up through 2011. Dinoflagellate blooms in Monterey Bay, California (USA) have recently increased in frequency and intensity. Nine years of MODIS FLH observations are used to describe the annual and seasonal variability of bloom activity within the Bay. Three classes of MODIS algorithms were correlated against in situ chlorophyll measurements. The FLH algorithm provided the most robust estimate of bloom activity. Elevated concentrations of phytoplankton were evident during the months of August-November, a period during which increased occurrences of dinoflagellate blooms have been observed in situ. Seasonal patterns of FLH show the on- and offshore movement of areas of high phytoplankton biomass between oceanographic seasons. Higher concentrations of phytoplankton are also evident in the vicinity of the land-based nutrient sources and outflows, and the cyclonic bay-wide circulation can transport these nutrients to the northern Bay bloom incubation region. Both of these case studies illustrate the utility MODIS FLH observations in supporting management decisions in coastal and estuarine waters.

  16. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the rocking curves measured for MoKα X-ray characteristic lines in the double-crystal nondispersive scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenkov, N. V.; Chukhovskii, F. N.; Blagov, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The rocking curves (RCs) for MoK α1 and MoK α2 characteristic X-ray lines have been experimentally and theoretically studied in the nondispersive scheme of an X-ray double-crystal TPC-K diffractometer. The results of measurements and theoretical calculations of double-crystal RCs for characteristic X-rays from tubes with a molybdenum anode and different widths of slits show that a decrease in the slit width leads to an increase in the relative contribution of the MoK α2 -line RC in comparison with the intensity of the tails of the MoK α1 -line RC. It is shown that the second peak of the MoK α2 line becomes increasingly pronounced in the tail of the MoK α1 -line RC with a decrease in the slit width. Two plane-parallel Si plates (input faces (110), diffraction vector h 〈220〉) were used as a monochromator crystal and a sample. The results of measuring double-crystal RCs are in good agreement with theoretical calculations

  18. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the rocking curves measured for Mo K α X-ray characteristic lines in the double-crystal nondispersive scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenkov, N. V.; Chukhovskii, F. N.; Blagov, A. E.

    2015-03-01

    The rocking curves (RCs) for Mo K α1 h Mo K α2 characteristic X-ray lines have been experimentally and theoretically studied in the nondispersive scheme of an X-ray double-crystal TPC-K diffractometer. The results of measurements and theoretical calculations of double-crystal RCs for characteristic X-rays from tubes with a molybdenum anode and different widths of slits show that a decrease in the slit width leads to an increase in the relative contribution of the Mo K α2-line RC in comparison with the intensity of the tails of the Mo K α1-line RC. It is shown that the second peak of the Mo K α2 line becomes increasingly pronounced in the tail of the Mo K α1-line RC with a decrease in the slit width. Two plane-parallel Si plates (input faces {110}, diffraction vector h ) were used as a monochromator crystal and a sample. The results of measuring double-crystal RCs are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  19. Measurement of borders in power transmission lines; Medicao de fronteira em linhas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Celso [Bandeirante Energia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The creation of Bandeirantes Energia S/A, which is a energy distributor company and at the same time one of the four originated companies from the division of ELETROPAULO Eletricidade S/A, generated the need of consumed energy measurements. Different from a previous situation, which had been accomplished in the 230, 345 and 440 Kv transformer stations. With the aggravating of having been created two distribution companies by this division, which later possessed transmission lines in common finishing a border scenery of 88/138 kv in connection with CTEEP, EPTE, Furnas in station terminals and ELETROPAULO Metropolitana in transmission lines. In order to measure the consumed energy it has been necessary to install meters in all energy entrance subsystems, but there were certain cases for which part of the energy had been absorbed by other distribution company, some times before the connection with Bandeirantes some times after this connection to have been done. For these cases, it has been necessary to install meters at de middle of the line, it means installed meters at the border between the two companies. In February of 1999, they were initiate the studies of viability for these measurements implantation in all of the interface points among Bandeirantes and the other concessionaires, based on the premise that from 01/01/2000 on all the consumed energy by the company should be measured. In the end of May of 1999, with the design final definitions the studies were finished, after that, it has been started the equipment purchases and the actions to hire companies to execute these activities. Finally, in the last week of August of 1999 the construction activities were initiated and the circuits were energized in December of that year.

  20. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Chu, M. C.; Guardado, J. A.; Salas, A.; Capannelli, G.; Costa, C.; Bostrom, T.; Jämting, Å. K.; Lawn, M. A.; Adlem, L.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.

    2013-10-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—"Properties of Nanoparticle Populations" of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 "Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles". Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed.