Sample records for line immunoassay lia

  1. Antiphospholipid antibodies detected by line immunoassay differentiate among patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, with infections and asymptomatic carriers.

    Roggenbuck, Dirk; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Somma, Valentina; Büttner, Thomas; Schierack, Peter; Hanack, Katja; Grossi, Claudia; Bodio, Caterina; Macor, Paolo; von Landenberg, Philipp; Boccellato, Francesco; Mahler, Michael; Meroni, Pier Luigi


    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can be detected in asymptomatic carriers and infectious patients. The aim was to investigate whether a novel line immunoassay (LIA) differentiates between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and asymptomatic aPL+ carriers or patients with infectious diseases (infectious diseases controls (IDC)). Sixty-one patients with APS (56 primary, 22/56 with obstetric events only, and 5 secondary), 146 controls including 24 aPL+ asymptomatic carriers and 73 IDC were tested on a novel hydrophobic solid phase coated with cardiolipin (CL), phosphatic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), prothrombin, and annexin V. Samples were also tested by anti-CL and anti-β2GPI ELISAs and for lupus anticoagulant activity. Human monoclonal antibodies (humoAbs) against human β2GPI or PL alone were tested on the same LIA substrates in the absence or presence of human serum, purified human β2GPI or after CL-micelle absorption. Comparison of LIA with the aPL-classification assays revealed good agreement for IgG/IgM aß2GPI and aCL. Anti-CL and anti-ß2GPI IgG/IgM reactivity assessed by LIA was significantly higher in patients with APS versus healthy controls and IDCs, as detected by ELISA. IgG binding to CL and ß2GPI in the LIA was significantly lower in aPL+ carriers and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) + samples than in patients with APS. HumoAb against domain 1 recognized β2GPI bound to the LIA-matrix and in anionic phospholipid (PL) complexes. Absorption with CL micelles abolished the reactivity of a PL-specific humoAb but did not affect the binding of anti-β2GPI humoAbs. The LIA and ELISA have good agreement in detecting aPL in APS, but the LIA differentiates patients with APS from infectious patients and asymptomatic carriers, likely through the exposure of domain 1.

  2. Diagnostic performance of line-immunoassay based algorithms for incident HIV-1 infection

    Schüpbach Jörg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have previously demonstrated that a patient's antibody reaction pattern in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score provides information on the duration of infection, which is unaffected by clinical, immunological and viral variables. In this report we have set out to determine the diagnostic performance of Inno-Lia algorithms for identifying incident infections in patients with known duration of infection and evaluated the algorithms in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. Methods Diagnostic sensitivity was determined in 527 treatment-naive patients infected for up to 12 months. Specificity was determined in 740 patients infected for longer than 12 months. Plasma was tested by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident ( Results The 10 best algorithms had a mean raw sensitivity of 59.4% and a mean specificity of 95.1%. Adjustment for overrepresentation of patients in the first quarter year of infection further reduced the sensitivity. In the preferred model, the mean adjusted sensitivity was 37.4%. Application of the 10 best algorithms to four annual cohorts of HIV-1 notifications totalling 2'595 patients yielded a mean IIR of 0.35 in 2005/6 (baseline and of 0.45, 0.42 and 0.35 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The increase between baseline and 2008 and the ensuing decreases were highly significant. Other adjustment models yielded different absolute IIR, although the relative changes between the cohorts were identical for all models. Conclusions The method can be used for comparing IIR in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. The use of several different algorithms in combination, each with its own sensitivity and specificity to detect incident infection, is advisable as this reduces the impact of individual imperfections stemming primarily from relatively low sensitivities and

  3. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

    Sebastian Wendy


    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  4. The management of isolated positive syphilis enzyme immunoassay results in HIV-negative patients attending a sexual health clinic.

    Thorley, Nicola; Adebayo, Michael; Smit, Erasmus; Radcliffe, Keith


    An unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination negative and rapid plasma reagin negative) presents a clinical challenge to distinguish early syphilis infection from false-positive results. These cases are referred for syphilis line assay (INNO-LIA) and recalled for repeat syphilis serology. We performed a retrospective audit to establish the proportion of HIV-negative cases with unconfirmed positive enzyme immunoassay results, the proportion of these cases that received an INNO-LIA test and repeat syphilis serology testing and reviewed the clinical outcomes; 0.35% (80/22687) cases had an unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay result. Repeat syphilis serology was performed in 80% (64/80) cases, but no additional cases of syphilis were identified. Eighty-eight per cent (70/80) received an INNO-LIA test; 14% (5/37) unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay-positive cases with no prior history of syphilis were confirmed on INNO-LIA assay, supporting a diagnosis of latent syphilis. As a confirmatory treponemal test, the INNO-LIA assay may be more useful than repeat syphilis serological testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Ultrasensitive and accelerated detection of ciguatoxin by capillary electrophoresis via on-line sandwich immunoassay with rotating magnetic field and nanoparticles signal enhancement.

    Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Chaoying; Luan, Wenxiu; Li, Xiufeng; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiliang


    A sensitive and rapid on-line immunoassay for the determination of ciguatoxin CTX3C was developed based on a capillary mixing system, which was integrated with capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation and electrochemical (EC) detection. In the sandwich immunoassay system, anti-CTX3C-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used as immunosensing probes, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-CTX3C antibody were bound onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used as recognition elements. Online formation of immunocomplex was realized in capillary inlet end with an external rotating magnetic field. Compared with classical HPLC-MS and ELISA, the assay adopting AuNPs as multienzyme carriers and online sandwich immunoassay format with rotating magnetic field exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter assay time. The linear range of the assay for CTX3C was from 0.6 to 150 ng/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9948 (n = 2), and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.09 ng/L. The developed assay showed satisfying reproducibility and stability, and it was successfully applied for the quantification of CTX3C in fish samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  7. Advanced techniques in immunoassay

    Toth, G.


    A brief overview of the development history of radioimmunoassay and related techniques with their theory and practice are given. A comparison of radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), spin immunoassay (SIA), sequential saturation analysis (SSA) etc., based on their main parameters, and their fields of application and recent trends are presented. (Sz.J.)

  8. Radiolabelling for immunoassay

    Chapman, R.S.


    Since the early 1960s labelled compounds employed in immunoassay techniques, both radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, have involved radioisotopes typically 3 H (tritium) and 125 Iodine. With the advent of increasingly stringent governmental regulations regarding usage and disposal of radioisotopes and the impetus of research towards improved immunoassay sensitivity following the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and their application to excess reagent immunometric assay methodology, radioisotopic labels are gradually being replaced by non-isotopic labels: enzyme, fluorescence and chemiluminescence

  9. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas


    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia


    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  11. Bead-based immunoassays

    Wal, van der F.J.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.; Achterberg, R.P.; Haasnoot, W.


    Since the first immunoassay with (radioactive) labeled antibodies in the middle of the 20th century [1], many different formats on various platforms have been developed, using antibodies for capture and/or detection. If antibodies are used to capture compounds, a support, such as the wall of a

  12. The immunoassay handbook

    Wild, David (David G.)


    ... importantly, enabling them to keep current on the basic theory behind immunoassay. Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, the field has continued to evolve rapidly, and the need for a fully updated version of this book is now paramount. The second edition has been comprehensively updated and new chapters have been added to each section" [publisher's web site].

  13. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for chloramphenicol

    Lin Si; Xu Wenge; Liu Yibing


    A simple, solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for the measurement of Chloramphenicol(CAP) in foodstuffs is described. A rabbit anti-CAP IgG is passively adsorbed onto the walls of polypropylene plates. The labeled conjugant is horseradish peroxidase(HRP) conjugate of CAP. Luminol solution is used as the substrate of HRP. The light yield is inversely proportional to the concentration of CAP. The method has a similar sensitivity (0.05 ng/mL), specificity, precision, and accuracy to a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs of ten samples were <8 and <20%, respectively, and the analytical recovery of the method was 87% 100%. The experimental correlation coefficient of dilution was found to be 0.999 using milk supernatant as buffer. The assay range for the method was 0.1-10 ng/mL, and it displayed good linearity. (authors)

  14. Specificity of immunoassays. Pt. 2

    Pratt, J.J.; Woldring, M.G.; Boonman, R.; Kittikool, J.


    Practical aspects of the measurement of the specificity of immunoassay are reviewed. Antibody heterogeneity in an antiserum makes a pragmatic rather than a theoretical approach necessary. A new method for the measurement of immunoassay specificity is described. This method is based on the errors caused by the cross-reacting antigens and is directly relevant to the validity of results obtained by immunoassay methods. The effect of selectively blocking the least specific antibodies in antisera raised against steroid haptens is tested. The practical consequences of these considerations are tested using steroid radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay. (orig.) [de

  15. Interference in immunoassay

    Chapman, R.S.


    Interfering factors are evident in both limited reagent (radioimmunoassay) and excess reagent (immunometric assay) technologies and should be suspected whenever there is a discrepancy between analytical results and clinical findings in the investigation of particular diseases. The overall effect of interference in immunoassay is analytical bias in result, either positive or negative of variable magnitude. The interference maybe caused by a wide spectrum of factors from poor sample collection and handling to physiological factors e.g. lipaemia, heparin treatment, binding protein abnormalities, autoimmunity and drug treatments. The range of interfering factors is extensive and difficult to discuss effectively in a short review

  16. Modeling of plasma distortions by laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) and implications for the interpretation of LIAS measurements

    Tokar, M. Z.; Gierse, N.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.


    For the interpretation of the line radiation observed from laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) such parameters as the density and temperature of electrons within very compact clouds of atoms and singly charged ions of ablated material have to be known. Compared to the local plasma conditions prior to the laser pulse, these can be strongly changed during LIAS since new electrons are generated by the ionisation of particles ejected from the irradiated target. Because of their transience and spatial inhomogeneity it is technically difficult to measure disturbances induced in the plasma by LIAS. To overcome this uncertainty a numerical model has been elaborated, providing a self-consistent description for the spreading of ablated particles and accompanying modifications in the plasma. The results of calculations for LIAS performed on carbon-containing targets in Ohmic and additionally heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR are presented. Due to the increase in the electron density the ‘ionisation per photon’ ratio, S/XB factor, is significantly enhanced compared to unperturbed plasma conditions. The impact of the amount of material ablated and of the plasma conditions before LIAS on the level of the S/XB-enhancement is investigated.

  17. Procedures for Sensitive Immunoassay

    Givol, D. [Department of Chemical Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)


    Sensitive immunoassay methods should be applied to small molecules of biological importance, which are non-immunogenic by themselves, such as small peptide hormones (e.g. bradykinin), plant hormones (e.g. indoleacetic acid), nucleotides and other small molecules. Methods of binding these small molecules, as haptens, to immunogenic carriers by various cross-linking agents are described (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, tolylene-diisocyanate and glutaraldehyde), and the considerations involved in relation to the methods of binding and the specificity of the antibodies formed are discussed. Some uses of antibody bound to bromoacetyl cellulose as an immuno adsorbent convenient for assay of immunoglobulins are described. Finally, the sensitive immunoassay method of chemically modified phage is described. This includes methods of binding small molecules (such as the dinitrophenyl group, penicillin, indoleacetic acid) or proteins (such as insulin, immunoglobulins) to phages. Methods of direct chemical conjugation, or an indirect binding via anti-phage Fab, are described. The phage inactivation method by direct plating and its modifications (such as decision technique and complex inactivation) are compared with the more simple end-point titration method. The inhibition of phage inactivation has some advantages as it does not require radioactive material, or expensive radioactive counters, and avoids the need for separation between bound and unbound antigen. Hence, if developed, it could be used as an alternative to radioimmunoassay. (author)

  18. Immunoassay separation technique


    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  19. Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays.

    Appleby, P; Reischl, U


    An immunoassay may be defined as an assay that employs an immunological reagent, usually an antibody, to confer specificity for the ligand being measured. As a corollary to this, the discovery, and subsequent development, of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has greatly expanded the application and use of immunoassays. Polyclonal reagents, with their associated problems of specificity and quality control, have now been largely replaced by readily available MAbs of potential immortality and well-defined specificity and affinity. This has resulted, in the last two decades, in a great expansion in the range of immunoassays available and also a significant improvement in their reproducibility and reliability.

  20. Immunoassay for thymopoietin

    Goldstein, G.


    The patent describes the development of a radio-immunoassay for thymopoietin in biological samples. The method of raising antibodies to this polypeptide hormone is described. This is achieved by injecting a host animal with an antigen consisting of thymopoietin covalently bonded by glutaraldehyde to a carrier protein such as bovine serum albumin and equine globulin. Different methods of radiolabelling thymopoietin with 125 I for use as the tracer antigen are described. The Bolton-Hunter procedure was preferred to the chloramine-T method since direct iodination of the tyrosyl moieties of thymopoietin resulted in some loss of immunoreactivity. Systems for separating the antigen-antibody complex and unbound antigen are compared. Binding-inhibition curves for unlabelled thymopoietin in the assay employing polyethylene glycol separation showed a sensitivity of 5 ng thymopoietin/ml. However, using the double antibody or dextran coated charcoal separation techniques, the sensitivity of thymopoietin was 0.1 ng/ml. Thus these latter two procedures are thus especially suitable for measuring thymopoietin levels in serum or plasma samples. The assay was shown to be specific for thymopoietin, no significant displacement being produced by control polypeptides. (U.K.)

  1. Immunoassay for determination of trilobolide

    Huml, L.; Jurášek, M.; Mikšátková, P.; Zimmermann, T.; Tomanová, P.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Rottnerová, Z.; Šimková, M.; Harmatha, Juraj; Kmoníčková, Eva; Lapčík, O.; Drašar, P. B.


    Roč. 117, Jan (2017), s. 105-111 ISSN 0039-128X. [Conference on Isoprenoids /23./. Minsk, 04.09.2016-07.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : trilobolide * avidin-biotin * ELISA * Laser trilobum * synthesis * immunoassay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods; Pharmacology and pharmacy (UEM-P) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  2. Comparative evaluation of the INNO-LIA syphilis score and the MarDx Treponema pallidum immunoglobulin G Marblot test assays for the serological diagnosis of syphilis.

    Lam, T K; Lau, H Y; Lee, Y P; Fung, S M; Leung, W L; Kam, K M


    We evaluated the performance of two immunoblot assays: the INNO-LIA Syphilis Score (LIA) and the MarDx T. pallidum IgG Marblot Test (TWB), as compared with that of the Murex ICE Syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-abs) assay, for the serological diagnosis of syphilis using serum samples of 135 attendees of the social hygiene clinics of the Department of Health in Hong Kong newly diagnosed with syphilis and provided with clinical stages (39 in primary, 20 in secondary, 18 in early latent and 58 in latent of unknown duration) and of 43 normal healthy subjects between October and December 2004. The differences in the overall sensitivities of the LIA assay and the EIA/TPPA/FTA-abs assays were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) whereas the overall sensitivity of the TWB assay was significantly lower (P FTA-abs assays. The LIA assay had an overall sensitivity of 94.1% (95% CI 88.7-97.0%) whereas the TWB assay 65.2% (95% CI 56.8-72.7%). Both the LIA and the TWB assays have a specificity of 100%. When consensus results were derived from the most predominant results of the EIA, the TPPA and the FTA-abs assays, the LIA assay had a positive agreement with the consensus results of 98.5% (95% CI 94.5-99.6%) whereas the TWB assay 68.2% (95% CI 59.8-75.6%). Therefore, the LIA assay performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than the TWB assay. The LIA assay can be considered to be a valid alternative confirmatory test for the serological diagnosis of syphilis.

  3. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Osawa, S


    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  4. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    Burtis, C.A.


    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev


    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  6. Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul


    Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this

  7. Immunoassay of β-endorphin

    Hoellt, V.; Gramsch, C.; Herz, A.


    The present paper describes the characteristics of a series of antisera against β-endorphin (β-E) developed in our laboratory which all recognize β-lipotropin and their use in (1) the determination of β-E in tissue and in body fluids and in (2) the immunocytochemical localization of β-E containing neurons in the rat brain and in (3) the study of the conversion of the β-E/β-LPH precursor into β-LPH and β-E in the pars intermedia/nervosa of the rat pituitary. It is the purpose of the present report to critically analyze the pitfalls and drawbacks, as well as the advantage, of the use of radioimmunoassay and other immunoassays in the determination of β-E. (Auth.)

  8. Materials for Microfluidic Immunoassays: A Review.

    Mou, Lei; Jiang, Xingyu


    Conventional immunoassays suffer from at least one of these following limitations: long processing time, high costs, poor user-friendliness, technical complexity, poor sensitivity and specificity. Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids in channels with characteristic lengthscale of tens of micrometers, has shown considerable promise for improving immunoassays that could overcome these limitations in medical diagnostics and biology research. The combination of microfluidics and immunoassay can detect biomarkers with faster assay time, reduced volumes of reagents, lower power requirements, and higher levels of integration and automation compared to traditional approaches. This review focuses on the materials-related aspects of the recent advances in microfluidics-based immunoassays for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics of biomarkers. We compare the materials for microfluidic chips fabrication in five aspects: fabrication, integration, function, modification and cost, and describe their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, we review materials for modifying antibodies to improve the performance of the reaction of immunoassay. We also review the state of the art in microfluidic immunoassays POC platforms, from the laboratory to routine clinical practice, and also commercial products in the market. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future developments in microfluidic immunoassays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. PCI hardware support in LIA-2 control system

    Bolkhovityanov, D.; Cheblakov, P.


    The control system of the LIA-2 accelerator is built on cPCI crates with *86- compatible processor boards running Linux. Slow electronics is connected via CAN-bus, while fast electronics (4 MHz and 200 MHz fast ADCs and 200 MHz timers) are implemented as cPCI/PMC modules. Several ways to drive PCI control electronics in Linux were examined. Finally a user-space drivers approach was chosen. These drivers communicate with hardware via a small kernel module, which provides access to PCI BARs and to interrupt handling. This module was named USPCI (User-Space PCI access). This approach dramatically simplifies creation of drivers, as opposed to kernel drivers, and provides high reliability (because only a tiny and thoroughly-debugged piece of code runs in kernel). LIA-2 accelerator was successfully commissioned, and the solution chosen has proven adequate and very easy to use. Besides, USPCI turned out to be a handy tool for examination and debugging of PCI devices direct from command-line. In this paper available approaches to work with PCI control hardware in Linux are considered, and USPCI architecture is described. (authors)

  10. Preliminary results of Linear Induction Accelerator LIA-200

    Sharma, Archana; Senthil, K; Kumar, D D Praveen; Mitra, S; Sharma, V; Patel, A; Sharma, D K; Rehim, R; Kolge, T S; Saroj, P C; Acharya, S; Amitava, Roy; Rakhee, M; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P, E-mail:, E-mail: [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Repetitive Pulsed Power Technology is being developed keeping in mind the potential applications of this technology in material modifications, disinfections of water, timber, and food pasteurization etc. BARC has indigenously developed a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) rated for 200 kV, 4 kA, 100 ns, 10 Hz. The satisfactory performance of all the sub-systems including solid state power modulator, amorphous core based pulsed transformers, magnetic switches, water capacitors, water pulse- forming line, induction adder and field-emission diode have been demonstrated. This paper presents some design details and operational results of this pulsed power system. It also highlights the need for further research and development to build reliable and economic high-average power systems for industrial applications.

  11. Variance function estimation for immunoassays

    Raab, G.M.; Thompson, R.; McKenzie, I.


    A computer program is described which implements a recently described, modified likelihood method of determining an appropriate weighting function to use when fitting immunoassay dose-response curves. The relationship between the variance of the response and its mean value is assumed to have an exponential form, and the best fit to this model is determined from the within-set variability of many small sets of repeated measurements. The program estimates the parameter of the exponential function with its estimated standard error, and tests the fit of the experimental data to the proposed model. Output options include a list of the actual and fitted standard deviation of the set of responses, a plot of actual and fitted standard deviation against the mean response, and an ordered list of the 10 sets of data with the largest ratios of actual to fitted standard deviation. The program has been designed for a laboratory user without computing or statistical expertise. The test-of-fit has proved valuable for identifying outlying responses, which may be excluded from further analysis by being set to negative values in the input file. (Auth.)

  12. Recalibration of the yellow Rhizocarpon growth curve in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) and implications for LIA chronology

    Jomelli, V.; Grancher, D.; Brunstein, D.; Solomina, O.


    A new lichen dating method and new moraine observations enabled us to improve the chronology of glacier advances in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Our results reveal that an early LIA glacial advance occurred around AD 1330 ± 29. However, a second major glacial advance at the beginning of the 17th century overlapped the earlier stage for most glaciers. Hence, this second glacial stage, dated from AD 1630 ± 27, is considered as the LIA maximum glacial advance in the Cordillera Blanca. During the 17th-18th centuries, at least three glacial advances were recorded synchronously for the different glaciers (AD 1670 ± 24, 1730 ± 21, and 1760 ± 19). The moraines corresponding to the two first stages are close to the one in 1630 suggesting a slow recession of about 18% in the total length of the glacier. From the LIA maximum extent to the beginning of the 20th century, the 24 glaciers have retreated a distance of about 1000 m, corresponding to a reduction of 30% in their length. This rate is comparable to that observed during the 20th century. Estimates of palaeo-Equilibrium Line Altitudes show an increase in altitude of about 100 m from the LIA maximum glacial extension at the beginning of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Because long time series are not available for precipitation and temperature, this glacial retreat is difficult to explain by past climate changes. However, there is a fair correspondence between changes in glacier length and the δ18O recorded in the Quelccaya ice core at a century timescale. Our current knowledge of tropical glaciers and isotope variations leads us to suggest that this common tropical signal reflects a change from a wet LIA to the drier conditions of today. Finally, a remarkable synchronicity is observed with glacial variations in Bolivia, suggesting a common regional climatic pattern during the LIA.

  13. Adília Lopes – ironista

    Rosa Maria Martelo


    Full Text Available O nome Adília Lopes tanto designa uma leitora profundamente interessada pela tradição poética erudita como uma assumida “poetisa pop”. E enquanto a primeira gosta de recordar referências fundamentais da Modernidade, de Rimbaud a Apollinaire, de Cesário a Pessoa, derivando para Sophia, Herberto Helder ou Sylvia Plath, ou facilmente recua no tempo literário ocidental até Diderot, S. João da Cruz e Virgílio, a segunda parece valorizar mais todo um outro universo de escrita, no qual avultam os contos infantis, as leituras da adolescência, o folhetinesco e o fait-divers das revistas femininas. Sem nunca pôr de parte as referências literárias de Adília-leitoraerudita, é sobretudo este o mundo que a “poetisa pop” gosta de reescrever, mostrando até que ponto ele é atravessado por uma insidiosa crueldade e tornando indistintas as fronteiras que o separavam (separam? da Literatura. Entre cultura erudita e cultura de massas, entre referências eruditas e uma linguagem muito próxima dos registros orais pouco vigiados, usando um verso que, por vezes, parece premeditadamente distraído num ritmo muito fácil, Adília Lopes faz apelo à memória de um mundo adolescente onde o bem e o mal, o alto e o baixo, o bom e o mau gosto pareciam irredutivelmente distintos, para tudo indiferenciar, agora, com dessacralizadora ironia. 

  14. Recent advancements in the immunoassay domain

    Pradelles, Ph.


    The two types of immunoassay techniques, the competition analysis and the immuno-metric analysis (sandwich type), are described; the tracers used with theses methods have high specific radioactivity levels in order to be traced at extremely low content. Non radioactive tracers have been also developed, such as enzymatic, fluorescent, luminescent tracers, which are simpler and may be used at home. The Cea has recently developed some innovative immunoassay formats, such as acetylcholinesterase as a new enzymatic tracer, and immuno-metric dosage for very small molecules such as haptenes

  15. Results of LIA-10M accelerator investigations

    Gordeev, V S; Filippov, V O


    There are presented basic results of experiments on the LIA-10M accelerator since its putting into operation (1994) till today. There were investigated various modes of accelerator operation and its output characteristics depending on the parameters of injected electron beam,number of connected accelerator modules,time program of inductors switch-in etc. There was obtained a large scope of experimental data that are of interest for LIA-10M accelerator practical use and for the development of new facilities of this type. The investigations that have been performed recently make it possible to considerably (half as much again) increase the output dose parameters of the accelerator as compared to the level achieved before:maximal dose(Si) and dose rate on the output flange constitute 400 Gy and 2.5 centre dot 10 Gy/s, while at a 1 meter distance from the target they are equal to 7.5 Gy and 5 centre dot 10 sup 8 Gy/s, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of two automated chemiluminescence immunoassays, the LIAISON Treponema Screen and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP, and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis.

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Dietenberger, Hanna


    Automated Treponema pallidum-specific chemi-luminescence immunoassays (CLIA) run on random-access analyzers allow for rapid diagnosis of syphilis infection. We evaluated the LIAISON Treponema Screen (LIA) and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP (ARCH) in comparison to the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test, as a screening test for syphilis. We performed a prospective study using 577 sera submitted for diagnosis of syphilis, including 318 samples from pregnant women. In addition, 42 stored sera from 32 patients with clinically and serologically characterized syphilis infection were investigated. In the prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were 100% (18/18), 100% (17/17), and 100% (18/18), and 100% (558/558), 99.8% (552/553), and 99.6% (556/558), respectively. In pregnant women, the specificity of LIA and ARCH was 100% (317/317) and of TPPA 99.7% (316/317). One sample from a child with assumed exposure to maternal antitreponemal antibodies was omitted from analysis. LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were also positive in all investigated sera from patients with known syphilis. Both automated CLIA demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis under routine conditions of a diagnostic laboratory. Thus, these may be used independently as an alternative to the manual TPPA screen.

  17. The right environment for the immunoassay

    Emon, J.M. Van; Gerlach, C.L.


    For the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the first in-house research effort began in 1987, when results of an early immunoassay field study verified the technology's potential for environmental applications. Looking at the fundamental features of immunochemical reactions from the clinical laboratories, analytical chemists realized the potential value of these methods for hazardous waste site characterization and pesticide monitoring. Immunoassays rely on the interaction between an antibody and a target analyte. For environmental purposes, enzyme immunoassays are generally used. After the target analyte binds to the antibody, an enzymatic reaction yields a colorimetric change. This change, read visually or by a spectrophotometer, indicates the concentration of the target analyte. Promising results with assays for compounds (such as paraquat and pentachlorophenol) and compound groups (such as total petroleum hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls) spurred interest among various entrepreneurs. The first target market for immunoassays was environmental engineers and field crews who needed quick answers on-site to determine the direction of further remediation efforts

  18. A Economia da Família

    Ladislau Dowbor


    Full Text Available A família pode ser vista como unidade de reprodução econômica: pais sustentam filhos e idosos, e serão por sua vez sustentados. Hoje, com a desarticulação da família - nos EUA apenas 26% dos domicílios tem pais e filhos -, a fragilização do Estado e a privatização dos serviços sociais, é o próprio processo de redistribuição do excedente social entre gerações que se vê prejudicado. A dinâmica econômica ajuda a entender os impactos muito mais amplos, como a tensão entre gerações, a redução da sociabilidade e o sentimento crescente de angústia que se generaliza. A fase não produtiva da infância e da juventude, bem como da terceira idade, está se prolongando de maneira muito significativa. Foi-se o tempo em que a criança de 10 anos já ia para a roça ajudar o pai, e em que os pais faleciam quando os filhos chegavam à maturidade. Os desafios são econômicos, mas também sociais e culturais, em particular nas grandes cidades. É a própria base econômica da reprodução da sociedade que está se deslocando.

  19. Pulsed Power Generators For Two-section Lia Relativistic Magnetron Driver

    Agafonov, A V; Pevchev, V P


    Two prototypes of pulsed power generators for a two-sectional LIA - specialized driver of a relativistic magnetron were constructed and tested. The driver for the double-sided powering of a relativistic magnetron consists of two identical sets of induction modules (two sections of LIA) with inner electrodes - vacuum adders connected to both sides of a coaxial magnetron. It provides the symmetric power flowing in a magnetron and a possibility of localising of the electron flow in magnetron interaction region. The first generator designed for a small-scale laboratory installation provides the output pulses of 100 ns in duration with voltage amplitude of 50 kV at repetition rate of 1 pps. The construction of the generator is based on the application of experimental capacitor banks designed as a pulse forming line with the next parameters: charging voltage - 80 kV, impedance - 1,7 Ohm, pulse duration - 80 ns at a matched load. The second generator was designed for 1 MV integrated LIA - magnetron system. It cons...

  20. LIAS light – Towards the ten thousand species milestone

    Gerhard Rambold


    Full Text Available Over the past 12 years, the lichen trait database LIAS light as a component of the LIAS information system, has grown to a considerable pool of descriptive data based on 71 different qualitative, quantitative, and text characters, for nearly 10.000 lichen taxa, being phylogenetically arranged according to the MycoNet classification. It includes information on morphological, ecological and chemical traits. Multilinguality or internationalization options have become a central challenge of the project. At present, 18 language versions of the database and web interface exist. LIAS light data are accessible in DELTA format and to be used locally and web browser-based, via NaviKey applet.

  1. Development of national immunoassay reagent programmes

    Sufi, S.B.; Micallef, J.V.; Ahsan, R.; Goncharov, N.P.


    Despite the existence of networks of fully equipped laboratories with well-trained staff, the availability of immunodiagnostic services in developing countries is often limited by the high cost of imported kits. There are a number of ways of tackling this problem, ranging from bulk purchase of kits or reagents to local development and production of assay systems. Argentina/Chile, China, Cuba/Mexico, and Thailand are amongst the countries which have established local immunoassay reagent programmes to manufacture low cost, high quality immunoassay reagents. Kits from these projects are now beginning to become available, and it is hoped that they will promote national diagnostic services and research, as well as stimulating the development of reagent programmes for other analytes. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  2. Studies on direct and indirect electrochemical immunoassays

    Buckley, Eileen


    Two approaches to electrochemical immunoassay are reported. The first approach was an indirect method, involving an electroactive, enzyme-catalysed, substrate to product reaction. Conditions were optimised for the amperometric detection of para-aminophenol, the electroactive product of the alkaline phosphatase catalysed hydrolysis of a new substrate, p-aminophenylphosphate, after separation by HPLC. The second approach involved the direct electrochemical detection of an immunoglo...

  3. A família nas políticas sociais: o caso do Programa Bolsa Família

    Marcelo Couto Dias


    Nos países ocidentais, os últimos anos têm sido marcados por uma crescente redescoberta do valor da família e das microssolidariedades. Prova disso é o aparecimento da família tanto nas discussões das políticas sociais, quanto nos processos de formulação das mesmas. No contexto brasileiro recente, ganhou destaque a criação e expansão do Bolsa Família, um programa de transferência direta de renda com condicionalidades que, em 2012, tinha entre os seus beneficiários mais de 13 mi...

  4. Development of mini-LIA and primary experiments

    Cheng Cheng; Liao Shuqing; Zheng Shuxin; Lin Yuzheng; Tang Chuanxiang; Jing Xiaobing; Mu Fan; Pan Haifeng; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun


    Mini-LIA is a miniature of a linear induction accelerator developed by China Academy of Engineering Physics and Tsinghua University in 2007. It has been constructed with a thermionic cathode in an electron injector and a metglas core in the induction accelerator cavities. A double-pulsed electron beam was produced for the first time in China on the Mini-LIA with a thermionic cathode in the electron gun and a metglas core in the induction accelerator cavities. A double-pulsed beam current of more than 1.1A was obtained on condition of 80 kV double-pulsed high voltage produced by pulsed power system supplying to the injector and accelerating modules. Some primary experiments for measuring the parameters of Mini-LIA has been performed, and some beam characterizations of Mini-LIA are presented. Further improvement is underway. (authors)

  5. Flotation Immunoassay: Masking the Signal from Free Reporters in Sandwich Immunoassays.

    Chen, Hui; Hagström, Anna E V; Kim, Jinsu; Garvey, Gavin; Paterson, Andrew; Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Raja, Balakrishnan; Strych, Ulrich; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Kourentzi, Katerina; Conrad, Jacinta C; Atmar, Robert L; Willson, Richard C


    In this work, we demonstrate that signal-masking reagents together with appropriate capture antibody carriers can eliminate the washing steps in sandwich immunoassays. A flotation immunoassay (FI) platform was developed with horseradish peroxidase chemiluminescence as the reporter system, the dye Brilliant Blue FCF as the signal-masking reagent, and buoyant silica micro-bubbles as the capture antibody carriers. Only reporters captured on micro-bubbles float above the dye and become visible in an analyte-dependent manner. These FIs are capable of detecting proteins down to attomole levels and as few as 10(6) virus particles. This signal-masking strategy represents a novel approach to simple, sensitive and quantitative immunoassays in both laboratory and point-of-care settings.

  6. Assessment of Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) as a method for quantitative in situ surface diagnostic in plasma environments

    Gierse, Niels Hannes Gustav


    In this work Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) is investigated as an in situ plasma surface interaction diagnostic for fusion reactors and fusion experiments. In LIAS an intensive laser pulse is used to ablate the material under investigation during plasma operation. Ablation products penetrate into the edge region of the plasma and are excited and ionized. In case of molecules and clusters additionally dissociation occurs. The emitted line radiation is observed by radiometric calibrated spectroscopy. Results from LIAS of W/C/Al/D-mixed layers and amorphous hydrocarbon layers are presented. Using a fast camera system time resolved measurements of the LIAS.process could be performed, allowing investigation of the temporal behavior of excitation, dissociation and ionization processes. For Tungsten, 90% of the LIAS light is observed within 10±3 μs after the laser pulse. In case of carbon within 20±3 μs. Additionally separation in time of LIAS emission and the LIBS emission caused by the laser pulse at the surface within single measurements was demonstrated. This allows the separate analysis of both processes in a coaxial setup which is foreseen for future experiments. The inverse photon efficiency of the Balmer D_α-emission from LIAS of a-C:D-layers was found to be [(D)/(XB)]"a"-"C":"D""L""I""A""S"_→"D_D__α=71±7. The plasma perturbation due to LIAS was investigated by laser energy density variation when ablating W/C/Al/D.mixed layers. Local plasma perturbation is found to increase with laser energy density. Balmer H_γ/H_δ - line intensity ratio measurements only show for ohmic discharges and the case of the lowest central density signs of local plasma perturbation in LIAS of graphite samples. A simple analytical model for local plasma perturbation during LIAS is introduced and evaluated. Qualitative agreement between the model and the above reported experimental observations is found; a stronger influence on local conditions is found by tungsten

  7. Massively multi-parametric immunoassays using ICPMS

    Tanner, S.D.; Ornatsky, O.; Bandura, D.R.; Baranov, V.I.


    The use of stable isotopes as tags in immunoassays, and their determination by ICPMS, is poised to have a huge impact on multi-parametric bioanalysis. A new technology, which we term 'mass cytometry', enables high throughput, highly multiplexed individual cell analysis. Preliminary results for T-cell immunophenotyping in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), agonist influence on concomitant phosphorylation pathways, and sub-classification of acute myeloid leukemia patients' samples will be presented. The significance of individual cell analysis is demonstrated by the identification of populations of rogue cells in PBMC samples through the use of multidimensional neural network cluster analysis. (author)

  8. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  9. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia



    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were {sup 90}Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However

  10. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia


    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were 90 Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However, sufficient

  11. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T.; Nivarlet, Noan; Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe; Granier, Benoit; Visconti, Angelo


    Highlights: ► We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. ► The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. ► We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin–BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73–109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 μg kg −1 , respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 μg kg −1 , respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC–MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in cereals.

  12. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T., E-mail: [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Nivarlet, Noan [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe [Centre d' Economie Rurale (CER Groupe), Rue du Point du Jour no 8, B-6900 Marloie (Belgium); Granier, Benoit [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Visconti, Angelo [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins

  13. Fluorescence immunoassay for detecting periodontal bacterial pathogens in plaque.

    Wolff, L F; Anderson, L; Sandberg, G P; Aeppli, D M; Shelburne, C E


    A particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay has been modified into a bacterial concentration fluorescence immunoassay (BCFIA) to rapidly detect periodontopathic bacteria in human plaque samples. The BCFIA utilizes fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the lipopolysaccharide of selected gram-negative plaque bacteria. Microorganisms closely associated with periodontal disease that can be identified in plaque with the BCFIA include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bac...

  14. Review of the biochemical basis of enzyme immunoassays

    Klingler, W.


    The ever increasing number of radioimmunological determination poses problems allied with the handling of radioactive substances. In recent years various non-radioactive methods have been developed, among which the enzyme immunoassay is already in routine use. Homogeneous and heterogeneous enzyme immunoassays are described. Criteria for enzymes, substrates and enzyme-substrate reactions are listed. (orig.) [de

  15. Fake news? Biotin interference in thyroid immunoassays.

    Koehler, Viktoria F; Mann, Ulrike; Nassour, Ayham; Alexander Mann, W


    We report on a 47 year old male patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting in our outpatient neurology clinic in Frankfurt/Main for therapy evaluation. Before change of treatment laboratory investigations were performed. Thyroid function tests (TFTs) with a streptavidin/biotin based immunoassay revealed severe hyperthyroidism with positive thyroid autoantibodies suggestive for Graves' disease. Clinical presentation and thyroid sonography were unremarkable. Due to the discordance between clinical presentation and TFTs, we repeated medical history, in which the patient reported taking high-doses of biotin (300 mg/day) for MS. Recent studies with patients suffering from primary and secondary progressive MS, indicated promising effects of high-dose biotin on MS-related disability. In immunoassays relaying on streptavidin-biotin interaction, biotin intake can cause falsely high or low results. Two weeks after withdrawing biotin, biotin/streptavidin dependant assays showed no longer the biochemical picture of severe hyperthyroidism. Biotin intake should be paused for at least two to five days prior to the use of biotin/streptavidin dependant assays. Alternatively, non-biotin/streptavidin dependant assays (radioimmunoassay, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) may be used. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen

    Zhang Xuefeng; Liu Yibing; Jia Juanjuan; Xu Wenge; Li Ziying; Chen Yongli; Han Shiquan


    The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum total prostate-specific antigen (T-PSA) was developed. The reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide was introduced into this chemiluminescence system. The detection limit is established as 0.12 μg/L (n=10, mean of zero standard + 2SD) and the analytical recovery of PSA is 83.8%-118.7%. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs vary from 4.4%-5.0% and 6.2%-11.7%, respectively. The experimental correlation coefficient of dilution is found to be 0.999. Compared with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits, the correlative equation is y=1.07x+0.68, and correlation coefficient r=0.97. The standard range for the method is 1.5-80 μg/L, and it presents good linearity. (authors)

  17. LIA: An Intelligent Advisor for E-Learning

    Capuano, Nicola; Gaeta, Matteo; Marengo, Agostino; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco; Ritrovato, Pierluigi


    Intelligent e-learning systems have revolutionized online education by providing individualized and personalized instruction for each learner. Nevertheless, until now very few systems were able to leave academic laboratories and be integrated into real commercial products. One of these few exceptions is the Learning Intelligent Advisor (LIA)…

  18. Can LC and LC-MS ever replace immunoassays?

    Timothy G. Cross


    Full Text Available Immunoassays have been the technology of choice for the analysis of biomolecules for many decades across a wide range of applications in research, diagnostics and infectious disease monitoring. There are good reasons for the wide adoption of immunoassays but even such a well established and characterised technique has limitations and as such investigators are looking at alternative technologies. One such alternative is liquid chromatography (LC and, more specifically, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS. This article will review both immunoassay and LC and LC-MS technologies and methodologies and discuss the advantages and limitations of both approaches. In addition, the next developments that will need to occur before there is widespread adoption of LC and LC-MS technology preferentially over immunoassays will be examined.

  19. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    Lukens, H.R.


    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use

  20. Status of immunoassay as an analytical tool in environmental investigations

    Van Emon, J.M.


    Immunoassay methods were initially applied in clinical situations where their sensitivity and selectivity were utilized for diagnostic purposes. In the 1970s, pesticide chemists realized the potential benefits of immunoassay methods for compounds difficult to analyze by gas chromatography. This transition of the technology has extended to the analysis of soil, water, food and other matrices of environmental and human exposure significance particularly for compounds difficult to analyze by chromatographic methods. The utility of radioimmunoassays and enzyme immunoassays for environmental investigations was recognized in the 1980s by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) with the initiation of an immunoassay development programme. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (PDA) have investigated immunoassays for the detection of residues in food both from an inspection and a contamination prevention perspective. Environmental immunoassays are providing rapid screening information as well as quantitative information to fulfill rigorous data quality objectives for monitoring programmes

  1. Bromélias do Paraná

    Anacleto, Adilson


    Resumo: Apresentam-se resultados de pesquisa sobre as bromélias no Paraná, um grupo de espécies de plantas ornamentais nativas no Estado e que apresentam relevante valor comercial. Realizou-se inicialmente um diagnóstico do sistema de produção de bromélias, evidenciando as particularidades e discrepâncias em relação aos modelos de produção descritos na literatura. Procedeu-se estudo de viabilidade econômica de implantação de novos cultivos. Foi também quantificado o sistema sócio econômico do...


    Rogério Lobo Sáber


    Full Text Available O presente artigo aponta os traços mais relevantes da obra poética de Cecília Meireles, uma das escritoras mais intensas da literatura brasileira. Investigaremos os aspectos formais e semânticos do poema Motivo, integrante do livro Viagem (1939, que representa a profissão de fé da escritora. Acreditamos que o presente estudo não é válido somente para o campo dos estudos literários, já que uma análise mais atenta acerca da produção de Cecília Meireles pode nos indicar caminhos que levam a uma compreensão mais ampla de nossa própria existência, de nossa própria marcha sobre esta realidade desencantadora e sem horizontes.

  3. Vulnerabilidade de famílias de idosos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família

    Rosely Almeida Souza


    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: estudo descritivo, exploratório, de corte transversal, cujo objetivo foi identificar a vulnerabilidade de famílias de idosos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF. Método: foi desenvolvido por meio de entrevistas domiciliárias realizadas com uma amostra de 500 famílias de idosos assistidas por 32 equipes da ESF da cidade de Dourados, MS. O Índice de Desenvolvimento da Família (IDF foi adaptado para classificá-las em função da situação de vulnerabilidade. Resultados: os resultados revelaram a presença de famílias multigeracionais, com baixa escolaridade entre os indivíduos com idade superior a 20 anos e alta taxa de analfabetismo entre os idosos. Identificaram-se 403 famílias em situação de vulnerabilidade aceitável, 95 em vulnerabilidade grave e duas famílias em situação de vulnerabilidade muito grave. As dimensões mais críticas do IDF foram os acessos ao conhecimento e ao trabalho. Conclusão: conclui-se que há necessidade de mais investimentos no cuidado a esses idosos e suas famílias na Atenção Básica.


    Soraya Borges Costa


    Full Text Available The amplitude of Cecília Meireles’ imaginariness gathers, besides the western culture, also the eastern culture which is noticed by the connection with the Indian philosophy. Her humanist perspective attempts an ethical interweave in her poetry which is inspired by the conceptions of permanentness spread out by both Eastern mainstream Buddhism and Hinduism. Through these bases this study investigates the Eastern substrate in the symbolic constellation of some poems of Metal rosicler.

  5. Kuidas sünnib pealkiri? / Pärt Lias

    Lias, Pärt


    Eesti kirjanikud vastavad Pärt Liase küsimusele oma teoste pealkirjade saamisloo kohta: Doris Kareva, Ilona Laaman, Eha Lättemäe, Priidu Beier, Oskar Kruus, Jaan Kruusvall, Paul-Eerik Rummo ja Andres Vanapa (1); Triin Soomets, Priit Aimla, Aarne Puu, Einar Sander, Jüri Tuulik ja Ülo Tuulik (2); Nikolai Baturin, Leo Metsar, Toomas Vint, Leonid Stolovitš ja Pärt Lias (3)

  6. Subcellular localization, interactions and dynamics of the phage-shock protein-like Lia response in Bacillus subtilis.

    Domínguez-Escobar, Julia; Wolf, Diana; Fritz, Georg; Höfler, Carolin; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Mascher, Thorsten


    The liaIH operon of Bacillus subtilis is the main target of the envelope stress-inducible two-component system LiaRS. Here, we studied the localization, interaction and cellular dynamics of Lia proteins to gain insights into the physiological role of the Lia response. We demonstrate that LiaI serves as the membrane anchor for the phage-shock protein A homologue LiaH. Under non-inducing conditions, LiaI locates in highly motile membrane-associated foci, while LiaH is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Under stress conditions, both proteins are strongly induced and colocalize in numerous distinct static spots at the cytoplasmic membrane. This behaviour is independent of MreB and does also not correlate with the stalling of the cell wall biosynthesis machinery upon antibiotic inhibition. It can be induced by antibiotics that interfere with the membrane-anchored steps of cell wall biosynthesis, while compounds that inhibit the cytoplasmic or extracytoplasmic steps do not trigger this response. Taken together, our data are consistent with a model in which the Lia system scans the cytoplasmic membrane for envelope perturbations. Upon their detection, LiaS activates the cognate response regulator LiaR, which in turn strongly induces the liaIH operon. Simultaneously, LiaI recruits LiaH to the membrane, presumably to protect the envelope and counteract the antibiotic-induced damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Potential applications of immunoassays in studies of flatfish recruitment

    Feller, Robert J.

    The fisheries recruitment-stock problem, a lack of correlation between measures of reproductive output of the parent stock and recruitment to the fishery, has several potential biotic and abiotic causes. Immunoassays may be useful in examining several aspects of this and several other problems in flatfish ecology: stock identification, parasitism and disease, and trophic interactions. Given stage-specific antisera capable of recognozing antigenic moieties of, for instance, eggs, larvae, or newly-settled juveniles, it is possible to screen stomach contents of many putative predators ( e.g., shrimp or crabs) rapidly for the presence and amounts of platfish prey. This trophic application of immunological methods has great promise for measuring loss of potential recruits to predation. All immunoassays are limited by the quality of antisera used and the researcher's ability to interpret quantitative data in an ecologically meaningful way. Key references for applications of immunoassays in fish-related questions are provided with recommendations for their utilization.

  8. Rapid detection of fungal alpha-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay

    Bogdanovic, J.; Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Wouters, I.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Amerongen, van A.; Doekes, G.


    Background Occupational allergen exposure assessment usually requires airborne dust sampling at the worksite followed by dust extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis at the laboratory. Use of semiquantitative lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) may allow a more rapid detection procedure with

  9. Preparation by irradiation of a solid support for enzyme immunoassay

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.


    Reagents (immobilized anti-α-fetoprotein discs) having a porous structure were prepared for enzyme immunoassay of α-fetoprotein by radiation polymerization at low temperatures. Discs were attached to sticks for easy handling. The activity (determined by absorbance at 492 nm) of the discs varied with the hydrophilic properties and size of the discs. The discs are sufficiently sensitive and precise for enzyme immunoassay of α-fetoprotein. Anti-AFP dissolved in PBS solution was mixed with a monomer solution of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and hydroxypropyl methacrylate. The mixture was frozen to -78 0 C and gamma irradiated. (Auth.)

  10. Multiplex Immunoassay Profiling of Hormones Involved in Metabolic Regulation.

    Stephen, Laurie; Guest, Paul C


    Multiplex immunoassays are used for rapid profiling of biomarker proteins and small molecules in biological fluids. The advantages over single immunoassays include lower sample consumption, cost, and labor. This chapter details a protocol to develop a 5-plex assay for glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone on the Luminex ® platform. The results of the analysis of insulin in normal control subjects are given due to the important role of this hormone in nutritional programming diseases.

  11. Myeloma-Derived Light Chain Paired with a Diagnostic Monoclonal Antibody Hinders Immunoassay Performance.

    Tu, Bailin; Tieman, Bryan; Moore, Jeffrey; Pan, You; Muerhoff, A Scott


    Monoclonal antibodies are widely used as the capture and detection reagents in diagnostic immunoassays. In the past, myeloma fusion partners expressing endogenous heavy and/or light chains were often used to generate hybridoma cell lines. As a result, mixed populations of antibodies were produced that can cause inaccurate test results, poor antibody stability, and significant lot-to-lot variability. We describe one such scenario where the P3U1 (P3X63Ag8U.1) myeloma fusion partner was used in the generation of a hybridoma producing protein induced vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA II) antibody. The hybridoma produces three subpopulations of immunoglobulin as determined by ion exchange (IEx) chromatography that exhibit varying degrees of immunoreactivity (0%, 50%, or 100%) to the target antigen as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance. To produce an antibody with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity, the antigen-specific heavy and light chain variable domains (VH and VL) were cloned from the hybridoma and tethered to murine IgG1 and kappa scaffolds. The resulting recombinant antibody was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and is compatible for use in a diagnostic immunoassay.

  12. Enzimas extracelulares da família Botryosphaeriaceae

    Pinheiro, Ana Rita Almeida


    As espécies da família Botryosphaeriaceae são morfologicamente diversas e descritas como endofíticas, patogénias e saprófitas. Estas são normalmente encontradas numa grande diversidade de hospedeiros. Os fungos patogénicos para plantas Macrophomina phaseolina, Neofusicoccum parvum e Diplodia corticola secretam uma variedade de enzimas extracelulares, tais como proteases e glicosil hidrolases, algumas das quais envolvidas na interação hospedeiro-patogénio. A fim de elucidar a correlação ent...

  13. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  14. Feasibility of a simple microsieve-based immunoassay platform

    Zweitzig, D.R.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Nguyen, A.T.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Kopnitsky, M.J.; Cichonski, K.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie


    The intrinsic properties of silicon microsieves, such as an optically flat surface, high overall porosity, and low flow resistance have led to an increasing number of biotechnology applications. In this report, the feasibility of creating a microsieve-based immunoassay platform was explored.

  15. Feasibility of a simple microsieve-based immunoassay platform

    Zweitzig, Daniel R.; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Nguyen, Ai T.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.; Kopnitsky, Mark J.; Cichonski, Kathleen; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.


    The intrinsic properties of silicon microsieves, such as an optically flat surface, high overall porosity, and low flow resistance have led to an increasing number of biotechnology applications. In this report, the feasibility of creating a microsieve-based immunoassay platform was explored.

  16. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    Bavec, Aljos?a


    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…



    amounts of uPAR forms in a sample with data indicative of the presence of the cancer disease. The method can be used for staging, prognosis or diagnosis of prostate cancer. Two novel monoclonal antibodies and a kit and immunoassays for detecting at least one uPAR form(s) are also described in the present...

  18. Rapid micromotor-based naked-eye immunoassay.

    de Ávila, Berta Esteban-Fernández; Zhao, Mingjiao; Campuzano, Susana; Ricci, Francesco; Pingarrón, José M; Mascini, Marcello; Wang, Joseph


    A dynamic micromotor-based immunoassay, exemplified by cortisol detection, based on the use of tubular micromotors functionalized with a specific antibody is described. The use of antibody-functionalized micromotors offers huge acceleration of both direct and competitive cortisol immunoassays, along with greatly enhanced sensitivity of direct and competitive immunoassays. The dramatically improved speed and sensitivity reflect the greatly increased likelihood of antibody-cortisol contacts and fluid mixing associated with the dynamic movement of these microtube motors and corresponding bubble generation that lead to a highly efficient and rapid recognition process. Rapid naked-eye detection of cortisol in the sample is achieved in connection to use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tag and TMB/H 2 O 2 system. Key parameters of the competitive immunoassay (e.g., incubation time and reaction volume) were optimized. This fast visual micromotor-based sensing approach enables "on the move" specific detection of the target cortisol down to 0.1μgmL -1 in just 2min, using ultrasmall (50µL) sample volumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.


    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests [fr

  20. Evaluation of Six Different Immunoassays for Serum Thyrotropin

    Ma Donghong; Lu Hankui; Gao Yunchao; Ge Wenli; Xiong Jiang; Liu Qiaoping; Gu Qing


    To analyzes the discrepancy and association among six different thyrotropin (TSH) immunoassay methods and to study their impact on the clinical diagnoses of thyroid diseases, the 150 serum samples from three groups consisting of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and healthy subjects, 50 samples in each group were included in this study. The serum TSH levels were measured simultaneously by radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), three-type chemilumiminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). The results showed that individual serum TSH level varied significantly from one assay to another. There was no correlation between TSH RIA and other five assays in groups of hyperthyroidism and healthy subjects(P>0.05). The correlations between TSH IRMA and four automatic assays in hyperthyroidism group were relatively low (r= 0.38∼0.41). However, among the four automatic assays, TSH levels were well correlated (r= 0.92∼0.99). For clinical diagnoses, TSH RIA alone was not useful in the differentiation of hyperthyroidism and normal subjects, and TSH IRMA was misleading in some hyperthyroidism. There were no significant differences for four TSH automatic immunoassays in differential diagnoses of thyroid diseases. (authors)

  1. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis-based immunoassay with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the immunodetermination of methamphetamine using various methamphetamine antibodies.

    Choi, J; Kim, C; Choi, M J


    An accurate and simple immunoassay using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed for the detection of methamphetamine (MA) in urine. The CE-LIF was conducted with an untreated fused-silica column using antiserum and a tracer of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled MA. This CE-LIF system was compared with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in a TDx analyzer in the photo-check mode using the same FITC-labeled tracer and the same antiserum. Various antibodies, not only those prepared by our own immunogens but also those from commercial sources, were screened and characterized in both assay systems with regard to sensitivity, precision, and cross-reactivity. Both systems satisfied analytical precision and gave similar cross-reactivity patterns. However, the CE-LIF-based immunoassay was approximately one order superior to FPIA in sensitivity, requiring less volume of sample, antiserum, and tracer for the assay. Considering that the FPIA system is well known to be a useful tool for screening antibodies and detecting drugs, the CE-LIF-based immunoassay system, which is seemingly more advantageous than the FPIA system, appears to have great power for the characterization of antibodies and for the detection of MA in urine.

  2. Enzymatic amplification of a flow-injected thermometric enzyme-linked immunoassay for human insulin.

    Mecklenburg, M; Lindbladh, C; Li, H; Mosbach, K; Danielsson, B


    A flow-injected thermometric enzyme linked immunoassay for human insulin which employs the lactate dehydrogenase/lactate oxidase (LDH/LOD) substrate recycling system for signal amplification is described. The system is composed of two columns, an immunosorbent column containing immobilized anti-insulin antibodies for sensing and a recycling column containing immobilized LDH/LOD/Catalase for detection. The effect of flow rates, conjugate concentrations, and chromatographic support material upon the sensitivity of the assay are investigated. The assay has a detection limit of 0.025 microgram/ml and a linear range from 0.05 to 2 micrograms/ml. This corresponds to a 10-fold increase in sensitivity over the unamplified system. A recombinant human insulin-proinsulin conjugate was also tested. The results show that enzymatic amplification can be employed to increase the sensitivity and reproducibility of flow injection assay-based biosensors. The implications of these results upon on-line analysis are discussed.

  3. Tonometer calibration in Brasília, Brazil Calibragem de tonômetros em Brasília, Brasil

    Fernanda Pires da Silva Abrão


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine calibration errors of Goldmann applanation tonometers in ophthalmic clinics of Brasília, Brazil, and correlate the findings with variables related to tonometers model and utilization. METHODS: Tonometers from ophthalmic clinics in Brasília, Brazil, were checked for calibration errors. A standard Goldmann applanation tonometer checking tool was used to asses the calibration error. Only one trained individual made all verifications, with a masked reading of the results. Data on the model, age, daily use, frequency of calibration checking and the nature of the ophthalmic department - private or public - were collected and correlated with the observed errors. RESULTS: One hundred tonometers were checked for calibration. Forty seven percent (47/100 were out of 1 mmHg range at least at one point checking. Tonometers mounted to slit lamp, with less than 5 years, used in less than 20 patients daily, that had a calibration check on a yearly basis, and those from private office exhibit a lower rate of inaccuracy, but only the first variable was statistically significant. Sixty one percent of tonometers on public hospitals were out of calibration. CONCLUSION: Calibration of tonometers in the capital of Brazil is poor; those from general hospitals are worst, and this fact can lead to inaccurate detection and assessment of glaucoma patients, overall in the population under government assistance.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os erros de calibração dos tonômetros de aplanação de Goldmann em clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília, Brasil, e correlacioná-los a variáveis relativas ao modelo e à utilização dos aparelhos. MÉTODOS: Tonômetros de clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília tiveram a calibragem aferida usando um cilindro padrão fornecido pelo fabricante dos aparelhos. Todas as aferições foram realizadas por um só examinador previamente treinado e a leitura das medidas foi mascarada por um observador independente. As medidas


    Ignacio Antonio Madera Vargas, SDS


    Full Text Available Alguns dos relatos sobre a relação de Jesus com a sua família nos possibilitam considerar o sentido que podemos encontrar nos mesmos para uma compreensão teológica que aponte para o sentido da experiência das relações no interior da mesma. Tanto o casal como a família constituem uma realidade que, interpretada à luz da experiência de fé que os evangelistas nos oferecem como a Boa Nova do Reino, orientam-se em direção a uma relação a se viver à imagem da comunhão trinitária. A liberdade e a capacidade de crescer em adultícia como sabedoria e graça caracterizam os relatos os quais nos apresentam Jesus e sua família ou familiares. Uma visão de Jesus de Nazaré que o apresenta não afetado pelos traumas e as limitações, que provoca a relação no interior das famílias, em qualquer um de nós, eco da visão que os relatos nos oferecem dEle à luz da ressurreição. Este artigo é resultado das investigações do Projeto Significado da linguagem teológica do Grupo de Investigação Teologia e Mundo Contemporâneo da Faculdade de Teologia da Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana.    ABSTRACT: Some of the tales about the relationship of Jesus to his family allow us enter to consider the sense that we can Knd in them for a theological under standing that in dicate the meaning of the experience of relations to the interior of the family. Both the couple and the family constitute a reality which, interpreted in the light of the experience of faith that the evangelists oVer us as the good news of the Kingdom, directed towards a relationship to living in the image of the Trinitarian communion. Freedom and the ability to grow in adulthood as wisdom and grace characterize the stories in which presents itself to Jesus and his family or relatives. A view of Jesus from Nazareth which presents it not aVected by trauma and limitations that causes the relationship to the interior of the families at any one of us, echo of the vision that the

  5. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe


    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  6. Microfluidic "Pouch" Chips for Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

    Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Chen, Dafeng; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H


    Microfluidic cassettes ("chips") for processing and analysis of clinical specimens and other sample types facilitate point-of-care (POC) immunoassays and nucleic acid based amplification tests. These single-use test chips can be self-contained and made amenable to autonomous operation-reducing or eliminating supporting instrumentation-by incorporating laminated, pliable "pouch" and membrane structures for fluid storage, pumping, mixing, and flow control. Materials and methods for integrating flexible pouch compartments and diaphragm valves into hard plastic (e.g., acrylic and polycarbonate) microfluidic "chips" for reagent storage, fluid actuation, and flow control are described. We review several versions of these pouch chips for immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests, and describe related fabrication techniques. These protocols thus offer a "toolbox" of methods for storage, pumping, and flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  7. Evaluation of four immunoassays for diagnosis of brucellosis in Cuba

    Peraza, C.; Valdes, O.; Fonseca, N.; Garcia, M.; Alvarez, M.; Izquierdo, D.L.


    Four immunoassays (two indirect and two competitive ones) were evaluated by samples from areas free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas using as reference techniques the Bengal Rose Tests, the Antigen in Buffered Plate Tests and the Complement Fixation Reaction Test. The evaluated samples demonstrated that the competitive assays (ELISAC-1 and ELISAC-2) detected less false positives than the indirect ones (ELISAI-1 and ELISAI-2). Of the competitive ELISAS, version 2 presented better sensitivity and specificity results in affected areas for 95% confidence: 80.9 - 96.9% and 97.5 - 99.4% respectively with positive predictive value in the range of 76 to 94% and negative predictive one between 98.1 and 99.7%. It was concluded that this assay can be used for brucellosis control because it gives higher assurance than the other evaluated immunoassays and it can discriminate infected from vaccinated animals. (author)

  8. Narrativas de um candango em Brasília

    Heloisa Helena Pacheco Cardoso


    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das experiências de um candango em Brasília, utilizando para análise sua própria narrativa. Eronildes Guerra de Queiroz, pernambucano, chegou ao Planalto Central nos anos 50 em busca de melhor condição de vida, como muitos outros que viram tal oportunidade na construção da nova capital. Em 1991, ele relata sua trajetória aos pesquisadores do Arquivo Público do Distrito Federal. Refletir sobre o conteúdo dessa narrativa significa não só desvendá-la enquanto expressão de práticas sociais que foram comuns naquele espaço, como reconhecê-la enquanto experiência individualizada no seu modo de perceber e contar os acontecimentos.This article is concerned with the experiences of a "candango" in Brasília, using as analysis his own narrative. Eronildes Guerra de Queiroz, born in Pernambuco, arrived in the Planalto Central in the fifties looking for best living conditions, as well as many other people who saw this opportunity in the new capital's construction. In 1991, he reports his own trajectory to the researchers of the Public Archive of the Distrito Federal. To think about the subject of this narrative means to solve it while expression of social practices that were common on that space and also recognizes it like individualized experience on its own way to perceive and to tell the events.

  9. Label-Free Electrochemical Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein

    Madasamy Thangamuthu


    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most expressed proteins in blood during acute phase inflammation, and its minute level increase has also been recognized for the clinical diagnosis of cardio vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the available commercial immunoassays are labour intensive, require large sample volumes, and have practical limitations, such as low stability and high production costs. Hence, we have developed a simple, cost effective, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the measurement of CRP in a drop of serum sample using an immunosensor strip made up of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE modified with anti-CRP functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The measurement relies on the decrease of the oxidation current of the redox indicator Fe3+/Fe2+, resulting from the immunoreaction between CRP and anti-CRP. Under optimal conditions, the present immunoassay measures CRP in a linear range from 0.4–200 nM (0.047–23.6 µg mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.15 nM (17 ng mL−1, S/N = 3 and sensitivity of 90.7 nA nM−1, in addition to a good reproducibility and storage stability. The analytical applicability of the presented immunoassay is verified by CRP measurements in human blood serum samples. This work provides the basis for a low-priced, safe, and easy-to-use point-of-care immunosensor assay to measure CRP at clinically relevant concentrations.

  10. Determination of digoxin by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay

    Mueller, H.; Braeuer, H.; Foerster, G.; Reinhardt, M.


    The results of parallel determinations of digoxin in the sera of non selected patients (n=104) by enzyme immunoassay (EMIT.EIA) and radioimmunoassay (J-125 labeled RIA) were compared with each other. The determinations revealed considerably different concentrations; the values determined by EIA were statistical lower (for EIA 1,09+'0,99ng/ml, for RIA 1,34+'1,01ng/ml, p [de

  11. Towards the development of a radioenzyme-immunoassay

    Schuurs, A.H.W.M.; Waart, M. v. d.


    We have tried to develop a very sensitive enzyme-immunoassay. For this purpose, a very sensitive radiochemical enzyme assay was used. HCG was chosen as test model and AChE as labelling enzyme. The test appeared to be much more sensitive than the normal enzymeimmunoassay. And, in comparison with RIA, it was about as sensitive but less time-consuming, and it makes use, in principle, of stable reagents. (orig./GSE) [de

  12. History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays

    Giesen, Charlotte; Waentig, Larissa; Panne, Ulrich; Jakubowski, Norbert


    The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA‐ICP‐MS. - Highlights: ► We discuss the fundamentals of elemental tagging for ICP‐MS applications. ► We propose a definition for the expressions “label” and “tag”. ► We highlight LA‐ICP‐MS‐based heteroelement detection. ► We give an historic overview on ICP-MS and LA‐ICP‐MS-based immunoassays. ► In a personal outlook, we discuss future improvements realistically attainable.

  13. Abbott prism: a multichannel heterogeneous chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer.

    Khalil, O S; Zurek, T F; Tryba, J; Hanna, C F; Hollar, R; Pepe, C; Genger, K; Brentz, C; Murphy, B; Abunimeh, N


    We describe a multichannel heterogeneous immunoassay analyzer in which a sample is split between disposable reaction trays in a group of linear tracks. The system's pipettor uses noninvasive sensing of the sample volume and disposable pipet tips. Each assay track has (a) a conveyor belt for moving reaction trays to predetermined functional stations, (b) temperature-controlled tunnels, (c) noncontact transfer of the reaction mixture between incubation and detection wells, and (d) single-photon counting to detect a chemiluminescence (CL) signal from the captured immunochemical product. A novel disposable reaction tray, with separate reaction and detection wells and self-contained fluid removal, is used in conjunction with the transfer device on the track to produce a carryover-free system. The linear immunoassay track has nine predetermined positions for performing individual assay steps. Assay step sequence and timing is selected by changing the location of the assay modules between these predetermined positions. The assay methodology, a combination of microparticle capture and direct detection of a CL signal on a porous matrix, offers excellent sensitivity, specificity, and ease of automation. Immunoassay configurations have been tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus I and II, and human T-cell leukemia virus I and II.

  14. Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.

    Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua


    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC₂₀) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products.

  15. Current status and future developments in radiolabelled immunoassays

    Edwards, R.


    Radioisotopes are used extensively in medical practice and their use in RIA or IRMA usually represent a small proportion of the total. Radiolabelled immunoassays based on 125 I constitute a simple didactic, cost effective and robust technology which is still regarded as the reference method in many clinical applications. The IAEA has implemented many successful programmes using the ''bulk reagent'' approach, involving 68 countries in all the different regions. The main achievements have been in technology transfer with self sufficiency in production for some countries; training of large numbers of staff; quality control and quality assurance schemes; devolution of screening programmes for neonatal congenital hypothryoidism. Alternatives to the use of radioisotopic tracers are constrained by many factors and are often only available in restricted commercial packages. They are often not suitable for technology transfer programmes and often lack any didactic component in addition to a relative high cost. The production of radiolabels using 125 I is both simple and adaptable. In addition expertise in their preparation and purification is widespread even in developing countries. Together with the ease of producing antibodies, the facts have made 125 I-radiolabelled immunoassays ideal for investigative procedures for many research activities (30,31) particularly in the medical context where radioisotopes are commonly used. In conclusion, even a superficial examination of public health statistics for various countries throughout the continents indicates a need for a simple, inexpensive and robust analytical tool. In this light, there is a predicted continuing role for radiolabelled immunoassays. (author)

  16. Simple patterned nanofiber scaffolds and its enhanced performance in immunoassay.

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF. For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05. Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection.

  17. Design and performance of a 3.3-MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA)

    Cheng Nianan; Zhang Shouyun; Tao Zucong


    A 3.3-MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA) has been designed and constructed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics. The parameters of 3.4 MeV, 2 kA, 80 ns and 1 x 10 4 A/( 2 have been achieved. It has been used for SG-1 FEL experiments. The accelerator is mounted on a movable frame so that , after moving 3 m transversely, it can be assembled with more modules into a 10-MeV LIA. The authors summarize the physics and engineering aspects of the LIA facility and describe the measuring means of characters for the beam

  18. O olhar sistêmico à família do idoso fragilizado

    Tatiane Dias Casimiro Valença


    Full Text Available A dependência e incapacidade funcional de um membro idoso da família podem provocar alterações na dinâmica e no ciclo vital familiar, apresentando situações antes nunca vivenciadas. O olhar sistêmico sobre a família permite ao profissional de saúde compreender este sistema de interrelação, contribuindo para a inteireza e globalidade do cuidado da pessoa idosa e da sua família. Este trabalho traz uma reflexão teórica com o conhecimento de autores que abordam esta temática.

  19. Enfermeiros de família – olhares e sentidos à práxis cuidativa

    Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes


    Full Text Available Diante das novas configurações de família na contemporaneidade, o cuidado de enfermagem envolve-se numa teia relacional para a sua práxis. O estudo objetiva conhecer os sentidos atribuídos por enfermeiros da Estratégia da Saúde da Família (ESF a partir de sua práxis cuidativa. Fundamentado na transpessoalidade e na abordagem sistêmica. Estudo qualitativo cuja coleta de informações envolveu multitécnicas. Os resultados evidenciaram a necessidade de cuidar a família intersubjetivamente e em sua complexidade existencial-relacional.

  20. Programa Bolsa Família: impacto das transferências sobre os gastos com alimentos em famílias rurais

    Gisléia Benini Duarte


    Full Text Available Programas de transferência condicionada de renda são políticas sociais correntemente empregadas para combater e reduzir a pobreza em diversos países. No curto prazo, esses programas visam aliviar os problemas decorrentes da situação de pobreza, sendo que, no longo prazo, o objetivo é investir no capital humano, quebrando o ciclo intergeracional da pobreza. Estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar os impactos desses programas sobre variáveis como freqüência escolar, trabalho infantil, gastos com alimentação, entre outros. Este trabalho avalia o impacto da transferência de renda do Programa Bolsa Família sobre os gastos com alimentos de famílias rurais. As estimações foram feitas com base no método de Propensity Score Matching (PSM, que corrige para o viés de seleção amostral. Os resultados mostram que o valor médio das despesas anuais para as famílias beneficiárias supera em R$ 246 os gastos totais das famílias não-participantes. Considerando que a média anual recebida por essas famílias é de R$ 278, pode-se inferir que 88% desse valor é utilizado para consumo de alimento. Portanto, o programa de transferência condicionada Bolsa Família exerce um impacto positivo sobre o consumo de alimentos dessas famílias selecionadas.Conditional income transfer programs are social policies currently adopted to reduce poverty in several countries. These conditional transfer schemes have a goal to alleviate some of the consequences of poverty in the short run and increase human capital in the long run changing the intergenerational poverty cycle. Several papers evaluate the impact of income transfer on school attendance, child work and food expenses, among others. This paper analyzes the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food expenses of rural families. The Propensity Score Method was used to correct sample selection bias. Results show that annual food expenses increased 246 reais in relation to non participant families

  1. Rapid detection of fumonisin B1 using a colloidal gold immunoassay strip test in corn samples.

    Ling, Sumei; Wang, Rongzhi; Gu, Xiaosong; Wen, Can; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Zhibin; Chen, Qing-Ai; Xiao, Shiwei; Yang, Yanling; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua


    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and highest toxic of fumonisins species, exists frequently in corn and corn-based foods, leading to several animal and human diseases. Furthermore, FB1 was reported that it was associated with the human esophageal cancer. In view of the harmful of FB1, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accuracy method for rapid detection of FB1. In this study, a competitive immunoassay for FB1 detection was developed based on colloidal gold-antibody conjugate. The FB1-keyhole limpet hemoeyanin (FB1-KLH) conjugate was embedded in the test line, and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody embedded in the control line. The color density of the test line correlated with the concentration of FB1 in the range from 2.5 to 10 ng/mL, and the visual limit detection of test for FB1 was 2.5 ng/mL. The results indicated that the test strip is specific for FB1, and no cross-reactivity to other toxins. The quantitative detection for FB1 was simple, only needing one step without complicated assay performance and expensive equipment, and the total time of visual evaluation was less than 5 min. Hence, the developed colloidal gold-antibody assay can be used as a feasible method for FB1 rapid and quantitative detection in corn samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Nanoparticle-Lectin Immunoassay Improves Discrimination of Serum CA125 from Malignant and Benign Sources.

    Gidwani, Kamlesh; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Kekki, Henna; van Vliet, Sandra; Hynninen, Johanna; Koivuviita, Niina; Perheentupa, Antti; Poutanen, Matti; Auranen, Annika; Grenman, Seija; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Carpen, Olli; van Kooyk, Yvette; Pettersson, Kim


    Measurement of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the standard approach for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) diagnostics and follow-up. However, the clinical specificity is not optimal because increased values are also detected in healthy controls and in benign diseases. CA125 is known to be differentially glycosylated in EOC, potentially offering a way to construct CA125 assays with improved cancer specificity. Our goal was to identify carbohydrate-reactive lectins for discriminating between CA125 originating from EOC and noncancerous sources. CA125 from the OVCAR-3 cancer cell line, placental homogenate, and ascites fluid from patients with cirrhosis were captured on anti-CA125 antibody immobilized on microtitration wells. A panel of lectins, each coated onto fluorescent europium-chelate-doped 97-nm nanoparticles (Eu(+3)-NPs), was tested for detection of the immobilized CA125. Serum samples from high-grade serous EOC or patients with endometriosis and healthy controls were analyzed. By using macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL)-coated Eu(+3)-NPs, an analytically sensitive CA125 assay (CA125(MGL)) was achieved that specifically recognized the CA125 isoform produced by EOC, whereas the recognition of CA125 from nonmalignant conditions was reduced. Serum CA125(MGL) measurement better discriminated patients with EOC from endometriosis compared to conventional immunoassay. The discrimination was particularly improved for marginally increased CA125 values and for earlier detection of EOC progression. The new CA125(MGL) assay concept could help reduce the false-positive rates of conventional CA125 immunoassays. The improved analytical specificity of this test approach is dependent on a discriminating lectin immobilized in large numbers on Eu(+3)-NPs, providing both an avidity effect and signal amplification. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Lanky Lizards! Francesca Lia Block Is Fun to Read But...: Reading Multicultural Literature in Public Schools.

    Reid, Suzanne; Hutchinson, Brad


    Examines recent young adult fiction that models communities where cultural differences are equally valued and which can be said to foster multicultural perspectives. Describes the novels of Francesca Lia Block as exemplary of such initiatives. (HB)

  4. “Under the Skin of the Story”: An Interview with Lia Mills

    Luz Mar González-Arias


    Lia Mills is currently working on a historical novel and has published numerous short-stories and essays in literary journals like The Stinging Fly and The Dublin Review. She has lectured in University College Dublin and often facilitates creative writing workshops. Lia Mills’ varied literary production is a good example of the strength and energies of modern Irish fiction.

  5. Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays

    García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph


    Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic

  6. Chimeric recombinant antibody fragments in cardiac troponin I immunoassay.

    Hyytiä, Heidi; Heikkilä, Taina; Brockmann, Eeva-Christine; Kekki, Henna; Hedberg, Pirjo; Puolakanaho, Tarja; Lövgren, Timo; Pettersson, Kim


    To introduce a novel nanoparticle-based immunoassay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) utilizing chimeric antibody fragments and to demonstrate that removal of antibody Fc-part and antibody chimerization decrease matrix related interferences. A sandwich-type immunoassay for cTnI based on recombinant chimeric (mouse variable/human constant) antigen binding (cFab) antibodies and intrinsically fluorescent nanoparticles was developed. To test whether using chimeric antibody fragments helps to avoid matrix related interferences, samples (n=39) with known amounts of triglycerides, bilirubin, rheumatoid factor (RF) or human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) were measured with the novel assay, along with a previously published nanoparticle-based research assay with the same antibody epitopes. The limit of detection (LoD) was 3.30ng/L. Within-laboratory precision for 29ng/L and 2819ng/L cTnI were 13.7% and 15.9%, respectively. Regression analysis with Siemens ADVIA Centaur® yielded a slope (95% confidence intervals) of 0.18 (0.17-1.19) and a y-intercept of 1.94 (-1.28-3.91) ng/L. When compared to a previously published nanoparticle-based assay, the novel assay showed substantially reduced interference in the tested interference prone samples, 15.4 vs. 51.3%. A rheumatoid factor containing sample was decreased from 241ng/L to immunoassay for the detection of cTnI and decreased matrix related interferences, thus resulting in a lower number of falsely elevated cTnI-values. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie


    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    Mônica Fortuna Pontes


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os desafios e percalços vivenciados por casais de mulheres para a concretização da maternidade biológica, com o auxílio das novas tecnologias reprodutivas. Foram discutidas as motivações para a utilização de sêmen de doadores anônimos, assim como as razões pela opção por certas características dos referidos doadores. Foram entrevistadas nove mulheres, que vivem em coabitação com outras mulheres e que planejaram a maternidade conjuntamente. A concretização da maternidade por meio de laços biológicos apareceu como prioridade para as mulheres entrevistadas, reproduzindo, de certa forma, um modelo idealizado e tradicional de família. Contudo, a maternidade realizada ao lado de outra mulher originou uma configuração familiar controversa e perturbadora, uma vez que a homoparentalidade, de qualquer tipo, subverte noções prontas de parentesco e, quando atravessada pelas novas tecnologias de reprodução, constituiu-se, necessariamente, como algo inovador.

  9. Tumor specific lung cancer diagnostics with multiplexed FRET immunoassays

    Geißler, D.; Hill, D.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Thomas, E.; Lavigne, A.; Darbouret, B.; Bois, E.; Charbonnière, L. J.; Ziessel, R. F.; Hildebrandt, N.


    An optical multiplexed homogeneous (liquid phase) immunoassay based on FRET from a terbium complex to eight different fluorescent dyes is presented. We achieved highly sensitive parallel detection of four different lung cancer specific tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SCC and CYFRA21-1) within a single assay and show a proof-of-principle for 5- fold multiplexing. The method is well suited for fast and low-cost miniaturized point-of-care testing as well as for highthroughput screening in a broad range of in-vitro diagnostic applications.

  10. Linkage of biomolecules to solid phases for immunoassay

    Chapman, R.S.


    Topics covered by this lecture include a brief review of the principal methods of linkage of biomolecules to solid phase matrices. Copies of the key self explanatory slides are presented as figures together with reprints of two publications by the author dealing with a preferred chemistry for the covalent linkage of antibodies to hydroxyl and amino functional groups and the effects of changes in solid phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry on the performance of a typical excess reagent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

  11. On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin

    Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Maturos, Thitima; Lomas, Tanom; Sappat, Assawapong; Tuantranont, Adisorn


    An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993), with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3). The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (...

  12. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe


    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and ...

  13. Synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots and their application in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein

    Tian Jianniao; Liu Rongjun; Zhao Yanchun; Peng Yan; Hong Xue; Zhao Shulin [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Xu Qing, E-mail: [Pharmacology Department of Guilin Medical College, Guilin 541004 (China)


    We report the imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs. Stable and high PLQY (20%-48%) CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs were synthesized by a stepwise process. Bioconjugation of the core-shell-shell QDs with streptavidin (SA) was successfully applied in immunofluorescent imaging of the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2.2.15. Furthermore, the thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs fluorescence lifetime is longer than fluorescein, so it was first engaged to conjugate with antigen for the determination of protein (AFP) by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  14. Synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots and their application in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein

    Tian Jianniao; Liu Rongjun; Zhao Yanchun; Peng Yan; Hong Xue; Zhao Shulin; Xu Qing


    We report the imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs. Stable and high PLQY (20%-48%) CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs were synthesized by a stepwise process. Bioconjugation of the core-shell-shell QDs with streptavidin (SA) was successfully applied in immunofluorescent imaging of the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2.2.15. Furthermore, the thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs fluorescence lifetime is longer than fluorescein, so it was first engaged to conjugate with antigen for the determination of protein (AFP) by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  15. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy


    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  16. Comparative determination of phenytoin by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, enzyme immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay

    Castro, A.; Ibanez, J.; DiCesare, J.L.; Adams, R.F.; Malkus, H.


    Sera from patients being treated with phenytoin were analyzed for the drug by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, radioimmunoasay, enzyme immunoassay, and liquid chromatography. The assay values obtained were intercompared statistically. Enzyme immunoassay and liquid chromatography appear to be attractive alternatives to the more traditional methods of spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. Our radioimmunoassay data correlated poorly with results by the four other methods

  17. Determining total thyroxine with the aid of the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay

    Vogt, W.


    Total thyrozine values obtained with the aid of the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay are compared with those delivered by the RIA and the efficiency of the EMIT technique is evaluated. Some results obtained via Enzymun-T4, a heterologous enzyme immunoassay, are also given. (VJ) 891 VJ [de

  18. Evaluation of six immunoassays for detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies

    J. Groen (Jan); P. Koraka (Penelope); J. Velzing (Jans); C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractThe performance of six commercially available immunoassay systems for the detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in serum was evaluated. These included two IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays (EIA) from MRL Laboratories and PanBio, a rapid

  19. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio


    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  20. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia


    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  1. Determination of phospholipid transfer proteins in rat tissues by immunoassays

    Teerlink, T.


    Several quantitative immunoassays have been developed for two phospholipid transfer proteins from rat liver, i.e. the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and the non-specific lipid transfer protein. The development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein is described. The transfer protein was labelled with iodine-125 by the mild glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method. Although less than one tyrosine residue per molecule of transfer protein was labelled, only 20% of the labelled transfer protein was immunoprecipitable. This value could be increased to 80% by purifying the labelled protein by affinity chromatography on a column of anti-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-IgG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in homogenates and 105 000 xg supernatants from various rat tissues as well as several Morris hepatomas. An enzyme immunoassay for the non-specific lipid transfer protein is also described. The antiserum that was raised especially by the author was cross-reactive with the non-specific lipid transfer protein present in 105 000 xg supernatants from human, mouse and bovine liver. The non-specific lipid transfer protein lost its immunoreactivity upon labelling with iodine-125 using different labelling techniques. Therefore, a regular radioimmunoassay could not be developed. The results of these different assays were compared. (Auth.)

  2. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)


    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  3. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Ratthaphol Charlermroj

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  4. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T


    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  5. Development of a novel ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay for human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibody.

    Numata, Satoshi; Katakami, Hideki; Inoue, Shinobu; Sawada, Hirotake; Hashida, Seiichi


    We developed a novel, ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay) for determination of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody concentrations in serum samples from patients with type 2 diabetes. We developed an immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody and measured glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody from 22 patients with type 1 diabetes, 29 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 32 healthy controls. A conventional ELISA kit identified 10 patients with type 1 diabetes and one patient with type 2 diabetes as glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positive, whereas 15 patients with type 1 diabetes and six patients with type 2 diabetes were identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positive using immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay. Immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay is a highly sensitive and specific assay for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody and might be clinically useful for diabetic onset prediction and early diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.


    Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

  7. Olhares de crianças baianas sobre família

    Lúcia Vaz de Campos Moreira


    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou os significados que 60 crianças baianas, de 6 a 12 anos, atribuíam aos pais, mães, irmãos, avós e família. Os participantes foram divididos em quatro grupos de 15 crianças: dois de Salvador-BA, cujos pais tinham nível sócio-educacional baixo e alto, e dois provenientes do interior da Bahia com os mesmos níveis sócio-educacionais. As crianças foram entrevistadas individualmente conforme roteiro semi-estruturado. Investigou-se a composição da família e o local da moradia com os responsáveis. Os dados evidenciam que as crianças residem com a família nuclear, mas têm relações estreitas com a família extensa; a família é concebida como quem cuida e apóia; a mãe cuida, educa e é afetiva; o pai e o avô são lúdicos; as avós agradam; os irmãos brincam, ajudam e ensinam, embora também atritem, mas são companhias com as quais se conta sempre.

  8. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important. In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein. The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks. Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and

  9. Clinical development of placental malaria vaccines and immunoassays harmonization

    Chêne, Arnaud; Houard, Sophie; Nielsen, Morten A


    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection constitutes a major health problem manifesting as severe disease and anaemia in the mother, impaired fetal development, low birth weight or spontaneous abortion. Prevention of placental malaria currently relies on two key strategies...... that are losing efficacy due to spread of resistance: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. A placental malaria vaccine would be an attractive, cost-effective complement to the existing control tools. Two placental malaria vaccine candidates are currently...... in Phase Ia/b clinical trials. During two workshops hosted by the European Vaccine Initiative, one in Paris in April 2014 and the other in Brussels in November 2014, the main actors in placental malaria vaccine research discussed the harmonization of clinical development plans and of the immunoassays...

  10. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    Chuanlai Xu


    Full Text Available We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages.

  11. Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection.

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Zhang, Yi; Cooper, Jonathan M


    The diagnosis of infectious diseases in the Developing World is technologically challenging requiring complex biological assays with a high analytical performance, at minimal cost. By using an opto-acoustic immunoassay technology, integrating components commonly used in mobile phone technologies, including surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to provide pressure driven flow and a CMOS camera to enable lensfree detection technique, we demonstrate the potential to produce such an assay. To achieve this, antibody functionalised microparticles were manipulated on a low-cost disposable cartridge using the surface acoustic waves and were then detected optically. Our results show that the biomarker, interferon-γ, used for the diagnosis of diseases such as latent tuberculosis, can be detected at pM concentrations, within a few minutes (giving high sensitivity at a minimal cost). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. Plasma myelin basic protein assay using Gilford enzyme immunoassay cuvettes.

    Groome, N P


    The assay of myelin basic protein in body fluids has potential clinical importance as a routine indicator of demyelination. Preliminary details of a competitive enzyme immunoassay for this protein have previously been published by the author (Groome, N. P. (1980) J. Neurochem. 35, 1409-1417). The present paper now describes the adaptation of this assay for use on human plasma and various aspects of routine data processing. A commercially available cuvette system was found to have advantages over microtitre plates but required a permuted arrangement of sample replicates for consistent results. For dose interpolation, the standard curve could be fitted to a three parameter non-linear equation by regression analysis or linearised by the logit/log transformation.

  13. A redox-mediated chromogenic reaction and application in immunoassay.

    Yu, Ru-Jia; Ma, Wei; Peng, Mao-Pan; Bai, Zhi-Shan; Long, Yi-Tao


    A novel redox-mediated chromogenic reaction was demonstrated based on the reaction between HAuCl4 and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), which generate various color responses from red to green in the resulting solutions. Various redox substance could be used to mediate the reaction and trigger a distinct color response. We established a sensitive hydrogen peroxide colorimetric sensor based on the redox-mediated chromogenic reaction and depicted the application both in detection of enzyme and in an immunoassay. Combining the traditional chromogenic reagent with gold nanoparticles, our assay has the advantage in short response time (within three minutes), high sensitivity (10(-12) g mL(-1) for HBsAg) and stability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for detecting tartrazine.

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai


    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages.

  15. On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin

    Adisorn Tuantranont


    Full Text Available An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993, with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3. The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (RSDs of 5.1%, when evaluated with 10 mg L–1 albumin (n = 10. Determination of urinary albumin with the proposed system gave results highly similar to those determined by the conventional spectrophotometric method using immunoturbidimetric detection (r2 = 0.995; n = 15.

  16. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  17. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  18. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-heng; Li, Yan-ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-lou; Yang, Hong-wei; Liu, Yuan-yuan


    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A perspectiva sistêmica para a Clínica da Família

    Liana Fortunato Costa

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem por objetivo traçar uma breve trajetória teórica, conceitual, empírica e tecnológica do estudo da família na perspectiva sistêmica e apontar a consequente proposta de intervenções para a clínica da família. Apresentamos as diferentes Escolas de Terapia Familiar, desde aquelas fortemente influenciadas pela Cibernética até aquelas que assimilaram as contribuições do Construtivismo e do Construcionismo Social. A seguir, tecemos comentários sobre a pesquisa com família e os interesses dos pesquisadores da área em nosso país. Finalmente, apontamos nossa opinião sobre o direcionamento futuro da Terapia Familiar no Brasil.

  20. Cecília, antero e os caminhos para a perfeição

    Maria Margarida Maia Gouveia


    Full Text Available Na formação literária de Cecília, a literatura portuguesa desempenhou um papel importante, nomeadamente o caso exemplar da poesia e da prosa metafísica de Antero. Porém, enquanto em Antero as preocupações com a morte e o Além assumem uma forma dramática, com diálogos, espectros e “cavalgadas ideais”, em Cecília nota-se uma serena e amarga aceitação da vida. Em Antero pesam ainda fórmulas românticas de expressão poética; em Cecília verifica-se uma linguagem mais elaborada e herdeira do simbolismo. 

  1. Filhas de famílias homoparentais: processos, confrontos e pluralidades

    Jimena de Garay Hernandez


    Os movimentos feministas e LGBT no contexto mundial, latino-americano e brasileiro, assim como as perspectivas teórico-políticas pós-estruturalistas, têm questionado profundamente a família entendida sob os parâmetros da modernidade. Diante disso, são grandes os avanços no que tange aos direitos que garantem a proteção e estabilidade de famílias compostas por mães lésbicas, seja solteiras ou em casal, o que tem promovido que as filhas dessas famílias se desenvolvam em ambientes com mais refer...

  2. Fault diagnosis and performance evaluation for high current LIA based on radial basis function neural network

    Yang Xinglin; Wang Huacen; Chen Nan; Dai Wenhua; Li Jin


    High current linear induction accelerator (LIA) is a complicated experimental physics device. It is difficult to evaluate and predict its performance. this paper presents a method which combines wavelet packet transform and radial basis function (RBF) neural network to build fault diagnosis and performance evaluation in order to improve reliability of high current LIA. The signal characteristics vectors which are extracted based on energy parameters of wavelet packet transform can well present the temporal and steady features of pulsed power signal, and reduce data dimensions effectively. The fault diagnosis system for accelerating cell and the trend classification system for the beam current based on RBF networks can perform fault diagnosis and evaluation, and provide predictive information for precise maintenance of high current LIA. (authors)


    Cunico, Sabrina Daiana; Arpini, Dorian Mônica


    O presente estudo é de caráter qualitativo e teve como objetivo compreender as questões que perpassam o fim do relacionamento conjugal, a parentalidade desempenhada após a dissolução bem como as diferenças atribuídas ao desempenho dos papéis parentais sob o olhar de mulheres chefes de família. Participaram do estudo dez mulheres mães que eram provenientes de grupos populares e compunham uma família monoparental. Destas, sete eram solteiras, uma era separada e duas divorciadas. Os dados foram ...

  4. Consumo alimentar de beneficiários do programa Bolsa Família

    Alan Giovanini de Oliveira Sartori


    A expansão do consumo de alimentos submetidos a elevado grau de processamento em países em desenvolvimento é notória. Em paralelo, observa-se o aumento na prevalência de excesso de peso e de comorbidades associadas. O fenômeno também tem sido observado em famílias consideradas pobres que recebem benefício financeiro de programa federal de transferência condicionada de renda. O objetivo geral foi analisar o consumo alimentar de beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF). Foi elaborado um si...

  5. Regras importam: determinantes do controle burocrático no Programa Bolsa Família

    Coêlho, Denilson Bandeira; Fernandes, Antônio Sérgio Araújo


    Resumo: A literatura concernente ao Programa Bolsa Família tem focado questões como o impacto sobre a pobreza e a desigualdade, os efeitos relacionados com o processo eleitoral e a função das condicionalidades. Entretanto, o Programa Bolsa Família está também associado a um problema de relação principal-agente, pois requer o controle efetivo de um conjunto de regras para seu funcionamento. Na literatura nacional, pouco se tem produzido sobre o efeito de regras formais como instrumentos de mod...

  6. Família composta Poisson-Truncada: propriedades e aplicações

    ARAÚJO, Raphaela Lima Belchior de


    Este trabalho analisa propriedades da família de distribuições de probabilidade Composta N e propõe a sub-família Composta Poisson-Truncada como um meio de compor distribuições de probabilidade. Suas propriedades foram estudadas e uma nova distribuição foi investigada: a distribuição Composta Poisson-Truncada Normal. Esta distribuição possui três parâmetros e tem uma flexibilidade para modelar dados multimodais. Demonstramos que sua densidade é dada por uma mistura infinita de densidades norm...

  7. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná

    Negrelle,Raquel Rejane Bonato; Anacleto,Adilson


    Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a) identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b) identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c) levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldad...

  8. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná

    Anacleto,Adilson; Negrelle,Raquel Rejane Bonato


    Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e apta...

  9. Bolsa Família e desigualdade da renda domiciliar entre 2006 e 2011 = Bolsa Família and inequality of household income between 2006 and 2011

    Carvalho, Cleusení Hermelina de


    Full Text Available Os programas de transferência condicionada de renda têm crescentemente desempenhado um papel importante no combate à pobreza em vários países da América Latina, principalmente no Brasil. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a contribuição do programa Bolsa Família na diminuição da desigualdade da renda domiciliar per capita no Brasil, entre 2006 e 2011. Para isso, analisa-se a participação relativa de oito fontes de renda – trabalho, aposentadorias, programa Bolsa Família (variável proxy, pensões, abonos, doações, aluguéis e juros – no Brasil e nas suas cinco macrorregiões. Assim, além do artigo detalhar a técnica matemática utilizada para decompor o Índice de Gini, apresenta e discute os resultados empíricos encontrados para o Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Dentre os resultados, destaca-se a capacidade do programa Bolsa Família em contribuir para a queda da desigualdade da renda domiciliar nacional, o que se explica por sua acentuada focalização


    Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza Lima

    Full Text Available O artigo examina as fragilidades que permeiam as inter-relações estabelecidas no processo de trabalho de médicos de família italianos para conhecer possíveis conflitos éticos. Trata-se de um estudo de campo, de abordagem qualitativa e caráter explora-tório-descritivo, realizado em 2007, na província de Roma, região do Lácio, Itália, com médicos de família italianos conveniados ao Serviço Sanitário Nacional. Analisados à luz da bioética cotidiana, os resultados mostram conflitos éticos gerados diretamente pelo modelo de organização de atenção em saúde do Serviço Sanitário Nacional e pelo mercado da indústria farmacêutica e indiretamente pela sociedade, tendo como pano de fundo o capitalismo em sua face neoliberal.

  11. Correlations between calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and cyclosporine metabolites concentrations in kidney transplant recipients: Implications for immunoassays

    Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Karamperis, Nikolaos; Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille Bundgaard


    by inhibiting the enzyme calcineurin phosphatase. Determination of the enzyme's activity is one of the most promising pharmacodynamic markers. It is unknown how calcineurin phosphatase inhibition correlates with various cyclosporine monitoring assays and what is the potential impact of metabolites...... by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and by the polyclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay (pFPIA). Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by its ability to dephosphorylate a previously phosphorylated 19-amino acid peptide. We found that calcineurin phosphatase inhibition...

  12. Correlations between calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and cyclosporine metabolites concentrations in kidney transplant recipients: implications for immunoassays

    Karamperis, N; Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Brahe, P


    by inhibiting the enzyme calcineurin phosphatase. Determination of the enzyme's activity is one of the most promising pharmacodynamic markers. It is unknown how calcineurin phosphatase inhibition correlates with various cyclosporine monitoring assays and what is the potential impact of metabolites...... by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and by the polyclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay (pFPIA). Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by its ability to dephosphorylate a previously phosphorylated 19-amino acid peptide. We found that calcineurin phosphatase inhibition...

  13. Control of (pre-analytical aspects in immunoassay measurements of metabolic hormones in rodents

    Maximilian Bielohuby


    Full Text Available The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase. This review aims to increase the awareness for the factors ‘pre-analytical’ and ‘analytical’ variability particularly in the context of immunoassay measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent samples. In addition, guidance is provided how to gain control over these variables and how to avoid common pitfalls associated with sample collection, processing, storage and measurement. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how to perform a basic validation of novel single and multiplex immunoassays for the measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical examples from immunoassay measurements of plasma insulin in mice address the factors ‘sampling site and inhalation anesthesia’ as frequent sources of introducing an unwanted variability during the pre-analytical phase. The knowledge about the influence of both types of variability on the immunoassay measurement of circulating hormones as well as strategies to control these variables are crucial, on the one hand, for planning and realization of metabolic rodent studies and, on the other hand, for the generation and interpretation of meaningful immunoassay data from rodent samples.

  14. A study using an isotope probe comparing immunoassay with serology in detection of Brucella Abortus antibody

    Devlin, J.G.; Redington, F.; Stephenson, M.


    We report a comparison of radio-immunoassay with conventional serology in the detection of brucella abortus antibody from three laboratories. Overall agreement by Chi squared analysis is 5%. There are significant differences between laboratories and a significant number of sero negative suspect sera (from 20% - 60%) were positive by ratio-immunoassay test. We suspect that conventional serology under-reports the incidence of antibody to brucella abortus. (author)

  15. Young Adult Fairy Tales for the New Age: Francesca Lia Block's "The Rose and the Beast."

    Russell, David L.


    Considers how Francesca Lia Block's "The Rose and the Beast" attests to the resilience of the traditional folktale form. Describes how Block's work is a modern adaptation of some of the most familiar old tales, all with heroines struggling against plastic, soulless culture beset by drugs, sex, and violence. (SG)

  16. A experiência de cuidar da mulher alcoolista na família

    Alessandro Marques dos Santos


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as práticas de cuidados desenvolvidas pela família à mulher alcoolista e conhecer a percepção desta em relação aos cuidados que recebe. Trata-se de um estudo de caso, desenvolvido com uma abordagem qualitativa, cujos dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, realizadas em 2008, no domicílio de uma família de classe média, residente em um município no extremo sul do Brasil e, posteriormente, submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostram que os cuidados desenvolvidos pela família são centrados nas necessidades de alimentação, higiene, sono, repouso, encaminhamento aos serviços especializados para a desintoxicação e que a mulher alcoolista interpreta esses esforços como sendo ações de controle sobre sua vida e punição pela sua condição de dependência. Destaca-se que a maneira da família cuidar modifica-se no mesmo compasso em que o alcoolismo evolui.


    Matheus Rodrigues dos Santos Silva


    Full Text Available A repressão à sexualidade foi responsável por estabelecer o modelo de família patriarcal e heterossexual. Entretanto, os casais homoafetivos buscam inserir-se no Direito como unidades familiares baseadas no afeto. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o conflito de concepções de família em sua positivação legal. Para isso, compara as definições do papel e das funções da família nos projetos de lei apresentados ao Congresso pela Frente Parlamentar Evangélica (FPE que negam a diversidade das experiências sexuais com as decisões do STF e do CNJ favoráveis ao casamento homoafetivo. Busca-se apoio na historiografia para situar na história cultural do país a moral religiosa sobre a família e a sexualidade. Analisa as decisões judiciais à luz da Teoria Tridimensional do Direito, que permite considerar como fato social a unidade familiar formada por pessoas do mesmo sexo. Conclui-se que a FPE busca a retomada do modelo tradicional, utilizando-se de práticas discursivas que remontam às falas dos padres coloniais. Por outro lado, o modelo do afeto surge dos fatos da sociedade e da atuação do Judiciário.


    Débora Aparecida Moura Campos


    Full Text Available Resumo: Ao se aposentar, o indivíduo deixa de desempenhar seu papel de trabalhador “formal”, passando a focalizar o desempenho de um membro mais ativo na família. Este artigo teve por objetivo identificar as inter-relações entre o fenômeno da aposentadoria na família e na saúde do trabalhador, analisando as publicações nacionais, em especial, artigos científicos, no período de 2013 a 2015, a partir dos descritores “aposentadoria e família”, “aposentadoria e saúde do trabalhador”. Encontrou-se o total de 198 publicações, sendo 19 delas analisadas. Constatou-se a aposentadoria como um evento de vida e, a coincidência de sua ocorrência com a proximidade da velhice, além da estreita relação com as questões de saúde e de família, configurando-se um desafio durante o processo de envelhecimento. Concluiu-se que a inter-relação dos temas aposentadoria, envelhecimento, contexto familiar e a saúde do trabalhador estão em evidência nas publicações encontradas neste estudo.   Palavras-chave: Aposentadoria. Família. Saúde do trabalhador

  19. Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    L. Mourao (Luciana); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in

  20. Compreendendo o alcoolismo na família Comprendiendo el alcoholismo en la família Understanding alcoholism in the family context

    Carmen Lúcia Alves Filizola


    Full Text Available O alcoolismo é um sério problema de saúde pública. O seu tratamento é complexo e a inclusão da família tem sido enfatizada. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a estrutura, as relações, a rede de suporte e a vivência de famílias diante do alcoolismo. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com cinco famílias de alcoolistas de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família. Verificamos que o alcoolismo constituiu-se no maior problema para as famílias que demonstram pouco conhecimento sobre o tema. Entre as maiores dificuldades encontramos a violência sofrida pelos familiares. As relações familiares são conturbadas. A maioria das famílias isola-se evitando falar do alcoolismo com outros. Portanto, a rede de suporte social seria fundamental. Ao analisá-la constatamos a precariedade de recursos públicos, o desconhecimento dos existentes e a não utilização de Grupos de Apoio pelas famíliasEl alcoholismo es un serio problema de salud pública. Su tratamiento es complejo y la inclusión de la familia ha sido enfatizada. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar la estructura, las relaciones, la red de suporte y la vivencia de la familias perante al alcoholismo. La recolección de datos fue realizada a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con cinco familias de alcohólicos de una Unidad de Salud de Familia. Verificamos que el alcoholismo se constituyó como mayor problema para las familias que demuestran poco conocimiento sobre el tema. Dentro de las mayores dificultades encontramos la violencia sufrida por los familiares. Las relaciones familiares son conturbadas. La mayoría de las familias evita hablar del alcoholismo con otros se alejando. Por esto, la red de suporte social seria fundamental. Al analizarla constatamos la precariedad de recursos públicos, el desconocimiento de los existentes y la no utilización de Grupos de Apoyo por las familias.Alcoholism is a serious problem for

  1. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    Orazio Ruzzenente


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB, limit of detection (LOD, functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00 in the range of concentrations between 0.006–75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was −3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: −4.32 to −1.74 ng/mL, whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0–10 ng/mL was −0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: −0.77 to −0.24 ng/mL. The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably. Keywords: Sepsis, Infection, Procalcitonin, Immunoassay

  2. Catch and measure-mass spectrometry-based immunoassays in biomarker research.

    Weiß, Frederik; van den Berg, Bart H J; Planatscher, Hannes; Pynn, Christopher J; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver


    Mass spectrometry-based (MS) methods are effective tools for discovering protein biomarker candidates that can differentiate between physiological and pathophysiological states. Promising candidates are validated in studies comprising large patient cohorts. Here, targeted protein analytics are used to increase sample throughput. Methods involving antibodies, such as sandwich immunoassays or Western blots, are commonly applied at this stage. Highly-specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based immunoassays that have been established in recent years offer a suitable alternative to sandwich immunoassays for quantifying proteins. Mass Spectrometric ImmunoAssays (MSIA) and Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA/iMALDI) are two prominent types of MS-based immunoassays in which the capture is done either at the protein or the peptide level. We present an overview of these emerging types of immunoassays and discuss their suitability for the discovery and validation of protein biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  3. Effective gasoline site assessment using the D TECH trademark BTEX immunoassay

    Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M.; Stave, J.W.


    The application of immunoassay to environmental testing can greatly aid in assessing sites for various contaminants including PCB, TNT, RDX, PAH and BTEX. Immunoassay offers several benefits to site assessment: it is accurate, reproducible and relatively inexpensive compared to instrumental analysis. In addition, because of its ease-of-use, this technique is ideal for the field and requires minimal user training. To demonstrate not only the effectiveness of the BTEX immunoassay, but also the reliability of the field results, a gasoline contaminated site was assessed comparing the BTEX immunoassay to gas chromatography. All sampling and site related activities were executed in accordance to the USEPA SW-846 guidelines. Three (3) analyses were performed on each sample. One immunoassay analysis was performed in the field by an individual who received two (2) hours of training prior to the start of the study. A technician familiar with the immunoassay ran the second analysis in a laboratory. Finally, an independent GC laboratory certified for BTEX method 8020 and 602 performed the GC analyses. One hundred one (101) samples were analyzed: thirty-nine (39) samples were water, the other sixty-two (62) were soils ranging from clay to silt. The results and costs of the methods are compared

  4. Diferenças de género no conflito trabalho-família: um estudo com famílias portuguesas de duplo-emprego com filhos em idade pré-escolar

    Matias, Marisa; Andrade, Cláudia; Fontaine, Anne Marie


    Portugal apresenta uma crescente participação feminina no mercado de trabalho, levando a que o modelo familiar de um único elemento a trabalhar fora de casa tenha perdido expressão. Actualmente, as famílias de duplo-emprego ultrapassam em número as famílias com um único emprego, pelo que homens e mulheres debatem-se com as novas exigências do seu trabalho e da sua família. Assim, as responsabilidades do trabalho profissional, tarefas domésticas e cuidado dos filhos não se confinam mais à divi...

  5. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)


    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  6. The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay

    Kidwell, David


    The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

  7. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    Konishi, Junji; Nakajima, Akiko; Morita, Rikushi; Endo, Keigo; Ikekubo, Katsuji


    T 3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 37 0 C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T 3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T 3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T 3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T 3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T 3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  8. Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus mycotoxins: immunogen synthesis and immunoassay development.

    Fox, M; Gray, G; Kavanagh, K; Lewis, C; Doyle, S


    Immunological detection of secreted low molecular weight toxins represents a potentially novel means of diagnosing infection by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Two such metabolites, gliotoxin and helvolic acid, were selected and conjugated to thyroglobulin for antisera generation in rabbits. Gliotoxin was initially activated using N-[p-maleimidophenyl] isocyanate (PMPI) and subsequently conjugated to S-acetyl thioglycolic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated thyroglobulin, whereas helvolic acid was activated with N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of thyroglobulin prior to immunisation. To facilitate subsequent antisera evaluation, both toxins were similarly conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation-Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed covalent attachment of toxins to BSA in the ratios of 15 and 2.4 mol per mol BSA for gliotoxin and helvolic acid, respectively. Resultant high titer antisera were capable of detecting both BSA-conjugated toxins (inhibitory concentration (IC)(50): 4-5 microg/ml). Free toxins were also detectable by competitive immunoassay, whereby 10 microg/ml free gliotoxin (30 microM) and helvolic acid (17 microM), respectively, inhibited antibody binding to cognate toxin-BSA previously immobilised on microwells. This work confirms that sensitive and specific antisera can be raised against fungal toxins and may have an application in diagnosing fungal infection.

  9. Enzyme immunoassay for DDT analysis in Lebanese soils

    Bashour, I.; Dagher, S.; Shammas, G.; Sukkariyah, B.; Kawar, N.


    Full text: The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique in estimating pesticide residue in soils is a faster, less expensive and easier method to use than the gas chromatography (GC) analysis technique..In the test, DDT pesticide residues in the simple compete with enzyme (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled DDT for a limited number of antibody binding sites on the inside surfaces of the test wells; the envirologix plate kit was tested for the measurement of total DDT in virgin and fortified (0-1000 ng g exp-1) soil samples of different properties from Lebanon. Extraction of DDT from soil was done by shaking the samples for 16 hours on a mechanical shaker with 90% methanol without any clean-up steps. Then the samples were allowed to stand for 30 minutes and an aliquot was taken from the clear supernatant. The DDT in the extract was measured in triplicate by GC and ELISA. The results indicated that the two techniques were highly correlated (r2 =0.9671-0.9973). Differences in soils physical and chemical properties did not accuracy of the detection limits of ELISA when compared to GC-ECD results. Immunoassay technique is a suitable method for rapid and accurate measurement of DDT residue in mineral Lebanese soils

  10. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    Na Kong


    Full Text Available An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed.

  11. Evidence for carcinoembryonic antigen using radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay

    Kungda Gao, L.


    A commercially available radioimmunoassay for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was initially compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Considerable differences were found between the individual value. For three patients suffering from carcinomas of the digestive tract a better indication of the disease was given in the RIA than in the EIA. A further 110 patients with various illnesses were examined for serum CEA-levels using RIA. A method for measuring CEA in feces by RIA was developed. The normal range lies below 300 ng/ml. This assay could be of significance for the early recognition of colo-rectal carcinoma. In part II of this dissertation CEA was isolated from colo-rectal carcinomas using three different gel filtration media. It was only possible to obtain almost pure CEA (24 μg CEA per μg protein) by one of the methods. Six guinea pigs were immunized with the isolated CEA and all developed antibodies. The isolated CEA was labelled with 125 I and an own RIA saturation sequence and double antibody separation was developed. One of the antisera was able to distinguish without overlap 7 healthy patients from 7 suffering from colo-rectal carcinomas in non-extracted serum. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for homogeneous immunoassay.

    Lee, Joon Seok; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Min-Gon; Park, Chan Beum


    We report on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) between graphene nanosheets and chemiluminescent donors. In contrast to fluorescence resonance energy transfer, CRET occurs via nonradiative dipole-dipole transfer of energy from a chemiluminescent donor to a suitable acceptor molecule without an external excitation source. We designed a graphene-based CRET platform for homogeneous immunoassay of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker for human inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, using a luminol/hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. According to our results, anti-CRP antibody conjugated to graphene nanosheets enabled the capture of CRP at the concentration above 1.6 ng mL(-1). In the CRET platform, graphene played a key role as an energy acceptor, which was more efficient than graphene oxide, while luminol served as a donor to graphene, triggering the CRET phenomenon between luminol and graphene. The graphene-based CRET platform was successfully applied to the detection of CRP in human serum samples in the range observed during acute inflammatory stress.

  13. Significance of isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay results.

    Hunter, Michael G; Robertson, Peter W; Post, Jeffrey J


    Isolated reactive serum treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) specimens cause clinical uncertainty. Sera were screened by CIA, and reactive samples underwent reflex testing with rapid plasma reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA Abs) assays. Samples reactive only on the CIA were deemed "isolated" reactive CIA samples. We undertook detailed review of a subset of subjects with isolated reactive CIA specimens. Of 28 261 specimens, 1171 (4.1%) were reactive on CIA, of which 133 (11.3%) had isolated CIA reactivity. Most subjects (66 of 82 [80.5%]) with isolated reactive CIA specimens were from high-prevalence populations. We found evidence of CIA, TPPA, and FTA Abs seroreversion. The median chemiluminescent signal-to-cutoff ratio was similar for isolated reactive CIA sera and sera that were reactive on either FTA Abs or TPPA assays (2.19 vs 2.32; P = .15) but lower than for sera reactive on both FTA Abs and TPPA assays (12.37; P < .001) or for sera reactive on RPR assays (25.53; P < .001). A total of 11 of 20 patients (55%) with an isolated reactive CIA specimen who underwent medical record review had previous or subsequent evidence of syphilis infection. Isolated reactive CIA specimens may represent true T. pallidum infection and may be found after seroreversion of traditional treponemal assays.

  14. Serum gastrin: interests and limitations of radio-immunoassay

    Rougier, P.; Linhart, N.; Bok, B.


    Radio-immunoassay of serum gastrin may now be carried out in all laboratories of radio-immunology. Comparison of two commercial kits A: Schwartz-Mann and B: CEA-SORIN according to criteria of specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility within and between systems, shows that they both permit the detection of pathological hypergastrinemias (Zollinger Ellison and atropic gastritis). Both kits have an identical intrasystem coefficient of variation (10 p. cent and 7 p. cent fort A, 5 p. cent and 8 p. cent for B) on the other hand, the inter-system coefficient of variation is better for kit B (22.4 p. cent and 37 p. cent for kit A, and 11.5 p. cent and 14.2 p. cent for kit B). The normal values for each kit are quite different: 97 . 64 -1 for A and 51 . 23 -1 for B preventing one from comparing estimations carried out with two different kits [fr

  15. Establishment of carcinoembryonic antigen working standard for immunoassay

    Xu Ligen; Sun Youxiang; Jiao Yan


    The author is to prepare the working standard of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for immunoassay and determine its potency. CEA solution of 320 μg/L was prepared from purified CEA solution of 4.6 mg/L and 1% human albumin solution buffered with 50 mmol/L sodium phosphate, pH7.4. This solution was distributed in an aliquot of 0.5 mL (160 ng per ampoule) and lyophilized. The potency of CEA working standard, in terms of present standard of CEA RIA and IRMA kits made by Chinese manufacturers and in terms of 1st IRP CEA HUMAN 73/601 supplied by WHO, has been determined. Mean immunological potency of the working standard is 163 ng per ampoule with confident limit of 159-168 ng per ampoule at 95% probability level. Test of parallelism of dose-response curve for the working standard to that for 1st IRP CEA HUMAN 73/601 has been passed. CEA working standard is suitable to the kits standard for CEA radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

  16. Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity

    Puertas, S; Moros, M; Fernandez-Pacheco, R; Ibarra, M R; Grazu, V; De la Fuente, J M, E-mail: vgrazu@unizar.e, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.e [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus RIo Ebro, EdifIcio I-D, Mariano Esquillor, s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)


    There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

  17. De quem é a memória? – O relato da trajetória de uma família iugoslava nos campos da Itália durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Rafaela Barkay


    Full Text Available Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a família Dohan/Sprung, fugindo da perseguição nazista aos judeus na antiga Iugoslávia foi detida pelo exército italiano e conduzida para a Itália. Retidos inicialmente em um pequeno vilarejo no Norte do país onde sua vida muitas vezes mesclava-se à dos camponeses da região, foram conduzidos mais tarde para o campo de concentração de Ferramonti ao sul. Quando este foi libertado pelos soldados norte-americanos, seguiram para a Sicília e finalmente Roma, onde já podiam viver em liberdade. Alguns anos depois, a família imigrou para o Brasil. O relato desta trajetória por meio do olhar de uma das filhas é o foco deste artigo.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as an Antibody Substitution in Pseudo-immunoassays for Chemical Contaminants in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Chen, Chaochao; Luo, Jiaxun; Li, Chenglong; Ma, Mingfang; Yu, Wenbo; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui


    The chemical contaminants in food and the environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate, and cheap detection can effectively control the potential risks derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on the specific interaction of antibody-analyte is one of the most widely used techniques in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in the immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in an unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymers with specific molecular recognition abilities, which are highly robust, showing excellent operational stability under a wide variety of conditions. Recently, MIPs have been used in biomimetic immunoassays for chemical contaminants as an antibody substitute in food and the environment. Here, we reviewed these applications of MIPs incorporated in different analytical platforms, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemical immunoassay, microfluidic paper-based immunoassay, and homogeneous immunoassay, and discussed current challenges and future trends in the use of MIPs in biomimetic immunoassays.

  19. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay.

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe


    This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00) in the range of concentrations between 0.006-75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was -3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.32 to -1.74 ng/mL), whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0-10 ng/mL was -0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: -0.77 to -0.24 ng/mL). The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably.

  20. Clinical evaluation of the Byk LIA-mat CA125 II assay: discussion of a reference value.

    Bonfrer, J M; Korse, C M; Verstraeten, R A; van Kamp, G J; Hart, G A; Kenemans, P


    The Byk LIA-mat CA125 II assay was compared with the Centocor IRMA CA125 II. Serum samples studied (n = 1012) were obtained from 652 apparently healthy females, 61 pregnant women, and 299 patients with benign and malignant gynecological tumors. The CA125 II assay value at the 95th percentile of the total healthy group was 29 kU/L for the LIA-mat and 32 kU/L for the Centocor assay. For the LIA-mat assay the 95th percentile was 31 kU/L (Centocor 36 kU/L) for the group 55 years of age. By using ROC curves we found the optimal pretreatment Byk LIA-mat CA125 II value differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors to be 95 kU/L. Pretreatment CA125 values > 1000 kU/L were detected in serum samples of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  1. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain

    Jose, Joachim; Park, Min; Pyun, Jae-Chul


    The Z-domain of protein A has been known to bind specifically to the F c region of antibodies (IgGs). In this work, the Z-domain of protein A was expressed on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by using 'Autodisplay' technology as a fusion protein of autotransport domain. The E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain was applied to the sandwich-type immunoassay as a solid-support of detection-antibodies against a target analyte. For the feasibility demonstration of the E. coli based immunoassay, C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was carried out by using E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain. The limit of detection (LOD) and binding capacity of the E. coli based immunoassay were estimated to be far more sensitive than the conventional ELISA. Such a far higher sensitivity of E. coli based immunoassay than conventional ELISA was explained by the orientation control of immobilized antibodies and the mobility of E. coli in assay matrix. From the test results of 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' serum and 15 healthy samples, a cut-off value was established to have optimal sensitivity and selectivity values for RA. The CRP test result of each individual sample was compared with ELISA which is the reference method for RA diagnosis. From this work, the E. coli with Z-domain was proved to be feasible for the medical diagnosis based on sandwich-type immunoassay.

  2. Sensitivity-Enhancement of FRET Immunoassays by Multiple-Antibody Conjugation on Quantum Dots.

    Annio, Giacomo; Jennings, Travis; Tagit, Oya; Hildebrandt, Niko


    Quantum dots (QDs) are not only advantageous for color-tuning, improved brightness, and high stability, but their nanoparticle surfaces also allow for the attachment of many biomolecules. Because IgG antibodies (ABs) are in the same size range of biocompatible QDs and the AB orientation after conjugation to the QD is often random, it is difficult to predict if few or many ABs per QD will lead to an efficient AB-QD conjugate. This is particularly true for homogeneous Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sandwich immunoassays, for which the ABs on the QD must bind a biomarker that needs to bind a second AB-FRET-conjugate. Here, we investigate the performance of Tb-to-QD FRET immunoassays against total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) by changing the number of ABs per QD while leaving all the other assay components unchanged. We first characterize the AB-QD conjugation by various spectroscopic, microscopic, and chromatographic techniques and then quantify the TPSA immunoassay performance regarding sensitivity, limit of detection, and dynamic range. Our results show that an increasing conjugation ratio leads to significantly enhanced FRET immunoassays. These findings will be highly important for developing QD-based immunoassays in which the concentrations of both ABs and QDs can significantly influence the assay performance.

  3. Trabalho em equipe multiprofissional: a perspectiva dos residentes médicos em saúde da família Working in multiprofessional teams: the perspectives of family health residents

    Ricardo Corrêa Ferreira


    de Medicina de Marília regarding the multiprofessional work developed in the Family Health Program. The method used in this research was the qualitative approach. The collected data had been interpreted through a thematic content analysis, building three empirical categories: Anchors and markers of an interdisciplinary view on team work that permeate the Family Health residency perspective; Conflicts and paradoxes of team work and the maintenance of an assembly line; Dilemmas of the team work facing an hierarchical structure. The data analysis points to an advancement that multiprofessional team work brings to the medical formation, once it allows perspectives that would not be possible without a team.

  4. O trabalho das enfermeiras no Programa de Saúde da Família em Marília/SP El trabajo de las enfermeras en el programa de salud de la familia en Marília/SP Nurses' role in the family health program in Marília/SP

    Regina Célia Ermel


    Full Text Available A estratégia de Saúde da Família apresenta-se como uma alternativa de superação do paradigma dominante no campo da saúde. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar o processo de trabalho das enfermeiras no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF no município de Marília, SP. A metodologia utilizada baseou-se nos pressupostos da Teoria de Intervenção Práxica em Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva proposto por Egry (1996. Foram sujeitos do estudo a totalidade de enfermeiras que atuavam no PSF do município de Marília, no ano de 2001. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada e de observação direta do trabalho da enfermeira. Os resultados apontaram que as enfermeiras do PSF são jovens e possuem pouca experiência de trabalho em atenção básica. O processo de trabalho, desenvolvido por estas profissionais, toma como objeto o corpo individual, têm por finalidade os perfis de desgaste dos grupos sociais e utilizam meios e instrumentos tradicionais da saúde pública.La estrategia de Salud de la Familia se presenta como una alternativa de superación del paradigma dominante en el campo de la salud. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar el proceso de trabajo de las enfermeras en el Programa Salud de la Familia (PSF en el municipio de Marília, SP. La metodología utilizada se basó en los presupuestos de la Teoría de Intervención Práxica en Enfermería en Salud Colectiva propuesta por Egry (1996. Los sujetos de estudio fueron la totalidad de enfermeras que actuaban en el PSF del municipio de Marília, en el 2001. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de una entrevista semi-estructurada y de observación directa del trabajo de la enfermera. Los resultados señalaron que las enfermeras del PSF son jóvenes, poseen poca experiencia de trabajo en atención básica. El proceso de trabajo desarrollado por estas profesionales toma como objeto el cuerpo individual, tiene por finalidad los perfiles de desgaste de los

  5. Efeitos do Programa Bolsa Família na fecundidade das beneficiárias

    Patrícia Simões


    Full Text Available Procuramos verificar se o Programa Bolsa Família contribui para aumentar a fecundidade entre as beneficiárias, visto que o aumento no tamanho da família, até certo limite, leva ao aumento dos benefícios. Utilizamos um modelo de contagem no qual testamos e tratamos a possibilidade de endogeneidade da variável de política por dois métodos distintos (dois-estágios estilo Heckman e GMM, além de incluir diversos cofatores da PNDS (2006. Os resultados mostram que o PBF não apresentou este efeito, pelo menos no início do programa. Pelo contrário, beneficiárias pareciam mais inclinadas a trocar quantidade por qualidade do que não beneficiárias elegíveis ao programa.


    Cláudio N.P. Coelho


    A Tropicália foi um dos movimentos artílsticos mais importantes dos anos 60, tendo sido interpretada como uma contestação radical às posições da esquerda, que neste período exercia forte influência sobre a produção cultural. A tese defendida por este artigo é a de que a Tropicália compartilhava a posição defendida pela esquerda de que a obra de arte deve ter por objeto a realidade brasileira e estar associada às lutas por mudanças revolucionárias, tendo construído, no entanto, uma versão próp...

  7. Anemia de Fanconi: relato de dois casos na mesma família

    Patricia J. Campos Olazábal


    Full Text Available São registrados dois casos, ocorridos na mesma família, de anemia hipoplásica de Fanconi, nos quais um dos irmãos apresenta a tríade completa de anemia, malformações esqueléticas e quebras cromossômicas e, o outro, apenas as quebras cromossômicas.

  8. Adília Lopes and Sylvia Plath: a body in difference

    Ana Beatriz Affonso Penna


    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the works of the poets Adília Lopes and Sylvia Plath based upon the relations between body and writing, with focus on gender issues. For this discussion, Henri Bergson’s and Gilbert Simondon’s reflections on the notion of image will be employed.--- DOI:

  9. Famílias Negras, Desigualdades, Saúde e Saneamento Básico no Brasil

    Sônia Beatriz dos SANTOS


    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca discutir a relação entre os efeitos das desigualdades – raciais/étnicas, de gênero e socioeconômicas – sobre as condições de vida e saúde das famílias negras, e, por conseguinte, a relação destas circunstâncias com o acesso ao saneamento básico - considerado um direito sanitário – deste segmento populacional no Brasil. Na primeira parte do artigo, abordamos a questão da desigualdade racial/étnica e sua intersecção com as desigualdades de gênero, e socioeconômicas, como um aspecto limitador do acesso a melhores condições de vida e saúde e aos bens e serviços que garantem estes direitos. E na segunda parte tentamos demonstrar a relação entre o acesso precário à infraestrutura de saneamento básico adequada (ou a inexistência deste provimento e as condições de desigualdades enfrentadas pelas famílias negras, e que trazem como resultados agravos para a saúde das famílias negras pobres, comprometendo sua qualidade de vida. E por fim, concluímos trazendo uma reflexão acerca do SUS – Sistema Único de Saúde frente as questões apresentadas acerca das condições de desigualdades vivenciadas pelas famílias negras pobres no país.

  10. A intersubjetividade no contexto da família de pessoas com fibrose cística

    Geisa Santos Luz


    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma investigação qualitativa, com aproximação fenomenológica, que objetivou desvelar os processos intersubjetivos no contexto da família de pessoas com Fibrose Cística (FC. Desenvolveu-se entrevista com 14 famílias com portadores de FC, cadastrados na Associação Paranaense de Assistência à Mucoviscidose (AAMPR, residentes nas regiões Norte e Noroeste do estado do Paraná (PR, Brasil. Das suas falas foram apreendidas unidades de significado, agrupadas em três categorias: Família, portador de FC e o outro; Aspectos religiosos na vivência da FC na família; Portador de FC na vida escolar, afetiva e profissional. Os resultados evidenciaram que a experiência das famílias compartilhada com o outro foi crucial para o enfrentamento da doença. Conhecer os processos intersubjetivos que perpassam o âmago da família de pessoas acometidas pela FC possibilita um novo modo de atuar em Enfermagem.

  11. Famílias de idosos na Estratégia de Saúde no Sul do Brasil

    Cássia Jordana Krug Wendt


    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:caracterizar as famílias e situação de saúde de idosos na Estratégia de Saúde da Família e verificar a associação da composição familiar com as características sociodemográficas e de saúde dos idosos.Método:estudo de base populacional, com 215 famílias e 266 idosos, adscritos à Estratégia da Saúde da Família, de um município do Rio Grande do Sul.Resultados:predomínio da composição familiar nuclear, considerada como a principal fonte de apoio informal, de famílias de idosos do sexo feminino e agravos cardiovasculares. A estrutura parental nuclear teve associação bruta significativa com o sexo feminino e o consumo do tabaco.Conclusão:os resultados reforçam a necessidade de manutenção de uma rede de apoio formal e informal ao idoso e sua família para preservar a independência ou postergar o declínio da capacidade funcional.

  12. Representações sociais de família por crianças na cidade de Recife

    Fernanda Siqueira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available A pesquisa compreendeu as representações sociais de família compartilhadas por 69 crianças, de 9 a 10 anos, alunos de escolas pública e privada, na cidade de Recife. A perspectiva teórica adotada foi a Teoria das Representações Sociais e a abordagem qualitativa plurimetodológica: questionários de associação livre e hierarquização de palavras; produção de desenho individual da família; e grupos focais. Nos resultados, analisados segundo Bardin e o software EVOC, acessamos o núcleo central das representações sociais de família ancoradas em sentidos positivados próximos ao modelo nuclear. Nos elementos periféricos nos dois contextos de pertença, emergiram múltiplos arranjos familiares e diferenciações funcionais: nas crianças da escola pública, sentidos de família objetivados no afeto e nas figuras de parentesco; e nas crianças da escola privada, sentidos de família idealizados em harmonia e paz, e vínculos afetivos estendidos aos amigos e aos animais de estimação, por vezes, considerados como integrantes da família.

  13. Rotinas Familiares de Crianças com Necessidades Especiais em Família Adotiva

    Fabíola Helena Oliveira Brandão Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivou-se descrever as rotinas de três famílias, que adotaram crianças com necessidades especiais ,que tinham conhecimento prévio dessa condição infantil. Utilizou-se o método de Estudo de Casos Múltiplos. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de Entrevista Semiestruturada (ES, do Inventário de Rotina (IR e do Diário de Campo (DC. Quanto às semelhanças entre os grupos familiares, identificou-se que são comuns as atividades de alimentação/higiene, descanso e lazer, envolvendo a participação dos pais, irmãs e babás, geralmente nos ambientes domésticos da família. Observou-se diferenças importantes nos padrões de atividades, companhias e ambientes onde as rotinas ocorriam. Conclui-se que as variações nas rotinas estão relacionadas às particularidades de cada criança, à estrutura e nível socioeconômico de cada família participante.

  14. Monumento e sombra na Brasília de Marcel Gautherot

    Heloisa Espada


    Full Text Available Em Brasília, a objetividade e a clareza das fotografias de Marcel Gautherot, quando combinadas à presença marcante de sombras densas e perspectivas agudas, as tornam semelhantes, do ponto de vista formal, às obras iniciais do pintor italiano Giorgio de Chirico. Partindo dessa comparação, o artigo coteja a perspectiva do fotógrafo com os propósitos de Lucio Costa e Oscar Niemeyer, e com interpretações literárias e críticas que descrevem Brasília como uma paisagem "metafísica" e "surrealista".The objectivity and clarity of Marcel Gautherot's photographs of Brasília, combined to the remarkable presence of thick shadows and sharp perspectives, bring them close, from a formal point of view, to the early works of the Italian painter Giorgio de Chirico. The article measures up Gautherot's artistic perspective against the intentions of architects Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer and the literary and critical interpretations that describe the city as a "methaphysical" and "surrealist" landscape.

  15. A família e a escola como contextos de desenvolvimento humano

    Maria Auxiliadora Dessen


    Full Text Available Escola e família constituem dois contextos de desenvolvimento fundamentais para a trajetória de vida das pessoas. Neste artigo, são destacadas as contribuições destes contextos para a promoção do desenvolvimento humano, enfatizando suas implicações nos processos evolutivos. Questões sobre configurações, vínculos familiares e a importância da rede social de apoio para o desenvolvimento da família são discutidas. Focalizam-se as funções da escola, considerando sua influência nas pessoas em desenvolvimento. Apontam-se algumas considerações sobre a necessidade de compreender as inter-relações entre escola e família, visando facilitar a aprendizagem e desenvolvimento humano. A integração entre esses dois contextos é destacada como desafio para a prática profissional e pesquisa empírica.

  16. Olhares de crianças sobre a família: um enfoque quantitativo

    Ana Maria Almeida Carvalho

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou concepções de crianças sobre a família. Participaram 120 crianças dos dois sexos, entre 5 e 12 anos, do Nordeste e Sudeste do País, em dois contextos urbanos (capital e interior e níveis socioeducacionais médio alto e baixo. Utilizou-se roteiro semi-estruturado de entrevista individual. Os resultados mostraram que as concepções das crianças sobre quem faz parte da família não refletem coabitação, mas, possivelmente, a convivência com outros parentes (avós, tios, primos; geração foi um diferencial mais importante do que gênero na definição dos perfis de pai, mãe, irmãos, avô e avó; família apareceu como necessidade básica, lugar de pertencimento e de identidade, mas as crianças têm dificuldade para definir o conceito. São discutidas questões metodológicas e apontadas direções para pesquisas futuras.

  17. Nitrocellulose membrane-based enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue serotype-1 IgM detection

    Leon, S.; Guevara, C.; Chunga, A.


    To evaluate the sensitivity and specifity of a nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassay for dengue IgM, with respect to capture enzyme immunoassay, for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. 101 serum samples were processed and divided into 2 groups: 53 from dengue serotype 1 (DEN1) infected patients, and 48 from healthy subjects. Both groups were tested with a nitrocellulose membrane-based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (NMB-EIA) and also with an ELISA as referential pattern. NMB-EIA testing detected IgM anti-DEN1 in 94,34% of samples from infected patients, and in 14,58% of control samples, whereas ELISA fails to report false positive or false negative results: NMB-EIA appears to be a good alternative for dengue infection diagnosis. (authors)

  18. Distribution of Phytophthora spp. in Field Soils Determined by Immunoassay.

    Miller, S A; Madden, L V; Schmitthenner, A F


    ABSTRACT Populations of Phytophthora spp. were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in field soils used for pepper and soybean production in Ohio. Soybean fields were sampled extensively (64 fields, n = 6 samples per field over 2 years) and intensively (4 fields, n = 64 samples per field in 1 year) to assess heterogeneity of P. sojae populations. Four pepper fields (n = 64), three of which had a history of Phytophthora blight (caused by P. capsici), also were sampled intensively during a 6-month period. Mean (m), variance (v), and measures of aggregation (e.g., variance-to-mean ratio [v/m]) of immunoassay values, translated to Phytophthora antigen units (PAU), were related to the disease history in each of the pepper and soybean fields. Mean PAU values for fields in which Phytophthora root rot (soybean) or blight (pepper) had been moderate to severe were higher than in fields in which disease incidence had been low or not observed. A detection threshold value of 11.3 PAU was calculated with values for 64 samples from one pepper field, all of which tested negative for Phytophthora by bioassay and ELISA. Seven of the eight intensively sampled fields contained at least some detectable Phytophthora propagules, with the percentage of positive samples ranging from 1.6 to 73.4. Mean PAU values ranged from 1 to 84 (extensive soybean field sampling), 6 to 24 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 4 to 30 (intensive pepper field sampling); however, variances ranged from 0 to 7,774 (extensive sampling), 30 to 848 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 5 to 2,401 (intensive pepper field sampling). Heterogeneity of PAU was high in most individual soybean and pepper fields, with values of v/m greater than 1, and log(v) increasing with log(m), with a slope of about 2.0. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients were not significant, indicating there was no relationship of PAU values in neighboring sampling units (i.e., field locations) of the intensively sampled

  19. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor in alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.

    Wang, Hui; Bi, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Li, Yirong


    Background Rheumatoid factor causes positive interference in multiple immunoassays. Recently, negative interference has also been found in immunoassays in the presence of rheumatoid factor. The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is widely used to determine serum alpha-fetoprotein. However, it is not clear whether the presence of rheumatoid factor in the serum causes interference in the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. Methods Serum alpha-fetoprotein was determined using the ARCHITECT alpha-fetoprotein assay. The estimation of alpha-fetoprotein recovery was carried out in samples prepared by diluting high-concentration alpha-fetoprotein serum with rheumatoid factor-positive or rheumatoid factor-negative serum. Paramagnetic microparticles coated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complexes were used to remove rheumatoid factor from the serum. Results The average recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was 88.4% and 93.8% in the rheumatoid factor-positive and rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples, respectively. The recovery of alpha-fetoprotein was significantly lower in the rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples than in the rheumatoid factor-negative serum samples. In two of five rheumatoid factor-positive samples, a large difference was found (9.8%) between the average alpha-fetoprotein recoveries in the serially diluted and initial recoveries. Fourteen rheumatoid factor-positive serum samples were pretreated with hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-HBs complex-coated paramagnetic microparticles. The alpha-fetoprotein concentrations measured in the pretreated samples increased significantly. Conclusions It was concluded that the alpha-fetoprotein chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay is susceptible to interference by rheumatoid factor, leading to significantly lower results. Eliminating the incidence of negative interference from rheumatoid factor should be an important goal for immunoassay providers. In the meantime

  20. Alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for an immunoassay

    Seo, Hyo-Deok; Lee, Joong-jae [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu Jung [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hantschel, Oliver [School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Lee, Seung-Goo [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Enzyme-linked immunoassays based on an antibody-antigen interaction are widely used in biological and medical sciences. However, the conjugation of an enzyme to antibodies needs an additional chemical process, usually resulting in randomly cross-linked molecules and a loss of the binding affinity and enzyme activity. Herein, we present the development of an alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for immunoassays. A repebody specifically binding to human TNF-α (hTNF-α) was selected through a phage display, and its binding affinity was increased up to 49 nM using a modular engineering approach. A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP), which was previously isolated from a metagenome library, was genetically fused to the repebody as a signal generator, and the resulting repebody-mAP fusion protein was used for direct and sandwich immunoassays of hTNF-α. We demonstrate the utility and potential of the repebody-mAP fusion protein as an immuno-reagent by showing the sensitivity of 216 pg mL{sup −1} for hTNF-α in a sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, this repebody-mAP fusion protein enabled the detection of hTNF-α spiked in a serum-supplemented medium with high accuracy and reproducibility. It is thus expected that a mAP-fused repebody can be broadly used as an immuno-reagent in immunoassays. - Highlights: • A human TNF-α (hTNF-α)-specific repebody was selected using a phage display. • A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP) was genetically fused to the repebody. • mAP-fused repebody enabled detection of hTNF-α with high sensitivity and accuracy. • mAP-fused repebody can be widely used as a new immuno-reagent in immunoassays.


    Samarasinghe, Shanika; Meah, Farah; Singh, Vinita; Basit, Arshi; Emanuele, Nicholas; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Mazhari, Alaleh; Holmes, Earle W


    The objectives of this report are to review the mechanisms of biotin interference with streptavidin/biotin-based immunoassays, identify automated immunoassay systems vulnerable to biotin interference, describe how to estimate and minimize the risk of biotin interference in vulnerable assays, and review the literature pertaining to biotin interference in endocrine function tests. The data in the manufacturer's "Instructions for Use" for each of the methods utilized by seven immunoassay system were evaluated. We also conducted a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE for articles containing terms associated with biotin interference. Available original reports and case series were reviewed. Abstracts from recent scientific meetings were also identified and reviewed. The recent, marked, increase in the use of over-the-counter, high-dose biotin supplements has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of reports of analytical interference by exogenous biotin in the immunoassays used to evaluate endocrine function. Since immunoassay methods of similar design are also used for the diagnosis and management of anemia, malignancies, autoimmune and infectious diseases, cardiac damage, etc., biotin-related analytical interference is a problem that touches every area of internal medicine. It is important for healthcare personnel to become more aware of immunoassay methods that are vulnerable to biotin interference and to consider biotin supplements as potential sources of falsely increased or decreased test results, especially in cases where a lab result does not correlate with the clinical scenario. FDA = U.S. Food & Drug Administration FT3 = free tri-iodothyronine FT4 = free thyroxine IFUs = instructions for use LH = luteinizing hormone PTH = parathyroid hormone SA/B = streptavidin/biotin TFT = thyroid function test TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  2. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    Flávio Alóe


    Full Text Available Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos, o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas. O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circadiano do ciclo sono-vigília. Os núcleos aminérgicos, histaminérgicos, as hipocretinas e núcleos colinérgicos do prosencéfalo basal apresentam-se ativos durante a vigília, inibindo o núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral, promovendo a vigília. O processo de inibição-estimulação é a base do modelo da interação recíproca entre os grupos de células wake-off-sleep-on e células wake-off-sleep-on reguladores do ciclo sono-vigília. O modelo da interação recíproca também se aplica aos núcleos colinérgicos (células REM-on e aminérgicos (células REM-off do tronco cerebral no controle temporal do sono REM-NREM.Neurochemically distinct systems interact regulating sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness is promoted by aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Each of these arousal systems supports wakefulness and coordinated activity is required for alertness and EEG activation. Neurons in the pons and preoptic area control rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating systems generate behavioral states. An up-to-date understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  3. Activity assays and immunoassays for plasma Renin and prorenin: information provided and precautions necessary for accurate measurement

    Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael


    into focus the differences in information provided by activity assays and immunoassays for renin and prorenin measurement and has drawn attention to the need for precautions to ensure their accurate measurement. CONTENT: Renin activity assays and immunoassays provide related but different information...... provided by these assays and of the precautions necessary to ensure their accuracy....

  4. Família “margarina”: as estereotipias de famílias na indústria cultural e a des/re/construção de conceitos docentes

    Isaias Batista de Oliveira Júnior


    Full Text Available Comumente observamos que a indústria cultural através da mídia pulveriza e torna visível uma série de experiências biográficas e modelos organizacionais, nomeados para este estudo de “família margarina”, que contribuem para aprofundar e ampliar os estigmas reforçando estereotipias. Pensando na problematização do conceito de família buscamos compreender como a indústria cultural contribui na formação do conceito de família na visão de alunos do curso de pedagogia como condição de sua futura atuação profissional. Participaram da investigação alunos do primeiro ano de Pedagogia de uma Universidade Pública do Estado do Paraná, através de debates acerca do conceito de família utilizando como estratégias textos, fontes disponíveis na rede mundial de computadores e propagandas televisivas. Concluímos que a visão dos sujeitos da pesquisa aponta para uma visão clássica de família, baseada em características definidoras. É necessário problematizar a realidade das famílias na contemporaneidade no processo formativo destes indivíduos e a complexidade dos fatores que interferem no seu conceito de família, para tanto, ela deve ser compreendida historicamente e analisada em suas especificidades através da adoção de determinados pressupostos pedagógicos.

  5. Study on the determination of human placental lactogen (HPL) using an enzyme-immunoassay. Comparison with a commercial radio-immunoassay in the course of normal pregnancies

    Schneider, B.


    A novel enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for determining human placental lactogen (HPL) was studied for its practicability and quality. The precision of the system in series was tested by using a serum taken each in the 19th, 29th and 40th pregnancy week. A normal range graph between the 10th and the 40th pregnancy week (10 sera per pregnancy week) was established from 310 sera of normal-course pregnancies. The graph practically agreed with the known RIA-established graphs. When comparing with a radio-immunoassay for HPL of routine application and known quality criteria, r=0.93 indicated a close correlation of the values found. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.

    Hervás, Miriam; López, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto


    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 microg L(-1) and EC(50) 0.079 microg L(-1) were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  7. Cecília Meireles e o temário da escola nova Cecília Meireles and the progressivism themes

    Marcus Vinicius da Cunha


    Full Text Available A poetisa Cecília Meireles foi signatária do Manifesto dos Pioneiros da Educação Nova, histórico documento de 1932 redigido por Fernando de Azevedo e assinado por vinte e seis intelectuais, no qual se encontram as principais formulações do movimento educacional renovador denominado Escola Nova. O presente trabalho analisa a literatura já produzida sobre Meireles e textos da autora publicados entre 1930 e 1933 na coluna "Comentário" da "Página de Educação", seção dirigida por ela no jornal Diário de Notícias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo do trabalho é mostrar que a poetisa expressava ideias e posicionamentos da Escola Nova no início da década de 1930, dentre os quais figuram a relação entre família e escola e o uso das artes como recursos educativos. Tendo por base a teoria da análise retórica, e considerando a peculiaridade do veículo de comunicação utilizado por Meireles, o trabalho abre perspectivas para a investigação das estratégias argumentativas que compõem o discurso pedagógico da autora.The poet Cecília Meireles subscribed the Manifesto of the Pioneers of New Education, a historic document expressing the main principles of the Brazilian educational movement New School written in 1932 by Fernando de Azevedo and signed by 26 well known intellectuals. This article analyses the literature about Meireles and some of her texts published between 1930 and 1933 in the column "Comentário" of "Página de Educação", a section she directed in Diário de Notícias, a newspaper of Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this study is to show that the poet expressed ideas of New School such as the relations school and family, and the meaning of arts for educational purposes in the early 1930s. Considering the peculiarity of the media used by Meireles, this analysis based on the rhetoric theory, suggests a new perspective for the research about the argumentative strategies of her pedagogical discourse.

  8. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso

    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  9. Comparison of enzyme immunoassays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    Nielsen, K.; Kelly, L.; Gall, D.; Balsevicius, S.; Bosse, J.; Kelly, W.; Nicoletti, P.


    The indirect enzyme immunoassay for measurement of bovine antibody to Brucella abortus was tested on 15,716 Canadian sera to assess the specificity. These sera were also tested by the buffered plate antigen test. Two ELISA formats were used for assessment of data: the targeting procedure using a positive control serum allowed to develop to an optical density of 1.0 and the use of a positive control serum to determine relative positivity at a set time. Two different cut-off values were also assessed for each assay. A total of 763 sera gave reactions above established cut-off values in the ELISA while 216 were positive in the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT). A modification of the indirect ELISA employed divalent cation chelating agents (EDTA/EGTA) incorporated into the serum incubation stage to eliminate some non-specific reactions. This method was applied only to the 763 indirect ELISA reactor sera and it eliminated all but 93 or 37, depending on the cut-off selected, of the reactions. Sensitivity was assessed by testing 424 sera from Brucella abortus culture positive cattle. The indirect ELISA classified all 424 sera as positive by either method of data handling and with or without addition of EDTA/EGTA for a specificity estimate of 100%. In the BPAT, 412 sera gave a positive agglutination reaction. Ten percent of the 15,716 sera were randomly selected and tested by two different competitive ELISAs and by the complement fixation test (CFT). One competitive ELISA used Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide as the antigen and an enzyme conjugated monoclonal antibody to the O-polysaccharide for competition and detection. Of the sera tested, 34 gave false positive reactions. On a retest, the false positive reactions were reduced to 2. The second competitive ELISA used lipopolysaccharide as the antigen, a different monoclonal antibody but also specific for the O-polysaccharide for competition and commercially available goat anti-mouse IgG enzyme conjugate for detection

  10. [Detecting the markers of HIV infection with the new enzyme immunoassay diagnostic kit "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" at the laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District].

    Ivanova, N I; Peksheva, O Iu


    A possibility of simultaneously detecting specific antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at lower concentrations than those by immunoblotting (IB), and well as an additional possibility of earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, by identifying the HIV-1 antigen p24 lay the foundation of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system made by OOO "Research-and-Production Association "Diagnosticheskiye Sistemy" (Diagnostic Systems). These peculiarities were compared with those of IB at a number of laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District, by using native serum/plasma samples and a specially designed control panel. The analysis of the conducted studies to identify HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen p24 in 65 plasma/serum samples in the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" and "LIA-HIV-1/2" (OOO "Niarmedik plus") test systems while confirming the positive result indicated agreement in 57 (87.7%) cases. The diagnostic possibilities of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system versus the "New Lav-Blot I" one to make a laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection were studied. Irrefragable answers as to the availability of HIV-1 markers in the study serum samples on the enciphered panel were provided by IB in 73.3% of cases and EIA in 92%.

  11. Radio-immunoassays for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

    Orskov, C; Holst, J J


    Gene-sequencing studies have shown that the glucagon precursor contains two additional glucagon-like sequences, the so-called glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We developed radio-immunoassays against synthetic peptides corresponding to these sequences. Antisera were raised in rabb...

  12. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.


    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders.

  13. Single biosensor immunoassay for the detection of five aminoglycosides in reconstituted skimmed milk

    Haasnoot, W.; Cazemier, G.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.


    The application of an optical biosensor (Biacore 3000), with four flow channels (Fcs), in combination with a mixture of four specific antibodies resulted in a competitive inhibition biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of the five relevant aminoglycosides in reconstituted

  14. Multiplex immunoassays for quantification of cytokines, growth factors, and other proteins in stem cell communication

    Valeková, Ivona; Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Jarkovská, Karla; Motlík, Jan; Kovářová, Hana

    -, č. 1212 (2015), s. 39-63 ISSN 1940 -6029 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : multiplex immunoassays * antibody microarray * luminex xMAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Serum sample containing endogenous antibodies interfering with multiple hormone immunoassays. Laboratory strategies to detect interference

    Elena García-González


    Full Text Available Objectives: Endogenous antibodies (EA may interfere with immunoassays, causing erroneous results for hormone analyses. As (in most cases this interference arises from the assay format and most immunoassays, even from different manufacturers, are constructed in a similar way, it is possible for a single type of EA to interfere with different immunoassays. Here we describe the case of a patient whose serum sample contains EA that interfere several hormones tests. We also discuss the strategies deployed to detect interference. Subjects and methods: Over a period of four years, a 30-year-old man was subjected to a plethora of laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures as a consequence of elevated hormone results, mainly of pituitary origin, which did not correlate with the overall clinical picture. Results: Once analytical interference was suspected, the best laboratory approaches to investigate it were sample reanalysis on an alternative platform and sample incubation with antibody blocking tubes. Construction of an in-house ‘nonsense’ sandwich assay was also a valuable strategy to confirm interference. In contrast, serial sample dilutions were of no value in our case, while polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation gave inconclusive results, probably due to the use of inappropriate PEG concentrations for several of the tests assayed. Conclusions: Clinicians and laboratorians must be aware of the drawbacks of immunometric assays, and alert to the possibility of EA interference when results do not fit the clinical pattern. Keywords: Endogenous antibodies, Immunoassay, Interference, Pituitary hormones, Case report

  16. An enzyme immunoassay to quantify neurofilament light chain in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Geel, W.J.A. van; Rosengren, L.E.; Verbeek, M.M.


    Neurofilament light chain is a component of the axonal cytoskeleton. The concentration of the neurofilament light chain in cerebrospinal fluid may reflect axonal damage or the extent of white matter damage. In this study we describe a sensitive immunoassay for the detection of neurofilament light

  17. Automation on an Open-Access Platform of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Immunoassays.

    Gille, Benjamin; Dedeene, Lieselot; Stoops, Erik; Demeyer, Leentje; Francois, Cindy; Lefever, Stefanie; De Schaepdryver, Maxim; Brix, Britta; Vandenberghe, Rik; Tournoy, Jos; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Poesen, Koen


    The lack of (inter-)laboratory standardization has hampered the application of universal cutoff values for Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and their transfer to general clinical practice. The automation of the AD biomarker immunoassays is suggested to generate more robust results than using manual testing. Open-access platforms will facilitate the integration of automation for novel biomarkers, allowing the introduction of the protein profiling concept. A feasibility study was performed on an automated open-access platform of the commercial immunoassays for the 42-amino-acid isoform of amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 ), Aβ 1-40 , and total tau in CSF. Automated Aβ 1-42 , Aβ 1-40 , and tau immunoassays were performed within predefined acceptance criteria for bias and imprecision. Similar accuracy was obtained for ready-to-use calibrators as for reconstituted lyophilized kit calibrators. When compared with the addition of a standard curve in each test run, the use of a master calibrator curve, determined before and applied to each batch analysis as the standard curve, yielded an acceptable overall bias of -2.6% and -0.9% for Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 , respectively, with an imprecision profile of 6.2% and 8.4%, respectively. Our findings show that transfer of commercial manual immunoassays to fully automated open-access platforms is feasible, as it performs according to universal acceptance criteria.


    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  19. Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples

    The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agriculture and domestic settings can result in widespread water contamination. The development of easy-to-use and rapid-screening immunoassay methods in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this wo...

  20. Heparin interferes with the radioenzymatic and homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for aminoglycosides

    Krogstad, D.J.; Granich, G.G.; Murray, P.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Valdes, R.


    Heparin interferes with measurement of aminoglycosides in serum by biological, radioenzymatic, and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay techniques, but not with radioimmunoassay. At concentrations greater than or equal to 10 5 and greater than or equal to 3 X 10 6 USP units/L, respectively, it interferes with the radioenzymatic assay by inhibiting the gentamicin 3-acetyltransferase and kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase enzymes used in the assay. It interferes with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for gentamicin and tobramycin (at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 5 and greater than or equal to10 4 USP units/L, respectively), but not with the commercially available homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for other drugs. Heparin interference with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for aminoglycosides requires both the heparin polyanion and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to a cationic aminoglycoside. This interference can be reproduced with dextran sulfate (but not dextran), and does not occur with free enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) alone. Heparin interference with these two assays and at concentrations that may be present in intravenous infusions or in seriously underfilled blood-collection tubes is described

  1. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong


    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Jacqueline M. Barnett


    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  3. Immunoassay: Principles, development and potential applications in the applied plant sciences

    Hofman, P J


    The article briefly discusses the general principles of, and the methods involved in, immunoassay, and their development. Emplasis is placed on radioimmunoassay (RIA) and to a lesser extent, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The practical applications, with special reference to the citrus and subtropical fruit industries are discussed.

  4. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples: evaluation of two automated enzyme immunoassays and conventional microbiological techniques

    Borck, Birgitte; Stryhn, H.; Ersboll, A.K.


    Aims: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of two automated enzyme immunoassays (EIA), EiaFoss and Minividas, and a conventional microbiological culture technique for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples. Methods and Results: A total of 286 samples (faecal, meat...

  5. Ervaringen met een solid phase enzyme immunoassay voor het aantonen van gonorroe bij promiscue vrouwen

    Ulsen; J.van*; Michel; M.F.*; Strik; R.van*; Joost; T.H.van*; Stolz; E.*; Eijk; R.V.W.van


    De Gonozyme test (Abbott Laboratories), een nieuwe enzyme immunoassay (EIA) voor het aantonen van Neisseria gonorrhoeae werd geevalueerd in een grote groep promiscue vrouwen. Als de EIA werd uitgevoerd met materiaal afkomstig van de cervix, bedroeg de prevalentie van gonorroe 8,2%. Vergeleken

  6. Sensitive and rapid immunoassay for parathyroid hormone using magnetic particle labels and magnetic actuation

    Dittmer, W.U.; Kievit, de P.; Prins, M.W.J.; Vissers, J.L.M.; Mersch, M.E.C.; Martens, M.F.W.C.


    A rapid method for the sensitive detection of proteins using actuated magnetic particle labels, which are measured with a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) biosensor, is described. The technique involves a 1-step sandwich immunoassay with no fluid replacement steps. The various assay binding reactions

  7. A review of promising new immunoassay technology for monitoring forest herbicides

    Charles K. McMahon


    Rising costs of classical instrumental methods of chemical analysis coupled with an increasing need for environmental monitoring has lead to the development of highly sensitive, low-cost immunochemical methods of analysis for the detection of environmental contaminants. These methods known simply as immunoassays are chemical assays which use antibodies as reagents. A...

  8. False-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay results in an HIV-infected case-patient.

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Tomas, Juval E


    We present a case report of a false-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay test result in an HIV-infected male. While treponemal tests are widely considered to be more sensitive and specific than non-treponemal tests, our findings point to potential challenges using the reverse sequence syphilis screening algorithm.

  9. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries.

    Pilavaki, Evdokia; Demosthenous, Andreas


    Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  10. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries

    Evdokia Pilavaki


    Full Text Available Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  11. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.


    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a

  12. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    Jeremy Daniel Driskell


    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  13. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays. Applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    Driskell, Jeremy Daniel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  14. Rede social de apoio ao desenvolvimento infantil segundo a equipe de saúde da família

    Ana Paula Dezoti


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as redes sociais de apoio às famílias para a promoção do desenvolvimento infantil na perspectiva da equipe Estratégia Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa descritiva. Foram sujeitos doze profissionais de saúde, sendo três de cada categoria profissional: enfermeiro, médico, auxiliar de enfermagem e agente comunitário de saúde que atuam nas unidades de saúde do estudo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e analisados segundo análise categorial temática. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram três categorias empíricas: Elementos da rede social de apoio; Funções de apoio às famílias; Dificuldades e lacunas na rede social de apoio às famílias. CONCLUSÃO: Considera-se que as redes sociais têm importante papel na vinculação das famílias, fortalecendo seu potencial para o desenvolvimento infantil saudável. Recomenda-se que os profissionais de saúde articulem ações que possam influenciar esses elementos de maneira que promovam o desenvolvimento infantil adequado.

  15. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná

    Adilson Anacleto


    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e aptas ao mercado era de 5.340 plantas ao ano, inferior à demanda do Estado. As condições exigidas pelos varejistas (v e atacadistas (a para aquisição de bromélias dos produtores regionais eram: preço igual ou inferior ao praticado em São Paulo (exigido por: v = 134; a = 18, qualidade da produção condizente com a encontrada no mercado (v = 86; a = 16, capacidade de efetuar entregas periódicas (v = 81; a = 11 e capacidade de atendimento dos pedidos extras (v = 55; a = 7. Não foi encontrado produtor no Estado do Paraná que pudesse atender a todas as exigências de forma simultânea. Os principais entraves que impediam a inserção da produção no mercado regional eram decorrentes da inaplicabilidade dos modelos de gestão da produção rural, adotados pelos produtores, e das incongruências tecnológicas observadas na maioria dos viveiros de cultivo, que resultavam em produção de baixa qualidade.


    Cláudio N.P. Coelho


    Full Text Available A Tropicália foi um dos movimentos artílsticos mais importantes dos anos 60, tendo sido interpretada como uma contestação radical às posições da esquerda, que neste período exercia forte influência sobre a produção cultural. A tese defendida por este artigo é a de que a Tropicália compartilhava a posição defendida pela esquerda de que a obra de arte deve ter por objeto a realidade brasileira e estar associada às lutas por mudanças revolucionárias, tendo construído, no entanto, uma versão própria desta posição. A Tropicália apresentava uma visão mais complexa da realidade brasileira do que a da esquerda, indicando a presença de uma combinação entre o arcaico e o moderno, enquanto a esquerda só enxergava o arcaico. A noção de Revolução defendida pela esquerda foi ampliada, com a incorporação da revolução nos comportamentos individuais às mudanças sociais. Do enraizamento na realidade que marcou o tropicalismo resultaram obras ainda hoje atuais como “Geléia Geral” de Gilberto Gil e “Tropicália” de Caetano Veloso.

  17. Reciclando a Tropicália: Tom Zé e o lixo lógico

    Paula Oliveira Campos Augusto


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar e analisar a tese de Tom Zé sobre a Tropicália, presente em seu disco Tropicália lixo lógico, lançado em 2012. Primeiramente, destacam-se duas características importantes da música popular brasileira, que ajudam a entender a possibilidade de um disco--tese: além de ser definida como um “campo dialogal” (1, a música popular brasileira é dotada de uma “malha de permeabilidades”, pelo modo como a alta cultura se cruza com produções populares, tendo como resultado a “leveza” (2. Em seu álbum, Tom Zé não apenas assume o protagonismo da interpretação da Tropicália, mas, também, desloca a antropofagia do centro interpretativo dessa manifestação artística e cultural brasileira. Nesse sentido, o disco é compreendido, levando-se em conta tanto seus aspectos físicos quanto simbólicos, a partir do que Walter Moser denomina de reciclagem cultural, uma vez que Tom Zé processa a inclusão de “restos” e “dejetos” no espaço cultural e artístico. Ademais, com a reciclagem do lixo lógico, o espaço hegemônico incorpora materiais culturais de outras procedências, colocando-os em diálogo.

  18. As mulheres da família: mundos partilhados, mundos em conflito

    Nayara Nascimento Rêgo


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, de cunho etnográfico, toma como foco de análise o cotidiano de uma família multigeracional, sob a perspectiva de mulheres de três gerações diferentes, que habitam o mesmo teto: avó, mãe e neta. As narrativas sobre eventos cotidianos, principalmente os relacionamentos familiares, colhidas no período de dez anos, revelam aspectos da estrutura complexa da comunicação na família em um mundo partilhado, capaz de produzir sentido, mas também de gerar conflitos. A partir de entrevistas semi - estruturadas com a avó, a mãe e a filha adolescente, foram identificadas condições de risco (violência e abuso de álcool no âmbito das relações interpessoais. Pode-se inferir que os papéis não são claramente delimitados, o que se expressa no ciclo de transferência de responsabilidades e no exercício da autoridade. A atmosfera é tensa, a violência, já incorporada ao cotidiano, apresenta-se como ponto culminante dos conflitos, enraizada nos relacionamentos, distorcendo as percepções e dificultando a comunicação. Observam-se estratégias através das quais as mulheres continuam se afirmando como eixo em torno do qual a família estrutura seu cotidiano e seus projetos de vida.

  19. O empoderamento feminino e as mulheres do programa Bolsa Família

    Williams, Priscila


    A luta por empoderamento das mulheres remonta às primeiras lutas feministas, mas isso parece ser ainda mais difícil para as mulheres pobres. Neste trabalho, busca-se compreender o processo de empoderamento das mulheres bene ciárias do Programa Bolsa Família, a partir do início do recebimento do benefício. A partir do relato dessas mulheres, pode-se observar que ainda há muito que ser feito para o efetivo rompimento da pobreza. 

  20. Saber, resistência e autoria : encontros do Conselho Tutelar com famílias denunciadas

    Sandra Maria Kuhn


    Pensar na Infância e na Adolescência hoje nos conduz a refletir sobre as transformações pelas quais tem passado a Família, considerada desde o ideal moderno como principal responsável pelos cuidados com as crianças e adolescentes, bem como sobre o surgimento do Conselho Tutelar como instituição criada para garantir os direitos dos menores de dezoito anos. Inspirado nos estudos oriundos da Psicologia Social Contemporânea e da Psicopedagogia Clínica, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar ...

  1. Potencial anti-Sporothrix spp. de plantas da família lamiaceae

    Stefanie Bressan Waller


    As propriedades terapêuticas das plantas medicinais são cada vez mais estudadas, principalmente devido aos crescentes casos de resistência antimicrobiana, como observado em cepas do Complexo Sporothrix. As plantas da família Lamiaceae são conhecidas por suas propriedades antifúngicas, entretanto, são escassos seus estudos contra agentes causadores da esporotricose. Devido ao potencial promissor dessas plantas, objetivou-se (1) avaliar a atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. in vitro de Origanum vulg...

  2. Alienação parental e família

    Brito, Clarissa Moraes


    O trabalho apresentado visa uma detalhada apreciação e análise da Alienação Parental, suas consequências, bem como sua recente tipificação legal no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro, de modo a prevenir conflitos, bem como solucioná-los, uma vez já ocorridos, tendo em vista a proteção da família e da convivência familiar de crianças e adolescentes e seus pais, tecendo ainda alguns comentários acerca da guarda, responsabilidades parentais e alienação parental no...

  3. Feminismo e terapia: a terapia feminista da família - por uma psicologia comprometida

    Narvaz,Martha Giudice; Koller,Sílvia Helena


    O objetivo deste trabalho é destacar a terapia feminista da família enquanto abordagem crítica no campo das psicoterapias e das terapias familiares. Inicialmente, descrevemos o feminismo enquanto campo político, teórico e epistemológico, bem como a incorporação do paradigma feminista ao campo das psicoterapias. Descrevemos também o surgimento da vertente feminista da terapia familiar e as principais críticas feministas às terapias familiares sistêmicas tradicionais. Ao final, destacamos a ter...

  4. Ofélia morta: do discurso à imagem Ophelia: discourse, image and biopolitics

    Márcia Tiburi


    Full Text Available O artigo reflete sobre a relação entre a imagem de Ofélia em Hamlet, de Shakespeare, e as representações pictóricas da personagem comuns no século XIX com o objetivo de situar a ideologia da morte das mulheres entre textos trágicos e pinturas.This article discusses the relation between Ophelia's image in Hamlet, Shakespeare, and the character's pictorial representations in the nineteenth century, aiming at situating the ideology of the women's death amidst drama and pictures.

  5. Operation of LIA-30 linear induction accelerator in the mode of generation of two bremsstrahlung pulses

    Bossamykin, V S; Gerasimov, A I; Gordeev, V S; Grishin, A V; Gritsina, V P; Tarasov, A D; Fedotkin, A S; Lazarev, S A; Averchenkov, A Ya [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)


    The operating mode was studied of the LIA-30 linear induction accelerator ({approx} 40 MeV, {approx} 100 kA, {approx} 30 ns) with the generation of two bremsstrahlung pulses separated by a specified time interval from 0 to 5 {mu}s. In the accelerating channel an additional tube cathode was installed, and a synchronization system for two accelerating module groups triggering the formation and acceleration, at different initial times, of two annular electron beams with different outer diameters was changed. The energy limit of each beam electron acceleration can be controlled, and the energy sum limit is {<=} 540 MeV. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Estilos parentais e suporte social da família percepcionados por jovens delinquentes

    Ferreira, Milene Alexandra Gregório


    De acordo com Baumrind (1966), existem três tipos de estilos parentais, que terão diferentes influências em termos de desenvolvimento das crianças e jovens. Neste sentido, procurou conhecer-se a percepção que jovens delinquentes têm do estilo parental, bem como o suporte social da família por eles vivenciado, utilizando as versões traduzidas de Parental Authority Questionnaire – PAQ (Buri, 1991) e Perceived Social Support Family Scale - PSS-Fa (Procidano & Heller, 2000). Rec...

  7. RESTABELECIMENTO DO PODER FAMILIAR: reintegração à família natural

    Trentin, Fernanda; Unoesc - São Miguel do Oeste; Lamberti Pasini, Vivian Carla; Unoesc - Campus São Miguel do Oeste


    Ante a possibilidade dos pais perderem a o poder familiar de seus filhos, necessária se faz a análise acerca de restabelecimento de tal vínculo. Assim, o presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar a possibilidade do restabelecimento do poder familiar nos casos cujos pais consigam comprovar a superação da situação que ensejou o processo judicial de destituição. A ação de destituição do poder familiar somente é aplicada em situações excepcionais, contudo, em alguns casos, a família consegue adqu...


    Maria Luiza Souza Caetano


    Full Text Available During the implementation of the Bolsa Família Program emerged some myths like "laziness effect". This present study aims to reflect on the existence of laziness effect in terms of the works of Campello and Neri (2013 and Weissheimer (2006. Methodologically it is a theoretical article. For this, was made a review of the program, cash transfers and laziness effect. Finally, from the reflections on the works of the authors, it is clear that the laziness effect is a myth.

  9. Printed board dipole trim magnet design for 20 MeV LIA

    Liu, Chengjun; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Kaizhi; Zhang, Wenwei; Yu, Haijun [China Academy of Engineering Physics., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Fluid Physics


    The printed board dipole trim magnet design for a 20 MeV LIA is presented. The prototype dipole magnet with the sin/cos distributed windings has demonstrated more than 650 Gs-cm integrated dipole field and 1% integrated dipole field homogeneity within 5 cm in radius, which is about 40% of the magnet radius. Numerical modeling of two prototype magnet designs using the 3D magnetic field code SCMAG is presented as well as data from magnetic field measurements of the two magnets. The agreement between the calculations and measurements is accurate to 2-3%. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs.

  10. Immediate and heterogeneous response of the LiaFSR two-component system of Bacillus subtilis to the peptide antibiotic bacitracin.

    Kesel, Sara; Mader, Andreas; Höfler, Carolin; Mascher, Thorsten; Leisner, Madeleine


    Two-component signal transduction systems are one means of bacteria to respond to external stimuli. The LiaFSR two-component system of Bacillus subtilis consists of a regular two-component system LiaRS comprising the core Histidine Kinase (HK) LiaS and the Response Regulator (RR) LiaR and additionally the accessory protein LiaF, which acts as a negative regulator of LiaRS-dependent signal transduction. The complete LiaFSR system was shown to respond to various peptide antibiotics interfering with cell wall biosynthesis, including bacitracin. Here we study the response of the LiaFSR system to various concentrations of the peptide antibiotic bacitracin. Using quantitative fluorescence microscopy, we performed a whole population study analyzed on the single cell level. We investigated switching from the non-induced 'OFF' state into the bacitracin-induced 'ON' state by monitoring gene expression of a fluorescent reporter from the RR-regulated liaI promoter. We found that switching into the 'ON' state occurred within less than 20 min in a well-defined switching window, independent of the bacitracin concentration. The switching rate and the basal expression rate decreased at low bacitracin concentrations, establishing clear heterogeneity 60 min after bacitracin induction. Finally, we performed time-lapse microscopy of single cells confirming the quantitative response as obtained in the whole population analysis for high bacitracin concentrations. The LiaFSR system exhibits an immediate, heterogeneous and graded response to the inducer bacitracin in the exponential growth phase.

  11. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  12. Crianças pré-escolares e suas concepções de família

    Dessen, Maria Auxiliadora; Ramos, Patrícia Cristina Campos


    Para compreender o desenvolvimento e a diversidade da família contemporânea, faz-se necessário conhecer as concepções de família na perspectiva de crianças pré-escolares. Participaram deste estudo 33 crianças com idades de três, quatro e cinco anos: 15 do Grupo A (ambos os genitores com ocupação remunerada) e 18 do Grupo B (apenas o pai com ocupação remunerada). Os participantes foram entrevistados sobre suas concepções de família e referiram-se à composição familiar, à coabitação e ao cumpri...

  13. Development of laser-based technology for the routine first wall diagnostic on the tokamak EAST: LIBS and LIAS

    Hu, Z.; Gierse, N.; Li, C.; Liu, P.; Zhao, D.; Sun, L.; Oelmann, J.; Nicolai, D.; Wu, D.; Wu, J.; Mao, H.; Ding, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Liang, Y.; Ding, H.; Luo, G.; Linsmeier, C.; EAST Team


    A laser based method combined with spectroscopy, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS), is a promising technology for plasma-wall interaction studies. In this work, we report the development of in situ laser-based diagnostics (LIBS and LIAS) for the assessment of static and dynamic fuel retention on the first wall without removing the tiles between and during plasma discharges in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The fuel retention on the first wall was measured after different wall conditioning methods and daily plasma discharges by in situ LIBS. The result indicates that the LIBS can be a useful tool to predict the wall condition in EAST. With the successful commissioning of a refined timing system for LIAS, an in situ approach to investigate fuel retention is proposed.


    Garcia, Raquel Pötter; Budó, Maria de Lourdes Denardin; Viegas, Aline da Costa; Cardoso, Daniela Habekost; Schwartz, Eda; Muniz, Rosani Manfrin


    Introdução: Conhecer os vínculos e a estrutura de uma família após episódio de Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio. Materiais e Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória que representa um estudo de caso desenvolvido com uma das famílias participantes. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de fevereiro a maio de 2012, por meio de observação no domicílio e entrevista com construção do genograma e ecomapa. A intensidade dos vínculos foi definida pela família conforme legenda do ecomapa. Resultados e Di...

  15. False biochemical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in streptavidin-biotin-based immunoassays: the problem of biotin intake and related interferences.

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Polak, Michel; Flechtner, Isabelle; Gonzales-Briceño, Laura; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude


    Immunoassays are now commonly used for hormone measurement, in high throughput analytical platforms. Immunoassays are generally robust to interference. However, endogenous analytical error may occur in some patients; this may be encountered in biotin supplementation or in the presence of anti-streptavidin antibody, in immunoassays involving streptavidin-biotin interaction. In these cases, the interference may induce both false positive and false negative results, and simulate a seemingly coherent hormonal profile. It is to be feared that this type of errors will be more frequently observed. This review underlines the importance of keeping close interactions between biologists and clinicians to be able to correlate the hormonal assay results with the clinical picture.

  16. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.


    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  17. A bare-eye-based lateral flow immunoassay based on the use of gold nanoparticles for simultaneous detection of three pesticides

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Jia; Wang, Yulong; Fang, Qingkui; Wang, Suyan; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Fengquan; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe


    We present a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the simultaneous detection of the pesticides imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos-methyl and isocarbophos based on three competitive immunoreactions. In contrast to previously reported LFIAs, the method is based on the use of four strips. Each has three red channels (three test lines dispensed with different capture reagent) to detect imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos-methyl and isocarbophos respectively. Different channels on each strip are the key to multi-detection, and four strips of LFIA are needed for visual and semi-quantitative read-outs. Under optimized conditions, the LFIA was applied to the determination of three pesticides. The detection time is within 7 min and the detection limits are 50, 100, and 100 μg L −1 , respectively. Furthermore, the LFIA was applied to the analysis of spiked Chinese cabbage and soil samples and results were validated by HPLC. (author)

  18. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort.

    Schmidt, Kelen H; Labrecque, Jeremy; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C; Barros, Aluisio J D


    To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort). The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico - Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government), in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit) and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries). We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN), an asset index. Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN), 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit) 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN), coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37%) according to the IEN. Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population. Descrever a focalização e a cobertura do Programa Bolsa Família nas famílias de crianças que fazem parte da coorte

  19. Gênero, família e globalização Gender, family and globalization

    Anita Brumer


    Full Text Available Neste texto faz-se uma resenha dos seis artigos incluídos no dossiê Gênero, família e globalização, mostrando tanto aspectos que apresentam em comum como algumas de suas peculiaridades. Uma abordagem comum a todos é a análise da sociedade contemporânea, com base nas mudanças ocorridas no plano mundial mas com resultados específicos para alguns países. Outro aspecto comum é a perspectiva de gênero, que aparece de maneira clara ou implícita. As particularidades dizem respeito à relação entre gênero e raça, o enfoque na família e a teoria queer.The author of this text reviews six articles included in the Gender, family and globalization file, showing both the aspects shared by them and some of their particularities. An common approach to all is the analysis of contemporary society, on basis of the changes occurred in the world-wide plan but with results special for some countries. They also share the perspective of gender, which appears in clear or implicit way. The particularities concern the relation between gender and race, the family approach and the queer theory.

  20. High-speed two-frame gated camera for parameters measurement of Dragon-Ⅰ LIA

    Jiang Xiaoguo; Wang Yuan; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Li Jin


    The time-resolved measurement system which can work at very high speed is necessary in electron beam parameter diagnosis for Dragon-Ⅰ linear induction accelerator (LIA). A two-frame gated camera system has been developed and put into operation. The camera system adopts the optical principle of splitting the imaging light beam into two parts in the imaging space of a lens with long focus length. It includes lens coupled gated image intensifier, CCD camera, high speed shutter trigger device based on large scale field programmable gate array. The minimum exposure time for each image is about 3 ns, and the interval time between two images can be adjusted with a step of about 0.5 ns. The exposure time and the interval time can be independently adjusted and can reach about 1 s. The camera system features good linearity, good response uniformity, equivalent background illumination (EBI) as low as about 5 electrons per pixel per second, large adjustment range of sensitivity, and excel- lent flexibility and adaptability in applications. The camera system can capture two frame images at one time with the image size of 1024 x 1024. It meets the requirements of measurement for Dragon-Ⅰ LIA. (authors)


    Rosana Machin


    Full Text Available Resumo Ao longo da última década assiste-se no Brasil, bem como em outros países, a crescente demanda por adoção de crianças entre casais de mesmo sexo, fato que tem gerado na academia, mídia e sociedade civil, distintos posicionamentos sobre as especificidades deste vínculo parental e seus impactos psicológicos nas crianças e adolescentes. Nesse contexto apresentamos contribuições de uma pesquisa empírica com 12 casais de mesmo sexo (3 de mulheres e 9 de homens, realizada em São Paulo/Brasil, entre 2011 e 2012, incluindo casais com projeto de adoção e os que já tinham adotado. A análise do material revelou concepções de família e perspectivas de gênero, que subjazem às demandas formuladas pelos casais e os desejos e valores expressos por estes relativamente ao projeto de terem filhos. Na perspectiva desses casais, ter um filho é considerado um passo importante na afirmação de sua capacidade de constituir uma família.

  2. A família na Unidade de Pediatria: convivendo com normas e rotinas hospitalares

    Daiani Modernel Xavier


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer, na visão foucaultiana, como o familiar cuidador da criança convive com as normas e rotinas no hospital. Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, realizado no segundo semestre de 2011. Teve como referencial metodológico a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pediatria de um Hospital Universitário no sul do Brasil, com dezoito familiares cuidadores. A coleta de dados foi realizada por entrevistas semiestruturadas e a análise, através da codificação aberta, axial e seletiva. Percebeu-se que a família tende a submeter-se às normas e rotinas no hospital, mas reconhece a importância de sua flexibilização, exercendo resistência, seja dialogando, seja transgredindo, em busca de autonomia, quando percebem que essas não contemplam suas necessidades. Torna-se importante o uso de normas e rotinas que possibilitem à família práticas e espaços de liberdade, autonomia e resistência.

  3. Aplica??o do Modelo Calgary para avalia??o de fam?lias de idosos hospitalizados sob cuidados paliativos

    Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto


    A presente tese ? constitu?da por tr?s artigos, um te?rico, intitulado Produ??o cient?fica sobre a pessoa idosa em cuidados paliativos: um estudo bibliom?trico e dois originais: Avalia??o estrutural, desenvolvimental e funcional de fam?lias de pacientes idosos com c?ncer em cuidados paliativos; e Avalia??o familiar de pacientes idosos com acidente vascular encef?lico em cuidados paliativos. Objetivo: analisar a estrutura, o desenvolvimento e o funcionamento de fam?lias de pacientes idosos sem...

  4. High Line

    Kiib, Hans


    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  5. Estudo da comercialização do mamão em Brasília-DF Papaya commercialization study in Brasília-DF



    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os principais fatores envolvidos na comercialização do mamão em 10 supermercados e 9 varejões de Brasília-DF, em janeiro de 1999. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado através da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos estabelecimentos. Os atacadistas da CEASA-DF, foram os principais fornecedores dos estabelecimentos analisados. O grau de perda dos frutos foi considerado muito alto apenas pelos varejões. A má qualidade do fruto, demora entre compra e venda, transporte precário e condições climáticas foram as principais causas de perdas segundo os varejões. Nos supermercados, foram: falta de armazenamento apropriado, má qualidade do fruto, condições climáticas e manuseio do cliente. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, o mamão é entregue pelo fornecedor em caixas de madeira. Os mamões ficam expostos para venda em prateleiras na maioria dos estabelecimentos analisados.The main factors involved in the commercialization of papaya in 10 supermarkets and 9 retail shops of Brasília-DF was studied in January of 1999. The data was colleted using questionnaire answered by the manager of the establishment. It was observed that the wholesalers of Federal District Wholesale Market (CEASA-DF are the main supplier of papaya in all establishment analyzed. The fruit loss was considered very high only in the retail shops. The poor quality of fruit, the delay between purchasing and selling, precarious transport system and climatic condition were the main reasons of losses attributed by the retail shops. In the supermarkets the lack of appropriate storage, poor quality of purchased fruit, climatic conditions and manipulation by clients were considered as the main causes for the losses. The supplier delivers the papaya in wood boxes in almost all establishments. Papaya fruits for selling were displayed in racks in most of the establishments analyzed.

  6. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China); Hao, Fen [DaAn Gene Co. Ltd. of Sun Yat-sen University, 19 Xiangshan Road, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu, Ying-Song, E-mail: [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China)


    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (H{sub T}) and the control line (H{sub C}); the H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0–1000 IU mL{sup −1}) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL{sup −1}) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both <10%. Furthermore, in the analysis of human serum samples, excellent correlation (n = 284, r = 0.9860, p < 0.0001) was obtained between the proposed method and a commercially available CLIA kit. Results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing. - Highlights: • Europium (III) chelate microparticles was used as a label for LIFA. • Quantitative detection by using H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was achieved. • LIFA for simple and rapid AFP detection in human serum. • The sensitivity and linearity was more excellent compared with QD-based ICTS. • This method could be developed for rapid point-of-care screening.

  7. Sistema de exercício online para apoio a aprendizagem de Medicina Legal na Universidade de Brasília

    Malthus Fonseca Galvão

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo retrospectivo foi avaliar o padrão de utilização do sistema de exercícios on-line, facultativos, assíncronos, para o apoio à aprendizagem da disciplina Medicina Legal e Deontologia Médica na Universidade de Brasília. Os sujeitos foram 38 alunos que cursaram a disciplina no segundo semestre de 2005. O sistema oferecia conteúdos textuais e imagens que podiam ser acessados anonimamente. Para a resolução dos exercícios do tipo "verdadeiro" ou "falso", alguns com imagens, era necessário que os alunos se identificassem por senha, o que permitiu o monitoramento. Os resultados mostraram que 32 alunos (84% realizaram exercícios on-line, com uma média de 183 respostas por aluno, entre os que aderiram; 52% dos exercícios foram resolvidos nas últimas 24 horas antes da prova; 62,3% dos exercícios foram resolvidos entre 19h e 01h. Conclui-se que os alunos, num sistema facultativo, concentram seus esforços na véspera da prova, o que diminui a eficiência do sistema, sugerindo que técnicas de motivação para o uso regular desse tipo de sistema devem ser implementadas.

  8. Provision of Oral Health Care to Children under Seven Covered by Bolsa Família Program. Is This a Reality?

    Petrola, Krishna Andréia Feitosa; Bezerra, Ítalo Barroso; de Menezes, Érico Alexandro Vasconcelos; Calvasina, Paola; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Pimentel G F Vieira-Meyer, Anya


    Over the last decade, there has been a great improvement in the oral health of Brazilians. However, such a trend was not observed among five-year-old children. Dental caries are determined by the interplay between biological and behavioral factors that are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. It is well established that dental disease is concentrated in socially disadvantaged populations. To reduce social and health inequalities, the Brazilian government created Family Health Program (ESF), and the Bolsa Família Program, the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Família Program). The aim of this study was to examine the oral health care and promotion provided by the Family Health Teams to children and caregivers covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Data was collected through interviews with three groups of participants: 1) dentists working for the Family Health Program; 2) Family Health Program professionals supervising the Bolsa Família Program health conditionalities (Bolsa Família Program supervisors); and 3) parents/caregivers of children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. A pretested questionnaire included sociodemographic, Bolsa Família Program, oral health promotion, dental prevention and dental treatment questions. The results showed that most dentists performed no systematic efforts to promote oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program (93.3%; n = 69) or to their parents/caregivers (74.3%; n = 55). Many dentists (33.8%) did not provide oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program because they felt it was beyond their responsibilities. Nearly all Bolsa Família Program supervisors (97.3%; n = 72) supported the inclusion of oral health care in the health conditionality of the Bolsa Família Program, but 82.4% (n = 61) stated they did not promote oral health activities to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Children in the routine care setting were more often referred

  9. Migração, história e transmissão: uma família que se conta

    Castilho, Maria Luiza Cobra de


    Trataremos dos temas da migração, história e transmissão intergeracional em uma família migrante, em vulnerabilidade social, atendida pelo projeto piloto Família Acolhedora FA, da Prefeitura de São Paulo. Abordaremos a concepção de família vigente no imaginário social que não leva em conta a pluralidade do conceito família e a diversidade nos modos de convivência das famílias brasileiras, desconsiderando as diferentes redes de parentesco, consanguíneas e afins. Destacaremos as prática...

  10. World lines.

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard


    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  11. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    Lorenson, M.Y.


    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion


    The objectives of this demonstration were to test these field screening technologies for accuracy and precision in detecting Pentachlorophenol (PCP) levels in soil and water by comparing their results with those of a confirmatory laboratory. The three immunoassay technologies ...

  13. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia


    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  14. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  15. Microfluidic Platform for Enzyme-Linked and Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay

    Dorota G. Pijanowska


    Full Text Available This article presents design and testing of a microfluidic platform for immunoassay. The method is based on sandwiched ELISA, whereby the primary antibody is immobilized on nitrocelluose and, subsequently, magnetic beads are used as a label to detect the analyte. The chip takes approximately 2 h and 15 min to complete the assay. A Hall Effect sensor using 0.35-μm BioMEMS TSMC technology (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Bio-Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems was fabricated to sense the magnetic field from the beads. Furthermore, florescence detection and absorbance measurements from the chip demonstrate successful immunoassay on the chip. In addition, investigation also covers the Hall Effect simulations, mechanical modeling of the bead–protein complex, testing of the microfluidic platform with magnetic beads averaging 10 nm, and measurements with an inductor-based system.

  16. A sandwich immunoassay for human prolyl 4-hydroxylase using monoclonal antibody

    Yoshida, Shinichi


    Monoclonal antibody was used in a sandwich enzyme immunoassay and in a radioimmunoassay for human serum immunoreactive prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The enzyme immunoassay utilized a monoclonal antibody as a solid phase and horseradish peroxidase-labeled rabbit antibody to human prolyl 4-hydroxylase as a conjugate. Sensitivity was 0.1 ng of enzyme per tube. With a conjugate purified by an enzyme-bound affinity column, sensitivity was increased to 0.01 ng per tube, and linearity was obtained between 0.01 to 30 ng per tube. The radioimmunoassay used a 125 I-labeled rabbit antibody (IgG) as the conjugate. Sensitivity of this technique was 0.4 ng of enzyme per tube. (Auth.)

  17. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S


    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative studies on the determination of alphafetoprotein by enzyme immunoassay and by radioimmunoassay

    Haller, G.; Linneke, P.; Voss, P.; Jeske, W.


    Alphafetoprotein (AFP) was determined in serum of pregnant women in the tenth till sixteenth week of pregnancy by means of two enzyme immunoassays (Enzymun-Test AFP, Boehringer Mannheim, FRG and AFP EIA 'Dessau' 1000, Research Institute for Vaccine Dessau, GDR) and a radioimmunoassay (Radioimmunoassay Kit, AFP-PR, CIS, France). Parallel determinations in sera of 438 patients, who had come to surveillance for the first consultation were estimated. A comparison between the methods showed a good correlation. (author)

  19. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Raymond L Houghton


    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  20. In-electrode vs. on-electrode: ultrasensitive Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    Guo, Zhiyong; Sha, Yuhong; Hu, Yufang; Wang, Sui


    A new-concept of an "in-electrode" Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method for the ultrasensitive detection of neurotensin (NT) was reported with capture antibody (Ab1)-nanoFe3O4@graphene (GO) and detector antibody (Ab2)&N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI)@GO, which led to about 1000-fold improvement in sensitivity by extending the Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the proposed electrode assembly effectively.

  1. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    Rappuoli, R.; Leoncini, P.; Tarli, P.; Neri, P.


    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  2. Evaluation of automated enzyme immunoassays for five anticonvulsants and theophylline adapted to a centrifugal analyzer.

    Urquhart, N; Godolphin, W; Campbell, D J


    We report a clinical evaluation of the enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) performed with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer as compared to gas-liquid and liquid chromatography for anticonvulsant drugs and theophylline, respectively. A good correlation was obtained for all drugs, although some difficulties were experienced with one lot of reagent for ethosuximide. The analyzer has an economic advantage if many samples are being analyzed for few drugs in each sample.

  3. Deoxynivalenol-mimic nanobody isolated from a naïve phage display nanobody library and its application in immunoassay.

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Bhunia, Arun K; Tu, Zhui; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yuan-Yuan


    In this study, using mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) as a model hapten, we developed a nanobody-based environmental friendly immunoassay for sensitive detection of DON. Two nanobodies (N-28 and N-31) which bind to anti-DON monoclonal antibody (MAb) were isolated from a naive phage display library. These nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and mycotoxin-free products and can be served as coating antigen mimetics in heterologous immunoassay. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of the immunoassay developed with N-28 and N-31 was 8.77 ± 0.41 ng mL(-1) and 19.97 ± 0.84 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were 18- and 8-fold more sensitive than the conventional coating antigen (DON-BSA) based immunoassay. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of antigen mimicry by nanobody, the 3D structure of "nanobody (N-28) - anti-DON MAb" complex was presented and verified by molecular modeling and alanine-scanning mutagenesis. The results showed that hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction formed between Thr 102 - Ser 106 of N-28 and CDR H3 residues of anti-DON antibody may contribute to their binding. This novel concept of enhancing sensitivity of immunoassay for DON based on nanobody may provide potential applications in a general method for immunoassay of various food chemical contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A fast universal immobilization of immunoglobulin G at 4 °C for the development of array-based immunoassays.

    Shu-Lin Guo

    Full Text Available To maintain the antibody activity and enhance performance of array-based immunoassays, protein G was used to allow a shorter duration of immunoglobulin G immobilization at 4 °C, with the antibody placed in the appropriate orientation. The multiplexed detection of six pain-related message molecules (PRMMs was used as examples for the development of array-based immunoassays: substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and β-endorphin. Protein G- and non-protein G-coated slides were tested. Compared to non-protein G immunoassays, protein G shortened the antibody immobilization time at 4 °C from overnight to 2 hours. Only protein G-facilitated immunoassays succeeded in simultaneously detecting all six PRMMs with high specificity. Dose-response curves showed that the limits of detection of the protein G-multiplexed immunoassays for the PRMMs was approximately 164, 167, 120, 60, 80, and 92 pg/ml, respectively. Thus, protein G effectively shortens the duration of antibody immobilization at 4 °C, allowing the use of sensitive array-based immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of PRMMs.

  5. Diagnostic effectiveness of immunoassays systems for hepatitis C virus in samples from multi-transfusion patients

    Rivero Jimenez, Rene A; Merlin Linares, Julio C; Blanco de Armas, Madelin; Navea Leyva, Leonor M


    Hepatitis C virus (CHV) blood-transmission is a health problem in Cuba and in the world. Some types of diagnostic immunoassays have been developed for the blood certification and in general have a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in healthy donors. However, its behavior in samples from multi-transfusion patients could by less effective. To assess the diagnostic effectiveness of the UMELISA HCV third generation Cuban immunoassay (TecnoSUMA, S.A. La Habana), Cuba) in samples from multi-transfusion patients, in parallel, 335 sera from patients were processed by UBI HCV EIA 4.0 (United Biomedical, EE.UU) and UMELISA HCV third generation, and the samples with incongruous results were verified by PCR COBAS AmpliScreen HCV Test, v2 system (Roche, EE.UU.) Comparing the UMELISA HCV third generation system with the UBI HCV EIA 4.0 it was achieved a Sd of 95,8% CI(95%): 92,5-99,15 and a Ed of 100% CI (95%): 99,7-100, with IY: 0,96 (0,93-0,99) with k: 0,0582 ID (95%): 0,9276-0,9888, p = 0,000. Both immunoassay systems were satisfactory for immunodiagnosis of multi-transfusion patients

  6. Detection of alpha-fetoprotein in magnetic immunoassay of thin channels using biofunctional nanoparticles

    Tsai, H. Y.; Gao, B. Z.; Yang, S. F.; Li, C. S.; Fuh, C. Bor


    This paper presents the use of fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles (10-30 nm) to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a thin-channel magnetic immunoassay. We used an AFP model biomarker and s-shaped deposition zones to test the proposed detection method. The results show that the detection using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticle has a higher throughput than that of functional microparticle used in previous experiments on affinity reactions. The proposed method takes about 3 min (versus 150 min of previous method) to detect 100 samples. The proposed method is useful for screening biomarkers in clinical applications, and can reduce the run time for sandwich immunoassays to less than 20 min. The detection limits (0.06 pg/ml) and linear ranges (0.068 pg/ml-0.68 ng/ml) of AFP using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles are the same as those of using functional microparticles within experimental errors. This detection limit is substantially lower and the linear range is considerably wider than those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and other methods in sandwich immunoassay methods. The differences between this method and an ELISA in AFP measurements of serum samples were less than 12 %. The proposed method provides simple, fast, and sensitive detection with a high throughput for biomarkers.

  7. Targeted selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometric immunoassay for insulin-like growth factor 1.

    Eric E Niederkofler

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 is an important biomarker of human growth disorders that is routinely analyzed in clinical laboratories. Mass spectrometry-based workflows offer a viable alternative to standard IGF1 immunoassays, which utilize various pre-analytical preparation strategies. In this work we developed an assay that incorporates a novel sample preparation method for dissociating IGF1 from its binding proteins. The workflow also includes an immunoaffinity step using antibody-derivatized pipette tips, followed by elution, trypsin digestion, and LC-MS/MS separation and detection of the signature peptides in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. The resulting quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA exhibited good linearity in the range of 1 to 1,500 ng/mL IGF1, intra- and inter-assay precision with CVs of less than 10%, and lowest limits of detection of 1 ng/mL. The linearity and recovery characteristics of the assay were also established, and the new method compared to a commercially available immunoassay using a large cohort of human serum samples. The IGF1 SRM MSIA is well suited for use in clinical laboratories.

  8. Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites and quantum dots used for optimal application in magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay.

    Tsai, H Y; Li, S Y; Fuh, C Bor


    Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites with optimal magnetic and fluorescent properties were prepared and characterized by combining magnetic nanoparticles (iron oxide@polymethyl methacrylate) with fluorescent nanoparticles (rhodamine 6G@mSiO 2 ). Experimental parameters were optimized to produce nanocomposites with high magnetic susceptibility and fluorescence intensity. The detection of a model biomarker (alpha-fetoprotein) was used to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the magnetofluorescent nanocomposites combined with quantum dots and using magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay. The magnetofluorescent nanocomposites enable efficient mixing, fast re-concentration, and nanoparticle quantization for optimal reactions. Biofunctional quantum dots were used to confirm the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content in sandwich immunoassay after mixing and washing. The analysis time was only one third that required in ELISA. The detection limit was 0.2 pg mL -1 , and the linear range was 0.68 pg mL -1 -6.8 ng mL -1 . This detection limit is lower, and the linear range is wider than those of ELISA and other methods. The measurements made using the proposed method differed by less than 13% from those obtained using ELISA for four AFP concentrations (0.03, 0.15, 0.75, and 3.75 ng mL -1 ). The proposed method has a considerable potential for biomarker detection in various analytical and biomedical applications. Graphical abstract Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites combined with fluorescent quantum dots were used in magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay.

  9. Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water

    Waters, L.C.; Smith, R.R.; Counts, R.W.; Stewart, J.H.; Jenkins, R.A.


    Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were analyzed by immunoassay. Ionic lead and nitrate, in water, were measured chemically using test strips. Except for lead, each analyte was measured in both spiked and actual field samples. Twenty to 40 samples per day can be analyzed with the immunoassays and even more with the strip tests. The sensitivity of the immunoassays is in the 1-3 ppM range. Nitrate was consistently detected at ≥5 ppM; lead ions at ≥20 ppM. Results obtained using these methods compared favorably with those obtained by standard laboratory methods. In addition to being useful field screening methods, these kits can be used in the laboratory to sort out negative samples and/or to define proper dilutions for positive samples requiring further analysis

  10. Comparison of pre-processing methods for multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    Rausch, Tanja K; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Lüking, Angelika; Zucht, Hans-Dieter; Schulz-Knappe, Peter


    High throughput protein expression studies can be performed using bead-based protein immunoassays, such as the Luminex® xMAP® technology. Technical variability is inherent to these experiments and may lead to systematic bias and reduced power. To reduce technical variability, data pre-processing is performed. However, no recommendations exist for the pre-processing of Luminex® xMAP® data. We compared 37 different data pre-processing combinations of transformation and normalization methods in 42 samples on 384 analytes obtained from a multiplex immunoassay based on the Luminex® xMAP® technology. We evaluated the performance of each pre-processing approach with 6 different performance criteria. Three performance criteria were plots. All plots were evaluated by 15 independent and blinded readers. Four different combinations of transformation and normalization methods performed well as pre-processing procedure for this bead-based protein immunoassay. The following combinations of transformation and normalization were suitable for pre-processing Luminex® xMAP® data in this study: weighted Box-Cox followed by quantile or robust spline normalization (rsn), asinh transformation followed by loess normalization and Box-Cox followed by rsn.

  11. Development and analytical performance of a new ARCHITECT automated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 immunoassay

    Philip M. Hemken


    Full Text Available Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 may be a suitable biomarker to identify people with severe asthma who have greater activation of the interleukin-13 (IL-13 pathway and may therefore benefit from IL-13-targeted treatments. We report the analytical performance of an Investigational Use Only immunoassay and provide data on the biological range of DPP-4 concentrations. Methods: We assessed assay performance, utilising analyses of precision, linearity and sensitivity; interference from common endogenous assay interferents, and from asthma and anti-diabetic medications, were also assessed. The assay was used to measure the range of serum DPP-4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and subjects with diabetes and severe, uncontrolled asthma. Results: The total precision of DPP-4 concentration measurement (determined using percentage coefficient of variation was ≤5% over 20 days. Dilution analysis yielded linear results from 30 to 1305 ng/mL; the limit of quantitation was 19.2 ng/mL. No notable endogenous or drug interferences were observed at the expected therapeutic concentration. Median DPP-4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and subjects with asthma or Type 1 diabetes were assessed, with concentrations remaining similar in subjects with diabetes and asthma across different demographics. Conclusion: These analyses indicate that the ARCHITECT DPP-4 Immunoassay is a reliable and robust method for measuring serum DPP-4 concentration. Keywords: Asthma, Automated immunoassay, Biomarker, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IL-13

  12. Which amphetamine-type stimulants can be detected by oral fluid immunoassays?

    Souza, Daniele Z; Boehl, Paula O; Comiran, Eloisa; Prusch, Débora S; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Pechansky, Flavio; Duarte, Paulina C A V; De Boni, Raquel B; Fröehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P


    The use of oral fluid for monitoring drug consumption on roads has many advantages over conventional biological fluids; therefore, several immunoassays have been developed for this purpose. In this work, the ability of 3 commercial immunoassays to detect amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) in oral fluid was assessed. In addition, it was reviewed the main controlled ATSs available worldwide, as well as the oral fluid immunological screening tests that have been used for identifying ATSs in drivers. The analytical specificity of amphetamine direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), methamphetamine direct ELISA (Immunalysis Corporation), and Oral-View saliva multidrug of abuse test (Alfa Scientific Designs) was evaluated using ATS-spiked oral fluid. Legislation and published articles that report the use of immunological screening tests to detect ATS consumption in conductors were reviewed, including the kit's technical information, project reports, police and drug databases. Even at high concentrations, the tested assays were not able to detect methylphenidate, fenproporex, or diethylpropion, controlled ATSs legally marketed in many countries. This evidences the need to develop new kits that enable one to control the misuse of prescription ATSs on roads through oral fluid immunoassays.

  13. Factitious Graves' Disease Due to Biotin Immunoassay Interference-A Case and Review of the Literature.

    Elston, Marianne S; Sehgal, Shekhar; Du Toit, Stephen; Yarndley, Tania; Conaglen, John V


    Biotin (vitamin B7) is an essential co-factor for four carboxylases involved in fatty acid metabolism, leucine degradation, and gluconeogenesis. The recommended daily intake (RDI) of biotin is approximately 30 μg per day. Low-moderate dose biotin is a common component of multivitamin preparations, and high-dose biotin (10 000 times RDI) has been reported to improve clinical outcomes and quality of life in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. Biotin is also a component of immunoassays, and supplementation may cause interference in both thyroid and non-thyroid immunoassays. To assess whether biotin ingestion caused abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) in a patient through assay interference. We report a patient with biotin-associated abnormal TFTs and a systematic review of the literature. A tertiary endocrine service in Hamilton, New Zealand. The patient had markedly abnormal TFTs that did not match the clinical context. After biotin cessation, TFTs normalized far more rapidly than possible given the half-life of T4, consistent with assay interference by biotin. Multiple other analytes also tested abnormal in the presence of biotin. Biotin ingested in moderate to high doses can cause immunoassay interference. Depending on the assay format, biotin interference can result in either falsely high or low values. Interference is not limited to thyroid tests and has the potential to affect a wide range of analytes. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this interaction to prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  14. Discordant Analytical Results Caused by Biotin Interference on Diagnostic Immunoassays in a Pediatric Hospital.

    Ali, Mahesheema; Rajapakshe, Deepthi; Cao, Liyun; Devaraj, Sridevi


    Recent studies have reported that biotin interferes with certain immunoassays. In this study, we evaluated the analytical interference of biotin on immunoassays that use streptavidin-biotin in our pediatric hospital. We tested the effect of different concentrations of biotin (1.5-200 ng/ml) on TSH, Prolactin, Ferritin, CK-MB, β-hCG, Troponin I, LH, FSH, Cortisol, Anti-HAV antibody (IgG and IgM), assays on Ortho Clinical Diagnostic Vitros 5600 Analyzer. Biotin (up to 200 ng/mL) did not significantly affect Troponin I and HAV assays. Biotin (up to 12.5 ng/ml) resulted in biotin >6.25 ng/mL significantly affected TSH (>20% bias) assay. Prolactin was significantly affected even at low levels (Biotin 1.5 ng/mL). Thus, we recommend educating physicians about biotin interference in common immunoassays and adding an electronic disclaimer. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  15. A Switchable Linker-Based Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Visible Detection of Salmonella in Tomatoes.

    Hahn, Jungwoo; Kim, Eunghee; You, Young Sang; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Young Jin


    On-site detection for sensitive identification of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with minimal use of specialized instrumentation is crucial to the food industry. A switchable linker (SL)-based immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive on-site detection of Salmonella in tomato samples. The assay is based on large-scale aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), induced by a quantitative relationship among the biotinylated Salmonella polyclonal antibody (b-Ab) used as the SL, the functionalized GNPs, and Salmonella. Important factors such as the concentration of SLs, time required for large-scale aggregation, and selectivity of b-Ab were optimized to minimize the detection time (within 45 min with gentle agitation) and achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD; 10 CFU/g in tomato samples) possible. This SL-based immunoassay with its relatively low LOD and short detection time may meet the need for rapid, simple, on-site analysis of pathogens in fresh produce. The novel switchable linker-based immunoassay is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method that has potential applications for routine diagnostics of Salmonella in tomato products. These advantages make it a practical approach for general use in the processing industry to detect Salmonella rapidly and to implement appropriate regulatory procedures. Furthermore, it could be applied to other fresh products including cantaloupe, strawberry, and cucumbers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on magnetic nanoparticles for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma marker glypican-3

    Qian-Yun Zhang


    Full Text Available Glypican-3 (GPC3 is reported as a great promising tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC diagnosis. Highly sensitive and accurate analysis of serum GPC3 (sGPC3, in combination with or instead of traditional HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, is essential for early diagnosis of HCC. Biomaterial-functionalized magnetic particles have been utilized as solid supports with good biological compatibility for sensitive immunoassay. Here, the magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs and magnetic microparticles (MmPs with carboxyl groups were further modified with streptavidin, and applied for the development of chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA. After comparing between MnPs- and MmPs-based CLEIA, MnPs-based CLEIA was proved to be a better method with less assay time, greater sensitivity, better linearity and longer chemiluminescence platform. MnPs-based CLEIA was applied for detection of sGPC3 in normal liver, hepatocirrhosis, secondary liver cancer and HCC serum samples. The results indicated that sGPC3 was effective in diagnosis of HCC with high performance. Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticle, Magnetic microparticle, Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay, Glypican-3, Hepatocellular carcinoma

  17. A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Hyun Gyu Park


    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications.

  18. A influência da família no desenvolvimento da superdotação

    Paulo Vinícius Carvalho Silva

    Full Text Available Vários estudos destacam a importância da família para a manifestação, desenvolvimento e reconhecimento da superdotação. O desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação impõe novos desafios e demandas aos próprios indivíduos superdotados e seus familiares, que, em algumas ocasiões, não possuem o esclarecimento necessário para atendê-las. Sendo assim, o objetivo geral deste ensaio é sintetizar e analisar criticamente as investigações realizadas sobre a relação entre a família e o indivíduo superdotado nas áreas esportiva, musical, artística e acadêmica. Estas pesquisas indicam uma grande variedade de práticas parentais e características familiares associadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. A análise crítica dos artigos examinados poderá suscitar a realização de outras pesquisas sobre a participação da família no processo de desenvolvimento do talento. Além disso, os esclarecimentos deste ensaio poderão auxiliar a elaboração e implementação de programas de atendimento a indivíduos superdotados e suas respectivas famílias.

  19. Papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre membros da família baiana

    Elaine Pedreira Rabinovich


    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar os dados sobre papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre os membros da família obtidos por Georgas, Berry, Vijver, Kagitçibasi e Poortinga (2006, com dados da família baiana. Para tanto, 170 universitários baianos responderam questionário com questões fechadas enfocando papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre os seguintes membros da família: pai, mãe, avô, avó, tio/tia, menino e menina de 10 anos, moça e rapaz de 20 anos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Em conformidade com o estudo de referência, a mãe é a figura central nas famílias baianas e o pai compartilha o poder financeiro com ela, porém, as atividades domésticas de limpar, cozinhar e lavar ficam mais a cargo dos membros femininos. As avós sucedem aos pais na importância nos papéis familiares e há mais uma interdependência emocional do que econômica/funcional com relação à criança.

  20. Think Aloud in Groups: Mediating Poetry for Children with Cecília Meireles, Paulo Freire, and John Dewey

    Diniz, Telma Franco


    As suggested by its title, this article reports on a Think Aloud in Group (TAG) practice in which a group of Y5 children thought aloud the poem "The Blue Boy", written in Portuguese by Cecília Meireles and translated into English by Sarah Rebecca Kersley. As a dialogical and collaborative literacy practice, TAG aims to transform the…

  1. Em busca de uma compreensão das relações entre família escola

    Ana da Costa Polonia

    Full Text Available Pesquisadores e educadores têm mostrado um crescente interesse pelo estudo das relações entre a família e a escola devido à sua importância para a educação e o desenvolvimento humano. Neste artigo teórico, apresentamos algumas reflexões sobre o envolvimento da família com a escola e seu impacto sobre a aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento do aluno. Os benefícios de uma boa integração e as implicações de uma falta de integração entre os dois contextos são discutidos brevemente, bem como são descritos aspectos das relações estabelecidas entre ambos, que vêm sendo focalizados nas pesquisas empíricas. Especial atenção é dada às concepções e tipos de envolvimento família-escola e às percepções de pais e professores sobre este envolvimento. Ao final, enfatizamos a necessidade de uma integração mais efetiva entre a família e a escola, respeitando as peculiaridades de cada segmento, e da implementação de pesquisas que levem em conta as inter-relações entre os dois contextos.

  2. Relação família-escola: práticas educativas utilizadas por pais e professores

    Luiza Maria de Oliveira Braga Silveira

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as continuidades e descontinuidades na relação família-escola frente aos problemas de comportamento da criança, investigando a utilização e as percepções sobre as práticas educativas de pais e professores em ambos os contextos, bem como a existência de ações conjuntas. Participaram do estudo 4 progenitores e 4 professoras de escolas privadas de Porto Alegre, respondendo, cada um deles, a duas entrevistas cujos dados sofreram análise de conteúdo. Os resultados apontaram heterogeneidade das práticas educativas parentais e diferentes níveis de conhecimento entre os participantes acerca das práticas utilizadas, revelando fronteiras rígidas entre a família e a escola. Identificou-se a supremacia do saber das professoras sobre os pais, reforçada pelo fato das atitudes conjuntas enfocarem o caráter curativo e orientador da escola sobre a família. A discussão dos dados propõe alternativas para uma intervenção conjunta família-escola frente aos problemas de comportamento das crianças.

  3. 'Haruna': uma nova mutação somática natural da videira 'Itália'

    Adriane Marinho de Assis


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as principais características físico-químicas e produtivas da uva fina de mesa 'Haruna', uma nova mutação natural originada da cv. Itália, em Uraí-PR, Brasil. O formato das bagas, elipsoide alongado bastante expressivo, é uma das características que mais difere essa nova mutação da uva 'Itália'. As bagas apresentam coloração verde-clara, tendendo ao amarelo na maturação plena, com pincel e polpa verde, crocante, firme, textura carnosa e de sabor moscatel, enquanto os cachos apresentam formato cilíndrico-cônico. O ciclo, bem como o desempenho produtivo e a suscetibilidade às doenças fúngicas assemelham- se aos da cv. Itália. Durante a maturação plena, apresenta teor médio de sólidos solúveis de 16,2ºBrix, superior à 'Itália, 0,5% de ácido tartárico e índice de maturação de 31,2. Trata-se de uma nova cultivar de uva fina de mesa com bom potencial de cultivo no Brasil.

  4. Influence of the Bolsa Família program on nutritional status and food frequency of schoolchildren

    Ariene Silva do Carmo


    Conclusion: The study found increased consumption of soft drinks among BFP participants. The high rate of overweight and poor eating habits denote the need to develop actions to promote healthy eating, especially for the beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program, to promote improvements in nutritional status and prevent chronic diseases throughout life.

  5. Estimation of basal shear stresses from now ice-free LIA glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps

    Fischer, Mauro; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huss, Matthias; Paul, Frank; Linsbauer, Andreas; Hoelzle, Martin


    In most cases, assessing the impacts of climatic changes on glaciers requires knowledge about the ice thickness distribution. Miscellaneous methodological approaches with different degrees of sophistication have been applied to model glacier thickness so far. However, all of them include significant uncertainty. By applying a parameterization scheme for ice thickness determination relying on assumptions about basal shear stress by Haeberli and Hoelzle (1995) to now ice-free glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps, basal shear stress values can be calculated based on a fast and robust experimental approach. In a GIS, the combination of recent (1973) and Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum (around 1850) glacier outlines, central flowlines, a recent Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a DEM of glacier surface topography for the LIA maximum allows extracting local ice thickness over the forefield of individual glaciers. Subsequently, basal shear stress is calculated via the rheological assumption of perfect-plasticity relating ice thickness and surface slope to shear stress. The need of only very few input data commonly stored in glacier inventories permits an application to a large number of glaciers. Basal shear stresses are first calculated for subsamples of glaciers belonging to two test sites where the LIA maximum glacier surface is modeled with DEMs derived from accurate topographic maps for the mid 19th century. Neglecting outliers, the average resulting mean basal shear stress is around 80 kPa for the Bernina region (range 25-100 kPa) and 120 kPa (range 50-150 kPa) for the Aletsch region. For the entire Swiss Alps it is 100 kPa (range 40-175 kPa). Because complete LIA glacier surface elevation information is lacking there, a DEM is first created from reconstructed height of LIA lateral moraines and trimlines by using a simple GIS-based tool. A sensitivity analysis of the input parameters reveals that the performance of the developed approach primarily depends on the

  6. Silver linings.

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn


    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Famílias homoparentais e escola: reflexões e possibilidades

    Mariana de Oliveira Farias


    Full Text Available As normas hegemônicas heterossexistas presentes na sociedade privilegiam relações e comportamentos que as ratifiquem e consequentemente, crenças e valores que as fortaleçam. Desta forma, as configurações familiares que não condizem com o modelo heterossexual, como a família homoparental, são desfavorecidas nas relações sociais, legislação e políticas públicas. Diante deste cenário, o objetivo deste trabalho é refletir, a partir de publicações na área de educação sexual, diversidade e homoparentalidade, de que forma mitos relacionados à homossexualidade e conceitos de família podem interferir na forma como a escola lida com a homoparentalidade. Algumas crenças distorcidas influenciam a visão social sobre a homoparentalidade como: a pessoas de orientação sexual homossexual seriam promíscuas e não proporcionariam um ambiente adequado ao desenvolvimento sadio de uma criança; b pessoas de orientação sexual homossexual sofreriam de algum tipo de desvio ou distúrbio e por isso não deveriam cuidar de uma criança; c crianças que convivem com pais/mães homossexuais sofreriam muito preconceito o que prejudicaria seu desenvolvimento e adaptação social, obrigatoriamente; d a criança perderia a noção de diferença entre os gêneros e isso afetaria seu desenvolvimento e convívio social; e a criança tenderia a ser homossexual também; f a criança interpretaria a relação homossexual como adequada, o que poderia prejudicar seu desenvolvimento e convívio social. A escola, como instituição inserida na sociedade, e os profissionais que nela atuam, encontram-se submersos nestas crenças distorcidas, tendo também suas práticas influenciadas. Estudos mostram que grande parte dos profissionais da área da educação não conta com formação inicial ou continuada que aborde de forma crítica e reflexiva temas sobre sexualidade ou diversidade familiar. A falta de materiais didáticos que apresentem a diversidade

  8. Casamento e família no século XXI: possibilidade de holding?

    Gomes Isabel Cristina


    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo entender as relações no interior da família e a instituição casamento na perspectiva da mudança de século. Enfocaremos a percepção das transformações que foram ocorrendo na sociedade pós-moderna, tanto de caráter econômico quanto social e psicológico, buscando no referencial winnicottiano subsídios teóricos para o aprofundamento de reflexões acerca desse tema. Abordaremos o papel do terapeuta dentro desse contexto e demonstraremos que o casamento, tanto quanto a terapia, pode ter um potencial terapêutico, desde que esteja ligado a uma noção de mutatividade e flexibilidade para o novo e diferente, constituindo-se em espaço de desenvolvimento interpessoal e de criatividade.

  9. Família e escola: a orientação contra o abuso sexual

    Poliana Acs Teodoro


    Full Text Available Este artigo sobre a família e escola direcionando a abordagem do abuso sexual infantil, objetiva averiguar como se realiza a orientação sobre este assunto nesses ambientes, como essa problemática pode refletir no desenvolvimento escolar da criança abusada. A pesquisa se desenvolveu em uma escola pública, no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso. Trata-se de um Estudo de Caso, com abordagem qualitativa. O trabalho contribui apresentando pontos relevantes para a discussão do polêmico assunto. Constatou-se a necessidade de mobilizar a sociedade a realizar diálogos preventivos, idealizando a proteção, saúde psicológica e o desenvolvimento da criança.Palavras-chave: educação; ensino fundamental; orientação; abuso sexual infantil; sociedade.

  10. Semelhanças de família nos usos de 'bom'

    Darlei Dall'Agnol


    Full Text Available Aplica-se, neste artigo, o conceito de semelhanças de família para esclarecer os diferentes usos do conceito ‘bom’, em especial, os usos relativos e absolutos. A partir do estabelecimento de diferentes jogos-de-linguagem morais (normativos, avaliativos etc., mostra-se que há um significado focal que permite negar que Wittgenstein tenha se tornado um relativista ético. Nesse sentido, ‘bom’ refere-se ao intrinsicamente valioso que permite qualificar um ato como moral ou imoral e a partir disso se deve ou não ser feito.

  11. Brasília in the Age of the Earth: notes for a figural analysis

    Ilana Schlaich Tschiptschin


    Full Text Available This article aims at providing elements for the interpretation of three different sequences of the film A Idade da Terra (The Age of the Earth, by Glauber Rocha, using the method of figural analysis developed by Philippe Dubois. The sequences selected are set in the city of Brasília. In this article we will analyze the city’s role in the film’s discourse as a way of constructing a myth of modernity and the way the characters act in the given space. Considering the fact that a conclusive analysis cannot be achieved in this article, its purpose is to propose new analytical perspectives on subsequent sequences and to draw comparisons between the imagery of The Age of the Earth and other movies by Glauber Rocha.

  12. Segurança Alimentar no Quotidiano das Famílias Amarantinas

    Machado, Célia Maria Brás


    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão Integrada da Qualidade, Ambiente e Segurança Os cidadãos têm “a expectativa de que os alimentos que consomem sejam seguros e adequados para o consumo. As doenças e os danos provocados por alimentos são, na melhor das hipóteses, desagradáveis, e, na pior das hipóteses, fatais (Codex Alimentarius - Higiene do Alimentos Textos Básicos, 2006, p.10). Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar os hábitos das famílias da cidade de Amarante, ...

  13. Análise de uma fotografia de família

    Antunes, Maria da Conceicao Ferreira; UQÁM - Université du Quebec à Montreal 405 -rue St. Catherine Est Montreal, QC. H2L 2C4 Quebec, Canadá


    O presente artigo tem como objectivo refletir sobre o uso da fotografia enquanto instrumento de investigação. A partir de uma fotografia de família a autora propõe-se reconstituir, com recurso à memória, o imaginário social dos seus personagens e entender a sua ligação a outros espaços. A emigração surge assim como uma constante estrutural incontornável que atravessa as gerações de ilhéus, contribuindo para importantes transformações na paisagem urbana e social das ilhas. A dupla pertença, a ...


    Claudia Regina Baddini Curralero


    Full Text Available The paper examines the intergovernmental coordination of the Bolsa Família Program (PBF, given its goal to tackle poverty in acountry with deep social and regional inequality. It seeks to qualify the debate on the centralization of cash transfer programs in Brazil through the analysis of intergovernmental relations adopted under the three main dimensions of the PBF - cash transfer, monitoring of conditionalities and articulation of complementary programs - considering the federative implications derived from the intersectoral perspective that drives the Program. Two categories of challenges are highlighted. The first one relates to the need for greater investment in space and opportunities for intergovernmental negotiation, especially in the dimension of income transfer, which initially was characterized by centralization. In the second, the intergovernmental matter demands the organization of a coordinated national strategy for the articulation of complementary programs, suggesting greater involvement of states in the regional coordination of the Program

  15. Migrânea com afasia: relato de uma família



    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma família brasileira na qual a mãe e três filhas apresentam episódios compatíveis com migrânea, acompanhados por alteração no conteúdo da linguagem (afasia, sem paresias. Alguns aspectos relativos à genética das migrâneas são revisados. Chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de investigação genética para saber se é uma variante das formas conhecidas de migrânea, como a migrânea hemiplégica familiar.

  16. A nova família e a ordem jurídica The new family and the legal order

    Maria Lygia Quartim de Moraes


    Full Text Available O livro A Família em Desordem, da historiadora e psicanalista Elizabeth Roudinesco, constitui uma das mais positivas contribuições para o estudo das famílias no mundo contemporâneo. A tese da autora é de que não obstante todas as "desordens", que vão da perda do poder paterno aos casais homossexuais, a instituição familiar vem sobrevivendo mais bem do que mal. Segundo ela, a família é atualmente reivindicada como o "único valor seguro ao qual ninguém quer renunciar", independentemente da idade, sexo, orientações sexuais ou classe social. Esse anseio pela família leva com que os rearranjos, frutos da "família em desordem" demandem por novos direitos que alteram os pressupostos tradicionais sobre o tema.The Family in Disorder, written by historian and psychoanalyst Elizabeth Roudinesco, is one of the most positive contributions to the study of the families in the contemporary world. The author's thesis is that despite all the "disorder", ranging from the loss of paternal power and homosexual couples, the institution of the family is surviving. According to her, the family is being claimed as the "single value insurance to which nobody wants to renounce", regardless of age, sex, sexual orientation or social class. This yearning for the family brings with it rearrangements, resultant of the "family in disorder", and new rights that challenge the traditional assumptions about the theme.


    Patrícia Aparecida da Silva Valadão

    Full Text Available Resumo A pesquisa buscou identificar e avaliar os problemas bioéticos envolvidos no cotidiano de trabalho de profissionais de duas equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Neste estudo qualitativo, realizaram-se entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas com 16 profissionais da equipe de saúde da família de Salvador, Bahia, de fevereiro a outubro de 2015. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin, assim como a bioética principialista e o pensamento complexo de Edgar Morin. Identificaram-se duas categorias: ‘Problemas bioéticos no cotidiano de trabalho da equipe de saúde da família’ e ‘A relação interprofissional na equipe de saúde da família’. Na primeira categoria, evidenciaram-se falta de companheirismo e colaboração entre os membros da equipe; ações verticalizadas da gestão; dificuldades em preservar a privacidade do usuário e dos profissionais. Na segunda, destacaram-se a disparidade de poder nas relações interprofissionais e o encontro ‘frio’ entre núcleo de apoio e assistência à saúde da família e equipe. Concluiu-se que a equipe de saúde da família não tem avançado no aperfeiçoamento do trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar. Os problemas identificados ferem os princípios do enfoque principialista da bioética, esgarçam o tecido social do trabalho na Estratégia Saúde da Família e contribuem para a descaracterização da atenção básica.

  18. Influence of the Bolsa Família program on nutritional status and food frequency of schoolchildren.

    do Carmo, Ariene Silva; de Almeida, Lorena Magalhães; de Oliveira, Daniela Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Luana Caroline


    To evaluate the food frequency and nutritional status among students according to participation in the Bolsa Família program funded by the government. Cross-sectional study carried out with students from the fourth grade of elementary school in the municipal capital of the southeastern region of Brazil. Food consumption and anthropometry were investigated by a questionnaire administered in school, while participation in the Bolsa Família program and other socio-economic information was obtained through a protocol applied to mothers/guardians. Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney test, the chi-squared test, and Poisson regression with robust variance, and the 5% significance level was adopted. There were 319 children evaluated; 56.4% were male, with a median of 9.4 (8.6-11.9) years, and 37.0% were beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program. Between the two groups, there was high prevalence of regular soda consumption (34.3%), artificial juice (49.5%), and sweets (40.3%), while only 54.3% and 51.7% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly, respectively. Among participants of Bolsa Família program, a prevalence 1.24 times higher in the regular consumption of soft drinks (95% CI: 1.10-1.39) was identified compared to non-beneficiaries. The prevalence of overweight was higher in the sample (32.9%), with no difference according to participation in the program. The study found increased consumption of soft drinks among BFP participants. The high rate of overweight and poor eating habits denote the need to develop actions to promote healthy eating, especially for the beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program, to promote improvements in nutritional status and prevent chronic diseases throughout life. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Uso popular de espécies medicinais da família Verbenaceae no Brasil



    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se realizar um levantamento bibliográfico acerca das espécies da família Verbenaceae utilizadas na medicina popular nas diversas regiões do Brasil. Os trabalhos acadêmicos utilizados para elaboração desta pesquisa foram extraídos de revistas indexadas junto ao Scielo publicadas no período de 2000 a 2012, sendo também realizada busca no Google acadêmico. Os dados foram compilados e organizados em ordem alfabética por espécies, seguidas do nome popular, forma de uso, parte usada, indicações e área de estudo. Foram encontrados um total de 85 publicações indicando 55 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros. A espécie com maior número de citações foi Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br., com 56 registros. Das plantas descritas na literatura, a folha foi o órgão mais citado como parte usada e o chá, o modo de preparo mais utilizado. Dentre as categorias de indicações medicinais, as plantas que mereceram destaque foram às relacionadas ao tratamento das doenças do sistema respiratório e digestório. Constatou-se que o Rio de Janeiro foi o estado que contou com o maior número de publicações na área. O uso de plantas medicinais está cada vez mais presente entre as diversas comunidades. Com isso, as informações contidas neste trabalho servirão para auxiliar na elaboração de banco de dados sobre o modo de uso das plantas pertencentes à família Verbenaceae com potencial medicinal encontradas nos Estados brasileiros.

  20. Brasília na rede das cidades globais: apontando uma tendência

    Brasilmar Ferreira Nunes


    Full Text Available O artigo discute o potencial de Brasília se inserir na rede mundial de cidades, considerando sua peculiar dinâmica socioeconômica. Consolida-se aqui, 54 anos após sua inauguração, uma cidade que vive constantes processos de mudança, mas que ainda se acha atrelada ao setor público, esfera que lhe dá sua identidade. A assimetria que se observa entre, de um lado, uma cidade racional que se rebate num desenho modernista e, de outro, uma cidade que cresce nas suas periferias de forma anárquica, reproduzindo modelos das demais cidades brasileiras, evidenciam uma estrutura social com enormes graus de desigualdade e de diferenciação. A dinâmica populacional do Distrito Federal e entorno ultrapassa cada vez mais as determinações e os estímulos oriundos do setor público, concentrados no seu Plano Piloto. Ao contextualizá-la na lógica contemporânea das cidades "globais", na tentativa de diversificar a fonte de investimentos, Brasília procura oferecer vantagens comparativas frente a outras metrópoles que com ela concorrem. Nesse sentido, o artigo defende que a capital vive hoje uma etapa original na sua evolução, mesmo se a incompatibilidade aparente entre sua função política, que de certa forma restringe suas potencialidades, e as forças de mercado, a levam a modificar sua natureza original.

  1. Dona Amélia Queen Reformatory: A sanatorium for weak children

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo


    Full Text Available This article intends to examine the conditions of the city of Rio de Janeiro, regarding the city's health safety or the living and housing conditions of its workers, which helped bringing about the spread of tuberculosis in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Evidencing the high incidence of tuberculosis at this time, it intends to verify the reasons for creating the Brazilian League Against Tuberculosis and its purpose, analyzing its project of assistance to children's health and its intervention to discipline, which resulted in the creation of the Dona Amélia Queen Reformatory.

    Este artigo pretende examinar as condições da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, seja no que diz respeito à insalubridade da cidade seja em relação às condições de vida e moradia dos seus trabalhadores, que propiciavam a disseminação da tuberculose no final do século XIX e início do XX. Constatando-se a alta incidência da tuberculose nessa época, pretende-se verificar a motivação de criação e o propósito da Liga Brasileira contra a Tuberculose e analisar o seu projeto de assistência à saúde das crianças e sua intervenção disciplinar, que resultou na criação do Preventório Rainha Dona Amélia.

  2. Epidemiological profile of ICU patients at Faculdade de Medicina de Marília.

    El-Fakhouri, Silene; Carrasco, Hugo Victor Cocca Gimenez; Araújo, Guilherme Campos; Frini, Inara Cristina Marciano


    To characterize the epidemiological profile of the hospitalized population in the ICU of Hospital das Clínicas de Marília (Famema). A retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study. Data regarding patients admitted to the ICU Famema was obtained from the Technical Information Center (Núcleo Técnico de Informações, NTI, Famema). For data analysis, we used the distribution of absolute and relative frequencies with simple statistical treatment. 2,022 ICU admissions were recorded from June 2010 to July 2012 with 1,936 being coded according to the ICD-10. The epidemiological profile comprised mostly males (57.91%), predominantly seniors ≥ 60 years (48.89%), at an average age of 56.64 years (±19.18), with limited formal education (63.3% complete primary school), mostly white (77.10%), Catholic (75.12%), from the city of Marília, state of São Paulo, Brazil (53.81%). The average occupancy rate was 94.42%. The predominant cause of morbidity was diseases of the circulatory system with 494 admissions (25.5%), followed by traumas and external causes with 446 admissions (23.03%) and neoplasms with 213 admissions (11.00%). The average stay was 8.09 days (±10.73). The longest average stay was due to skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases, with average stay of 12.77 days (±17.07). There were 471 deaths (24.32%), mainly caused by diseases of the circulatory system (30.99%). The age group with the highest mortality was the range from 70 to 79 years with 102 deaths (21.65%). The ICU Famema presents an epidemiological profile similar to other intensive care units in Brazil and worldwide, despite the few studies available in the literature. Thus, we feel in tune with the treatment of critical care patients.

  3. A Psicologia e as demandas atuais do Direito de família

    Vivian de Medeiros Lago

    Full Text Available A interdisciplinaridade entre Psicologia e Direito exige uma busca de conhecimentos muitas vezes não adquiridos ao longo da formação acadêmica dos psicólogos. Dentre esses conhecimentos, foram selecionados três tópicos para serem discutidos no presente artigo: guarda compartilhada, síndrome de alienação parental e falsas alegações de abuso sexual. Objetiva-se apresentar uma revisão teórica desses assuntos, abordando aspectos conceituais e históricos. Além da revisão teórica, são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa que investigou a formação extracurricular, o conhecimento e a opinião de psicólogos com experiência na área do Direito de família a respeito desses assuntos emergentes. Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos participantes conhece e tem experiência nas demandas questionadas. Ainda assim, a discussão dos resultados apontou a necessidade de abordar esses e outros assuntos referentes à Psicologia jurídica durante a formação em Psicologia. Os resultados reforçam a importância de o psicólogo jurídico estar familiarizado com questões do Direito de família e considerar em sua avaliação os vínculos afetivos saudáveis ao desenvolvimento da criança.

  4. A Psicologia e as demandas atuais do direito de família

    Vivian de Medeiros Lago

    Full Text Available A interdisciplinaridade entre Psicologia e Direito exige uma busca de conhecimentos muitas vezes não adquiridos ao longo da formação acadêmica dos psicólogos. Dentre esses conhecimentos, foram selecionados três tópicos para serem discutidos no presente artigo: guarda compartilhada, síndrome de alienação parental e falsas alegações de abuso sexual. Objetiva-se apresentar uma revisão teórica desses assuntos, abordando aspectos conceituais e históricos. Além da revisão teórica, são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa que investigou a formação extracurricular, o conhecimento e a opinião de psicólogos com experiência na área do Direito de família a respeito desses assuntos emergentes. Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos participantes conhece e tem experiência nas demandas questionadas. Ainda assim, a discussão dos resultados apontou a necessidade de abordar esses e outros assuntos referentes à Psicologia jurídica durante a formação em Psicologia. Os resultados reforçam a importância de o psicólogo jurídico estar familiarizado com questões do Direito de família e considerar em sua avaliação os vínculos afetivos saudáveis ao desenvolvimento da criança.

  5. Ver TV em família Watching TV with family

    Armanda Pinto da Mota Matos


    Full Text Available La televisión desempeña un papel fundamental en la socialización de la infancia, proporcionando desde muy pronto un amplio repertorio de pautas de conductas. La familia es el primer contexto en el que se genera el contacto con el medio televisivo. En este trebajo se recoge un estudio realizado en la ciudad portuguesa de Coimbra, con alumnos de 4, 6 y 8 años, a través de un cuestionario de hábitos televisivo, cin una muestra de 820 alumnos en el que se concluye que la televisión debería ser un instrumento más rentabilizado en la familia con fines educativos. A televisão desempenha um papel fundamental na socialização das crianças, proporcionando desde cedo um amplo leque de modelos de comportamento. A família é o primeiro contexto em que o contacto com este medium ocorre, pelo que deve constituir-se como mediadora da relação que a criança estabelece com a televisão. Um estudo efectuado em Coimbra, com alunos dos 4º, 6º e 8º anos, sugere que o uso da televisão pela família pode e deve ser mais rentabilizado pa a fins educativos. Nowadays television plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents, by making available a wide range of models of behaviour. However, watching television is an activity that takes place, mainly, in a family context. Therefore, the family has an important mediating role. A study conducted in Coimbra with students from the 4th, 6th and 8th grades, suggests that family mediation should be more intentional and more frequent, in order to promote the development of active and critical TV viewers.

  6. Percepções sobre o Programa Bolsa Família na sociedade brasileira

    Henrique Carlos de Oliveira de Castro


    Full Text Available O artigo trata de percepções da sociedade brasileira sobre o Programa Bolsa Família (PBF a partir de uma pesquisa realizada em amostra da população. A pesquisa indicou que a população reconhece o Programa e entende que ele está sendo utilizado de forma adequada, mesmo considerando problemas em sua execução. Houve uma importante diferença entre a opinião daqueles que conhecem beneficiários em relação àqueles que não conhecem, sendo que os primeiros se manifestaram de forma mais positiva em relação aos resultados e mais cautelosos em relação às críticas, conclui que o PBF adquiriu legitimidade junto à sociedade brasileira dado o nível de conhecimento da política e mesmo de apoio à sua existência e argumenta sobre a importância de buscar e considerar a opinião da sociedade como importante elemento de avaliação de políticas públicas.The paper is about perceptions of Brazilian society concerning the cash transfer program Bolsa Família of Brazilian government obtained in a national survey. It indicated that population recognizes the program and understands that it is being used in an appropriated way, even though considering problems in its execution. Important differences occurred in the opinion of those who knew beneficiaries comparing with those who didn't. The first group manifested positive opinion and criticized less then the second. The paper concludes that the program acquired legitimacy in the Brazilian society, considering the knowledge of this policy and supporting its existence. It argues for the importance of searching and considering the public opinion as a fundamental element of public policy assessing.

  7. Programa Bolsa Família e estado nutricional infantil: desafios estratégicos Bolsa Família Program and child nutritional status: strategic challenges

    Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira


    Full Text Available Anemia e desnutrição, principais carências nutricionais na infância, têm como principais determinantes os socioeconômicos. Assim, por se tratar da principal política de combate à pobreza, espera-se que o Programa Bolsa Família (PBF promova impacto no estado nutricional infantil. Objetivou-se analisar as diferenças na situação nutricional de crianças cadastradas no PBF de um município da Zona da Mata Mineira. Foram avaliadas 446 crianças com idade entre 6 e 84 meses, sendo que 262 eram beneficiárias e 184 não-beneficiárias. A avaliação nutricional constituiu-se da análise dos parâmetros peso e estatura, através dos índices peso/idade, peso/estatura, estatura/idade e Índice de Massa Corporal/idade, e dos níveis de hemoglobina, com uso do Hemocue. As prevalências de anemia, déficit estatural e obesidade foram 22,6, 6,3 e 5,2%, respectivamente, sendo que não houve diferença estatística entre os beneficiários e não-beneficiários. Inicialmente, o grupo beneficiário apresentava piores condições socioeconômicas, porém, com o recebimento do benefício, os grupos se igualaram financeiramente. É possível que a similaridade dos dois grupos também quanto ao estado nutricional possa ser atribuída ao recebimento do benefício, tanto devido ao incremento financeiro, quanto ao acompanhamento nutricional exigido como condicionalidade do programa.The main nutritional deficiencies during childhood, namely anemia and malnutrition, are predominantly related to socio-economic factors. Thus, as the Bolsa Família Program (BFP is the main policy to combat poverty, it is expected that it will have an impact on child nutrition. The aim was to analyze the differences in the nutritional situation of children registered with the BFP of a municipality located in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais state. 446 children aged between 6 and 84 months were evaluated, of which 262 were non-beneficiaries and 184 were beneficiaries. Nutritional

  8. O clube dos afetos : apontamentos sobre representações da família em clássicos da literatura infantil e juvenil

    Azevedo, Fernando José Fraga de


    Embora o conceito de família possa ser perspetivado como histórica e sociologicamente variável, com representações, valores e ideologias nem sempre coincidentes, ele constitui hoje um elemento nuclear no processo educativo das crianças. Este artigo partirá das representações da família nos clássicos Peter Pan, de James Barrie, e Pipi das Meias Altas, de Astrid Lindgren, equacionando os lugares da família num quadro socioeducativo global. Aunque el concepto de familia pueda ser representado...

  9. Basic Evaluation of the Newly Developed "Lias Auto P-FDP" Assay and the Influence of Plasmin-α2 Plasmin Inhibitor Complex Values on Discrepancy in the Comparison with "Lias Auto D-Dimer Neo" Assay.

    Kumano, Osamu; Ieko, Masahiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Yoshida, Mika; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Ohmura, Kazumasa; Hayasaki, Junki; Hayakawa, Mineji


    Laboratory determination of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels, along with that of the D-dimer, is important for assessing the fibrinolytic situation. Recently, we developed a new FDP reagent "Lias Auto P-FDP", which can detect various FDP fragments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the basic performance of the newly developed Lias Auto P-FDP and compare it with Lias Auto D-Dimer Neo assay. The within-run precision of Lias Auto P-FDP and Lias Auto D-Dimer was determined 20 times in low and high value controls. The between-day precision was evaluated five times a day for five days. The linearity study was performed by diluting high value samples for 2 - 10-fold and 2 - 8-fold. The comparative study was performed using 172 patient samples with elevated FDP values. For the discrepancy analysis, the samples were divided into three groups by the discrepancy percentage between the FDP and D-dimer values. The groups were defined as follows: lower discrepancy group, less than -20%; no discrepancy group, -20% to 20%; upper discrepancy group, more than 20%. The coefficient of variation % (CV%) in within-run and between-day precision were within 3.8% for both FDP and the D-dimer. The correlation coefficients were more than 0.999 and the linearity was high. In the comparative study, the values of FDP were higher than that of the D-dimer in all samples. The median FDP and D-dimer values of lower discrepancy, no discrepancy, and upper discrepancy groups were 11.8, 20.3, and 51.4, and 8.0, 11.3, and 13.1, respectively. FDP showed an increasing tendency but D-Dimer showed constant values. Thus, the possible cause of discrepancy between FDP and D-dimer values were the elevated FDP values. In addition, the values of plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) in the upper discrepancy group were higher than that of the lower and no discrepancy groups, indicating progression of fibrinolysis. In this study, we evaluated the newly developed Lias Auto P

  10. Programa bolsa família: a condicionante saúde realmente existe?

    Núbia Maria Uchôa Barbosa


    Full Text Available Historicamente, o Sistema de Proteção Social do Brasil se caracteriza por apresentar uma estrutura dual de seguridade social: aos grupos mais vulneráveis socialmente e não inseridos no mercado de trabalho, destina-se a assistência social, enquanto os trabalhadores inseridos no mercado formal de trabalho vinculam-se à previdência social. As camadas pobres da sociedade brasileira, marcadas pela quase ausência de pressão social e sem posição sócio-ocupacional definida, em alguns momentos históricos, foram beneficiadas, e seu atendimento sempre foi justificado como um ato humanitário ou uma moeda política(1. Nesse aspecto, destaca-se o Programa Bolsa Família (PBF, como um programa de combate à pobreza, criado através de Medida Provisória n.o 132/2003, transformado em Lei n.o 10.836/2004 e regulamentado por Decreto n.o 5.209/2004. Foi iniciado em outubro de 2003 e constituído através da unificação de quatro programas de transferência de renda: Bolsa Escola, Auxílio-Gás, Bolsa Alimentação e Cartão Alimentação(2. A gestão do Programa Bolsa Família é descentralizada e compartilhada entre União, estados, Distrito Federal e municípios. Os entes federados trabalham em conjunto para aperfeiçoar, ampliar e fiscalizar a execução. O programa é destinado a famílias em situações de extrema pobreza e pobreza(3. Desde 2004, o PBF encontra-se vinculado ao Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS, mais especificamente à Secretaria Nacional de Renda de Cidadania (Senarc. A inserção das famílias no programa é feita mediante inscrição no Cadastro Único (CadÚnico, de gestão municipal, do qual são selecionadas, de acordo com os critérios do governo federal para o recebimento do benefício(4. Uma das questões mais polêmicas sobre os programas de combate à pobreza é o alcance de sua efetividade. Em pesquisa realizada em 2006(1, em João Pessoa-PB, junto a vinte mães beneficiárias do PBF, os

  11. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto


    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 μg L -1 and EC 50 0.079 μg L -1 were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  12. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  13. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto, E-mail: [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)


    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 {mu}g L{sup -1} and EC{sub 50} 0.079 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  14. Cecília Donnangelo: pioneira na construção teórica de um pensamento social em saúde Cecília Donnangelo: a pioneer in the theoretical construction of social thinking in health

    Everardo Duarte Nunes


    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa aspectos do percurso intelectual de Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo e seus principais trabalhos. Destaca-se no texto o papel inovador e pioneiro da sua obra nos momentos iniciais das ciências sociais no campo da saúde, na segunda metade dos anos 1960, contextualizados no momento em que ocorriam mudanças no ensino médico e na prática da medicina no Brasil.The present article analyzes aspects of the intellectual trajectory of Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo and her principal works. The text emphasizes the innovating and pioneer role her work played in the first moments of social sciences in the field of health in the mid sixties, occurring just together with changes in medical education and medical practice in Brazil.

  15. False-positive ethyl glucuronide immunoassay screening caused by a propyl alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Arndt, Torsten; Grüner, Joachim; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten


    Urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is considered as a specific marker of recent ethanol consumption. We describe false-positive DRI(®) EIA EtG enzyme immunoassay results caused by propyl glucuronides in urine after using a propanol-based hand sanitizer. EtG screening was done with the DRI(®) EIA EtG assay (Microgenics), using a cut-off of 0.5 mg/L as recommended by the manufacturer and of 0.1 mg/L as demanded by the German Regulations for Reissuing Drivers Licenses. Confirmatory EtG analysis was done with the ClinMass(®) EtG LC-MS/MS testkit (Recipe), extended by the mass transitions 235.1→75.1, 235.1→85.1, and 235.1→113.1 for the detection of the 1- and 2-propyl glucuronides. Self-experiments were done by staff members of our lab (n=7), using 3 mL Sterillium(®) Classic Pure (30 g/100 g 1-propanol and 45 g/100 g 2-propanol) for hand sanitation every quarter of an hour for 8 h according to DIN EN 1500:2011-05 with and without an exhauster and by passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor. Spot urine samples were taken immediately before and up to 24 h after the first sanitizer use. False-positive immunoassay results of up to 4 mg/L or 2.3 mg/g creatinine were obtained after normal use of the sanitizer and also after passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor (up to 0.89 mg/L or 0.61 mg/g). Immunoassay results were positive even after 4-fold use of the sanitizer (up to 0.14 mg/L or 0.38 mg/g) and up to 6 h after the last sanitizer contact (maximum 0.63 mg/L and 0.33 mg/g for sanitizer users and 0.25 mg/g after passive inhalation). Spiking of EtG-free urine with 1-propyl glucuronide (Athena Environmental Sciences) between 0.05 and 10 mg/L clearly demonstrated a cross reaction of the immunoassay of approx. 10% as compared to EtG. LC-MS/MS of urines with a positive immunoassay EtG result did not show EtG signals, but distinct signals of 1-propyl glucuronide (n-propyl glucuronide) and 2-propyl glucuronide (iso-propyl glucuronide). An exhauster effectively prevented

  16. production lines

    Jingshan Li


    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  17. Development of nanobody-based flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin.

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Yanyan; Kang, Xuejun; Wan, Yakun


    Nanobodies, derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies, have novel and impactful applications in clinical diagnostics. Our objective is to develop a nanobody-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin (PA). In this context, a phage display nanobody library is constructed via immunizing dromedary camel with human prealbumin. Three nanobodies have been identified by five successive bio-panning steps. Based on their high expression level and good affinity, two out of three are chosen for further study. Magnetic beads (MBs) were functionalized with PEI by acylamide bond formed between the carboxyl group on the surface of the MB. Then, an anti-PA nanobody (Nb1) can be effectively immobilized onto the surface of the functionalized MB using glutaradehyde as the link. The modified MBs with Nb1 can specifically capture the target PA and reacted with silica nanoparticles with co-immobilized HRP and anti-PA nanobody (Nb2). The concentration of PA was detected by flow injection chemiluminescence. When using MB/PEI as the carrier of anti-PA Nb1, the CL signal significantly increased to 4-fold compared with the signal using MB without PEI modification. The CL signal was further amplified to 5-fold when Si/Nb2 was used as the signal probe. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a wide quantitative range from 0.05 to 1000 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.01 μg L(-1). The sensitivity of the proposed immunoassay offers great promises in providing a sensitive, specific, time saving, and potential method for detecting PA in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural basis for the high specificity of a Trypanosoma congolense immunoassay targeting glycosomal aldolase.

    Joar Pinto


    Full Text Available Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT is a neglected tropical disease which imposes a heavy burden on the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its causative agents are Trypanosoma parasites, with T. congolense and T. vivax being responsible for the majority of the cases. Recently, we identified a Nanobody (Nb474 that was employed to develop a homologous sandwich ELISA targeting T. congolense fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (TcoALD. Despite the high sequence identity between trypanosomatid aldolases, the Nb474-based immunoassay is highly specific for T. congolense detection. The results presented in this paper yield insights into the molecular principles underlying the assay's high specificity.The structure of the Nb474-TcoALD complex was determined via X-ray crystallography. Together with analytical gel filtration, the structure reveals that a single TcoALD tetramer contains four binding sites for Nb474. Through a comparison with the crystal structures of two other trypanosomatid aldolases, TcoALD residues Ala77 and Leu106 were identified as hot spots for specificity. Via ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, we demonstrate that mutation of these residues does not abolish TcoALD recognition by Nb474, but does lead to a lack of detection in the Nb474-based homologous sandwich immunoassay.The results show that the high specificity of the Nb474-based immunoassay is not determined by the initial recognition event between Nb474 and TcoALD, but rather by its homologous sandwich design. This (i provides insights into the optimal set-up of the assay, (ii may be of great significance for field applications as it could explain the potential detection escape of certain T. congolense strains, and (iii may be of general interest to those developing similar assays.

  19. Comparison of Immunoassay methods for T3, T4 and TSH

    Alonso Rodríguez, Celia A.


    Measurements of T3, T4 and TSH have been considered very important in the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases both overt and subclinical. These subclinical diseases are actively seeking for years, both in healthy patients and hospitalized for other illnesses; and in the population over 35 years, especially women, in health checkups. The active search for these diseases requires the use of rapid and reliable techniques; that can be developed massively, with good level of detectability and comparable. The overall objective is to present the evaluation of different immunoassay techniques with respect to the RIA and IRMA: ELISA, chemiluminescence, Amplified Chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence Immunofluorescence. Compare including automatic methods and analyze the cost and feasibility of them for laboratory immunoassay. ELISA colorimetric technique for dosing was comparable to RIA T4, not for T3. Chemiluminescence (AMERLITE) compared to dosing RIA and IRMA T4 to TSH proved to be valid for both. Amplified Chemiluminescence (Immulite) compared to IRMA for TSH was no significant difference. Electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010) compared to T3 and T4 RIA and IRMA for TSH, no significant differences for T4 and TSH; but no variation to T3. Immunofluorescence (AIA-600) used to compare with RIA for T3 and T4, and TSH IRMA, no significant differences for the measured analytes. Benchmarking of automatic methods suggests that the most thrifty of trials is Immunofluorescence the AIA-600, regarding calibration and control, programming time, randomization and the ability to save the value of the fluorescence deferred calculations for tests without valid at the time of realizing calibration. Analyzing the cost and feasibility of these methods for laboratory immunoassay, we must consider that their characteristics electrochemiluminescence is the fastest, but its price is prohibitive for our health systems. The AIA-600 appears to be the method of choice for its

  20. A competitive immunoassay for sensitive detection of small molecules chloramphenicol based on luminol functionalized silver nanoprobe.

    Yu, Xiuxia; He, Yi; Jiang, Jie; Cui, Hua


    Chloramphenicol (CHL) as a broad-spectrum antibiotic has a broad action spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as anaerobes. The use of CHL is strictly restricted in poultry because of its toxic effect. However, CHL is still illegally used in animal farming because of its accessibility and low cost. Therefore, sensitive methods are highly desired for the determination of CHL in foodstuffs. The immunoassays based on labeling as an important tool have been reported for the detection of CHL residues in food-producing animals. However, most of the labeling procedures require multi-step reactions and purifications and thus they are complicated and time-consuming. Recently, in our previous work, luminol functionalized silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized, which exhibits higher CL efficiency than luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles. In this work, the new luminol functionalized silver nanoparticles have been used for the labeling of small molecules CHL for the first time and a competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay has been developed for the detection of CHL. Owing to the amplification of silver nanoparticles, high sensitivity for CHL could be achieved with a low detection limit of 7.6×10(-9) g mL(-1) and a wide linear dynamic range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-6) g mL(-1). This method has also been successfully applied to determine CHL in milk and honey samples with a good recoveries (92% and 102%, 99% and 107% respectively), indicating that the method is feasible for the determination of CHL in real milk and honey samples. The labeling procedure is simple, convenient and fast, superior to previously reported labeling procedures. The immunoassay is also simple, fast, sensitive and selective. It is of application potential for the determination of CHL in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy of immunoassay and mass spectrometry urinary free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    Aranda, G; Careaga, M; Hanzu, F A; Patrascioiu, I; Ríos, P; Mora, M; Morales-Romero, B; Jiménez, W; Halperin, I; Casals, G


    Urinary free cortisol (UFC) determination by highly specific methods as mass spectrometry instead of commercially available antibody-based immunoassays is increasingly recommended. However, clinical comparisons of both analytical approaches in the screening of Cushing's syndrome (CS) are not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of mass spectrometry versus immunoassay measurements of 24 h-UFC in the screening of CS. Cross-sectional study of 33 histologically confirmed CS patients: 25 Cushing's disease, 5 adrenal CS and 3 ectopic CS; 92 non-CS patients; and 35 healthy controls. UFC by immunoassay (UFCxIA) and mass spectrometry (UFCxMS), urinary free cortisone (UFCo) and UFC:UFCo ratio were measured, together with creatinine-corrected values. Sensitivity, specificity, AUC and Landis and Koch concordance index were determined. AUC for UFCxIA and UFCxMS were 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.87) and 0.77 (CI 0.67-0.87) respectively, with a kappa coefficient 0.60 and strong Landis and Koch concordance index. The best calculated cutoff values were 359 nmol/24 h for UFCxIA (78 % sensitivity, 62 % specificity) and 258.1 nmol/24 h for UCFxMS (53 % sensitivity, 86 % specificity). The upper limit of UFCxIA and UCFxMS reference ranges were 344.7 and 169.5 nmol/24 h respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for CS diagnosis at these cutpoints were 84 and 56 % for UFCxIA and 81 and 54 % for UFCxMS. According to our data, both methods present a very similar diagnostic value. However, results suggest that lower cutoff points for mass spectrometry may be necessary in order to improve clinical sensitivity.

  2. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  3. Evaluation of the Lumipulse G TP-N Chemiluminescent Immunoassay as a Syphilis Screening Test.

    Ortiz, Daniel A; Loeffelholz, Michael J


    A syphilis diagnosis is often aided by the detection of treponemal and nontreponemal antibodies. Automated treponemal antibody detection systems enable high-volume clinical laboratories to perform syphilis screening at a faster pace with lower labor costs. The Lumipulse G TP-N chemiluminescent immunoassay is an automated system that qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum antigens in human serum and plasma. To assess performance characteristics and workflow efficiency, the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was compared to the Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG multiplex flow immunoassay. Among the 4,134 routine and HIV samples tested by the two automated assays, the percentage of agreement was excellent at 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.6% to 99.2%; κ, 0.89), with the Lumipulse G TP-N having a shorter time to first and subsequent results. All specimens with reactive syphilis screening results were further tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP·PA) testing ( n = 231). The results from the RPR-reactive samples ( n = 82) showed complete concordance with the two automated assays, while the TP·PA assay displayed some discrepancies. The positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the TP·PA test and the Lumipulse G TP-N test were 98.9% and 77.3%, respectively. The Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG immunoassay displayed a similar PPA (100%) but a substantially lower NPA (15.9%). Patient chart reviews of discrepant results suggested that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay produced 27 fewer falsely reactive results and can reduce the amount of additional confirmatory RPR and TP·PA testing needed. The analogous performance characteristics of the two automated systems indicate that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay is suitable for high-throughput syphilis screening. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Evaluation of Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay system using clinically oriented performance goals.

    Akbas, Neval; Schryver, Patricia G; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; Baumann, Nikola A; Block, Darci R; Budd, Jeffrey R; Gaston, S J Stephen; Klee, George G


    We evaluated the analytical performance of 24 immunoassays using the Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay systems at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for trueness, precision, detection limits, linearity, and consistency (across instruments and reagent lots). Clinically oriented performance goals were defined using the following methods: trueness-published desirable accuracy limits, precision-published desirable biologic variation; detection limits - 0.1 percentile of patient test values, linearity - 50% of total error, and consistency-percentage test values crossing key decision points. Local data were collected for precision, linearity, and consistency. Data were provided by Beckman Coulter, Inc. for trueness and detection limits. All evaluated assays except total thyroxine were within the proposed goals for trueness. Most of the assays met the proposed goals for precision (86% of intra-assay results and 75% of inter-assay results). Five assays had more than 15% of the test results below the minimum detection limits. Carcinoembryonic antigen, total thyroxine and free triiodothyronine exceeded the proposed goals of ±6.3%, ±5% and ±5.7% for dilution linearity. All evaluated assays were within the proposed goals for instrument consistency. Lot-to-lot consistency results for cortisol, ferritin and total thyroxine exceeded the proposed goals of 3.3%, 11.4% and 7% at one medical decision level, while vitamin B12 exceeded the proposed goals of 5.2% and 3.8% at two decision levels. The Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay system meets most of these proposed goals, even though these clinically focused performance goals represent relatively stringent limits. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  6. Práticas amigas da família : contributos para a compreensão da sua adesão e eficácia

    Brandão, Ana Filipa Sousa; Silva, Isabel Maria Soares da


    O estudo apresentado visa contribuir para a compreensão dos fatores suscetíveis de explicar a adesão às Práticas Amigas da Família (PAF), assim como analisar a eficácia das mesmas. Especificamente, foi analisado o contributo de dimensões como a perceção de apoio à família por parte da organização e a existência de “fontes de apoio” ao nível da adesão às PAF e o compromisso organizacional afetivo, o conflito trabalho-família e o conflito família-trabalho ao nível da sua eficácia. Os dados f...

  7. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy


    from HIV-uninfected women. Clinical samples from HIV-infected women receiving a single-dose of nevirapine were analyzed. Results: Precision and accuracy were evaluated with two concentrations of quality control materials analyzed in three replicates on four different days and was......, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Methods: Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk...

  8. The Use of Recombinant Hemagglutinine Protein of Rinderpest Virus in Enzyme Immunoassay

    BULUT, Hakan; BOLAT, Yusuf


    In this study, Rinderpest virus (RPV) recombinant hemagglutinine protein (rH) fused with protein A region of Staphylococcus aureus was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by IgG affinity chromatography. rH protein was also used to establish enzyme immunoassay. Therefore, to prevent IgG binding to the protein A the wells coated with the rH proteins were blocked by human serum. Afterwards, RPV antigens were added to the wells to evaluate this assay. To this end, serum from mice immunized...

  9. Solid-Phase Immunoassay of Polystyrene-Encapsulated Semiconductor Coreshells for Cardiac Marker Detection

    Sanghee Kim


    Full Text Available A solid-phase immunoassay of polystyrene-encapsulated semiconductor nanoparticles was demonstrated for cardiac troponin I (cTnI detection. CdSe/ZnS coreshells were encapsulated with a carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticle to capture the target antibody through a covalent bonding and to eliminate the photoblinking and toxicity of semiconductor luminescent immunosensor. The polystyrene-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS fluorophores on surface-modified glass chip identified cTnI antigens at the level of ~ng/mL. It was an initial demonstration of diagnostic chip for monitoring a cardiovascular disease.

  10. Upconverting nanophosphors as reporters in a highly sensitive heterogeneous immunoassay for cardiac troponin I

    Sirkka, Nina, E-mail:; Lyytikäinen, Annika; Savukoski, Tanja; Soukka, Tero


    Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have a unique capability to produce anti-Stokes emission at visible wavelengths via sequential multiphoton absorption upon infrared excitation. Since the anti-Stokes emission can be easily spectrally resolved from the Stokes' shifted autofluorescence, the upconversion luminescence (UCL) is a highly attractive reporter technology for optical biosensors and biomolecular binding assays – potentially enabling unprecedented sensitivity in separation-based solid-phase immunoassays. UCL technology has not previously been applied in sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), which requires highly sensitive detection to enable accurate and timely diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We have developed an UCL-based immunoassay for cTnI using NaYF{sub 4}: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} UCNPs as reporters. Biotinylated anti-cTnI monoclonal antibody (Mab) and Fab fragment immobilized to streptavidin-coated wells were used to capture cTnI. Captured cTnI was detected from dry well surface after a 15 min incubation with poly(acrylic acid) coated UCNPs conjugated to second anti-cTnI Mab. UCL was measured with a dedicated UCL microplate reader. The UCL-based immunoassay allowed sensitive detection of cTnI. The limit of detection was 3.14 ng L{sup −1}. The calibration curve was linear up to cTnI concentration 50,000 ng L{sup −1}. Plasma recoveries of added cTnI were 92–117%. Obtained cTnI concentrations from five normal plasma samples were 4.13–10.7 ng L{sup −1} (median 5.06 ng L{sup −1}). There is yet significant potential for even further improved limit of detection by reducing non-specifically bound fraction of the Mab-conjugated UCNPs. The assay background with zero calibrator was over 40-fold compared to the background obtained from wells where the reporter conjugate had been excluded. - Highlights: • Detection of attomole analyte quantity in microwell using upconversion luminescence. • Upconverting

  11. Results of the HPL determination using a new enzymatic immunoassay - comparison with a commercial radioimmunoassay

    Leis, D.; Schneider, B.; Keller, A.; Braun, S.


    An enzymatic immunoassay recently developed by the firm Organon, Oss, Netherlands, to determine HPL in the serum of pregnant women was compared to a widely used radioimmunoassay marketed by the firm Amersham-Buchler, Braunschweig. The values determined showed a good correlation. The accuracy of measurement was within the generally accepted range for immunological assays of this kind. The assay procedures are comparable with regard to the expenditure of time and work. A great advantage of the EIA is due to the absence of radioactive substances, which permits this test to be performed in any laboratory equipped with a centrifuge and photometer. (orig.) [de

  12. Dot immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of postvaccination immunity against pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus.

    Khramtsov, Pavel; Bochkova, Maria; Timganova, Valeria; Zamorina, Svetlana; Rayev, Mikhail


    A dot immunoassay for simultaneous semiquantitative detection of IgG against tetanus toxoid (Ttx) and diphtheria toxoid (Dtx) and qualitative detection of anti-Bordetella pertussis IgGs in human blood serum using carbon nanoparticles functionalized with streptococcal protein G was developed. Inactivated B. pertussis cells in suspension form were used as an antigen in the immunoassay. Pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria antigens were separately spotted onto nitrocellulose strips, and then the immunostrips were successively incubated with blood sera and a suspension of carbon nanoparticles. The immunostrips were then scanned with a flatbed scanner, and the images obtained were processed with ImageJ. One hundred fifty-five venous blood serum samples from children vaccinated with diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine were tested in comparison with a conventional ELISA and agglutination test. The total time required for analysis of 32 serum samples was less than 3 h. Comparison between the results of the dot immunoassay and the corresponding ELISA/agglutination test revealed a high level of agreement (Cohen's kappa between 0.765 and 0.813). The lower limit of quantification was 0.06 IU/ml for anti-Ttx and anti-Dtx. The intra-assay coefficients of variation were less than 15% for anti-Ttx and anti-Dtx and less than 10% for anti-pertussis. The diagnostic sensitivity of detection of the antibody protection level was 93.5% for anti-Ttx [95% confidence interval (CI) 83.5-97.9%], 92.4% for anti-Dtx (95% CI 80.9297.5%), and 90.2% for anti-pertussis (95% CI 75.9-96.8%). The diagnostic specificity was 90.9% for anti-Ttx (95% CI 57.1-99.5%), 85% for anti-Dtx (95% CI 61.1-96.0%), and 89.3% for anti-pertussis (95%CI 80.8-94.5%). The dot immunoassay developed does not require expensive reading equipment, and allows detection of antibodies against three antigens in a single analysis. The immunostrips can be stored for a long time without changes in the

  13. A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative detection of cocaine from banknotes and latent fingermarks.

    van der Heide, Susan; Garcia Calavia, Paula; Hardwick, Sheila; Hudson, Simon; Wolff, Kim; Russell, David A


    A sensitive and versatile competitive enzyme immunoassay (cEIA) has been developed for the quantitative detection of cocaine in complex forensic samples. Polyclonal anti-cocaine antibody was purified from serum and deposited onto microtiter plates. The concentration of the cocaine antibody adsorbed onto the plates, and the dilution of the cocaine-HRP hapten were both studied to achieve an optimised immunoassay. The method was successfully used to quantify cocaine in extracts taken from both paper currency and latent fingermarks. The limit of detection (LOD) of 0.162ngmL(-1) achieved with the assay compares favourably to that of conventional chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques, with an appropriate sensitivity for the quantification of cocaine at the low concentrations present in some forensic samples. The cEIA was directly compared to LC-MS for the analysis of ten UK banknote samples. The results obtained from both techniques were statistically similar, suggesting that the immunoassay was unaffected by cross-reactivity with potentially interfering compounds. The cEIA was used also for the detection of cocaine in extracts from latent fingermarks. The results obtained were compared to the cocaine concentrations detected in oral fluid sampled from the same individual. Using the cEIA, we have shown, for the first time, that endogeneously excreted cocaine can be detected and quantified from a single latent fingermark. Additionally, it has been shown that the presence of cocaine, at similar concentrations, in more than one latent fingermark from the same individual can be linked with those concentrations found in oral fluid. These results show that detection of drugs in latent fingermarks could directly indicate whether an individual has consumed the drug. The specificity and feasibility of measuring low concentrations of cocaine in complex forensic samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the assay. The immunoassay presents a simple and cost

  14. Radio-immunoassay of plasma arginine vasopressin in man. Comparison of two methods of extraction

    Wolf, J.P.; Dumoulin, G.; Henriet, M.T.; Baulay, A.; Berthelay, S.


    Two methods of extraction, prior to radio-immunoassay (RIA) of human plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) were tested: ethanol extraction (ETH), chromatography with ODS-Silice (ODS-Sil). Recovery of 125 I AVP was higher when using ODS-Sil than when using ETH. Recovery of standard AVP was found to be more efficient and reproducible for ODS-Sil. However, the RIA used, performed after chromatography with ODS-Sil, is not enough sensitive to detect low concentrations but is able to detect high concentrations and physiological variations of plasma AVP [fr

  15. A direct radio-immunoassay for plasma aldosterone: significance of endogenous cortisol

    Man, A.J.M. de; Hofman, J.A.; Hendriks, Th.; Rosmalen, F.M.A.; Ross, H.A.; Benraad, Th.J.


    A direct radio-immunoassay for plasma aldosterone was developed, using a highly specific antiserum raised in sheep. An excellent correlation was observed between its results and the levels measured after extraction and chromatography. The necessity of including a blocking agent to inhibit the binding of aldosterone to plasma proteins was investigated. It was found that in low-cortisol ( 10 μg/100 ml) the final assay result was independent of the presence of ANS. The effect of cortisol was interpreted in terms of its influence on aldosterone binding to plasma proteins in the absence of a blocking agent. (Auth.)

  16. Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-protein conjugates for preparation and immunoassay of antibodies.

    Glushkov, Andrey N; Kostyanko, Mikhail V; Cherno, Sergey V; Vasilchenko, Ilya L


    The method is described dealing with the synthesis of conjugates protein-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), highly soluble in water, stable without special stabilizers and containing the minimum quantity of cross-linked products. The reaction of protein with PAH containing an aldehyde group, has been carried out in an alkaline solution, and stabilization of the conjugate has been achieved by reduction with sodium borohydride in the presence of a compound blocking the formation of an insoluble polymeric fraction. The efficiency of synthesized conjugates for the induction and immunoassay of Abs to PAH for benzo[a]pyrene is shown.

  17. Enzyme immunoassay of oestrogen receptors in needle biopsies from human liver

    Becker, U; Andersen, J; Poulsen, H S


    For quantitative assessments of sex hormone receptors in liver tissue, ligand binding assays are inconvenient, as they require large biopsies (0.5-1.0 g). The present study shows that it is possible to measure oestrogen receptors (ER) quantitatively in needle biopsy specimens as small as 10 mg...... by modifications of a commercial enzyme immunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies. Sucrose gradient centrifugation and the dextran charcoal method served as reference methods. A consecutive series of needle biopsies from patients suspected of liver disease were investigated. The biopsies (n = 37) had a median...

  18. Screening of the two-component-system histidine kinases of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. LiaS is needed for growth under heat, acid, alkali, osmotic, ethanol and oxidative stresses.

    Pöntinen, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Skurnik, Mikael; Korkeala, Hannu


    To study the role of each two-component system (TCS) histidine kinase (HK) in stress tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, we monitored the growth of individual HK deletion mutant strains under heat (42.5 °C), acid (pH 5.6), alkali (pH 9.4), osmotic (6% NaCl), ethanol (3.5 vol%), and oxidative (5 mM H 2 O 2 ) stresses. The growth of ΔliaS (Δlmo1021) strain was impaired under each stress, with the most notable decrease under heat and osmotic stresses. The ΔvirS (Δlmo1741) strain showed nearly completely restricted growth at high temperature and impaired growth in ethanol. The growth of ΔagrC (Δlmo0050) strain was impaired under osmotic stress and slightly under oxidative stress. We successfully complemented the HK mutations using a novel allelic exchange based approach. This approach avoided the copy-number problems associated with in trans complementation from a plasmid. The mutant phenotypes were restored to the wild-type level in the complemented strains. This study reveals novel knowledge on the HKs needed for growth of L. monocytogenes EGD-e under abovementioned stress conditions, with LiaS playing multiple roles in stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes EGD-e. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A experiência da família ao conviver com a família doença crônica da criança The family experience of living with the child's chronic illness

    Elaine Buchhorn Cintra Damião


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou compreender como a família vivencia os períodos de dificuldades impostos pela doença crônica da criança. Utilizou-se como método de pesquisa a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados e como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico. Foram entrevistadas famílias de crianças com doença crônica, fibrose cística do pâncreas e diabetes, possibilitando desvelar o processo vivenciado e o significado atribuído pela família a sua experiência. Os dados foram analisados até a fase de categorização dos significados, tendo emergido o fenômeno: "Sendo Difícil Não Ter Controle".This research has focused on the family meaning of having a child with chronic illness. The Grounded Theory and the Symbolic Interactionism were employed as research method and theoretical approach respectively. The interviews involved families with children diagnosed as having a chronic disease, cystic fibrosis and diabetes, aiming to study the way the family copes with this situation, and the meaning giving by the family to this experience. Data were analyzed until the phase of categorizing and the phenomenon disclosed was: "Being hard not to have control".

  20. A família também adoece!: mudanças secundárias à ocorrência de um acidente vascular encefálico na família

    Eliana Sales Brito


    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou compreender o impacto da doença incapacitante na família de pacientes vítimas de acidente vascular encefálico (AVE, investigando as mudanças de ordem estrutural, social e emocional. Foram analisadas nove famílias de pacientes com primeiro episódio de AVE identificados pelo registro geral de doenças do Hospital São Rafael, Salvador, Bahia. A coleta dos dados foi realizada mediante aplicação de questionário, roteiro de entrevista, escala de avaliação funcional e observações registradas em diário de campo. O método empregado para análise dos dados foi o discurso do sujeito coletivo, produzindo representações sociais e transformando em um só discurso a fala dos sujeitos pesquisados. Constatou-se que a ocorrência de um AVE é uma experiência marcada por bruscas transformações no cotidiano familiar e na vida de cada um de seus membros. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de se habilitar a família para o cuidado ao paciente e para o autocuidado.

  1. Line facilities outline


    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  2. L'opposition ville-campagne au contact de l'hybridité dans Lélia de George Sand

    Salah J. Khan


    Full Text Available In Lélia (1833, a formally hybrid and remarkably sustained exploration of pas-sion, faith, and skepticism, Sand challenges her own normative binary distinctions between urban excitement and pastoral calm. Through a consideration of the existential experience, the psychological effect, and the metaphysical meaning of living life too quickly, Lélia demonstrates that passions, when poorly extinguished, can reignite even in the calmest of settings, while the thirst for wisdom and the power of self-reflection can resurface in the midst of cosmopolitan courtesan life-style. The city thus represents more than the locus of urgency, contingency, and action; and the countryside serves as more than the haven for measured thought, retired activity, and deeper wisdom.

  3. La voix off au féminin : Hiroshima mon amour et Aurélia Steiner

    Jennifer Cazenave


    Full Text Available Une étude comparée du grand film moderne d’Alain Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour (1959, et du dyptique de Marguerite Duras, Aurélia Steiner (1979, laisse entrevoir une filiation entre deux films que vingt ans séparent et où s’entrecroisent un certain nombre de fils conducteurs : le lieu et la parole ; l’histoire et la mémoire ; la voix-off au féminin et l’irreprésentable. Il s’agira donc de penser ces deux œuvres cinématographiques à partir du rapport entre le parler féminin et la représentation du passé, soit la tonte des femmes au moment de la libération dans Hiroshima mon amour, soit l’extermination des Juifs d’Europe dans Aurélia Steiner.

  4. O Impacto das Regras do Programa Bolsa Família Sobre a Fecundidade das Beneficiárias

    Luis Antonio Winck Cechin


    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga um possível incentivo do Programa Bolsa Família ao aumento da fecundidade de suas beneficiárias em decorrência de suas regras, dado que a quantidade de recursos transferidos depende do número de filhos da família. O diferencial deste estudo reside na análise desse impacto em um maior período de exposição das beneficiárias aos efeitos do PBF. Aplica-se o algoritmo de seleção de covariadas proposto por Imbens (2014 e o método de Propensity Score Matching. Os resultados apontaram que o PBF gera pequeno incentivo à geração do segundo filho, sendo que as regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste apresentaram os maiores valores de impacto.

  5. Adoção Homoparental, um direito omitido, reivindicado por famílias invisíveis

    Adilson Lucio da Silva Filho


    Full Text Available ResumoO presente artigo tem como proposta, contribuir para a compreensão sobre a adoção por famílias homoafetivas através de um levantamento bibliográfico, revisando outras produções científicas e literaturas no campo da psicologia e direito. Propondo uma reflexão sobre as novas maneiras de se pensar em famílias, respeitando suas diversas possibilidades de configurações e suas interações com a sociedade, reconhecendo a importância de se preservar as estruturas e os estilos de vida de cada indivíduo. O estudo trata ainda os principais impactos da omissão legal quanto a existência das famílias homoparentais, principalmente nas garantias de seus direitos, onde nos deparamos com um Estado omisso e uma série de projetos, como o estatuto da família, por exemplo, que além de limitar a entidade familiar ao núcleo formado por um homem, uma mulher e seus filhos, coloca em risco a adoção por casais do mesmo sexo, passando por cima do STF (Supremo Tribunal Federal que já reconhece a união estável homoafetiva, negando o direito da igualdade e dignidade a famílias, além de diminuir as chances de crianças e adolescentes em situação de abrigo, serem adotadas e possuírem uma família.Palavras-chave: famílias, famílias homoparentais, adoção, omissão, igualdade.AbstractThis article aims to contribute to the understanding of adoption by gay families, by reviewing through scientific publications and other literatures of psychology and rights. Proposing a reflection on the new ways of thinking about families, respecting their different possibilities of settings and their interactions with society, recognizing the importance of preserving individuals’ structures and lifestyle. This study also deals with the main impacts of the legal omission regarding the existence of  gay families, especially the guarantees of their rights, in which we stumble upon an omissive State and a number of projects, such as family statute, for

  6. Relação escola e família: uma abordagem psicodramática.

    Cláudia Roberta Borsato


    A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo a promoção da compreensão recíproca dos papéis de professores e pais na articulação das relações escola-família, para a qualificação da prática docente em benefício da educação dos alunos. A literatura especializada sobre o tema, bem como as experiências educacionais dessa pesquisadora evidenciam que, na atualidade, escola e família são parceiros não assumidos na vivência do processo ensino-aprendizagem. Professores e pais necessitam participar em conjunt...

  7. Physics design for the measurement of the ionic emission generated by 12 MeV LIA X-ray converter target

    Yu Haijun; Long Jidong; Shi Jinshui


    Linear induction accelerator (LIA) is expected to generated small diameter x-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with ions generated at the x-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the x-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. The diagnostic methods of ion produced at 12 MeV LIA including faraday cup, sheet diagnostic apparatus and the multiframing interferometer are introduced in the paper

  8. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  9. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays.

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian


    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng/L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems.

  10. Dual-Mode SERS-Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Graphene Quantum Dot Labeling on One-Dimensional Aligned Magnetoplasmonic Nanoparticles.

    Zou, Fengming; Zhou, Hongjian; Tan, Tran Van; Kim, Jeonghyo; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom


    A novel dual-mode immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence was designed using graphene quantum dot (GQD) labels to detect a tuberculosis (TB) antigen, CFP-10, via a newly developed sensing platform of linearly aligned magnetoplasmonic (MagPlas) nanoparticles (NPs). The GQDs were excellent bilabeling materials for simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The one-dimensional (1D) alignment of MagPlas NPs simplified the immunoassay process and enabled fast, enhanced signal transduction. With a sandwich-type immunoassay using dual-mode nanoprobes, both SERS signals and fluorescence images were recognized in a highly sensitive and selective manner with a detection limit of 0.0511 pg mL(-1).

  11. The fabrication of magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human epididymis protein-4 detection in ovarian cancer

    Xiaoling Fu


    Full Text Available The magnetic particles have a significant influence on the immunoassay detection and cancer therapy. Herein, the chemiluminescence immunoassay combined with the magnetic particles (MPCLIA was presented for the clinical determination and analysis of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 in the human serum. Under the optimized experiment conditions, the secure MPCLIA method can detect HE4 in the broader range of 0–1000 pmol/L, with a lower detection limit of 1.35 pmol/L. The satisfactory recovery rate of the method in the serum ranged from 83.62% to 105.10%, which was well within the requirement of clinical analysis. Moreover, the results showed the good correlation with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9589. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the clinical determination of HE4 in the human serum. Keywords: Chemiluminescence immunoassay, Magnetic particles, Human epididymis protein 4

  12. Violência e abuso sexual na família Violence and sexual abuse within the family

    Maria de Fátima Araújo


    Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência de supervisão e atendimento de famílias que sofreram violência intrafamiliar, encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico após denúncia ou suspeita de abuso sexual infantil cometido por parentes próximos. O texto examina essa experiência à luz de reflexões surgidas nessa prática, diante dos conflitos, impasses e dificuldades vividos por profissionais e famílias envolvidos no problema. A abordagem de intervenção aqui proposta tem três características principais: 1 baseia-se no enfoque psicossocial 2 propõe o atendimento familiar conjunto, envolvendo toda a família, inclusive o agressor; e, 3introduz a perspectiva de gênero, fator historicamente preponderante na construção de relações de violência e dominação-exploração dentro da família.This article reports on the experience of supervising and providing care to families who have experienced intra-family violence and who were referred to psychological care following suspicion or denouncement of child sexual abuse committed by close relatives. It reviews this experience in the light of reflections arising from the practice in view of the conflicts, impasses and difficulties faced by professionals and families concerned. The type of intervention proposed here has three major characteristics: 1 it is based on a psychosocial approach 2 it proposes a family group treatment including the assailant and 3 it introduces the gender perspective, a historically prevailing factor in the construction of violence and domination/exploitation relationships within the family.

  13. Bidirectional pulser made from pulse lines for linear induction accelerators

    Hotta, E.; Mori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Okino, A.; Haginomori, E.; Ko, K.C.


    In order to obtain high-current charged particle beams, linear induction accelerators (LIA's) of two types have been already constructed. Conventional LIA's adopt a unidirectional pulse injected from an external pulser. The other LIA's, one of which has been proposed and constructed by Pavlovskii et al., have accelerating cavities made from pulse forming lines (PFL's). In this case, no magnetic core loaded in the cavity is necessary. However, the injected pulse must be a bidirectional one. Since a part of the voltage pulse with reversed polarity is used to accelerate a beam, it is possible to make the time integral of the output voltage zero. Thus the final magnetic energy stored in the cavity can be made zero at the end of the pulse, and the pulser-accelerator system attains the energy transfer efficiency of 100%. Accelerators of this type can be divided into two kinds, one of which has cavities with internal energy storage, and the other has cavities with energy injected from external bidirectional pulsers. The accelerator of latter type has been first proposed by Smith, but it has not been realized. Several bidirectional pulsers, which consist of three individual PFL's with arbitrary impedances and a closing switch, are analyzed. Output voltages are analytically calculated by using the method proposed by Dommel for digital computations of electromagnetic transients in networks, and conditions for attaining the maximum efficiency of energy transfer from the pulser to the beam are derived. Thus, 4 bidirectional pulsers of internal energy storage type and 2 of external pulse injection type with energy transfer efficiency of 100% are obtained, including the pulsers already reported by other authors

  14. A instituição família e sua relação com a deficiência

    Mina Regen


    Full Text Available Após tecer considerações sobre a evolução da família no mundo e no Brasil através do tempo, são apresentados alguns conceitos de família, suas funções básicas e sua importância na formação de nossa personalidade, como primeira célula social a que pertencemos. Trata, ainda, do impacto que a família sofre com o nascimento de uma criança com deficiência, as reações mais freqüentes e as fases pelas quais os pais passam em seu processo de compreensão, adaptação e aceitação desse filho diferente. Aborda, ainda, as dificuldades que os pais enfrentam para educar esses filhos diferentes e a responsabilidade dos profissionais no sentido de se prepararem adequadamente para lidar com essas famílias, oferecendo-lhes o apoio de que necessitam para melhor exercer o seu papel e a importância de um trabalho com grupos de famílias.Palavras-chave: Instituição. Família. Deficiência.

  15. Em cartaz: a formação docente e as representações de famílias organizadas em modelos não convencionais

    Isaias Batista de Oliveira Júnior


    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo analisar as representações sociais sobre família entre profissionais do magistério que responderam um inventário do tipo Likert a fim de aferirmos suas representações acerca do conceito de “família”, “família ideal” e “família desestruturada”. Os dados da pesquisa foram coletados durante a realização de um curso de formação docente intitulado “Formação docente e as representações de famílias organizadas em modelos não convencionais pelas lentes do cinema”. Os resultados obtidos revelaram mudanças nas representações dos sujeitos da pesquisa entre o pré e o pós-teste, que se devem, em parte pelo fato de a experiência estética, por meio do cinema, permitir o rompimento com o ideário de família admitindo as diversas maneiras de ser família como verdadeiras.

  16. Condicionalidades em saúde do programa Bolsa Família – Brasil: uma análise a partir de profissionais da saúde

    Alice Teles de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta a percepção de profissionais de equipes de Saúde da Família de municípios do Nordeste do Brasil acerca das mudanças na vida das famílias participantes do programa Bolsa Família, da relação destas com os serviços de saúde e do impacto na dinâmica de trabalho dos profissionais, a partir do acompanhamento das condicionalidades de saúde do programa Bolsa Família. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e encontros de grupo focal. Os profissionais acreditam que o programa ocasionou mudanças favoráveis na vida das famílias participantes, como a redução da pobreza, o aumento da frequência escolar das crianças e mudanças positivas na relação entre as famílias participantes e os serviços de saúde. No entanto, relataram dificuldades de caráter organizacional no acompanhamento das condicionalidades, sobretudo devido ao aumento da demanda de trabalho. É importante que as condicionalidades de saúde proporcionem oportunidades para a realização de ações que visem ao empoderamento e autonomia dos sujeitos quanto ao autocuidado e desenvolvimento da cidadania.

  17. An immunoassay for dibutyl phthalate based on direct hapten linkage to the polystyrene surface of microtiter plates.

    Chenxi Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay for DBP was developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody specific to DBP was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line generated by lymphocyte hybridoma technique. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA employing direct coating of hapten on polystyrene microtiter plates was established for the detection of DBP. Polystyrene surface was first oxidized by permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid to generate carboxyl groups. Then dibutyl 4-aminophthalate, which is an analogue of DBP, was covalently linked to the carboxyl groups of polystyrene surface with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC. Compared with conjugate coated format (IC(50=106 ng/mL, the direct hapten coated format (IC(50=14.6 ng/mL improved assay sensitivity after careful optimization of assay conditions. The average recovery of DBP from spiked water sample was 104.4% and the average coefficient of variation was 9.95%. Good agreement of the results obtained by the hapten coated icELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for the detection of DBP in certain plastic and cosmetic samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stable and efficient hybridoma cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to DBP. The hapten coated format is proposed as generally applicable because the carboxyl groups on modified microtiter plate surface enables stable immobilization of aminated or hydroxylated hapten with EDC. The developed

  18. Hydrothermal preparation of zeolite Li-A and ion exchange properties of Cs and Sr in salt waste

    Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. H.


    An advanced spent fuel management process that were based on Li reduction of the oxide spent fuel to a metallic form will generate a LiCl waste. Zeolite A has been reported as a promising immobilization medium for waste salt with CsCl and SrCl 2 . However, Sodium is accumulated as an ionic form (Na + -ion) in molten salt during ion exchange step between Na + -ion in zeolite A and Li + -ion in the molten salt. Therefore, zeolite Na-A need to be replaced by the Li-type zeolite for recycling the salt waste by removing the Cs and Sr ions. In this study, the hydrothermal preparation of zeolite Li-A was performed in 350ml pressure vessel by P. Norby method. The preparation characteristics of zeolite Li-A was investigated. And the ion exchange properties of Cs and Sr in molten LiCl salt were investigated under the condition of 923K using zeolite 4A and prepared zeolite Li-A

  19. Nós e linhas: pesquisando a relação família-equipe

    Roberta Carvalho Romagnoli


    Full Text Available Esse texto apresenta os resultados parciais da pesquisa-intervenção financiada pela FAPEMIG, que tem como objetivo problematizar as relações no território equipe-família, evidenciando o que dificulta a participação da família no tratamento das crianças atendidas no Centro Psicopedagógico Renato de Avelar Azeredo - CPP - de Nova Lima, como demanda da equipe de profissionais. Nesse contexto, examina o percurso trilhado com a equipe de profissionais, refletindo acerca de nossas intervenções como um intercessor para a criação de outra relação com esses grupos. Para tal, utiliza um caso clínico analisado em seus movimentos e vetores, perseguindo as linhas ora estratificadas, ora inventivas, que atravessam esse plano de forças. Embora a terapia familiar seja somente uma forma de se trabalhar com famílias, concluímos que o processo promoveu efeitos potencializadores na equipe, gerando outra forma de se conectar com esses grupos.

  20. Mudanças no comportamento e desenvolvimento do escolar a partir do cuidado à família

    Ana Carmen Alonso Nachtigall Schmitt


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever as contribuições da enfermagem nas relações familiares de escolares que apresentam alterações no comportamento e no rendimento escolar. Pesquisa-ação, fundamentada no método da problematização, em que se fez uso do Método do Arco, implementado em cinco etapas: observação da realidade, pontos-chave, teorização, hipóteses de solução e aplicação à realidade. Foi realizada em uma escola municipal localizada na região oeste da cidade de Santa Maria-RS. Participaram da amostra 25 famílias de escolares, no período de março a maio de 2012. Verificou-se que o sonho de ter a família ideal existe, porém a realidade vivenciada ainda é permeada por inúmeras dificuldades e requer modificações. Cuidar das relações da família mostra-se como uma possibilidade da sociedade desenvolver-se mais dignamente, considerando a potente influência que essa exerce no desenvolvimento e na formação do caráter das pessoas.

  1. Itinerário percorrido pelas famílias de crianças internadas em um hospital escola

    Kézia de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório, descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com o objetivo de conhecer o itinerário percorrido pela família da criança internada em unidade hospitalar. Os dados foram coletados na unidade de internação pediátrica do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá (HUM, por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas junto aos acompanhantes, posteriormente submetidos a análise de conteúdo, originando duas categorias: O papel da família na identificação de desvios de saúde na criança, e o (Despreparo dos serviços de saúde: impactos sobre o atendimento à saúde infantil. Constatou-se a conduta expectante da família frente à doença infantil, com busca de meios alternativos e procura tardia dos serviços de saúde. Esses, por sua vez, apresentam lacunas no percurso de atendimento, do diagnóstico ao tratamento, gerando estresse familiar e aumentando as possibilidades de agravo do quadro clínico da criança.

  2. Configurações Subjetivas de Famílias em Litígio pela Guarda dos Filhos

    Vannúzia Leal Andrade Peres

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva contribuir para a compreensão do litígio como produção subjetiva das famílias. Fundado na epistemologia qualitativa e na teoria cultural-histórica da subjetividade, o estudo sobre o problema incluiu ex-cônjuges com idades entre 30 e 50 e seus filhos de 5 a 20 anos. A análise construtivo-interpretativa dos resultados permite apresentar indicadores de sentido de que as ações dos membros das famílias para a manutenção, ou não, do litígio são orientadas por suas configurações subjetivas ou conjunto de emoções e processos simbólicos que integram seus sistemas de personalidade. Conclui-se que a realização de perícia psicológica sobre o litígio deve levar em conta, entre outros aspectos, as realidades subjetivas das famílias e a necessidade de produzirem novos sentidos em relação a ele para se posicionarem e resolverem o problema.

  3. Parallel Lines

    James G. Worner


    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  4. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian


    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng/L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flas...

  5. Detection of Avian Influenza Virus by Fluorescent DNA Barcode-based Immunoassay with Sensitivity Comparable to PCR

    Cao, Cuong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong


    involves the sandwiching of the target AIV between magnetic immunoprobes and barcode-carrying immunoprobes. Because each barcode-carrying immunoprobe is functionalized with a multitude of fluorophore-DNA barcode strands, many DNA barcodes are released for each positive binding event resulting......In this paper, a coupling of fluorophore-DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The assay is based on the use of sandwich immunoassay and fluorophore-tagged oligonucleotides as representative barcodes. The detection...

  6. Programa Saúde da Família no Brasil: uma agenda incompleta?

    Maria Fátima de Sousa

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma análise longitudinal da experiência brasileira com o Programa Saúde da Família (PSF, ao longo dos doze anos da sua implantação e implementação. Toma como ponto de partida o propósito fundamental desta estratégia, que é a reorganização da atenção básica de saúde, contextualizando à luz da experiência que é única e peculiar ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Evidencia os avanços e desafios do PSF, apontando nesse sentido as necessidades mais urgentes em termos de incorporação tecnológica, formação da força de trabalho, estabelecimento de novos mecanismos e pactos em torno do financiamento da atenção básica e encaminhamento de novas estratégias e tecnologias nos processos de monitoramento e avaliação. Finaliza apontando elementos para subsidiar um debate sobre as questões em pauta, o qual deve ser permanente e lúcido na perspectiva da construção do SUS e do direito à saúde.

  7. Usuários de Crack que Buscam Tratamento em Brasília

    Maria Inês Gandolfo Conceição

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivando identificar o perfil de pacientes ambulatoriais que procuram tratamento para problemas relacionados com crack em Brasília, 132 usuários que recebem serviços psicológicos preencheram o Questionário sobre o Perfil de Consumo de Crack e o Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief. Os participantes eram homens (83,6%, solteiros (38,8% e possuíam residência (100%. O primeiro uso foi motivado pela curiosidade (65,9%, influência dos pares (58,3% e fácil acesso (50,8%. A maioria (65,2% relatou poliuso. O mais longo período de abstinência foi de quatro anos (1,5% e a maioria (46% relatou menos de 30 dias. O poder letal, dependência e contextos de vulnerabilidade social associados ao crack foram questionados neste estudo. São necessários esforços para melhor atender aos que não acessam o sistema de tratamento.

  8. Staphylinidae e Silphidae (Coleoptera como Potenciais Famílias Bioindicadoras de Qualidade Ambiental

    Fabiana dos Santos Fernandes


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar a biodiversidade de coleópteros do IZMA (Eng. Paulo de Frontin - RJ, compreender suas relações com as composições florísticas e buscar identificar potenciais bioindicadores. Foram realizadas quatro coletas, em oito pontos distintos, de abril de 2008 a março de 2009, com utilização de armadilhas pitfall. Os insetos foram triados, identificados, e armazenados no Laboratório de Monitoramento Ambiental – USS; os dados foram analisados por meio da Diversidade e Dominância de Simpson e Similaridade de Cluster. Capturaram-se 1990 coleópteros (15 famílias, com maior ocorrência de Staphylinidae no interior da mata. Os pontos V e VI foram os mais similares e Silphidae, em áreas intermediárias; os pontos VII e VIII, mais similares. A 1ª coleta apresentou maior dominância; a 4ª coleta, maior diversidade. O ponto IV obteve maior abundância; o V, maior dominância; os pontos I e III, maior diversidade; os pontos III e VII, maior similaridade. Os pontos III, IV, VI, e VII mostraram-se os mais conservados, Staphylinidae e Silphidae foram apontados como potenciais bioindicadores, por apresentar sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente.

  9. Modos de subjetivação femininos, família e trabalho

    Maria Cristina Lopes de Almeida Amazonas

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os modos de subjetivação femininos no mundo contemporâneo no contexto do trabalho e da família e problematiza o conceito de gênero tomando-o como relacional, plural, em uma tentativa de escapar à lógica binária. O artigo se baseia nos dados de uma pesquisa em que foram entrevistadas seis mulheres entre 25 e 35 anos de idade, de nível socioeconômico médio, cujas respostas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostram mulheres que fazem parte de um contexto histórico que lhes endereça um discurso de sujeito autônomo e livre, que atribuem valor ao trabalho como profissão, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, são demandadas a atender as exigências de maridos e filhos no espaço privado. As múltiplas identidades que assumem requisitam posições de sujeito contraditórias, atravessadas pelas questões de gênero masculino/feminino que não mais dão conta de suas atuações no mundo. No entanto, simultaneamente, seus discursos indicam que as mulheres começam a buscar caminhos alternativos que as ajudem a superar essas relações dicotômicas.

  10. Bromélia Filminhos and the international adventures of Lottie Dottie Chicken

    Maria Luiza Carvalho de Aguillar Pinho


    Full Text Available This case study examines the trajectory of a company in the audiovisual industry, founded in 2006, responsible for the first Brazilian animated series whose artistic and authorial design was produced entirely in Brazil, to reach the one billion views milestone on YouTube. Created in 2007, the series became a massive hit with children by using the internet as a launching platform and so breaking with the established paradigm of using only traditional media (television and cinema to introduce an animated character. In just 18 months, the company had its brand licensed to more than 600 products, achieving almost 50% of its revenues from licensing in Brazil. In 2012, Bromélia Filminhos began their internationalization process. Management expected that international activities would soon account for 10% of the company revenues. This case study aims to discuss the internationalization of a small animation studio and the business potential for the licensing of Brazilian characters and brands at the national and international levels.

  11. Mioclonia essencial hereditária: relato de uma família

    Rosana S.C. Alves


    Full Text Available Tem sido descrita na literatura a ocorrência de movimentos mioclônicos e distônicos como expressão isolada de uma condição neurológica de caráter hereditário. Para essa entidade alguns autores propõem a denominação "distonia mioclônica hereditária", enquanto outros preconizam o uso da expressão "mioclonia essencial hereditária". O presente relato refere-se a uma família em que essa peculiar associação de movimentos anormais acometia diversos membros em três gerações. O propósito é uma paciente de 14 anos com movimentos distônicos instalados aos 7 anos e mioclonias aos 13 anos, com evolução lenta e tendendo à estabilização. Não havia referência a melhora sob ação do álcool (paciente abstêmia. A história familiar mostrava outros casos semelhantes. A investigação complementar (dosagens sericas de cobre, ceruloplasmina, T3, T4, TSH; pesquisa de acantócitos; exame do LCR; tomografia e ressonância do segmento cefálico não revelou anormalidades. O quadro foi satisfatoriamente controlado com clonazepam na dose de 3 mg/dia.

  12. Itàlia i la configuració de la llegenda negra borgiana

    Joan Emili Roig Matoses


    Full Text Available La llegenda negra dels Borja va començar a Itàlia i la van començar els italians en el segle XV. Començada a forjar per cronistes, informadors, cardenals… i contràriament al que es podria pensar, aquesta no va començar després de la mort del segon papa Borja Alexandre VI, sinó durant el seu cardenalat, el seu pontificat i com no, després de la seua mort i continuant els segles posteriors amb acusacions falses com la simonia, el incest, els assassinats… The black legend of Borgia’s family began in Italy and Italians began in the fifteenth century. Created by reporters, cardinals... and contrary to what you might think, not this black legend began after the death of the second Pope Alexander VI Borja but the cardinal time, and of his pontificate, after his death and continue over the following centuries with false accusations as simony, the incest, murder…


    Paula Marques Campanario


    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda as diferenças culturais sobre o valor percebido do consumidor frente a bens de luxo, comparando duas sociedades distintas: Brasil e Austrália. A pesquisa segue o modelo de estudos interculturais de Weidman et al. (2007. As variáveis latentes são o valor percebido nas dimensões financeira, funcional, social e individual. A presente pesquisa utiliza a análise multivariada (Partial Least Squares – PLS para abordar o valor percebido  do luxo nos dois países. Os resultados mostram que a validade da proposição teórica sobre a relativa homegeneidade do valor percebido funcional, social e individual do luxo em estudos interculturais. O valor percebido do luxo na dimensão financeira demonstrou ter um papel relevante na diferenciação da apreciação de valores entre os países, resultado que difere na literatura especializada. A conclusão aponta que o valor percebido da dimensão financeira pode ter influência nos estudos interculturais sobre o consumo de luxo.

  14. Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    Luciana Mourão


    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.

  15. Special Superior Education: the example of Universidade de Brasília

    Juliana Cal Auad


    Full Text Available Brazilian legislation has been improving consistently and the integration of handicap students is gradually occurring. Nevertheless, there is still an enormous difficult to the society to put in practice the proposals of inclusion, which generates the need of constant revision of their inclusive practices. Until recently, just a few amount of people with special necessities (PSN had access to high school in Brazil, and this is a direct consequence of the lack of access to basic education and rehabilitation services for this population. There are two institutional experiences in the literature reporting inclusive high schooling: the University Brasília (UnB and the State University of Ceará. In this article we will focus on the experience of the UnB which works by a mutual action of nine Work Groups with specific functions: assistance to PAS candidates, selectivity and contexts, socialization and integration policies; organization of a data bank about the PSN of the university community; identification and conduction of adaptation curriculum necessities; academic and technological support for the PSN; cooperation in managing projects of the program; planning and executing urban projects; internal and external mass media diffusion; accessibility in the campus and providing adapted transport to PSN; and training employees in social integration of the PSN.

  16. Números que pouco explicam: indicadores sobre famílias recasadas e bullying

    Leila Maria Torraca de Brito


    Full Text Available No presente artigo, optamos por analisar o recorte metodológico e algumas interpretações, divulgadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, provenientes de indicadores obtidos sobre dois temas pesquisados pelo instituto. Nosso objetivo, portanto, foi o de avaliar metodologias e definições empregadas pelo Censo de 2010 na coleta de dados sobre famílias recasadas, bem como a opção metodológica e as acepções utilizadas para a apreensão do bullyingna pesquisa PeNSE, de 2009. Como os resultados das investigações empreendidas pelo instituto são usados para traçar o rumo das políticas públicas no Brasil, consideramos ser de suma importância que os procedimentos empregados estejam em consonância com as discussões teóricas atuais sobre os respectivos temas, situação que não foi evidenciada em nossa análise.

  17. A família que aparece na mídia: hegemonia de um modelo

    Hennigen, Inês


    Full Text Available A discussão sobre um modelo de familia - aquela constituída por pai, mãe e seus filhos, que aparece de forma recorrente na mídia é o mote deste artigo, cujos dados provêm de uma pesquisa dos discursos da mídia a respeito da paternidade. As análises que realizo, em sintonia com a perspectiva dos Estados Culturais e dos Estados Foucaultianos, focalizam as relações de poder implicadas na produção cultural das redes de significações. Assim, mostro como, ao longo do tempo e a partir de diferentes campos de saber/poder, foi sendo construído e naturalizando este modelo de família, que parece receber o status de familia "normal" em variados produtos midiáticos. Reflexões acerca da importância da mídia no processo de subjetivação no mundo contemporâneo e das implicações subjetivas do caráter hegemônico deste modelo perpassem o texto


    Geisa dos Santos Luz


    Full Text Available Las enfermedades raras provocan fuerte impacto en las familias, generando necesidades más allá de los relacionados con las enfermedades más frecuentes. La incorporación de nuevas responsabilidades y la relación con los servicios sociales y de salud, son algunas de ellas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar las necesidades prioritarias de las familias de las personas con enfermedades raras, percibidas desde el diagnóstico. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo realizado con 16 miembros de la familia de las personas con enfermedades raras, los residentes de Rio Grande do Sul, cuyos datos fueron recolectados entre noviembre/2012 y marzo/2013, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y sometido a análisis de contenido, impulsado por La teoría bio-ecológica del desarrollo humano. Los resultados indican como prioridad las necesidades de: acceso a los servicios sociales y de salud; conocimiento sobre las enfermedades raras; estructuras de apoyo social; la aceptación y la integración social; preservación de la vida personal y familiar. Llegamos a la conclusión de que (reorganizar los servicios y satisfacer las necesidades específicas son condiciones previas para calificar la atención de enfermería y amortiguar el impacto de las causas de enfermedades raras en la família.

  19. Rapid screening of aflatoxin B1 in beer by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Beloglazova, N V; Eremin, S A


    This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in various beer samples, both lager and dark. The highest sensitivity was determined for six poly- and monoclonal antibodies selective towards aflatoxins. The sample pretreatment design was emphasized since beer samples are characterized by extremely diverse matrices. Herein, the choice of sorbent for effective removal of matrix interferences prior to analysis was crucial. The samples were diluted with a borate buffer solution containing 1% PEG 6000 and passed through the clean-up column packed with NH2-derivated silica. This sample pretreatment technique was perfectly suitable for the FPIA of lager beer samples, but for dark beer and ale it did not suffice. An artificial matrix was constructed to plot a calibration curve and quantify the results of the latter samples. The developed immunoassay was characterized by a limit of detection of 1 ng mL(-1). Apparent recovery values of 89-114% for lager and 80-125% for dark beer were established. The FPIA data for AFB1 was characterized by elevated linear regression coefficients, 0.9953 for spiked lager and 0.9895 for dark beer samples respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A harmonized immunoassay with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in egg allergen determination.

    Nimata, Masaomi; Okada, Hideki; Kurihara, Kei; Sugimoto, Tsukasa; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuhiko; Yano, Takeo; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Shoji, Masahiro


    Food allergy is a serious health issue worldwide. Implementing allergen labeling regulations is extremely challenging for regulators, food manufacturers, and analytical kit manufacturers. Here we have developed an "amino acid sequence immunoassay" approach to ELISA. The new ELISA comprises of a monoclonal antibody generated via an analyte specific peptide antigen and sodium lauryl sulfate/sulfite solution. This combination enables the antibody to access the epitope site in unfolded analyte protein. The newly developed ELISA recovered 87.1%-106.4% ovalbumin from ovalbumin-incurred model processed foods, thereby demonstrating its applicability as practical egg allergen determination. Furthermore, the comparison of LC-MS/MS and the new ELISA, which targets the amino acid sequence conforming to the LC-MS/MS detection peptide, showed a good agreement. Consequently the harmonization of two methods was demonstrated. The complementary use of the new ELISA and LC-MS analysis can offer a wide range of practical benefits in terms of easiness, cost, accuracy, and efficiency in food allergen analysis. In addition, the new assay is attractive in respect to its easy antigen preparation and predetermined specificity. Graphical abstract The ELISA composing of the monoclonal antibody targeting the amino acid sequence conformed to LC-MS detection peptide, and the protein conformation unfolding reagent was developed. In ovalbumin determination, the developed ELISA showed a good agreement with LC-MS analysis. Consequently the harmonization of immunoassay with LC-MS analysis by using common target amino acid sequence was demonstrated.

  1. Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Sheppard, Jo-Ann I; Chu, F Victor; Kapoor, Anil; Crowther, Mark A; Gangji, Azim


    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies before cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (eg, platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological end point to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE precardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE before heparin reexposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Simplified immunoassay for rapid Dengue serotype diagnosis, revealing insensitivity to non-specific binding interference

    Fernanda C.C.L. Loureiro


    Full Text Available Proof of concept of an immunoassay, which is easy to implement, for rapid Dengue virus (DENV serotype diagnosis, in the early infection stage, is reported. The four-layer assay is immobilized onto a thin gold film and relies on a low cost, disposable polymer biochip for optical surface plasmon resonance sensing and detection. The protocol comprises Neutravidin-Biotin mediated monoclonal antibody (MAB attachment as the functionalized sensing element. Formation of the MAB-DENV complex results in a pronounced thickness change that is optically recorded in real time, employing a microfluidic set-up. Virus presence is confirmed by atomic force microscopy from the same sample. Serum samples were collected from a patient in acute febrile state. Simultaneous serological analysis by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, independently, confirmed presence of DENV2 and DENV3. The protocol proved applicable in presence of strong non-specific binding interference that originates from, and is caused by, various blood, serum and other body fluid constituents. False positive indications for both, negative serum and blood control samples were not observed. The achievable limit of detection was estimated to be 2×104 particles/ml. Eventually, the method can be modified towards detection of other viruses by using the same protocol. Keywords: Immuno-assay, Dengue virus detection, Non-specific binding

  3. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren


    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  4. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.


    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.

  5. Characterization of hapten-protein conjugates: antibody generation and immunoassay development for chlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticides.

    Boro, Robin C; Singh, K Vikas; Suri, C Raman


    The generation of specific and sensitive antibodies against small molecules is greatly dependent upon the characteristics of the hapten-protein conjugates. In this study, we report a new fluorescence-based method for the characterization of hapten-protein conjugates. The method is based on an effect promoted by hapten-protein conjugation density upon the fluorescence intensity of the intrinsic tryptophan chromophore molecules of the protein. The proposed methodology is applied to quantify the hapten-protein conjugation density for two different chlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB), coupled to carrier protein. Highly sensitive anti-2,4-D and anti-2,4-DB antibodies were obtained using these well-characterized hapten-protein conjugates. The generated antibodies were used in an immunoassay format demonstrating inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to 30 and 7 ng/mL for 2,4-D and 2,4-DB, respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range between 0.1-500 nglmL with LODs around 4 and 3 ng/mL for 2,4-D and 2,4-DB, respectively, in standard water samples. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the extent of hapten-protein conjugation to produce specific antibodies for immunoassay development against pesticides.

  6. New antibody and immunoassay pretreatment strategy to screen polychlorinated biphenyls in Korean transformer oil.

    Terakado, Shingo; Ohmura, Naoya; Park, Seok-Un; Lee, Seung-Min; Glass, Thomas R


    Development and modifications are described that expand the application of an immunoassay from the detection of Kanechlors (Japanese technical PCBs mixtures) to the detection of Aroclors (U. S. technical PCB mixtures, used in Korea) in contaminated Korean transformer oil. The first necessary modification was the development of a new antibody with a reactivity profile favorable for Aroclors. The second modification was the addition of a second column to the solid-phase extraction method to reduce assay interference caused by the Korean oil matrix. The matrix interference is suspected to be caused by the presence of synthetic oils (or similar materials) present as contaminants. The modified assay was validated by comparison to high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, and was shown to be tolerant of up to 10% of several common synthetic insulating oils. Finally the screening performance of the modified assay was evaluated using 500 used transformer oil samples of Korean origin, and was shown to have good performance in terms of false positive and false negative rates. This report provides evidence for the first establishment of immunoassay screening for Aroclor based PCB contamination in Korean transformer oil.

  7. A summary report on the 23rd quality control survey for immunoassays in Japan, 2001



    The purpose of the survey is to improve the quality of in vitro tests and this report is its summary of immunoassays (the old name: RI in vitro tests) conducted in 2001. The survey was performed in 143 facilities out of 1,655 in Japan, which involved 20 national and public university hospitals, 16 private university hospitals, 21 national and public hospitals, 26 private hospitals, 41 hygiene test institutes and 19 reagent manufacturers. Tests examined were on 6 substances related to functions of pituitary, 5 of thyroid, 1 of parathyroid, 4 of gastro-intestine and pancreas, 5 of gonad and placenta, 4 of adrenal, 1 of renal-blood pressure regulation, on IgE, on digoxin and on 12 tumor-related substances. Tests were done on 2-3 samples supplied from the Committee and the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated for one way analysis of variance of within- and between-kit. Methods included those (65.4% vs 62.7% in 2000) with non-radioisotope like enzyme immunoassay (non-RI) and with radioisotopes like radioimmunoassay (RI). Dissociation between manufacturers of non-RI values without a common standard substance and between non-RI and RI values even with the same antibody was noted: the Committee considered these problems as their future task. (K.H.)

  8. Photoelectrochemical detection of enzymatically generated CdS nanoparticles: Application to development of immunoassay.

    Barroso, Javier; Saa, Laura; Grinyte, Ruta; Pavlov, Valeri


    We report an innovative photoelectrochemical process (PEC) based on graphite electrode modified with electroactive polyvinylpyridine bearing osmium complex (Os-PVP). The system relies on the in situ enzymatic generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzes the hydrolisis of sodium thiophosphate (TP) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which in the presence Cd(2+) ions yields CdS semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs). Irradiation of SNPs with the standard laboratory UV-illuminator (wavelength of 365 nm) results in photooxidation of 1-thioglycerol (TG) mediated by Os-PVP complex on the surface of graphite electrode at applied potential of 0.31 V vs. Ag/AgCl. A novel immunoassay based on specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) combined with the PEC methodology was developed. Having selected the affinity interaction between bovine serum albumine (BSA) with anti-BSA antibody (AB) as a model system, we built the PEC immunoassay for AB. The new assay displays a linear range up to 20 ngmL(-1) and a detection limit (DL) of 2 ngmL(-1) (S/N=3) which is lower 5 times that of the traditional chromogenic ELISA test employing p-nitro-phenyl phosphate (pNPP). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a simple extraction procedure for chlorpyrifos determination in food samples by immunoassay.

    Gabaldón, J A; Maquieira, A; Puchades, R


    The suitability of immunoassay methodology for rapid and accurate determination of chlorpyrifos in vegetables was tested. The optimised ELISA detection limit was 0.32ng/ml, with a working range from 0.69 to 6.21ng/ml and an immunoassay test-mid point (IC(50)) of 2.08ng/ml. A rapid sample preparation procedure considering different parameters such as the amount of sample, volume of extractant, extraction time and dilution factor was optimised. The developed direct extraction (DE) and multiresidue (ME) standard procedures were performed in different fortified fresh and processed vegetable samples (tomato, bonnet pepper, bean, pea, asparagus, broccoli, watermelon, melon, lettuce, cucumber, celery and red pepper). Recoveries were in all cases in the whole range 85.2-108.9% for both DE and ME extracts. Also, the comparison of the results obtained by both immunochemical and chromatographic methods for spiked fruits and vegetables were good with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97.

  10. Dog cloning with in vivo matured oocytes obtained using electric chemiluminescence immunoassay-predicted ovulation method.

    Lee, Seunghoon; Zhao, Minghui; No, Jingu; Nam, Yoonseok; Im, Gi-Sun; Hur, Tai-Young


    Radioactive immunoassay (RIA) is a traditional serum hormone assay method, but the application of the method in reproductive studies is limited by the associated radioactivity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the reliability of RIA and to compare its canine serum progesterone concentration determination accuracy to that of the electric chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLI). In vivo matured oocytes were utilized for canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and serum progesterone levels were assessed to accurately determine ovulation and oocyte maturation. Canine serum progesterone concentrations during both proestrus and estrus were analyzed by RIA and ECLI to determine the ovulation day. Although both methods detected similar progesterone levels before ovulation, the mean progesterone concentration determined using ECLI was significantly higher than of RIA three days before ovulation. Following ovulation, oocytes were collected by surgery, and a lower percentage of mature oocytes were observed using ECLI (39%) as compared to RIA (67%) if 4-8ng/ml of progesterone were used for determination of ovulation. A high percentage of mature oocytes was observed using ECLI when 6-15 ng/mL of progesterone was used for ovulation determination. To determine whether ECLI could be used for canine cloning, six canines were selected as oocyte donors, and two puppies were obtained after SCNT and embryo transfer. In conclusion, compared to the traditional RIA method, the ECLI method is a safe and reliable method for canine cloning.

  11. Screening for cocaine on Euro banknotes by a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    Abdelshafi, Nahla A; Panne, Ulrich; Schneider, Rudolf J


    This study focused on quantitative detection of cocaine on Euro banknotes in Germany. A sensitive direct competitive immunoassay was developed and optimized with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.6ng/L. Exhaustive cocaine extraction by solvent was tested using different methanol concentrations and buffered solutions. Cross-reactivity studies were performed to determine the degree of interference of cocaine metabolites with the immunoassay. Sixty-five Euro banknotes obtained from different districts in Berlin were evaluated. A 100% contamination frequency with cocaine was detected. A comparison between the amount of cocaine extracted by cotton swabbing of one square centimeter of the banknote showed a good correlation for lower contamination levels. This assay showed high sensitivity of detecting pg of cocaine per 1cm 2 of one banknote by swabbing 1cm 2 : 0, 14, and 21pg/cm 2 . Moreover, three notes of different denominations revealed high cocaine concentration; 1.1mg/note, and twice 55µg/note. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of radio-, fluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunoassays for serum thyroxine

    Kaplan, L.A.; Gau, N.; Fearn, J.; Steain, E.A.; Chen, I.W.; Maxon, H.; Volle, C.


    We have compared three analytical systems for the measurement of serum thyroxine: enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) and a radioimmunoassay (RIA). These were evaluated with respect to their precision, accuracy, analytical sensitivity and sample throughput. The RIA is more sensitive than the EIA (10 μg/L vs. 35 μg/L). Both systems have excellent precision (X=86 μg/L, C.V.sub(RIA)=C.V.sub(EIA)=4.6 percent). Both the EIA and RIA demonstrate good accuracy with recovery of between 97-98 percent of added thyroxine. The FIA has an apparent sensitiviity between that of the RIA and EIA (25 μg/L), but a precision consistently lower than the other two systems (C.V. =7.4 percent, X=86 μg/L). Patients' results by RIA compared well with those from EIA (r=0.91,P 0.05). Although not fully automated, the EIA performed on the Abbott ABA-100 analyzer has a sample throughput equal to the automated RIA system (Micromedic, Concept 4)

  13. Alkaline phosphatase labeled SERS active sandwich immunoassay for detection of Escherichia coli

    Bozkurt, Akif Goktug; Buyukgoz, Guluzar Gorkem; Soforoglu, Mehmet; Tamer, Ugur; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki


    In this study, a sandwich immunoassay method utilizing enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection was developed using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). For this purpose, spherical magnetic gold coated core-shell nanoparticles (MNPs-Au) and rod shape gold nanoparticles (Au-NRs) were synthesized and modified for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of E. coli from the solution. In order to specify the developed method to ALP activity, Au-NRs were labeled with this enzyme. After successful construction of the immunoassay, BCIP substrate was added to produce the SERS-active product; 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indole (BCI). A good linearity (R2 = 0.992) was established between the specific SERS intensity of BCI at 600 cm- 1 and logarithmic E. coli concentration in the range of 1.7 × 101-1.7 × 106 cfu mL- 1. LOD and LOQ values were also calculated and found to be 10 cfu mL- 1 and 30 cfu mL- 1, respectively.

  14. Comparison of immunoassays for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 antibodies

    Klapper, Paul E.; Valley, Pam J.; Cleator, Gerham M.; Mandall, D.; Qutub, Mohammed O.


    To asses the commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Hs-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies. The study was performed between January 1997 to November 2002 in the Division ofVirology,Department of Pathological Sciences, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust and University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Assays based upon type-specific glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1) for HSV-1, and glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) from HSV-2 were evaluated to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. Using 5 different ELISA tests, 2 panels of serum samples were tested. Panel one consisted of 88 sera, selected from the serum bank of the Clinical Virology Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary; panel 2 comprised of 90 sera selected from samples collected from Bangladeshi female commercial workers.The data of this study showed that a high rate of gG-1 based immunoassays ranged from 87.9-100% for sensitivity and 51.5-100% specificity. Although there are several immunoassays were claimed to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies, selection of these assays should be carefully interpreted with the overall clinical framework provided by detailed sexual history and genital examination. (author)

  15. [Membrane-filtration immunoassay: reagents, methods and the diagnostic and technical means for detection].

    Khramov, E N; Osin, N S; Pomelova, V G; Vikha, I V; Bychenkova, T A; Smirnova, V G; Grakina, G I; Kas'ianova, T A


    The comprehensive development of dot-EIA made at the State Research Institute of Biological Instrument-Making Industry has provided devices KIMF-02 and KIMF-03), a base of chemical reagents, immunoassays, test systems for detection of a wide range of causative agents of viral and bacterial infections, that of serodiagnosis of their related diseases. The KIMF-02 kit has undergone engineering and medical tests and recommended for the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation to produce them in stock. The kit includes all required for analysis even in an ill-equipped laboratory, a set of attached agents ensures a valid visual recording of results. The developed procedures and test systems allow the immunoassay to be as sensitive as TIFA; however, they are laborious and much simpler in design. The simple and rapid procedures of dot-EIA are recommended for incorporation into the a package of laboratory methods for verification of the accumulation of virus-specific antigens in various biological substrata, environmental samples, for control of the activity of antigens and antibodies used in serological tests, for detection of specific antigens in the clinical samples, and for serodiagnosis of infections.

  16. Development of a mass spectrometry immunoassay for unambiguous detection of egg allergen traces in wines.

    Pilolli, Rosa; Chaudhari, Ravindra; Palmisano, Francesco; Monaci, Linda


    A mass spectrometry immunoassay (MSIA) specifically designed for the detection of egg allergens in wines is described. MSIA is based on an immunoaffinity enrichment procedure combined with targeted MS/MS detection of selected egg peptide markers. Polyclonal antibodies raised against native ovalbumin, chosen as the target protein tracing for egg powder, were immobilized onto low backpressure monolithic MSIA customized disposable tips. Ovalbumin-free wine samples were fortified with standard protein at different concentrations in the low microgram-per-milliliter range. A simple protocol was devised consisting of a 1:4 dilution of the wine sample with a basic solution for pH adjustment, followed by a semi-automated purification/enrichment step on MSIA customized disposable tips fitted on a multichannel electronic pipette. Among the main figures of merit, LOD and LOQ values as low as 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively, and within-day precision of 18% should be noticed. Noteworthy, the developed assay outperformed current MS-based methods for the detection of allergenic protein in wine matrices, thanks to the immunoaffinity enrichment. In addition, compared to other immunoassays, the present approach boasts the unquestionable advantage of providing an unambiguous identification of the target protein by simultaneous detection of three unique peptide markers each giving three specific MS/MS transitions.

  17. Salário mínimo, benefício previdenciário e as famílias de baixa renda Minimum wage, social security benefits and low-income families

    Cláudio Salvadori Dedecca


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem foco nas famílias com rendimento per capita de até ¼ do salário mínimo. São analisadas as condições de inserção no mercado de trabalho e a influência dos benefícios previdenciários para o padrão de renda auferido. A preocupação, portanto, volta-se para a importância dos benefícios da previdência, no sentido de atenuar a fragilidade de renda destas famílias e as conseqüências da desvinculação do valor do seu piso do salário mínimo para este padrão de rendimentos. Analisando-se as características dos componentes das famílias de baixa renda, observa-se que, diante das transformações estruturais no processo de produção e do cenário conjuntural da economia brasileira, aqueles com idade ativa não apresentam os pré-requisitos necessários para se inserirem de forma digna no mundo do trabalho. Dessa forma, o estudo da composição da renda das famílias mais pobres mostra que a renda dos inativos - aposentados e pensionistas - é fundamental para retirar tais famílias do limite da linha de pobreza. O perfil dos componentes das famílias será analisado a partir dos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD/IBGE - para 2004, segundo idade, nível de escolaridade, cor ou raça e inserção no mercado de trabalho propriamente dita: tipo de atividade exercida e posição na ocupação. A comparação do perfil dos componentes das famílias mais carentes com o do total das famílias mostrará que as rendas de aposentadoria e pensão tornam-se fundamentais não apenas para diminuição da desigualdade, mas, fundamentalmente, para redução da pobreza.This article discusses families with per capita income of up to ¼ of the minimum monthly wage in Brazil. The conditions of participation in the labor market and the influence of social security benefits on the pattern of income earned are analyzed. The concern, therefore, is with the importance of social security benefits in attenuating

  18. Enzyme immunoassay

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Dinesen, B; Deckert, M


    variation of the 24 h urine albumin excretion of different days was high in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy (51.5%) and was only slightly reduced by taking the variation of creatinine excretion into account (39.5%). No correlation was found between albumin excretion, and HbA1c or urine glucose...

  19. Immunoassay technique

    Goodearl, P.D.


    For quantitatively assaying antigen in a fluid, a mixture thereof with further antigen, labelled for example by substitution or addition of a radioactive molecule is caused to flow along a paper wick or other carrier on which antibodies to the antigen have been immobilised, e.g. by activating the paper by application of cyanogen bromide, then bringing it into contact with a solution of the antibodies. The paper wick or other carrier is developed by causing a glycerol/water solution to rise through the wick by capillary action, and there is measured the distance travelled along the wick by the labelled antigen. (author)

  20. The LIKE system, a novel protein expression toolbox for Bacillus subtilis based on the liaI promoter


    Background Bacillus subtilis is a very important Gram-positive model organism of high biotechnological relevance, which is widely used as a host for the production of both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. We developed a novel and efficient expression system, based on the liaI promoter (PliaI) from B. subtilis, which is under control of the LiaRS antibiotic-inducible two-component system. In the absence of a stimulus, this promoter is kept tightly inactive. Upon induction by cell wall antibiotics, it shows an over 100-fold increase in activity within 10 min. Results Based on these traits of PliaI, we developed a novel LiaRS-controlled gene expression system for B. subtilis (the “LIKE" system). Two expression vectors, the integrative pLIKE-int and the replicative pLIKE-rep, were constructed. To enhance the performance of the PliaI-derived system, site-directed mutagenesis was employed to optimize the ribosome binding site and alter its spacing to the initiation codon used for the translational fusion. The impact of these genetic modifications on protein production yield was measured using GFP as a model protein. Moreover, a number of tailored B. subtilis expression strains containing different markerless chromosomal deletions of the liaIH region were constructed to circumvent undesired protein production, enhance the positive autoregulation of the LiaRS system and thereby increase target gene expression strength from the PliaI promoter. Conclusions The LIKE protein expression system is a novel protein expression system, which offers a number of advantages over existing systems. Its major advantages are (i) a tightly switched-off promoter during exponential growth in the absence of a stimulus, (ii) a concentration-dependent activation of PliaI in the presence of suitable inducers, (iii) a very fast but transient response with a very high dynamic range of over 100-fold (up to 1,000-fold) induction, (iv) a choice from a range of well-defined, commercially available


    Susana Kramer de Mesquita Oliveira


    Full Text Available O trabalho apresentará a pesquisa de doutorado da autora, ‘Afetividade da família migrante: um estudo sociodramático’ (UnB, 2008, cujo objetivo principal foi compreender o processo de reorganização interna (‘familidade’ e de pertença social de famílias que migraram do nordeste do Brasil (Ceará para a capital brasileira (Brasília, por razões profissionais. A pesquisa se fundamentou no arcabouço conceitual e na proposta metodológica da Socionomia (Jacob Levy Moreno, que têm se mostrado um importante instrumento para análise de grupos em processo de transformação. Os sujeitos foram duas famílias de classe sócio econômica media, que participaram, em grupo, de quatro sessões de sociodrama temático: 1. Dinâmicas de pertencimentos e imagens idealizadas de família, 2. Historiodrama da migração, 3. Sociometria da migração, 4. Perspectivas futuras da família migrante. O presente trabalho tem como objetivos: 1. Apresentar os principais conceitos que nortearam a problematização da pesquisa; 2. Discutir o alcance do Sociodrama como método de pesquisa qualitativo; 3. Apresentar o quadro “análise do pertencimento” elaborado na discussão da tese, a partir dos aspectos críticos da experiência dos sujeitos; 4. Estabelecer elementos comuns para a investigação de novos fluxos migratórios contemporâneos, no Brasil e mundo. Palavras-chave: Migração; Família; Pertencimento; Socionomia.   The paper presents the author’s doctoral research, “Migrant familya ffection: a Sociodramatic study” (UnB, 2008, whose main objective was understanding the internal reorganization (‘familility’ and social belonging of families who migrated from northeastern Brazil (Ceará to the Brazilian capital (Brasilia, for professional reasons. The research was based on the conceptual framework and methodological proposal of Socionomy (Jacob Levy Moreno, which have been an important tool for analysis of groups in the process of

  2. Help in the Choice of Automated or Semiautomated Immunoassays for Serological Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis: Evaluation of Nine Immunoassays by the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E


    Toxoplasmosis, a benign infection, is asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic in over 80% of cases, except in immunocompetent patients suffering from ocular toxoplasmosis or in immunocompromised patients with opportunistic or congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis is based mainly on serology testing. Thus, we compared the performance of the nine most commonly used commercial automated or semiautomated immunoassays for IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection, that is, the Advia Centaur, Architect, AxSYM, Elecsys, Enzygnost, Liaison, Platelia, VIDAS, and VIDIA assays. The assays were conducted on four panels of serum samples derived during routine testing from patients with an interfering disease and who exhibited a low IgG antibody level in one of two clinical settings, namely, acute or chronic toxoplasmosis. As a result, IgG sensitivities ranged from 97.1% to 100%, and IgG specificities ranged from 99.5% to 100%. For IgG quantification, strong differences in IgG titers (expressed in IU/ml) were noted depending on the assay used. IgM sensitivities ranged from 65% to 97.9%, and IgM specificities ranged from 92.6% to 100%. For defining the best serological strategies to be implemented, it appears crucial to compare the diagnostic performance of the different tests with respect to their specificity and sensitivity in detecting the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  4. O trabalho do fonoaudiólogo no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF - especificidades do trabalho em equipe na atenção básica

    Carla Soleman


    Full Text Available Resumo:OBJETIVO:compreender o trabalho do fonoaudiólogo no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família, identificando tecnologias incorporadas ao processo de trabalho tradicional desse profissional.MÉTODOS:os sujeitos são fonoaudiólogos das equipes de São Paulo/SP do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Por meio de questionário on-line, foram levantadas informações acerca da formação e dos processos de trabalho do fonoaudiólogo como apoiador nessas equipes. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por meio da Estatística Descritiva e os qualitativos de acordo com os preceitos da Análise Categorial Temática, sob o referencial teórico do Trabalho em Saúde.RESULTADOS:o processo de trabalho foi caracterizado a partir dos elementos que o compõem, sendo que o objeto do trabalho consiste nas equipes de Saúde da Família e na população adscrita, o meio é o Apoio e os instrumentos consistem nas ferramentas tecnológicas preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. A conformação das equipes é variada e a organização do trabalho parte das reuniões de matriciamento. Suas práticas envolvem ações de apoio à assistência, ações de apoio técnico-pedagógico, ações de articulação de Rede e ações de gestão do trabalho e os fonoaudiólogos se apropriam de novos conhecimentos e estratégias por meio do trabalho compartilhado.CONCLUSÃO:na Atenção Básica, as possibilidades de atuação podem ser específicas ou compartilhadas, do núcleo de conhecimento ou de âmbito geral, e o enfoque dependerá das características do território e da disponibilidade dos profissionais. A formação não garante as competências necessárias, havendo a incorporação de novas práticas a partir das vivências experimentadas em serviço.

  5. Desempenho de famílias e híbridos comerciais de tomateiro para processamento industrial com irrigação por gotejamento Evaluation of tomato families and commercial hybrids for processing using drip irrigation system

    José O.M. Carvalho


    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas e selecionadas as famílias provenientes do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro da UFU, com potencial para processamento industrial e comparados seus desempenhos com os híbridos mais utilizados pelos produtores na região de Patos de Minas. O ensaio foi conduzido na EE Fazenda Barreiro da Unilever Bestfoods Brasil, em Patos de Minas. Utilizaram-se 30 famílias de tomateiro e os híbridos Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 e Hypeel 108. As Parcelas constituíram-se de linhas duplas espaçadas 0,5 m entre si, com 10 m de comprimento, irrigadas por gotejamento. O espaçamento entre as linhas duplas foi de 1,3 m e a população de 27 mil plantas por hectare. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A semeadura foi realizada em 19/05/01. O rendimento de polpa mostrou correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas positivas com a produção total, produção de frutos comerciais, % de sólidos solúveis totais, coloração do suco, número de frutos maduros por planta e pH e negativa com acidez total titulável. Destacaram-se a família UFU 06 e os três híbridos comerciais.Tomato families originated from the processing tomato breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia were evaluated and selected and compared to the performance with the most planted hybrids in Patos de Minas, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the E. E. Barreiro, Unilever Bestfoods, in Patos de Minas. Thirty tomato families and the hybrids Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 and Hypeel 108 were used. Experimental plots consisted of two lines, each one 10 m long, spaced 0,5 m from each other and irrigated with drip irrigation. The space between each double row was 1,3 m and the population of 27 thousand plants per hectare. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four repetitions, installed on 05/19/01. The paste yield showed positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with total fruit yield, commercial fruit

  6. Segredos e verdades no processo comunicacional da família com a criança com câncer

    Amanda Aparecida Borges

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Compreender a experiência da família ao estabelecer a comunicação com a criança em relação ao seu câncer. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa, no qual foram entrevistadas famílias de criança com câncer de uma instituição de saúde do interior do estado de Minas Gerais. Optou-se pelo Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e a Análise de Conteúdo Temática como método. Resultados: A análise dos dados identificou que o estigma do câncer influencia na maneira como a família estabelece a comunicação com a criança. A família faz uma seleção de palavras para buscar sentido à normalidade, afastando da criança informações que trazem ideia do comprometimento do seu futuro e, consequentemente, a morte. Conclusão: O estudo destaca o apoio emocional como fio condutor do processo comunicacional entre família e criança. A família leva à criança mensagens que deixam explícita a esperança de vencer a situação vivenciada. Assim, deve-se pesquisar estratégias usadas pelos profissionais de saúde para auxiliar a família na comunicação sobre a doença da criança.

  7. A família como unidade de serviço para a assistência de enfermagem à saúde

    Maria Angela Alves do Nascimento


    Full Text Available As ações básicas de saúde centradas na família como unidade de serviço em enfermagem constituem uma das estratégias para alcançar a meta de "saúde para todos no ano 2000". O reconhecimento do papel do enfermeiro como agente multiplicador de saúde e elemento intermediário entre o indivíduo, família, unidade sanitária, é o motivo principal da realização desse estudo, que tem como um dos objetivos avaliar a participação de enfermagem na assistência à saúde da família. A amostra consta de setenta e cinco famílias do bairro Novo Horizonte, Feira de Santana-BA e vinte e três elementos da equipe de enfermagem que atuam nesta comunidade. Os resultados obtidos mostram o reconhecimento da família como unidade de serviço em enfermagem, visto que a família é o agente propulsor de sua própria saúde. Entretanto, há uma maior necessidade de reorientação e remotivação nas instituições de saúde, no sentido de que os programas sanitários tenham uma participação direta da Família, junto a especialistas (enfermeiros, médicos e outros, para que, num trabalho conjunto, consigam modificar as condições físicas, sociais e ambientais que influem sobre sua qualidade de vida - SAÚDE.

  8. Nanobody-based electrochemical immunoassay for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin by detecting the enzymatic formation of polyaniline

    Zhu, Min; Li, Guanghui; Li, Min; Zhou, Zikai; Liu, Hong; Lei, Hongtao; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun


    We describe an electrochemical immunoassay for the Cry1Ab toxin that is produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. It is making use of a nanobody (a heavy-chain only antibody) that was selected from an immune phage displayed library. A biotinylated primary nanobody and a HRP-conjugated secondary nanobody were applied in a sandwich immunoassay where horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used to produce polyaniline (PANI) from aniline. PANI can be easily detected by differential pulse voltammetry at a working voltage as low as 40 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) which makes the assay fairly selective. This immunoassay for Cry1Ab has an analytical range from 0.1 to 1000 ng∙mL -1 and a 0.07 ng∙mL -1 lower limit of detection. The average recoveries of the toxin from spiked samples are in the range from 102 to 114 %, with a relative standard deviation of <7.5 %. The results demonstrated that the assay represented an attractive alternative to existing immunoassays in enabling affordable, sensitive, robust and specific determination of this toxin. (author)

  9. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) immunoassay as an in vitro alternative assay for identity and confirmation of potency.

    Ho, Mei M; Kairo, Satnam K; Corbel, Michael J


    Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) currently can only be standardised by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions in sensitised guinea pigs. An in vitro dot blot immunoassay was developed for both identity and confirmation of potency estimation of PPD. Polyclonal antibodies (mainly IgG) were generated and immunoreacted with human, bovine and, to lesser extent, avian PPD preparations. Combining size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC) and dot blot immunoassay, the results showed that PPD preparations were mixtures of very heterogeneous tuberculoproteins ranging in size from very large aggregates to very small degraded molecules. All individual fractions of PPD separated by size were immunoreactive, although those of the largest molecular sizes appeared the most immunoreactive in this in vitro dot blot immunoassay. This method is very sensitive and specific to tuberculoproteins and can be an in vitro alternative for the in vivo intradermal skin assay which uses guinea pigs for identity of PPD preparations. Although the capacity of PPD to elicit cell-mediated immune responses on intradermal testing has to be confirmed by in vivo assay, the dot blot immunoassay offers a rapid, sensitive and animal-free alternative to in vivo testing for confirming the identity of PPD preparations with appropriate potencies. This alternative assay would be particularly useful for national regulatory laboratories for confirming the data of manufacturers and thus reducing the use of animals.

  10. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.


    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to

  11. Plasmon enhanced fluoro-immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies for ultra-sensitive detection of herbicide diuron.

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kukkar, Manil; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhasin, Aman; Suri, C Raman


    Plasmon enhanced fluorescence immunoassay (PEFI) format has been reported in developing a sensitive heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for monitoring the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Computer-assisted molecular modeling was carried out to study the conformational and electrostatic effects of synthesized hapten for producing highly specific egg yolk antibody against a phenyl urea herbicide diuron. The generated antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate at different molar ratios and used as tracer in the developed fluorescence based immunoassay. The sensitivity of the assay format was enhanced by using silver nanoparticles tagged with bovine serum albumin as a new blocking reagent in the developed PEFI format. Enhancer treatment on the developed immunoassay showed a significant improvement of fluorescence signal intensity with approximately 10 fold increase in assay sensitivity. The immunoassay has a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) with good signal precision (~2%) in the optimum working concentration range between 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) of diuron. These findings facilitate high throughput fluorescence-based processes that could be useful in biology, drug discovery and compound screening applications.

  12. Evaluation of a fluorescence polarographic immunoassay with increased sensitivity for measurement of low concentrations of tobramycin in serum

    Touw, D J; de Graaf, A I; de Goede, P

    The limits of quantitation of the assay of tobramycin in serum by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay system marketed by Abbott Laboratories (TDxFLx system) are 0.1 and 10.0 mg/L. For some pharmacokinetic studies, however, a more sensitive analysis is needed. The sensitivity of the TDxFLx

  13. Development of a nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous detection of Listeria spp. and Listeriamonocytogenes in food

    Blazkova, M.; Koets, M.; Rauch, P.; Amerongen, van A.


    We present a new nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (NALFIA) for the assessment of listeria contamination. The detection procedure starts with enrichment of sample in Half Fraser broth (24 h). Following isolation of DNA, a duplex PCR is performed with two labelled primer sets, one generic and

  14. Fabrication and characterization of tosyl-activated magnetic and nonmagnetic monodisperse microspheres for use in microfluic-based ferritin immunoassay

    Reymond, F.; Vollet, Ch.; Plichta, Zdeněk; Horák, Daniel


    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2013), s. 532-542 ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12053; GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biosensors * electrochemistry * immunoassays Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  15. Strip-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in agricultural products

    A semiquantitative strip immunoassay was developed for the rapid detection of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in agricultural products using specific nanocolloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The conjugates of imidacloprid-BSA and thiamethoxam-BSA and goat anti-mouse IgG were coated on the ni...

  16. Evaluation of two automated enzyme-immunoassays for detection of thermophilic campylobacters in faecal samples from cattle and swine

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Nielsen, E.M.; Stryhn, H.


    We evaluated the performance of two enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of naturally occurring, thermophilic Campylobacter spp. found in faecal samples from cattle (n = 21 and n = 26) and swine (n = 43) relative to the standard culture method, and also assuming that none of the tests...

  17. Quantification of patient specific assay interference in different formats of enzyme linked immunoassays for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    Grebenchtchikov, N.J.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Heijmen, L.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Herpen, C.M.L. van; Thijs, A.M.J.; Span, P.N.; Sweep, F.C.


    BackgroundThe use of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for clinical purposes has significantly increased in recent years, and so has the need to monitor antibody concentrations. This may be achieved using the well-established enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) methods; however, these assays are

  18. Quantification of patient-specific assay interference in different formats of enzyme-linked immunoassays for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    Grebenchtchikov, Nicolai; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J.; Heijmen, Linda; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Herpen, Carla M. L.; Thijs, Annemarie M. J.; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.


    The use of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for clinical purposes has significantly increased in recent years, and so has the need to monitor antibody concentrations. This may be achieved using the well-established enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) methods; however, these assays are subject to a

  19. Development of a Nanobody-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Human Norovirus.

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Tabatabai, Julia; Schnitzler, Paul; Farah, Carlo; Rameil, Steffen; Sander, Peter; Koromyslova, Anna; Hansman, Grant S


    Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries. A number of commercially available ELISAs and lateral flow immunoassays were found to have lower sensitivities to the GII.17 viruses, indicating that the antibodies used in these methods may not have a high level of cross-reactivity. In this study, we developed a rapid Nanobody-based lateral flow immunoassay (Nano-immunochromatography [Nano-IC]) for the detection of human norovirus in clinical specimens. The Nano-IC assay detected virions from two GII.4 norovirus clusters, which included the current dominant strain and a novel variant strain. The Nano-IC method had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 86% for outbreak specimens. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) representing four genotypes (GII.4, GII.10, GII.12, and GII.17) could be detected by this method, demonstrating the potential in clinical screening. However, further modifications to the Nano-IC method are needed in order to improve this sensitivity, which may be achieved by the addition of other broadly reactive Nanobodies to the system. IMPORTANCE We previously identified a Nanobody (termed Nano-85) that bound to a highly conserved region on the norovirus capsid. In this study, the Nanobody was biotinylated and gold conjugated for a lateral flow immunoassay (termed Nano-IC). We showed that the Nano-IC assay was capable of detecting at least four antigenically distinct GII genotypes, including the newly emerging GII.17. In the clinical setting, the

  20. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Non-Competitive Immunoassay for Specific Detection of Nodularin

    Sultana Akter


    Full Text Available Nodularin (NOD is a cyclic penta-peptide hepatotoxin mainly produced by Nodularia spumigena, reported from the brackish water bodies of various parts of the world. It can accumulate in the food chain and, for safety reasons, levels of NOD not only in water bodies but also in food matrices are of interest. Here, we report on a non-competitive immunoassay for the specific detection of NOD. A phage display technique was utilized to interrogate a synthetic antibody phage library for binders recognizing NOD bound to an anti-ADDA (3-Amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4(E,6(E-dienoic acid monoclonal antibody (Mab. One of the obtained immunocomplex binders, designated SA32C11, showed very high specificity towards nodularin-R (NOD-R over to the tested 10 different microcystins (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, -LY, -LF, -LW, -LA, -WR. It was expressed in Escherichia coli as a single chain antibody fragment (scFv fusion protein and used to establish a time-resolved fluorometry-based assay in combination with the anti-ADDA Mab. The detection limit (blank + 3SD of the immunoassay, with a total assay time of 1 h 10 min, is 0.03 µg/L of NOD-R. This represents the most sensitive immunoassay method for the specific detection of NOD reported so far. The assay was tested for its performance to detect NOD using spiked (0.1 to 3 µg/L of NOD-R water samples including brackish sea and coastal water and the recovery ranged from 79 to 127%. Furthermore, a panel of environmental samples, including water from different sources, fish and other marine tissue specimens, were analyzed for NOD using the assay. The assay has potential as a rapid screening tool for the analysis of a large number of water samples for the presence of NOD. It can also find applications in the analysis of the bioaccumulation of NOD in marine organisms and in the food chain.

  1. Sequential injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for nonionic surfactants by using magnetic microbeads

    Zhang Ruiq; Nakajima, Hizuru; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Masadome, Takashi; Nagata, Kazumi; Sakamoto, Kazuhira; Imato, Toshihiko


    A rapid and sensitive immunoassay based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) using magnetic microbeads for the determination of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) is described. An SIA system was constructed from a syringe pump, a switching valve, a flow-through type immunoreaction cell equipped with a photon counting unit and a neodymium magnet. Magnetic beads, to which an anti-APnEOs monoclonal antibody was immobilized, were used as a solid support in an immunoassay. The introduction, trapping and release of the magnetic beads in and from the immunoreaction cell were controlled by means of a neodymium magnet and adjusting the flow of a carrier solution. The immunoassay was based on an indirect competitive immunoreaction of an anti-APnEOs monoclonal antibody immobilized on the magnetic beads with a sample APnEOs and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APnEOs in the same sample solution, and was based on the subsequent chemiluminscence reaction of HRP on the magnetic microbeads with a luminol solution containing hydrogen peroxide and p-iodophenol. The anti-APnEOs antibody was immobilized on the magnetic microbeads by coupling the antibody with the magnetic beads after activation of a carboxylate moiety on the surface of the magnetic beads that had been coated with a polylactic acid film. The antibody immobilized magnetic beads were introduced in the immunoreaction cell and trapped in it by the neodymium magnet, which was equipped beneath the immunoreaction cell. An APnEOs sample solution containing the HRP-labeled APnEOs at a constant concentration, and a luminol solution containing hydrogen peroxide and p-iodophenol were sequentially introduced into the immunoreaction cell, according to an SIA programmed sequence. Chemiluminescence emission was monitored by means of a photon counting unit located at the upper side of the immunoreaction cell by collecting the emitted light with a lens. A typical sigmoidal calibration curve was obtained, when the logarithm

  2. A vida de uma família idosa de uma vila pesqueira

    Lúcia Hisako Takase Gonçalves

    Full Text Available O trabalho é um estudo descritivo que focaliza um casal de idosos no contexto familiar e sócio-cultural numa comunidade pesqueira de origem açoriana. Com base nas hformações obtidas através de dados da pesquisa de CARTANA (1988, fez-se uma descrição sumária do cenário da vila, para que o leitor possa melhor compreender o estilo de vida de seus moradores. A vida do casal, Seu José e Dona Maria, que é o ponto central deste relato, é descrita a partir da apresentação da estrutura familiar, de depoimentos pessoais, alguns transcritos de acordo com seu próprio modo de falar e da descrição e um dia comum de sua vida. São ressaltadas algumas implicações para a enfermagem e outros profissionais da saúde como: saúde, doença e envelhecimento, notando-se que estes são encarados com a mesma importância que os demais aspectos da família. É abordado seu comportamento em caso de doença quando procuram primeiramente os recursos comuns utilizados pela comunidade, depois a rede formal de atendimento à saúde. Chama-se especial atenção dos profissionais de saúde, mostrando que poderão desempenhar com eficiência suas funções, se considerarem, na assistência ao cliente, seu componente cultural de crenças, normas e práticas de saúde.

  3. The U-line line balancing problem

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.


    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  4. Rapid Salmonella detection in experimentally inoculated equine faecal and veterinary hospital environmental samples using commercially available lateral flow immunoassays.

    Burgess, B A; Noyes, N R; Bolte, D S; Hyatt, D R; van Metre, D C; Morley, P S


    Salmonella enterica is the most commonly reported cause of outbreaks of nosocomial infections in large animal veterinary teaching hospitals and the closure of equine hospitals. Rapid detection may facilitate effective control practices in equine populations. Shipping and laboratory testing typically require ≥48 h to obtain results. Lateral flow immunoassays developed for use in food-safety microbiology provide an alternative that has not been evaluated for use with faeces or environmental samples. We aimed to identify enrichment methods that would allow commercially available rapid Salmonella detection systems (lateral flow immunoassays) to be used in clinical practice with equine faecal and environmental samples, providing test results in 18-24 h. In vitro experiment. Equine faecal and environmental samples were inoculated with known quantities of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium and cultured using 2 different enrichment techniques for faeces and 4 enrichment techniques for environmental samples. Samples were tested blindly using 2 different lateral flow immunoassays and plated on agar media for confirmatory testing. In general, commercial lateral flow immunoassays resulted in fewer false-negative test results with enrichment of 1 g faecal samples in tetrathionate for 18 h, while all environmental sample enrichment techniques resulted in similar detection rates. The limit of detection from spiked samples, ∼4 colony-forming units/g, was similar for all methods evaluated. The lateral flow immunoassays evaluated could reliably detect S. enterica within 18 h, indicating that they may be useful for rapid point-of-care testing in equine practice applications. Additional evaluation is needed using samples from naturally infected cases and the environment to gain an accurate estimate of test sensitivity and specificity and to substantiate further the true value of these tests in clinical practice. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Modification of a deoxynivalenol-antigen-mimicking nanobody to improve immunoassay sensitivity by site-saturation mutagenesis.

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan


    A nanobody (N-28) which can act as a deoxynivalenol (DON) antigen has been generated, and its residues Thr102-Ser106 were identified to bind with anti-DON monoclonal antibody by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Site-saturation mutagenesis was used to analyze the plasticity of five residues and to improve the sensitivity of the N-28-based immunoassay. After mutagenesis, three mutants were selected by phage immunoassay and were sequenced. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of the immunoassay based on mutants N-28-T102Y, N-28-V103L, and N-28-Y105F were 24.49 ± 1.0, 51.83 ± 2.5, and 35.65 ± 1.6 ng/mL, respectively, showing the assay was, respectively, 3.2, 1.5, and 2.2 times more sensitive than the wild-type-based assay. The best mutant, N-28-T102Y, was used to develop a competitive phage ELISA to detect DON in cereals with high specificity and accuracy. In addition, the structural properties of N-28-T102Y and N-28 were investigated, revealing that the affinity of N-28-T102Y decreased because of increased steric hindrance with the large side chain. The lower-binding-affinity antigen mimetic may contribute to the improvement of the sensitivity of competitive immunoassays. These results demonstrate that nanobodies would be a favorable tool for engineering. Moreover, our results have laid a solid foundation for site-saturation mutagenesis of antigen-mimicking nanobodies to improve immunoassay sensitivity for small molecules.

  6. Comparison of infrared-excited up-converting phosphors and europium nanoparticles as labels in a two-site immunoassay

    Ukonaho, Telle; Rantanen, Terhi; Jaemsen, Laura; Kuningas, Katri; Paekkilae, Henna; Loevgren, Timo; Soukka, Tero


    Research in the field of immunoassays and labels used in the detection has been recently focused on particulate reporters, which possess very high specific activity that excludes the label as a sensitivity limiting factor. However, the large size and shape of the particulate labels may produce additional problems to immunoassay performance. The aim of this work was to study with two identical non-competitive two-site immunoassays whether up-converting phosphor (UCP) particles are comparable in performance with europium(III) chelate-dyed nanoparticles as particulate labels. In addition we strived to verify the common assumption of the photostability of up-converting phosphor particles supporting their potential applicability in imaging. Detection limits in two-site immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen (free-PSA) were 0.53 ng L -1 and 1.3 ng L -1 using two different up-converting phosphors and 0.16 ng L -1 using europium(III) nanoparticle. Large size distribution and non-specific binding of up-converting phosphor particles caused assay variation in low analyte concentrations and limited the analytical detection limit. The non-specific binding was the major factor limiting the analytical sensitivity of the immunoassay. The results suggests the need for nanoscaled and uniformely sized UCP-particles to increace the sensitivity and applicability of up-converting phosphor particles. Anti-Stokes photoluminescence of up-converting phosphor particles did not photobleach when measured repeatedly, on the contrary, the time-resolved fluorescence of europium nanoparticles photobleached relatively rapidly

  7. Development of Fully Automated Low-Cost Immunoassay System for Research Applications.

    Wang, Guochun; Das, Champak; Ledden, Bradley; Sun, Qian; Nguyen, Chien


    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) automation for routine operation in a small research environment would be very attractive. A portable fully automated low-cost immunoassay system was designed, developed, and evaluated with several protein analytes. It features disposable capillary columns as the reaction sites and uses real-time calibration for improved accuracy. It reduces the overall assay time to less than 75 min with the ability of easy adaptation of new testing targets. The running cost is extremely low due to the nature of automation, as well as reduced material requirements. Details about system configuration, components selection, disposable fabrication, system assembly, and operation are reported. The performance of the system was initially established with a rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay, and an example of assay adaptation with an interleukin 6 (IL6) assay is shown. This system is ideal for research use, but could work for broader testing applications with further optimization.

  8. Homogenous 96-plex PEA immunoassay exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity, and excellent scalability

    Assarsson, Erika; Lundberg, Martin; Holmquist, Göran


    reporters, shown potential to relieve the shortcomings of antibodies and their inherent cross-reactivity in multiplex protein quantification applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a robust 96-plex immunoassay based on the proximity extension assay (PEA) for improved high throughput...... detection of protein biomarkers. This was enabled by: (1) a modified design leading to a reduced number of pipetting steps compared to the existing PEA protocol, as well as improved intra-assay precision; (2) a new enzymatic system that uses a hyper-thermostabile enzyme, Pwo, for uniting the two probes......, such as serum and plasma, and also in xenografted mice and resuspended dried blood spots, consuming only 1 µL sample per test. All-in-all, the development of the current multiplex technique is a step toward robust high throughput protein marker discovery and research....

  9. Development of a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for enrofloxacin based on heterologous coating haptens.

    Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Huiyan; Ni, Hengjia; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong


    In the paper, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA) for detection of enrofloxacin was described using one new derivative of enrofloxacin as coating hapten, resulting in surprisingly high sensitivity and specificity. Incorporation of aminobutyric acid (AA) in the new derivative of enrofloxacin had decreased the IC50 of the ELISA for enrofloxacin from 1.3 μg L(-1) to as low as 0.07 μg L(-1). The assay showed neglect cross-reactivity for other fluoroquinolones but ofloxacin (8.23%), marbofloxacin (8.97%) and pefloxacin (7.29%). Analysis of enrofloxacin fortified chicken muscle showed average recoveries from 81 to 115%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay makes it a suitable screening method for the determination of low levels of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle without clean-up step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of condition for conjugation of enrofloxacin to enzymes in chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun


    In this study, in order to find out a proper method for conjugation of enrofloxacin to label enzymes, two methods were compared and carbodiimide condensation was proved to be better. The results showed that the binding ratio of enrofloxacin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 8:1 and that of enrofloxacin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was 5:1. This indicated that conjugate synthesized by carbodiimide condensation was fit for chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Furthermore, data revealed that dialysis time was an important parameter for conjugation and 6 days was best. Buffer to dilute conjugate had little effect on CLEIA. The storage condition for conjugates was also studied and it was shown that the conjugate was stable at 4 °C with no additive up to 30 days. These data were valuable for establishing CLEIA to quantify enrofloxacin.

  11. Detection of Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites Using the Cross Reactivity of Enzyme Immunoassays

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.


    Enzyme immunoassay is an important environmental analysis method that may be used to identify many pesticide analytes in water samples. Because of similarities in chemical structure between various members of a pesticide class, there often may be an unwanted response that is characterized by a percentage of cross reactivity. Also, there may be cross reactivity caused by degradation products of the target analyte that may be present in the sample. In this paper, the concept of cross reactivity caused by degradation products or by nontarget analytes is explored as a tool for identification of metabolites or structurally similar compounds not previously known to be present in water samples. Two examples are examined in this paper from various water quality studies. They are alachlor and its metabolite, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, and atrazine and its class members, prometryn and propazine. A method for using cross reactivity for the detection of these compounds is explained in this paper.

  12. Vertical microreactor stack consist of poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) microfluidics for immunoassay

    Ukita, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Saki; Utsumi, Yuichi; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji; Kataoka, Chiwa


    This paper reports the first application of high-aspect ratio PTFE microstruscute, which fabricated by synchrotron radiation induced photo-evaporation process, to enzyme-linked immunosorvent assay. The advantages of PTFE microstructure for the development of lab-on-a-chip due to the extremely high-aspect ratio microstructure and chemical stability of PTFE is discussed. The results of immunoassay shows the successful detection of analyte (mouse IgG) with detection range with 0-100ng/ml. This result suggests the successful immobilization of antibody (anti-mouse IgG goat antibody) onto the x-ray exposed surface of PTFE microstructure and successful demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction in the PTFE high-aspect ratio microstructure. We also demonstrated the detection of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). As the result of demonstration, we successfully detected PCB with ranging analyte concentration of 0.1-10 ng/ml. (author)

  13. Rapid bead-based immunoassay for measurement of mannose-binding lectin

    Bay, J T; Garred, P


    have been developed more automated platforms for MBL analysis is urgently needed. To pursue this, we set out to develop a flexible bead-based MBL immunoassay. Serum was obtained from 98 healthy individuals and 50 patients investigated for possible immunodeficiencies. We used the Luminex xMAP bead array...... coefficient were found be 7.88% and 5.70%, respectively. A close correlation between the new assay and a reference MBL measurement ELISA was found (rho 0.9381, P bead-based assay was less sensitive to interfering anti-murine antibodies in the blood samples than when the antibodies employed were...... used in the reference polystyrene-based ELISA. The new assay could be performed in 3 h with less than 25 microl serum required of each sample. These results show that MBL can be measured readily using a bead-based platform, which may form an efficient basis for a multiplex approach to measure different...

  14. Mapping of Epitopes Occurring in Bovine α(s1)-Casein Variants by Peptide Microarray Immunoassay.

    Lisson, Maria; Erhardt, Georg


    Immunoglobulin E epitope mapping of milk proteins reveals important information about their immunologic properties. Genetic variants of αS1-casein, one of the major allergens in bovine milk, are until now not considered when discussing the allergenic potential. Here we describe the complete procedure to assess the allergenicity of αS1-casein variants B and C, which are frequent in most breeds, starting from milk with identification and purification of casein variants by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the casein variants, identification of the resulting peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), in silico analysis of the variant-specific peptides as allergenic epitopes, and determination of their IgE-binding properties by microarray immunoassay with cow's milk allergic human sera.

  15. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein Using Colloidal Semiconducting Nanoparticles

    Pekka Hänninen


    Full Text Available Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  16. Synthesis-based approach toward direct sandwich immunoassay for ciguatoxin CTX3C.

    Oguri, Hiroki; Hirama, Masahiro; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Maruyama, Megumi; Uehara, Hisatoshi; Nagumo, Yoko


    Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of ciguatoxin CTX3C were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens, 3 and 4, in place of the natural toxin. Haptenic groups that possess a surface area larger than 400 A(2) were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTX3C itself. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these mAbs was established to detect CTX3C at the ppb level with no cross-reactivity against other related marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, or maitotoxin.

  17. Developments of sensitive immunoassays for detection of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen

    Ionescu-Matiu, I; Sanchez, Y; Dreesman, G R [Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine; Fields, H A [Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Phoenix, AZ (USA)


    Three micro solid phase immunoassays (a micro-SPRIA and two ELISA techniques) were developed and tested for the detection of anti-HBs antibodies. Two different crosslinkers (glutaraldehyde and N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate) were used to couple a goat anti-mouse IgG reagent to alkaline phosphatase for use as enzyme-labeled probes in the two ELISA tests. With the latter cross-linker, a defined conjugate with a 1 : 1 antibody-enzyme molar ratio was obtained. The sensitivities of micro-SPRIA and the two types of ELISA were compared to that of the commercial solid phase radioimmunoassay AUSAB test. All three microtests were significantly more sensitive than the AUSAB test. The ELISA using the glutaraldehyde cross-linked conjugate was 3-5 times less sensitive than micro-SPRIA, while the ELISA using the disulfide-linked conjugate was 2.6-4.0 times more sensitive than micro-SPRIA.

  18. Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Brock, I; Weldingh, K; Leyten, EM


    Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Brock I, Weldingh K, Leyten EM, Arend SM, Ravn P, Andersen P. Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. The currently used...... method for immunological detection of tuberculosis infection, the tuberculin skin test, has low specificity. Antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replace purified protein derivative are therefore urgently needed. We have performed a rigorous assessment of the diagnostic potential of four...... recently identified antigens (Rv2653, Rv2654, Rv3873, and Rv3878) from genomic regions that are lacking from the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains as well as from the most common nontuberculous mycobacteria. The fine specificity of potential epitopes in these molecules...

  19. Estrogen receptor determination in endometrial carcinoma: ligand binding assay versus enzyme immunoassay

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J


    We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA......, and cytosolic progesterone receptors (PR) measured by LBA were also studied. While ERc concentrations determined by LBA and EIA were highly correlated (r: 0.94), ERc values detected by LBA were approximately twice those found by EIA (median values of ERc: 155 vs. 64 fmol/mg cytosol protein, DCC vs. EIA......). The percentages of ERc positive tumors were 89% by LBA and 77% by EIA. The median fraction of total ER present as ERn was 63%. PR levels correlated positively with ERn concentrations (r: 0.73). We explore possible reasons why greater concentrations of ERc are determined by estradiol binding than by the ER-EIA kit...

  20. Concordance Between Different Amyloid Immunoassays and Visual Amyloid Positron Emission Tomographic Assessment.

    Janelidze, Shorena; Pannee, Josef; Mikulskis, Alvydas; Chiao, Ping; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Hansson, Oskar


    Visual assessment of amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) images has been approved by regulatory authorities for clinical use. Several immunoassays have been developed to measure β-amyloid (Aβ) 42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The agreement between CSF Aβ42 measures from different immunoassays and visual PET readings may influence the use of CSF biomarkers and/or amyloid PET assessment in clinical practice and trials. To determine the concordance between CSF Aβ42 levels measured using 5 different immunoassays and visual amyloid PET analysis. The study included 262 patients with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive decline from the Swedish BioFINDER (Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably) cohort (recruited from September 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014) who had undergone flutemetamol F 18 ([18F]flutemetamol)-labeled PET. Levels of CSF Aβ42 were analyzed using the classic INNOTEST and the newer modified INNOTEST, fully automated Lumipulse (FL), EUROIMMUN (EI), and Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) assays. Concentrations of CSF Aβ were assessed using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference measurement procedure. The concordance of CSF Aβ42 levels and Aβ42:Aβ40 and Aβ42:tau ratios with visual [18F]flutemetamol PET status. Of 262 participants (mean [SD] age, 70.9 [5.5] years), 108 were women (41.2%) and 154 were men (58.8%). The mass spectrometry-derived Aβ42 values showed higher correlations with the modified Aβ42-INNOTEST (r = 0.97), Aβ42-FL (r = 0.93), Aβ42-EI (r = 0.93), and Aβ42-MSD (r = 0.95) assays compared with the classic Aβ42-INNOTEST assay (r = 0.88; P ≤ .01). The signal in the classic Aβ42-INNOTEST assay was partly quenched by recombinant Aβ1-40 peptide. However, the classic Aβ42-INNOTEST assay showed better concordance with visual [18F]flutemetamol PET status (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.92) compared with the

  1. Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Brock, I; Weldingh, K; Leyten, EM


    Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Brock I, Weldingh K, Leyten EM, Arend SM, Ravn P, Andersen P. Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. The currently used...... method for immunological detection of tuberculosis infection, the tuberculin skin test, has low specificity. Antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replace purified protein derivative are therefore urgently needed. We have performed a rigorous assessment of the diagnostic potential of four...... selected and combined the specific peptide stretches from the four proteins not recognized by M. bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals. These peptide stretches were tested with peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with microscopy- or culture-confirmed tuberculosis and from healthy M. bovis...

  2. A Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay Method for the Measurement of Compound W.

    Huang, Biao; Yu, Huixin; Bao, Jiandong; Zhang, Manda; Green, William L; Wu, Sing-Yung


    Using compound W (a 3,3'-diiodothyronine sulfate [T 2 S] immuno-crossreactive material)-specific polyclonal antibodies and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay assay techniques (AlphaLISA) to establish an indirect competitive compound W (ICW) quantitative detection method. Photosensitive particles (donor beads) coated with compound W or T 2 S and rabbit anti-W antibody were incubated with biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibody. This constitutes a detection system with streptavidin-coated acceptor particle. We have optimized the test conditions and evaluated the detection performance. The sensitivity of the method was 5 pg/mL, and the detection range was 5 to 10 000 pg/mL. The intra-assay coefficient of variation averages W levels in extracts of maternal serum samples. This may have clinical application to screen congenital hypothyroidism in utero.

  3. A reactor/separator device for use in automated solid phase immunoassay

    Farina, P.R.; Ordonez, K.P.; Siewers, I.J.


    A reactor/separator device is described for use in automated solid phase immunoassay, including radioimmunoassays. The device is a column fitted at the bottom portion with a water impermeable disc which can hold, for example, immunoabsorbents, immobilized antisera or ion exchange resins. When the contents of the column supported by the disc are brought into contact with an aqueous phase containing reagents or reactants, a chemical reaction is initiated. After the reaction, centrifugally applied pressure forces the aqueous phase through the filter disc making it water permeable and separating a desired component for subsequent analysis. The reactor/separator device of the present invention permits kinetic solid phase assays (non-equilibrium conditions) to be carried out which would be difficult to perform by other conventional methods. (author)

  4. Inserção de alunos com deficiência no ensino regular: perfil da cidade de Marília Inclusion of students with disabilities in regular school: profile of the city of Marília

    Walkiria Gonçalves Reganhan


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo identificar o perfil de professores de ensino regular da cidade de Marília que tinham alunos com deficiências matriculados em suas salas de aula, bem como o perfil da clientela atendida por estes professores. Participaram do estudo 68 professores da cidade de Marília - SP que tinham alunos com deficiência matriculados em suas salas. O instrumento de coleta de dados utilizado foi um questionário contendo 13 questões divididas em 2 partes: 1 identificação dos participantes e 2 identificação dos alunos com deficiência. Os dados colhidos nos questionários foram submetidos à análise da freqüência absoluta e relativa. Foram identificadas 10 categorias. De acordo com os resultados dessa pesquisa, concluiu-se que a inserção do aluno com deficiência no ensino regular ocorre com a modificação da formação que favorece ao profissional o conhecimento e a compreensão das distintas formas de aprendizagem do seu alunado, a fim de estruturar sua própria prática pedagógica para atender, com qualidade, a diversidade.The aim of this study was to identify the profile of regular school teachers of Marília-SP, who have students with disabilities registered in their classrooms, as well as to identify the clientele these teachers were working with. Sixty eight teachers participated in the study in the city of Marília - SP, all of whom had students with disabilities in their classrooms. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire with 13 questions divided in 2 parts: 1 identification of participants and 2 identification of students with disabilities. The data was submitted to analysis of absolute and relative frequency. Ten categories were identified. We were able to conclude, based on the results of the study, that the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular school occurs due to changes in teacher development that enable professionals to acquire knowledge and understanding of the distinct

  5. Analytical validation of Gentian NGAL particle-enhanced enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA

    Gian Luca Salvagno


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to validate the analytical performance of the new Gentian particle-enhanced enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA for measuring neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in serum samples. Design and methods: Analytical validation of the Gentian NGAL assay was carried out on a Roche Cobas c501 and was based on assessment of limit of blank (LOB, limit of detection (LOD, functional sensitivity, imprecision, linearity and concordance with the BioPorto NGAL test. Results: The LOB and LOD of Gentian NGAL were found to be 3.8 ng/mL and 6.3 ng/mL, respectively. An analytical coefficient of variation (CV of 20% corresponded to a NGAL value of 10 ng/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision (CV was between 0.4 and 5.2% and 0.6 and 7.1% and the total imprecision (CV was 3.7%. The linearity was optimal at NGAL concentrations between 37 and 1420 ng/mL (r=1.00; p<0.001. An excellent correlation was observed between values measured with Gentian NGAL and BioPorto NGAL in 74 routine serum samples (r=0.993. The mean percentage bias of the Gentian assay versus the Bioporto assay was +3.1% (95% CI, +1.6% to +4.5%. Conclusions: These results show that Gentian NGAL may be a viable option to other commercial immunoassays for both routine and urgent assessment of serum NGAL. Keywords: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL, Analytical validation, Acute kidney injury

  6. Development and statistical assessment of a paper-based immunoassay for detection of tumor markers

    Mazzu-Nascimento, Thiago [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morbioli, Giorgio Gianini [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Milan, Luis Aparecido [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Donofrio, Fabiana Cristina [Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78557-267, Sinop, MT (Brazil); Mestriner, Carlos Alberto [Wama Produtos para Laboratório Ltda, 13560-971, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Carrilho, Emanuel, E-mail: [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Paper-based assays are an attractive low-cost option for clinical chemistry testing, due to characteristics such as short time of analysis, low consumption of samples and reagents, and high portability of assays. However, little attention has been given to the evaluation of the performance of these simple tests, which should include the use of a statistical approach to define the choice of best cut-off value for the test. The choice of the cut-off value impacts on the sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay. Here, we developed a paper-based immunoassay for the detection of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and performed a statistical assessment to establish the assay's cut-off value using the Youden's J index (68.28 A.U.), what allowed for a gain in sensibility (0.86) and specificity (1.0). We also discuss about the importance of defining a gray zone as a safety margin for test (±12% over the cut-off value), eliminating all false positives and false negatives outcomes and avoiding misleading results. The test accuracy was calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, presenting a value of 0.97, what classifies this test as highly accurate. We propose here a low-cost method capable of detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum samples, highlighting the importance of statistical tools to evaluate a new low-cost diagnostic method. - Highlights: • A paper-based sandwich immunoassay protocol for detection of tumor markers. • A statistical approach to define cut-off values and measuring test's sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. • A simple way to create a gray zone, avoiding false positive and false negative outcomes.

  7. System-on-fluidics immunoassay device integrating wireless radio-frequency-identification sensor chips.

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Shiratori, Akiko; Funaoka, Sohei; Fukushima, Masao


    A simple and sensitive point-of-care-test (POCT) device for chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay was devised and tested. The device consists of a plastic flow-channel reactor and two wireless-communication sensor chips, namely, a photo-sensor chip and a temperature-sensor chip. In the flow-channel reactor, a target antigen is captured by an antibody immobilized on the inner wall of the flow-channel and detected with enzyme labeled antibody by using CL substrate. The CL signal corresponding to the amount of antigen is measured by a newly developed radio-frequency-identification (RFID) sensor, which enables batteryless operation and wireless data communication with an external reader. As for the POCT device, its usage environment, especially temperature, varies for each measurement. Hence, temperature compensation is a key issue in regard to eliminating dark-signal fluctuation, which is a major factor in deterioration of the precision of the POCT device. A two-stage temperature-compensation scheme was adopted. As for the first stage, the signals of two photodiodes, one with an open window and one with a sealed window, integrated on the photo-sensor chip are differentiated to delete the dark signal. As for the second stage, the differentiated signal fluctuation caused by a temperature variation is compensated by using the other sensor chip (equipped with a temperature sensor). The dark-level fluctuation caused by temperature was reduced from 0.24 to 0.02 pA/°C. The POCT device was evaluated as a CL immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The flow rate of the CL reagent in the flow channel was optimized. As a result, the detection limit of the POCT device was 0.08 ng/ml (i.e., 0.4 μIU/ml). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of a surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin.

    Losoya-Leal, Adrian; Estevez, M-Carmen; Martínez-Chapa, Sergio O; Lechuga, Laura M


    The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of pharmaceutical drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges is of great importance in the clinical setting. It provides useful information towards the enhancement of drug therapies, aiding in dosage control and toxicity risk management. Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used in neonatal therapies that is indicated for TDM due to the toxicity risks inherent in its use. Current techniques for TDM such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are costly, time consuming, and cannot be performed at the site of action. Over the last decades, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have become increasingly popular in clinical diagnostics due to their ability to detect biomolecular interactions in real-time. We present an SPR-based competitive immunoassay for the detection of the antibiotic amikacin, suitable for TDM in both adults and neonates. We have obtained high specificity and sensitivity levels with an IC50 value of 1.4ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.13ng/mL, which comfortably comply with the drug's therapeutic range. Simple dilution of serum can therefore be sufficient to analyze low-volume real samples from neonates, increasing the potential of the methodology for TDM. Compared to current TDM conventional methods, this SPR-based immunoassay can provide advantages such as simplicity, potential portability, and label-free measurements with the possibility of high throughput. This work is the foundation towards the development of an integrated, simple use, highly sensitive, fast, and point-of-care sensing platform for the opportune TDM of antibiotics and other drugs in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobile Phone Ratiometric Imaging Enables Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Lateral Flow Immunoassays without External Optical Filters.

    Shah, Kamal G; Singh, Vidhi; Kauffman, Peter C; Abe, Koji; Yager, Paul


    Paper-based diagnostic tests based on the lateral flow immunoassay concept promise low-cost, point-of-care detection of infectious diseases, but such assays suffer from poor limits of detection. One factor that contributes to poor analytical performance is a reliance on low-contrast chromophoric optical labels such as gold nanoparticles. Previous attempts to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostics include replacing chromophoric labels with enzymes, fluorophores, or phosphors at the expense of increased fluidic complexity or the need for device readers with costly optoelectronics. Several groups, including our own, have proposed mobile phones as suitable point-of-care readers due to their low cost, ease of use, and ubiquity. However, extant mobile phone fluorescence readers require costly optical filters and were typically validated with only one camera sensor module, which is inappropriate for potential point-of-care use. In response, we propose to couple low-cost ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with long Stokes-shift quantum dots to enable ratiometric mobile phone fluorescence measurements without optical filters. Ratiometric imaging with unmodified smartphone cameras improves the contrast and attenuates the impact of excitation intensity variability by 15×. Practical application was shown with a lateral flow immunoassay for influenza A with nucleoproteins spiked into simulated nasal matrix. Limits of detection of 1.5 and 2.6 fmol were attained on two mobile phones, which are comparable to a gel imager (1.9 fmol), 10× better than imaging gold nanoparticles on a scanner (18 fmol), and >2 orders of magnitude better than gold nanoparticle-labeled assays imaged with mobile phones. Use of the proposed filter-free mobile phone imaging scheme is a first step toward enabling a new generation of highly sensitive, point-of-care fluorescence assays.

  10. Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays for the analysis of bisphenol A in canned vegetables.

    Moreno, María J; D'Arienzo, Pasquale; Manclús, Juan J; Montoya, Angel


    The aim of this work was the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and highly sensitive immunoassays (ELISAs) to bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disruptor able to migrate from the internal coating of cans to food contained inside, particularly vegetables. To produce MAbs to BPA, four synthetic compounds were conjugated to proteins and used as immunizing haptens in mice. By applying hybridoma technology, several MAbs were produced and selected. These antibodies were characterized in the conjugate-coated and in the antibody-coated formats, using both homologous and heterologous conjugates. Three indirect ELISA based on the MAbs showing the highest affinity to BPA were selected. The limit of detection of the most sensitive ELISA was 0.22 nM (0.05 ng/mL), with an I₅₀ value of around 1 nM (0.23 ng/mL). An homologous ELISA based on the MAb BPAB-11 was applied to the simple, direct determination of BPA in the liquid portion of canned artichoke, peas, and sweet corn. Only sample dilution in an appropriate saline buffer was required to minimize matrix effects and to enter the ELISA working range. Recovery and precision of the method were evaluated by spiking the liquid portion of these cans with BPA at 20, 50, and 100 ng/mL. Coefficients of variation were below 20% in most cases. With regard to recovery, the analytical data obtained were also acceptable. This immunoassay has therefore proved its potential as a new tool for the rapid, sensitive and accurate determination of BPA in canned food.

  11. A Portable Immunoassay Platform for Multiplexed Detection of Biotoxins in Clinical and Environmental Samples

    Koh, Chung-Yan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Piccini, Matthew Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Schaff, Ulrich Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandstone Diagnostics, Livermore, CA (United States); Stanker, Larry H. [US Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (United States). Western Regional Research Center, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit; Cheng, Luisa W. [US Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (United States). Western Regional Research Center, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit; Ravichandran, Easwaran [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Singh, Bal-Ram [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Sommer, Greg J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandstone Diagnostics, Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Anup K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Multiple cases of attempted bioterrorism events using biotoxins have highlighted the urgent need for tools capable of rapid screening of suspect samples in the field (e.g., mailroom and public events). We present a portable microfluidic device capable of analyzing environmental (e.g., white powder), food (e.g., milk) and clinical (e.g., blood) samples for multiplexed detection of biotoxins. The device is rapid (<15-30 min sample-to-answer), sensitive (< 0.08 pg/mL detection limit for botulinum toxin), multiplexed (up to 64 parallel assays) and capable of analyzing small volume samples (< 20 μL total sample input). The immunoassay approach (SpinDx) is based on binding of toxins in a sample to antibody-laden capture particles followed by sedimentation of particles through a density-media in a microfluidic disk and quantification using a laser-induced fluorescence detector. A direct, blinded comparison with a gold standard ELISA revealed a 5-fold more sensitive detection limit for botulinum toxin while requiring 250-fold less sample volume and a 30 minute assay time with a near unity correlation. A key advantage of the technique is its compatibility with a variety of sample matrices with no additional sample preparation required. Ultrasensitive quantification has been demonstrated from direct analysis of multiple clinical, environmental and food samples, including white powder, whole blood, saliva, salad dressing, whole milk, peanut butter, half and half, honey, and canned meat. We believe that this device can met an urgent need in screening both potentially exposed people as well as suspicious samples in mail-rooms, airports, public sporting venues and emergency rooms. The general-purpose immunodiagnostics device can also find applications in screening of infectious and systemic diseases or serve as a lab device for conducting rapid immunoassays.

  12. Vulnerabilidade da família: desenvolvimento do conceito Vulnerabilidad de la familia: desarrollo del concepto Family vulnerability: concept development

    Myriam Aparecida Mandetta Pettengill


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver o conceito vulnerabilidade da família. Os dados foram coletados utilizando-se a estratégia da Análise Qualitativa de Conceito que consta de duas etapas: na primeira, a fase teórica, utilizou-se dados da literatura e, na segunda, a fase de campo, entrevista e observação de 12 famílias vivenciando uma experiência de doença e hospitalização de um filho. O referencial teórico foi o Interacionismo Simbólico, dando sustentação à Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, utilizada para guiar a coleta e análise dos dados na etapa de campo. Como resultado, construiu-se um modelo teórico cuja categoria central define a vulnerabilidade da família como SENTINDO-SE AMEAÇADA EM SUA AUTONOMIA, em razão das interações com a doença, família e equipe. A comparação das duas análises permitiu elaborar uma proposição teórica de vulnerabilidade da família e avançar em termos de conhecimento teórico para a área de enfermagem da família.Este estudio buscó desarrollar el concepto vulnerabilidad de la familia, utilizando la estrategia del Análisis Cualitativo de Concepto, que consta de dos etapas: en la primera, la fase teórica, los datos fueron recolectados con base en la literatura, y, en la segunda, la fase de campo, se utilizaron observaciones y entrevistas con 12 familias que vivencian una experiencia de enfermedad y hospitalización de un hijo. El Interaccionismo Simbólico fue el eje teórico que orientó los procesos de indagación, dando sustento a la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos, que fue utilizada para guiar la recolección y análisis de los datos en esta etapa. Como resultado, se construyó un modelo teórico cuya categoría central define la vulnerabilidad de la familia como SINTIÉNDOSE AMENAZADA EN SU AUTONOMÍA, en razón de las interacciones con la enfermedad, familia y equipo. La comparación de los dos análisis permitió la elaboración de una propuesta teórica de vulnerabilidad

  13. Gerações e famílias: Polissemia, mudanças históricas e mobilidade

    Parry Scott


    Full Text Available Uma revisão selecionada da literatura nacional e internacional sobre família e gerações mostra como transformações nas relações de poder entre nações favorecem ênfases históricas diferentes de hierarquia, solidariedade, desigualdade e direitos. Quando se refere à família para embasar identidades e relações entre nações e povos, ela se relaciona com o "enquadramento hierárquico" e a "integração, padronização e incorporação". Evolucionismo, personalidade e cultura, estrutura-funcionalismo e urbanização e modernização realçam hierarquias, unificação e estabilidade, restringindo a discussão de gerações a cumprir uma agenda semelhante. Quando se refere à família como meio de resistência contra a desigualdade, discutem-se "modos de produção, contenção de pobreza e planejamento reprodutivo" e abre mais espaço para a discussão de gerações como grupos etários desiguais, apartes, com interesses próprios. Esta abordagem intensifica-se com o realce à pluralidade e fragmentação da família no mundo global, permitindo que gerações recebam tratamento como grupos com iguais direitos à diversidade com culturas próprias, parcialmente dissociadas de famílias. Discute-se como migração e mobilidade se articulam diferentemente diante da ambiguidade e polissemia de relações intergeracionais e família.A selected review of national and international literature about family and generations shows how changes in power relations among nations favor different historical emphases on hierachy, solidarity, inequality and rights. When family is referred to as a basis for national or group identities, it does so from the perspective of "hierarchical inclusion" and of "integration, patterning and incorporation". Evolutionism, personality and culture, structural-functionalism, urbanization and modernization, emphasize hierarchies, unity and stability, restricting generations to a similar agenda. When family is referred to

  14. Percepção do acidente fatal de trabalho para a família da vítima

    Ana Beatryce Tedesco Moraes

    Full Text Available O trabalho humano constitui importante meio de inserção social, implicado na formação de identidade e de reconhecimento social. Em caso de acidente de trabalho fatal, a família sofre os impactos desse fenômeno em sua organização e dinâmica. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo investigar a percepção do acidente de trabalho fatal para a família de uma vítima no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, cuja análise se baseou nos seguintes temas: condições de trabalho do acidentado, impactos psicossociais gerados pelo acidente de trabalho e mudanças na dinâmica familiar em função dessa ocorrência. Foram entrevistados três membros da família da vítima e seu empregador. Os dados foram analisados conforme os critérios qualitativos da fenomenologia semiótica. Os resultados apontam um paradoxo na percepção da família da vítima e do empregador sobre o acidente: enquanto sua repercussão para a família se fundamenta na importância social do trabalho, para o empregador, associa-se à defesa da empresa e de sua responsabilidade sobre a morte no trabalho.

  15. Saúde mental e economia solidária: a família na inclusão pelo trabalho

    Carmen Lúcia Alves Filizola


    Full Text Available A Reforma Psiquiátrica traz à tona a inclusão social pelo trabalho na perspectiva da Economia Solidária e envolvimento familiar. Em município do interior paulista foi criado empreendimento solidário de usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. Esta pesquisa qualitativa teve como objetivos: identificar a composição e relações das famílias de integrantes desse empreendimento; conhecer as percepções dos familiares sobre a inclusão pelo trabalho dos usuários e a possibilidade de protagonismo da família nesse processo. Foram realizadas entrevistas, utilizando o genograma e ecomapa Modelo Calgary de Avaliação da Família e questões abertas sobre as percepções das famílias, pautadas na análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostram que a maioria das famílias é nuclear, chefiada por mulheres. A maior parte dos usuários não apresenta relação familiar conflituosa e os que relatam apresentar, referem-se aos pais. Reconhecem a importância do trabalho como espaço de criação de sentidos e novas relações e apontam várias formas para o co-envolvimento.

  16. A implicação da família no uso abusivo de drogas: uma revisão crítica

    Miriam Schenker


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre a relação entre adolescência, família e uso abusivo de drogas. Discorre sobre a importância da inserção do sintoma drogadicção no contexto familiar e sociocultural para o entendimento de sua complexidade. A família é vista como uma das fontes de socialização primária do adolescente, juntamente com a escola e o grupo de amigos. As práticas educativas e os estilos de criação da família, com seus três diferentes tipos de controle parental, são ressaltados porque podem facilitar, ou não, o uso abusivo de drogas. Os resultados das pesquisas apontam para a importância de se engajar a família no tratamento do adicto e alguns estudos ampliam o foco para engajar contextos sociais múltiplos - família, amigos, escola, comunidade e sistema legal - no tratamento do adolescente que faz uso abusivo de drogas.


    Marina de Alcântara Rufino


    Full Text Available The small farm Santa Eulália occupies a privileged area in the landscape compositionof the city of São Luis, being situated in one of the vectors of urban expansion, the edges ofthe avenue Euclides Figueiredo, on the northwest of the island of Maranhão, next to thecenter. In the decade of 1980, the small farm was inserted in area of permanent environmentprotection and in the beginning of the decade of 1990, Santa Eulália received great landscapealteration for interest in creating the housing development Santa Eulália for an estimatedpopulation of 35 thousand inhabitants. The intervention was made aiming to organize thegrowth of the city, however the execution of the work generated a great controversy, as muchpolitical as environmental, but also social, with the argument that the area destined to theimplantation of the housing development would be of permanent preservation and placed onthe side of a garbage deposit that served as a deposit of solid residues for all the cities of theisland. After the deforestation of 107.32 hectares and the implantation of the primaryinfrastructure in the place that involved services of embankment, drainage and pavement, thework was seized by the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable NaturalResources (IBAMA, but the main environmental impacts had already occurred or wasoccurring. Due to the land filling, embankment, previous cut of palm trees and mangrove,some foci of erosion with the creation of several gullies had originated and had a consequentsanding of creeks due to the material carried by the rain, besides that, the exposed soil is poorand with lateritic concretions . These factors made it difficult to attempt the forest resetting ofthe area in study. Therefore, the recovery of all the area becomes necessary in order to leaveit with a profile similar to the original, mainly in the areas considered untouchable for theBrazilian environmental legislation.

  18. The role of ethnic tourism in the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants in Treze Tílias, SC, Brazil.

    Kuhn, Elisabeth; Haselmair, Ruth; Pirker, Heidemarie; Vogl, Christian R


    Food knowledge and consumption in the context of migration is an important topic in ethnobiological research. Little research is done on the process of how external factors impact food knowledge amongst migrants. Taking into account social organisation and power relations of food knowledge transmission and distribution of food knowledge, this study sheds light on how the accessibility of resources, the predominant cuisine in the host country and ethnic tourism influences the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants and their descendants in Treze Tílias. Field research was conducted in Austria and Brazil in 2008-2009, using free-listing, social network analysis and participatory observation. The collected data was analysed by calculating Smith's Salience index, visualising personal and social networks and qualitative text analysis. Tyroleans in Austria had a different perception and a higher agreement of what Tyrolean food comprises than Tyroleans in Brazil, indicating different developments: Tyrolean migrants adapted their food habits according to available resources and over time in Brazil. Later, ethnic tourism had a strong impact: In Treze Tílias, dishes with the highest Smith's Salience index-forming the core of cultural food knowledge-strongly coincided with Tyrolean food served in ethnic restaurants, whose staff were perceived to be experts in Tyrolean food. Despite most food knowledge in Treze Tílias was transmitted within families, ethnic food prepared in restaurants and hotels determined the shared perception of what Tyrolean food comprises. Perceived as experts, the staff in ethnic restaurants were in a powerful position to transform cultural food knowledge by providing institutionalised and standardised knowledge about Tyrolean food.

  19. Família: maternidade e procriação assistida Family: maternity and assisted reproduction

    Maria da Graça Reis Braga


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata das transformações que se operam na idéia de família que desenvolvemos no Ocidente. Tais mudanças se devem, entre outros fatores, aos diferentes lugares que a mulher passou a ocupar na família e na sociedade e à constituição de sua identidade pela via da maternidade. Isso também é acompanhado pela decadência do modelo patriarcal, o que gera intensas discussões a respeito de um possível fator de feminilização da cultura e declínio da função paterna. A essas questões somam-se os avanços tecnológicos no campo da medicina da reprodução e as intervenções sobre o corpo feminino, o que tem proporcionado tanto mudanças quanto reforços no modelo de família tradicional ocidental.The present article discusses the transformations within the concepts of family in the Western society. These changes are due to (among others reasons the social position that women have assumed, and to the constitution of a feminine identity based on the fact of becoming a mother. These matters follow the decadence of a patriarchal pattern, which generates discussions regarding a supposed rising of a femininization of culture and the failure of the father role. To these questions recent development of reproductive medicine technologies, and medical interventions upon feminine body can be added, which has provide changes as well as reinforcements to a traditional family model.

  20. Utilization of a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics in milk

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Huang, Jie; Sun, Yaning; Yin, Mengqi; Hu, Mei; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Gaiping


    An ultrasensitive method for the detection of antibiotics in milk is developed based on inexpensive, simple, rapid and portable lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) strip, in combination with high sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In our strategy, an immunoprobe was prepared from colloidal gold (AuNPs) conjugated with both a monoclonal antibody against neomycin (NEO-mAb) and a Raman probe molecule 4-aminothiophenol (PATP). The competitive interaction with immunoprobe between free NEO and the coated antigen (NEO-OVA) resulted in the change of the amount of the immobilized immunoprobe on the paper substrate. The LFI procedure was completed within 15 min. The Raman intensity of PATP on the test line of the LFI strip was measured for the quantitative determination of NEO. The IC50 and the limit of detection (LOD) of this assay are 0.04 ng/mL and 0.216 pg/mL of NEO, respectively. There is no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other compounds, showing high specificity of the assay. The recoveries for milk samples with added NEO are in the range of 89.7%-105.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.4%-5.3% (n = 3). The result reveals that this method possesses high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and stability, and can be used to detect a variety of antibiotic residues in milk samples.

  1. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Jiang, Hu; Li, Xiangmin; Xiong, Ying; Pei, Ke; Nie, Lijuan; Xiong, Yonghua


    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen)32+-doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs. PMID:28264472

  2. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Hu Jiang


    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticle (AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  3. Violência Contra Idosos na Família: Motivações, Sentimentos e Necessidades do Agressor

    Silva,Cirlene Francisca Sales; Dias,Cristina Maria de Souza Brito


    Resumo O aumento mundial da população idosa tem sido acompanhado por importantes demandas, dentre elas a violência contra a pessoa idosa, que merece especial atenção devido às sequelas físicas e psicológicas que acarreta. A literatura tem focalizado mais o idoso agredido, pouco se detendo ao agressor. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi investigar a violência contra idosos na família, da perspectiva do agressor, especificamente as motivações que os impeliram à violência, os sentimentos e as n...


    Ana Inês Sousa


    Full Text Available O programa de Atenção Integral à Família: Internato Extensionista tem como objetivo desenvolver atividades de ensino, extensão e pesquisa em municípios do interior do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, por meio da inserção de estudantes de graduação no atendimento de atenção primária de saúde e Programa de Saúde da Família, como forma de ampliar o processo de interiorização da UFRJ, particularmente as Unidades Acadêmicas da área da saúde. No momento, envolve a participação de docentes, técnicos e estudantes de Graduação em Enfermagem, Farmácia e Nutrição. A atuação dos estudantes nos municípios vem ocorrendo desde o segundo semestre de 2004, de forma contínua, por um período de 2 a 3 meses. As atividades englobam o atendimento nas unidades de saúde de atenção básica, Programa de Saúde da Família e Programa Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, bem como ações de planejamento, gestão, avaliação e ações de fortalecimento do controle social no município. O programa vem contribuindo para a melhoria da qualidade da atenção básica á saúde das famílias, estabelecendo uma nova relação da universidade com os municípios, propiciando a formação de profissionais voltada para a realidade do Sistema Único de Saúde, conduzindo à reflexão permanente sobre sua formação e contribuindo para o desenvolvimento dos municípios participantes.

  5. O aprendizado do cuidar da família da criança hospitalizada por meio de atividades grupais

    Carla Natalina da Silva Fernandes


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer o aprendizado do aluno no processo de cuidar do familiar acompanhante da criança/adolescente hospitalizado. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa. A investigação foi realizada com 12 acadêmicos da 5ª série do curso de graduação em enfermagem da Faculdade de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Para a coleta de dados, utilizamos uma entrevista semi-estruturada aplicada aos alunos entre os meses de dezembro 2004 a janeiro de 2005. A análise foi fundamentada nos pressupostos da análise temática de BARDIN (1977 que permitiu a identificação de duas categorias: 1Entendendo a formação acadêmica dos enfermeiros para o cuidado às famílias, que explora o modo como os alunos percebem a sua formação para cuidar da criança e de sua família e 2 O significado do cuidar por meio das atividades grupais, que destaca os aspectos do aprendizado da utilização das atividades grupais junto aos familiares. Ressaltamos que, na perspectiva dos alunos, essa foi uma experiência importante por proporcionar momentos de aproximação e facilitação do cuidado oferecido à criança e sua família, bem como possibilitou a reflexão sobre as habilidades necessárias para o pensar e fazer o cuidado humanizado no contexto das relações estabelecidas entre família-cliente-enfermeiros. Os alunos apontam ainda alguns aspectos que sentem necessidade de melhorias por parte dos docentes e da própria instituição de saúde, mostrando a relevância de considerarmos a avaliação do aluno um instrumento para constante renovação das práticas pedagógicas, assim como para a melhoria da qualidade da assistência em saúde.

  6. Tuberculose em Salvador: custos para o sistema de saúde e para as famílias

    Costa João G


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A tuberculose é uma das maiores causas de mortalidade no mundo, porém seus efeitos econômicos são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo do estudo foi o de estimar os custos do tratamento e prevenção da tuberculose para o sistema de saúde (público e privado e para as famílias. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Salvador, BA, em 1999. Os dados para estimação dos custos para o sistema de saúde foram coletados nas secretarias de saúde, centros de saúde e em uma entidade filantrópica. Os custos públicos e privados foram estimados pela metodologia da contabilidade de custos. Os dados de custos para as famílias foram coletados por meio de questionários e incluem despesas com transporte, alimentação e outros, bem como as perdas de renda associadas à doença. RESULTADOS: O custo médio para tratamento de um caso novo de tuberculose foi de aproximadamente R$186,00 (US$103; para o tratamento de um paciente multiresistente o custo foi 27 vezes mais alto. Os custos para o serviço público corresponderam a 65% em internações, 32% em tratamento e apenas 3% em prevenção. As famílias comprometeram cerca de 33% da sua renda com despesas relacionadas a tuberculose. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do fato das famílias não terem que pagar por medicamentos e tratamento, dado que este serviço é oferecido pelo Estado, os custos familiares ligados a perda de rendimentos devido a doença foram muito elevados. A proporção utilizada em prevenção pelo serviço público é pequena. Um maior investimento em campanhas de prevenção poderia não somente diminuir o número de casos, mas também, levar a um diagnósticos precoce, diminuindo os custos associados à hospitalização. A falta de um sistema integrado de custos não permite a visualização dos custos nos diversos setores.


    Cerutti, Priscila Sardi; Lopes, Rafael da Silva; Pauli, Jandir; Marcos, Tatiane Manfron; Görski, Francine Minuzzi


    A motivação é uma das virtudes que move indivíduos a realizarem tarefas que influenciam e estimulam comportamentos. O ambiente organizacional assume uma responsabilidade de oferecer suporte que estimule os trabalhadores a desenvolverem atividades em prol dos resultados planejados, sendo que existe uma parcela de contribuição influenciada pelo conflito trabalho-família nessa relação de motivação organizacional. Essa pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a influência do suporte organizacional e ...


    Brendon Maximiliano Oliveira da Silva; Danielle Souza da Silva; Elenita Lourenço Leite; Kleverson dos Santos de Souza; Lorane Alice de Abreu Silva; Mayra Cristina Ferreira da Silva; Sabrina Rosa de Oliveira; Vinícius Pereira de Silva; Janaína Maria Gonçalves Santos


    Os liquens, associações entre fungos e algas unicelulares ou cianobactérias, são encontrados em muitos ambientes sobre vários substratos inclusive sobre troncos de árvores. Os liquens foliosos da família Parmeliaceae são bastante comuns nos ambientes brasileiros. Mesmo sendo comuns há ainda poucos levantamentos da diversidade de liquens em ambientes urbanos. Este estudo realizou um levantamento de espécies de fungos liquenizados por meio de uma coleta relâmpago em 17 forófitos de uma avenida ...

  9. Produção de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Adilson Anacleto; Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle


    Apresenta-se caracterização do processo de produção agrícola de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, realizada a partir de visitas ao campo, observação participante e entrevistas, evidenciando-se particularidades e discrepâncias frente aos modelos já descritos na literatura especializada. Identificou-se como principal problema a padronização de cultivo adotada, que, embora facilite os tratos culturais e exija menos mão-de-obra do produtor, não contempla as necessidades individuais de cada e...

  10. História Da Riqueza Na Economia Cafeeira Paulista: A Família Arruda Botelho (1854-1901)

    Maria Alice Rosa Ribeiro; Cristina de Campos


    Através da atuação do patriarca da família Arruda Botelho, observamos que a riqueza gerada na segunda metade do século XIX dependia fundamentalmente da diversificação dos negócios. O desenvolvimento da economia cafeeira implicou a criação de novas oportunidades de investimentos como ferrovias, casas comissárias e bancos, setores em que o patriarca investiu graças ao capital acumulado em suas atividades da lavoura cafeeira.

  11. Intensive neutron source based on powerful electron linear accelerator LIA-30 and pulsed nuclear reactor FR-1

    Bossamykin, V S; Koshelev, A S; Gerasimov, A I; Gordeev, V S; Grishin, A V; Averchenkov, V Ya; Lazarev, S A; Maslov, G N; Odintsov, Yu M [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)


    Some results are given of investigations on joint operation modes of the linear induction electron accelerator LIA-30 ({approx} 40 MeV, {approx} 100 kA, {approx} 20 ns) and the pulsed reactor FR-1 with a compact metal core, aimed at achieving high intensity neutron fluxes. The multiplication factor Q for prompt neutrons in the FR-1 booster mode operation increased from 100 to 4500. The total output of prompt neutrons from FR-1 at Q = 2570 was 1.4 x 10{sup 16} 1/pulse with a pulse half width of {approx} 25 {mu}s. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Religiosidade, reprodução e saúde em famílias urbanas pobres

    Márcia Thereza Couto

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a conversão religiosa pessoal no contexto das relações familiares em uma área da periferia da cidade de Recife, Pernambuco-Brasil. Apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa de caráter qualitativo sobre os significados da conversão para os integrantes da família e as decorrentes transformações no comportamento reprodutivo. Por fim, com base neste material empírico, levanta algumas questões sobre os serviços de saúde existentes no bairro e o uso que a população faz destes.

  13. Religiosidade, reprodução e saúde em famílias urbanas pobres

    Márcia Thereza Couto


    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a conversão religiosa pessoal no contexto das relações familiares em uma área da periferia da cidade de Recife, Pernambuco-Brasil. Apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa de caráter qualitativo sobre os significados da conversão para os integrantes da família e as decorrentes transformações no comportamento reprodutivo. Por fim, com base neste material empírico, levanta algumas questões sobre os serviços de saúde existentes no bairro e o uso que a população faz destes.

  14. Sintomas de estresse nos trabalhadores atuantes em cinco núcleos de saúde da família

    Camelo, Silvia H. Henriques; Angerami, Emília Luigia Saporiti


    Este estudo objetivou investigar a ocorrência de estresse nos trabalhadores de cinco núcleos de saúde da família, da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (USP). Foi utilizado o Inventário de Sintomas Stress para adultos, de Lipp. O instrumento visa identificar a sintomatologia que o indivíduo apresenta, avaliando se ele possui sintomas de estresse, o tipo de sintoma predominante e a fase em que se encontra. Constatou-se a presença de estresse em 62% dos trabalhadores, sendo que 83% deles e...

  15. As diferenças intergeracionais na conciliação trabalho família : um estudo qualitativo

    Silva, Carlota Barroso Ferreira da


    A presente investigação enquadra-se na análise da problemática da conciliação trabalho-família (work and life balance), abordada a partir da perspetiva das diferentes gerações que integram hoje o mercado de trabalho. O estudo, de carater exploratório, teve como principal objetivo contribuir para o conhecimento das necessidades e/ou dificuldades na conciliação das dimensões profissional e familiar dos participantes, mas sobretudo de se compreender se estas se relacionam com a geração à qual pe...

  16. A relação trabalho-família: um estudo qualitativo com trabalhadores da economia da partilha

    Loução, Sofia Gonçalves de Jesus


    O trabalho na economia de partilha surge como um dos modelos de trabalho contingente que tem vindo a proliferar no contexto da crescente globalização e de múltiplos desenvolvimentos tecnológicos. Todavia, este tipo de trabalho carece de uma análise científica, especialmente para o caso português. Este estudo explora as características deste tipo de trabalho e foca particularmente na relação trabalho-família em trabalhadores da economia da partilha, sendo que desenvolve uma refl...

  17. Percepções de usuários e profissionais da saúde da família sobre o Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família

    Geovani Gurgel Aciole

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar a percepção de usuários e profissionais da Estratégia de Saúde da Família sobre o Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família (Nasf. Trata-se de investigação qualitativa, com entrevista semi-estruturada e grupo focal, sob o prisma da análise de conteúdo. Os profissionais demonstraram conhecimento sobre o Nasf, mas dificuldade em conceituar os dispositivos da proposta. Os usuários, embora não reconheçam o núcleo pelo nome, valorizam e descrevem bem o trabalho, na perspectiva de acesso e qualidade do cuidado. As percepções sugerem que a proposta é reconhecida e valorizada pela população e que é necessário fortalecer as práticas de educação permanente e apoio matricial entre os profissionais.

  18. A genitália externa na tribo Bolboderini (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Herman Lent


    Full Text Available Sete espécies da tribo bolboderini, pertencentes aos gêneros Bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma e Parabelminus, duas das quais já encontradas naturalmente infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi, foram analisadas e comparadas tendo como enfoque oito estruturas da genitália externa dos machos: Processo mediano do pigóforo (PrP, Processo da conjuntiva (PrCj, Extensão mediana da placa basal (EPIb, Processo do endosoma (PrEn, Suporte do falosoma (SPh, Falosoma (Ph, Processo do gonoporo (PrG e a Vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (lent, 1951 e M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 mostraram um plano estrutural morfológico semelhante a Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e P. carioca Lent, 1943 e deferindo nitidamente de Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954 e B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e de Bolbodera scabrosa, Valdés, 1910, não só pela ausência como pela forma de determinadas estruturas. Estas observações comparativas confirmam as afinidades entre Microtriatoma e Parabelminus e suas relações com belminus e Bolbodera.Seven species of the Bolboderini tribe belonging to the genera bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma and Parabelminus, two of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, were analysed and compared emphasizing eight structures of the male external genitalia: median process of pygophore (PrP, conjunctiva process (PrCj, pedicel (EP1b, endosoma process (PrEn, struts (SPh, phallosoma (Ph, medium bridge (PrG and vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent, 1951 and M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 have shown a structural morphological aspect similar to Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and P. carioca Lent, 1943 differing clearly from Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954, B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and Bolbodera scabrosa valdés, 1910, not only by the absence but by the shape of some structures. These comparative observations confirm the affinity between

  19. O psiquiatra forense frente às demandas dos tribunais de família

    Lisieux E de Borba Telles


    Full Text Available Resumo Nas sociedades contemporâneas, a união entre as pessoas ocorre, de forma mais frequente, a partir das escolhas afetivas. No Brasil da última década, observou-se o aumento de 20% nas dissoluções de uniões conjugais. Alguns cônjuges não conseguem superar as dificuldades que emergem quando do término da relação, passando os filhos a serem alvo da conduta dos pais, configurando, em alguns casos, a Síndrome da Alienação Parental, observada em certos litígios que chegam às Varas de Família. O presente artigo enfoca o papel do psiquiatra forense frente às demandas oriundas das separações conjugais, à Síndrome de Alienação Parental e às legislações relacionadas a esta síndrome, em especial à lei brasileira nº 12.318, de 26 de agosto de 2010. Palavras chave: Criança; Divórcio; Avaliação; Psiquiatria forense (DeCS. Summary In modern societies, people decide to marry, more frequently, based on affective choices. In Brazil, during the last decade, there was a 20% increase in marital unions dissolutions. Some spouses fail to overcome the problems and difficulties that arise at the end of a relationship, with their children being the ones affected by their parents’ actions and behavior, thus giving place, in some cases, to the Parental Alienation Syndrome, which is observed in certain disputes that reach Family Courts. This article focuses on the Forensic Psychiatry role regarding the claims and demands that arise from marital dissolution, the Parental Alienation Syndrome and the legislation related to this syndrome, in particular the Brazilian Law 12.318, issued on August 26th, 2010. Keywords: Child; Custody; Divorce; Forensic Psychiatry (MeSH.


    Sheyla Villar Fredenhagem


    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma investigação, apoiada nos pressupostos da pesquisa qualitativa (LUDKE e ANDRÉ, 1986, sobre as causas da evasão de alunos de cursos dos níveis técnico, tecnológico e de licenciatura do Instituto Federal de Brasília. O objetivo da pesquisa é fornecer subsídios, como instrumentos de meta-avaliação (GREGO, 1997, que orientem intervenções que se façam necessárias na Instituição, em favor da permanência e do êxito dos educandos. Foram observados os cursos técnicos em Logística, Agronegócio, Cooperativismo, Eventos, Informática, Serviços Públicos, Agroindústria, Agropecuária, Reciclagem, Comércio, Manutenção e Suporte em Informática – recorte compreendido entre 01/2009 e 12/2012. Foram pesquisados cursos superiores de Licenciatura em Dança, período de 08/2010 a 12/2014; Tecnologia em Gestão Pública, período de 13/08/2012 a 20/07/2015; Licenciatura em Química, período de 03/2012 a 12/2015; e Tecnologia em Agroecologia, período de 02/2011 a 12/2013. Há cursos em andamento. Ouvidos 218 alunos, é possível inferir que as falas constituem indicadores seguros relativos aos campos pedagógico, administrativo, de ingresso, curricular e a outros de cunho organizacional e social. Foram registrados 59,63% de evasão no curso superior e 55,35% no técnico. Nesse recorte, obteve-se um total de 56,35% de evasão, mediante atualização de dados, realizada em 22/05/14, sob a ótica do índice de perda.