WorldWideScience

Sample records for line comments china

  1. Human comment dynamics in on-line social systems

    Wu, Ye; Zhou, Changsong; Chen, Maoying; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    Human comment is studied using data from ‘tianya’ which is one of the most popular on-line social systems in China. We found that the time interval between two consecutive comments on the same topic, called inter-event time, follows a power-law distribution. This result shows that there is no characteristic decay time on a topic. It allows for very long periods without comments that separate bursts of intensive comments. Furthermore, the frequency of a different ID commenting on a topic also follows a power-law distribution. It indicates that there are some “hubs” in the topic who lead the direction of the public opinion. Based on the personal comments habit, a model is introduced to explain these phenomena. The numerical simulations of the model fit well with the empirical results. Our findings are helpful for discovering regular patterns of human behavior in on-line society and the evolution of the public opinion on the virtual as well as real society.

  2. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  3. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    2011-08-18

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-12] China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd... Maritime Commission (Commission) by China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company...

  4. Investigation of Magnetospheric Line Radiation above China

    Sheng, X.; Wu, J.; Pu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric Line Radiation (MLR) is a kind of VLF emission that is considered by some researchers to be related with the power system on ground, and in frequency-time spectrograms of electromagnetic field, it has a line structure with large frequency bandwidth. These emission waves propagate through the magnetosphere and strongly interact with energetic electrons trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Such a wave-particle interaction amplifies the radiation and scatters energetic electrons, which may trigger new radiations. We detected 328 MLR events by analyzing the electric field data observed by DEMETER satellite in the space above China from the year of 2008 to 2010. Their characteristics and possible cause have been investigated systematically. There were more MLR events in daytime than in nighttime and more in winter than in summer. Such diurnal and seasonal differences were closely associated with whistlers and ionosphere conditions. Comparing Kp indices at the occurring time of MLR events and nationwide Kp indices through the analyzed years, we found these MLR events were not significantly dependent on geomagnetic activity. Most of events were distributed in the low latitude, while their peak intensities in frequency-time spectrograms seemed to be independent of latitude. The frequency intervals of MLR events were between 50 to 95Hz, and the frequency drifts were mostly in 0 0.4Hz/s. The above characteristics of MLR events were similar to those of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) events observed in the space above China, therefore we inferred that these two emissions have close relation.

  5. Long Lines Not So Practical in China while Small and Medium Sized Lines Favored

    Shao-Ying Chu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Maglev railroads have taken actual steps in China sincethe cooperation work between Germany and China, whichbrings more prospects to this technology. However, due to variousreasons, large-scaled long lines seem to be not so practicalat present in China, while the small and medium space scaledlines may be the initial alternatives with the booming ofthree super-metropolis groups in China, namely, the ZhujiangRiver Delta, the "Grand Beijing" area and the Yangtze RiverDelta.

  6. 76 FR 64075 - Request for Comments on Intellectual Property Enforcement in China

    2011-10-17

    ... the second largest economy in the world, China continues to attract U.S. businesses interested in...] Request for Comments on Intellectual Property Enforcement in China AGENCY: United States Patent and...: As China has become a major trading partner for the United States, U.S. rights holders are...

  7. 76 FR 50286 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    2011-08-12

    ...., subsidies, standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  8. Comment on 'Lorentz transformations with arbitrary line of motion'

    Tjiang, Paulus C; Sutanto, Sylvia H

    2007-01-01

    A short comment regarding the derivation of Lorentz transformation proposed by Iyer and Prabhu (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 11 183-90) is given. It is shown that the proposed derivation is similar to that appearing in the standard textbooks of classical mechanics, electrodynamics and the theory of relativity. In fact, those textbooks also provide an elegant form of the Lorentz matrix for the (3+1)-dimensional case, which Iyer and Prabhu claim to be difficult to attain because of its algebraic complexity. We also provide the derivation of the (3+1)-dimensional version of the Lorentz matrix using a method analogous to that proposed by Iyer and Prabhu, and show that the result is completely equivalent to the (3+1)-dimensional version appearing in the textbooks. (letters and comments)

  9. 77 FR 51570 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia

    2012-08-24

    ...)] Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia Determination On the basis of the... antidumping duty order on certain lined paper school supplies from Indonesia would not be likely to lead to... Lined Paper School Supplies from China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-442-443 and 731...

  10. 77 FR 48168 - Folding Gift Boxes From China; Postponement of Release of Staff Report and Date for Final Comments

    2012-08-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-921 (Second Review)] Folding Gift Boxes From China; Postponement of Release of Staff Report and Date for Final Comments AGENCY: United States... order on Folding Gift Boxes from China. Given this extension by Commerce, the date for the Commission's...

  11. 75 FR 45693 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    2010-08-03

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  12. 77 FR 50206 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    2012-08-20

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  13. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    2010-11-10

    ... with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304.19.10, 7304.19... Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination On the basis of...

  14. 78 FR 25091 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To...

    2013-04-29

    ...; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH-Funded Research, 0925-0601, Expiration Date 04/30... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be...

  15. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    2010-05-11

    ...)] Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY: United States... materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of...

  16. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    2013-02-28

    ... Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. OMB No. 0925-0601-- Expiration Date... and Use of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem...

  17. On-line reputation systems : the effects of feedback comments and reactions on building and rebuilding trust in on-line auctions

    Utz, S.; Matzat, U.; Snijders, C.C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on reputation systems primarily focused on their trust-building function. The present research addresses their trust-rebuilding function-specifically, the role of the short text comments given in reaction to negative feedback. Rebuilding trust is often necessary because on-line

  18. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Scheduling of Full Five...

    2012-02-01

    ...)] Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews... certain lined paper school supplies from India and Indonesia and/or the revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain lined paper school supplies from China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

  19. Comment

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    Comment on: Besley and Seabright (1999) The effects and policy implications of state aid to industry: an economic analysis. Economic Policy 14 (28), 13-53......Comment on: Besley and Seabright (1999) The effects and policy implications of state aid to industry: an economic analysis. Economic Policy 14 (28), 13-53...

  20. Comment

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362......Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362...

  1. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  2. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Comments and responses

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains public comments which were received on the Draft EIR/S. Significant issues may be identified through public and agency comments

  3. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    2011-03-24

    ... differentiate among cell lines, as described in Designation: ASN-0002 Authentication of Human Cell Lines... NIST (contact information above). III. Data OMB Control Number: None. Form Number: None. Type of Review...

  4. Nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity of RTCS gene in China elite maize inbred lines.

    Enying Zhang

    Full Text Available The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified.

  5. Comment

    2001-07-01

    schools and colleges are exploring electronic learning through the internet and virtual labs (see Steve Mellema's use of IT in his Lecture for the 21st Century). We aim to provide useful material for everybody at and in between the extremes. But some words of caution, sounded by Robertson in Stirling: today we might find that our classes are motivated and interested when we use computers, but how long will the excitement last? If every lesson faces children with computer screens will they soon get bored and demotivated? Individual learning, through worksheets, was a great success when it was developed in the 70s, but when every lesson faced a child with yet another worksheet, students were turned off. It became known as 'death by a thousand worksheets'. Let's not abuse computers in the same way. Physics for the beach and the igloo Physics is about being cool, as we are always trying to tell our students! In this 'summer' issue we have two papers which allow us to demonstrate this practically. I should also like to remind readers that Physics Education is available online (www.iop.org/Journals/pe) in addition to the paper version. The electronic version has the advantages of hotlinks to websites, search facilities and the ability to download teaching materials. My guess is that we haven't begun to explore the possibilities of the electronic journal as a teaching resource for teachers. If it can be stored electronically, we can include it as a multimedia clip pictures, worksheets, spreadsheets, videos, sounds... But there are also many advantages of paper—convenience and permanence being just two. Physics Education is a worthwhile publication and it feels like that in your hand. Having a journal like this, to put in my bag, or stack on my bookshelf, still feels good to me. And judging by readers' comments, you agree. IOPP will, no doubt, support both formats for a long time to come. So, this summer, enjoy the format you are reading, read Physics Education on screen or on

  6. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    Gutman, E M

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  7. Radiative effect of black carbon aerosol on a squall line case in North China

    Fu, Shizuo; Deng, Xin; Li, Zhe; Xue, Huiwen

    2017-11-01

    The radiative effect of black carbon aerosol (BC) on a squall line case in north China is studied with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Before the initiation of the squall line, the surface-emitted BC is mixed only in the boundary layer (BL). BC is then transported from the BL into the free troposphere by the updrafts in the squall line system. Once distributed in the atmosphere, BC absorbs solar radiation and heats the surrounding air. The maximum increase of temperature is 0.05 K for the moderately polluted case bc2 and 0.37 K for the heavily polluted case bc20. In case bc2, where the BC concentration is not very high, the solar flux reaching the surface, the sensible heat flux, and the latent heat flux are not significantly affected by BC. In case bc20, the solar flux reaching the surface, the sensible heat flux, and the latent heat flux are reduced by up to 80, 30, and 21 W m- 2, respectively. The reduced surface evaporation leads to a reduced vapor amount at the early stage. After some time, the heating effect causes a large-scale convergence and brings slightly more vapor into the domain. The effect of BC on the cold pool strength and low-level wind shear is small and hence does not significantly affect the triggering of new convections. In addition, our results show that the effect of BC is negligible on the strength and rain rate of the squall line case.

  8. Economic evaluation of first-line adjuvant chemotherapies for resectable gastric cancer patients in China.

    Tan, Chongqing; Peng, Liubao; Zeng, Xiaohui; Li, Jianhe; Wan, Xiaomin; Chen, Gannong; Yi, Lidan; Luo, Xia; Zhao, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    First-line postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies with S-1 and capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) were first recommended for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2010 and 2011 Chinese NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer; however, their economic impact in China is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX, with S-1 and no treatment after a gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymph-node dissection among patients with stage II-IIIB gastric cancer. A Markov model, based on data from two clinical phase III trials, was developed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of patients in the XELOX group, S-1 group and surgery only (SO) group. The costs were estimated from the perspective of Chinese healthcare system. The utilities were assumed on the basis of previously published reports. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated with a lifetime horizon. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. For the base case, XELOX had the lowest total cost ($44,568) and cost-effectiveness ratio ($7,360/QALY). The relative scenario analyses showed that SO was dominated by XELOX and the ICERs of S-1 was $58,843/QALY compared with XELOX. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential parameter was the utility of disease-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a 75.8% likelihood that the ICER for XELOX would be less than $13,527 compared with S-1. When ICER was more than $38,000, the likelihood of cost-effectiveness achieved by S-1 group was greater than 50%. Our results suggest that for patients in China with resectable disease, first-line adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX after a D2 gastrectomy is a best option comparing with S-1 and SO in view of our current study. In addition, S-1 might be a better choice, especially with a higher value of willingness-to-pay threshold.

  9. An Analysis and Comments on the First IT Intellectual Property Right Case in China

    FENG Wei; YIN Lu

    2006-01-01

    The Netac Technology Co., Ltd brought suit against Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Co., Ltd for infringing Netac's patent. This case was the preclude to the intellectual property rights (IPR) war of the internal enterprises. The process of this case was followed with great interest because it would influence the development of the hundreds of Mobile Storage enterprises in China. This paper is based on the brief review of the details of the case, the authors analyze the main legal issues covered by this case from the two aspects of the substantive and the procedural law, and reach the conclusions that the IPR strategy has gradually become the key to the IT enterprises in their intense market competition and that the concerned laws and regulations in China should be rectified and improved accordingly.

  10. Establishment of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines of old residents in high background radiation area in Guangdong, China

    Lu Xue; Feng Jiangbing; Chen Deqing; Liu Qingjie; Cha Yongru; Zou Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the immortalized cell lines of peripheral blood lymphocytes for old male residents in high background radiation area (HBRA) in Guangdong, China, in order to preserve the specific genomic resources of residents in HBRA for the further genetic and molecular biological study on HBRA. Methods: The peripheral blood samples of 20 old male residents in HBRA were collected after informed consent. The immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines, 2 fox each resident, were established with Epstein-Barr virus. After being frozen and recovered, the cell viability, the contamination of bacterium and mycoplasma were analyzed. The stabilization of cell lines was decided by comparing the karyotypes of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and the cell lines. Results: 40 cell lines for 20 residents in HBRA were successfully established.. The recovery rate of cell lines after being frozen was 100% . All the cell viablity after recovery was higher than 90%, and no contamination of bacteria and mycoplasma occurred. The karyotypes of the 20th generation cell lines were not change. Conclusion: The immortalized cell lines established in this study could provide biological resources for further study on genetics and molecular biology in HBRA. (authors)

  11. 75 FR 64776 - Initiation of Section 302 Investigation and Request for Public Comment: China-Acts, Policies and...

    2010-10-20

    ... annual U.S. trade deficit with China in green technology goods to increase by more than two billion dollars since China joined the WTO. The petition alleges that U.S. exports to China in the sector have grown only modestly, while U.S. imports from China in the sector are nearly five times higher than they...

  12. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  13. What the public was saying about the H1N1 vaccine: perceptions and issues discussed in on-line comments during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, a vaccine was made available to all Canadians. Despite efforts to promote vaccination, the public's intent to vaccinate remained low. In order to better understand the public's resistance to getting vaccinated, this study addressed factors that influenced the public's decision making about uptake. To do this, we used a relatively novel source of qualitative data--comments posted on-line in response to news articles on a particular topic. This study analysed 1,796 comments posted in response to 12 articles dealing with H1N1 vaccine on websites of three major Canadian news sources. Articles were selected based on topic and number of comments. A second objective was to assess the extent to which on-line comments can be used as a reliable data source to capture public attitudes during a health crisis. The following seven themes were mentioned in at least 5% of the comments (% indicates the percentage of comments that included the theme: fear of H1N1 (18.8%; responsibility of media (17.8%; government competency (17.7%; government trustworthiness (10.7%; fear of H1N1 vaccine (8.1%; pharmaceutical companies (7.6%; and personal protective measures (5.8%. It is assumed that the more frequently a theme was mentioned, the more that theme influenced decision making about vaccination. These key themes for the public were often not aligned with the issues and information officials perceived, and conveyed, as relevant in the decision making process. The main themes from the comments were consistent with results from surveys and focus groups addressing similar issues, which suggest that on-line comments do provide a reliable source of qualitative data on attitudes and perceptions of issues that emerge in a health crisis. The insights derived from the comments can contribute to improved communication and policy decisions about vaccination in health crises that incorporate the public's views.

  14. What the public was saying about the H1N1 vaccine: perceptions and issues discussed in on-line comments during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev

    2011-04-18

    During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, a vaccine was made available to all Canadians. Despite efforts to promote vaccination, the public's intent to vaccinate remained low. In order to better understand the public's resistance to getting vaccinated, this study addressed factors that influenced the public's decision making about uptake. To do this, we used a relatively novel source of qualitative data--comments posted on-line in response to news articles on a particular topic. This study analysed 1,796 comments posted in response to 12 articles dealing with H1N1 vaccine on websites of three major Canadian news sources. Articles were selected based on topic and number of comments. A second objective was to assess the extent to which on-line comments can be used as a reliable data source to capture public attitudes during a health crisis. The following seven themes were mentioned in at least 5% of the comments (% indicates the percentage of comments that included the theme): fear of H1N1 (18.8%); responsibility of media (17.8%); government competency (17.7%); government trustworthiness (10.7%); fear of H1N1 vaccine (8.1%); pharmaceutical companies (7.6%); and personal protective measures (5.8%). It is assumed that the more frequently a theme was mentioned, the more that theme influenced decision making about vaccination. These key themes for the public were often not aligned with the issues and information officials perceived, and conveyed, as relevant in the decision making process. The main themes from the comments were consistent with results from surveys and focus groups addressing similar issues, which suggest that on-line comments do provide a reliable source of qualitative data on attitudes and perceptions of issues that emerge in a health crisis. The insights derived from the comments can contribute to improved communication and policy decisions about vaccination in health crises that incorporate the public's views.

  15. China

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  16. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    Shui-Ping Wu; Yin-Ju Zhang; James J. Schwab; Shuai Huang; Ya Wei; Chung-Shin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and potassium (K+), and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365) of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen). These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal ...

  17. A Hierarchical Bayesian Model to Predict Self-Thinning Line for Chinese Fir in Southern China.

    Xiongqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Self-thinning is a dynamic equilibrium between forest growth and mortality at full site occupancy. Parameters of the self-thinning lines are often confounded by differences across various stand and site conditions. For overcoming the problem of hierarchical and repeated measures, we used hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the self-thinning line. The results showed that the self-thinning line for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.Hook. plantations was not sensitive to the initial planting density. The uncertainty of model predictions was mostly due to within-subject variability. The simulation precision of hierarchical Bayesian method was better than that of stochastic frontier function (SFF. Hierarchical Bayesian method provided a reasonable explanation of the impact of other variables (site quality, soil type, aspect, etc. on self-thinning line, which gave us the posterior distribution of parameters of self-thinning line. The research of self-thinning relationship could be benefit from the use of hierarchical Bayesian method.

  18. Greener plants, grayer skies? A report from the front lines of China's energy sector

    Steinfeld, Edward S.; Lester, Richard K.; Cunningham, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from the MIT China Energy Group's first-of-its-kind, independent nationwide survey of Chinese coal-fired power plants. It is well understood that developments in China's energy sector now have global environmental implications. It is also well understood that this sector has in recent years experienced rapidly rising fuel costs. The MIT survey, by delving into technology choice, pricing, fuel sourcing, and environmental cleanup at the firm level, provides insights into how the Chinese power sector as a whole responds, and what the environmental implications are. The findings suggest rapid uptake of advanced combustion technologies across the system, largely in response to rising fuel costs. Environmental cleanup systems, particularly for sulfur dioxide, have also spread rapidly, in large part due to regulatory enforcement. Yet, operationally, plants pollute substantially. Price hikes encourage them to source low-grade fuel and idle cleanup systems. On the whole, the Chinese system infrastructurally has a proven capacity for rapid technological upgrading in the face of new market and regulatory pressures. Operationally, however, in part due to exposure to market forces, and in part due to limited state capacity for monitoring operations, even the most advanced power plants remain major polluters.

  19. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    Gutman, E M, E-mail: gutman@bgu.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2010-10-27

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  20. Genetic variation assessed with microsatellites in mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China

    Wang, Xubo; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2016-12-01

    Four successive mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, selected for faster growth in breeding programs in China were examined at ten polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the level of allelic diversity and estimate the effective population size. These data were compared with those of their base population. The results showed that the genetic variation of the four generations were maintained at high levels with an average allelic richness of 18.8-20.6, and a mean expected heterozygosity of 0.902-0.921. They were not reduced compared with those of their base population. Estimated effective population sizes based on temporal variances in microsatellite frequencies were smaller to that of sex ratio-corrected broodstock count estimates. Using a relatively large number of broodstock and keeping an equal sex ratio in the broodstock each generation may have contributed to retaining the original genetic diversity and maintaining relatively large effective population size. The results obtained in this study showed that the genetic variation was not affected greatly by mass selection progress and high genetic variation still existed in the mass selection lines, suggesting that there is still potential for increasing the gains in future generations of C. gigas. The present study provided important information for future genetic improvement by selective breeding, and for the design of suitable management guidelines for genetic breeding of C. gigas.

  1. 78 FR 49787 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    2013-08-15

    ..., standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement, trade... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... with its WTO commitments. SUMMARY: The interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) will convene a...

  2. Analysis and Countermeasures of Wind Power Accommodation by Aluminum Electrolysis Pot-Lines in China

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.

  3. The broad component of hydrogen emission lines in nuclei of Seyfert galaxies: Comments on a charge exchange model

    Katz, A.

    1975-01-01

    A model to account for the broad hydrogen line emission from the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies based on charge exchange and collisional processes, as proposed by Ptak and Stoner, is investigated. The model consists of a source of fast (E approx. 10 5 eV) protons streaming through a medium of quiescent gas. One of the major problems that results from such a model concerns the strong narrow hydrogen line core that would be produced, in direct conflict with the observations. The lines cannot arise from gas arranged throughout a spherical volume surrounding the source of the fast particles because the fast protons would produce far more ionizations than the possible number of recombinations. A very dense shell source of less than 1 AU in thickness and at least several tens of parsecs in radius must be invoked to reproduce the asymmetric broad profiles observed. There must be absorption throughout the center of the shell to account for the line profiles. The gas cannot be arranged in dense clumps throughout a large volume because momentum exchange of the gas with the primary particles would quickly accelerate any clumps. The energy balance and energy requirements of such a model are investigated, and it is found that an energy equal to or greater than the total luminosity of most Seyfert galaxies is required to produce the hydrogen line alone. The gas must be mostly neutral and den []e (N approx. 10 7 ) if a reasonable temperature is to be maintained

  4. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    Shui-Ping Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC and potassium (K+, and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365 of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen. These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with a large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and annual means across all sites of 59.2±46.8 ng m−3 and 2.69±1.21 µg C m−3, respectively. The distinctive seasonal patterns of LG and WSOC are more explained by the East Asian monsoon than the upwind varying emission sources according to the HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS fire spots. Observations produced significant correlation (at the p<0.01 level between LG and non-sea salt K+ (nss-K+ at each site, but the correlations exhibited no clear seasonal trend. The LG/nss-K+ ratios ranged from 0.03±0.01 to 0.24±0.13 which lay within the limits for the crop residues and/or grass combustion smoke. Stronger correlations were found between WSOC or Abs365 and sulphate than between WSOC and LG. This observation is consistent with the fact that biomass burning is a less important contributor to WSOC and/or brown carbon than is secondary organic aerosol formation and oxidation. The average relative contributions of biomass burning to OC and WSOC in PM2.5 were 8.3 and 15.2 %, respectively, estimated by the measured LG to OC and WSOC (LG/OC and LG/WSOC ratios in comparison to literature-derived LG/OC and LG/WSOC values for biomass burning smoke. Using the reported conversion factor of LG to PM2.5 for crop straw burning smoke, the LG-estimated PM2.5 contributions from biomass burning exhibited minimum values in summer and higher values in winter and spring. Positive Matrix

  5. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  6. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Saxagliptin versus Acarbose as Second-Line Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes in China.

    Gu, Shuyan; Zeng, Yuhang; Yu, Demin; Hu, Xiaoqian; Dong, Hengjin

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term cost-effectiveness of saxagliptin+metformin (SAXA+MET) versus acarbose+metformin (ACAR+MET) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on MET alone. Systematic literature reviews were performed to identify studies directly comparing SAXA+MET versus ACAR+MET, and to obtain diabetes-related events costs which were modified by hospital surveys. A Cardiff Diabetes Model was used to estimate the long-term economic and health treatment consequences in patients with T2DM. Costs (2014 Chinese yuan) were calculated from the payer's perspective and estimated over a patient's lifetime. SAXA+MET predicted lower incidences of most cardiovascular events, hypoglycemia events and fatal events, and decreased total costs compared with ACAR+MET. For an individual patient, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained with SAXA+MET was 0.48 more than ACAR+MET at a cost saving of ¥18,736, which resulted in a cost saving of ¥38,640 per QALY gained for SAXA+MET versus ACAR+MET. Results were robust across various univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. SAXA+MET is a cost-effective treatment alternative compared with ACAR+MET for patients with T2DM in China, with a little QALYs gain and lower costs. SAXA is an effective, well-tolerated drug with a low incidence of adverse events and ease of administration; it is anticipated to be an effective second-line therapy for T2DM treatment.

  8. Atmospheric ammonia measurements along the coastal lines of Southeastern China: Implications for inorganic nitrogen deposition to coastal waters

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Dai, Lu-Hong; Wei, Ya; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Yin-Ju; Schwab, James J.; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2018-03-01

    Ambient NH3 concentrations were determined using Ogawa passive samplers along the coastal lines of southeast China from June 2015 to May 2017. Additional monitoring of PM2.5 and precipitation around Xiamen Bay during the period from November 2015 to May 2017 were carried out to estimate atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition to the bay. Distinct seasonal variations of ambient NH3 were observed with summer averages 1.41-5.56 times higher than winter, which agreed well with the seasonal trend of air temperature. Nitrate concentrations (pNO3-) in PM2.5 were significantly higher than ammonium concentrations (pNH4+), and both species showed higher concentrations in winter and spring and lower values in summer and fall which were influenced mainly by the monsoon cycle, gas-to-particle transformation process and rain washout. Paired t-testing revealed that no significant differences of pNO3- and pNH4+ between the urban and suburban sites around the Xiamen Bay. Unlike pNO3- and pNH4+, there were no clear seasonal trends for NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in precipitation samples (wNH4+ and wNO3-). On average, the deposition of IN consisted of NH3-N (27.4-28.2%) and pNO3--N (25.9-26.8%), followed by pNH4+-N (17.0-17.7%), wNH4+-N (14.5%), wNO3--N (13.3-13.8%) and NO2-N (0.35-0.46%); and showed distinct seasonal trends with higher values in winter/spring and lower values in summer/fall. In 2016, the total IN deposition was determined to be 36.45 and 35.92 kg N ha-1 at the urban and suburban sites around the Xiamen Bay, respectively. The proportion of IN deposition to total IN loads (terrestrial + atmospheric), varied over the range of 7.1-13.3% depending on the data source of riverine influx. Our observations revealed that the total IN deposition could account for 9.6-25.1% (based on primary productivity over Taiwan Strait) and 1.7-5.3% (based on primary productivity in Guangdong coastal region) of new productivity in Xiamen Bay, respectively. As an important nutrient

  9. Contact wire positions and contact forces. Measurements at high-speed lines in China; Fahrdrahtlage und Kontaktkraefte. Messungen an Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in China

    Heland, Joerg; Rick, Frank; Sarnes, Bernhard [DB Systemtechnik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Puschmann, Rainer [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Infrastructure and Cities

    2012-07-15

    The reliable energy transmission from overhead contact line to pantograph of traction units without interruption decides on the successful operation of high-speed railway lines. Measurements of contact wire position and contact forces are suited to assess interaction of overhead contact line and pantograph. Chinese Railways actually implement the biggest electrification program for high-speed lines worldwide. For these projects contact wire position and contact forces are monitored by procedures developed in Germany. The experience confirms that keeping the contact wire position within the specified limits lead to a superior energy transmission up to 350 km/h. (orig.)

  10. Statistics-based optimization of the polarimetric radar hydrometeor classification algorithm and its application for a squall line in South China

    Wu, Chong; Liu, Liping; Wei, Ming; Xi, Baozhu; Yu, Minghui

    2018-03-01

    A modified hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA) is developed in this study for Chinese polarimetric radars. This algorithm is based on the U.S. operational HCA. Meanwhile, the methodology of statistics-based optimization is proposed including calibration checking, datasets selection, membership functions modification, computation thresholds modification, and effect verification. Zhuhai radar, the first operational polarimetric radar in South China, applies these procedures. The systematic bias of calibration is corrected, the reliability of radar measurements deteriorates when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, and correlation coefficient within the melting layer is usually lower than that of the U.S. WSR-88D radar. Through modification based on statistical analysis of polarimetric variables, the localized HCA especially for Zhuhai is obtained, and it performs well over a one-month test through comparison with sounding and surface observations. The algorithm is then utilized for analysis of a squall line process on 11 May 2014 and is found to provide reasonable details with respect to horizontal and vertical structures, and the HCA results—especially in the mixed rain-hail region—can reflect the life cycle of the squall line. In addition, the kinematic and microphysical processes of cloud evolution and the differences between radar-detected hail and surface observations are also analyzed. The results of this study provide evidence for the improvement of this HCA developed specifically for China.

  11. Interpretative commenting.

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  12. Current and Potential Tree Locations in Tree Line Ecotone of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China: The Controlling Effects of Topography

    Zong, Shengwei; Wu, Zhengfang; Xu, Jiawei; Li, Ming; Gao, Xiaofeng; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Tree line ecotone in the Changbai Mountains has undergone large changes in the past decades. Tree locations show variations on the four sides of the mountains, especially on the northern and western sides, which has not been fully explained. Previous studies attributed such variations to the variations in temperature. However, in this study, we hypothesized that topographic controls were responsible for causing the variations in the tree locations in tree line ecotone of the Changbai Mountain...

  13. Current and potential tree locations in tree line ecotone of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China: the controlling effects of topography.

    Zong, Shengwei; Wu, Zhengfang; Xu, Jiawei; Li, Ming; Gao, Xiaofeng; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Tree line ecotone in the Changbai Mountains has undergone large changes in the past decades. Tree locations show variations on the four sides of the mountains, especially on the northern and western sides, which has not been fully explained. Previous studies attributed such variations to the variations in temperature. However, in this study, we hypothesized that topographic controls were responsible for causing the variations in the tree locations in tree line ecotone of the Changbai Mountains. To test the hypothesis, we used IKONOS images and WorldView-1 image to identify the tree locations and developed a logistic regression model using topographical variables to identify the dominant controls of the tree locations. The results showed that aspect, wetness, and slope were dominant controls for tree locations on western side of the mountains, whereas altitude, SPI, and aspect were the dominant factors on northern side. The upmost altitude a tree can currently reach was 2140 m asl on the northern side and 2060 m asl on western side. The model predicted results showed that habitats above the current tree line on the both sides were available for trees. Tree recruitments under the current tree line may take advantage of the available habitats at higher elevations based on the current tree location. Our research confirmed the controlling effects of topography on the tree locations in the tree line ecotone of Changbai Mountains and suggested that it was essential to assess the tree response to topography in the research of tree line ecotone.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of sunitinib as second-line treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the People’s Republic of China

    Li J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Li,1 Hong Ye Ren,2 Juanjuan Zhang,2 Peng Dong,2 Yan Wang,3 Andrea L Stevens,3 Yi Han,3 Min Huang4 1Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research for the Ministry of National Education, Department of GI Oncology, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital & Institute, 2Pfizer Inc., Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3WG Consulting, New York, NY, USA; 4School of Pharmacy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib as a second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors that no longer respond to imatinib 400 mg/d, compared with imatinib 600 mg/d, 800 mg/d, or best supportive care (BSC in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: This study was conducted from the government payer’s perspective with a time horizon of 5 years. Three health states were considered: progression-free survival, disease progression survival, and death, with a cycle length of 6 weeks. Probabilities of disease progression and death were estimated based on survival functions using exponential distribution and progression survival data in the clinical trials. Drug costs were based on drug retail prices and the patient assistance program in the People’s Republic of China, and adverse event management costs were based on published data and/or expert opinion. Uncertainties for parameters in the study were addressed through one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: When sunitinib was compared with imatinib 600 mg/d and BSC, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was RMB75,715 with RMB121,080 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. Sunitinib demonstrated lower costs and higher QALYs than imatinib 800 mg/d. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the willingness-to-pay per QALY gained was set to be three times the per capita gross domestic product of the People’s Republic of

  15. 1647 comments.pmd

    driniev

    ask for fax line). Cell: +2772 40 59 561. E-mail: frank.winde@gmx.de. Comments on: “Gold tailings as a source of waterborne uranium contamination of streams – The Koekemoerspruit as a case study” published in Water SA 30 (2) 219-240.

  16. Mobile-Source GHG Modeling Institutions and Capacities in China:Findings Based on Structured Interviews and On-Line Surveys

    Jiangping; ZHOU; Yin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of practices of mobile-source greenhouse gas(GHG) modeling in China and related data sharing issues. It is based on structured phone interviews and two on-line surveys conducted in 2011 and finds that most cities have transportation-land use models but that few have mobile-source GHG models. A group of entities housed in the government have the strongest GHG modeling capacities and dominate the relevant consulting market. Data hoarding of public entities is the biggest barrier for entities without government ties to compete in the market. The reasons for data hoarding include government concerns over political implications of data release, a tradition of data hoarding, and a lack of confidence in reliability and accuracy of the data.

  17. 76 FR 49836 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8846

    2011-08-11

    ... Actions: Lines 7 through 11 will be removed, since the passive activity limit and the carryover amounts... included in the request for OMB approval. All comments will become a matter of public record. Comments are...

  18. 75 FR 63814 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    2010-10-18

    ... consist of hole-punched or drilled filler paper; Three-ring or multiple-ring binders, or notebook organizers incorporating such a ring binder provided that they do not include subject paper; Index cards... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-901] Certain Lined Paper Products...

  19. China's water, energy and food nexus - an assessment of the sustainability of the "3 Red Lines" water policies in the Haihe Basin

    Qin, Ying; Allwood, Julian; Richards, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and economic development continue to put increasing pressures on China's limited resources which are further exacerbated by the country's substantial regional variations in both natural and socioeconomic conditions. China's pursuit of water, energy and food security faces trade-offs and tensions and the Haihe Basin exemplifies these issues. The river basin contains the capital region of Beijing, Hebei and Tianjin which are already experiencing stress and shortfalls of water resources as a result of intense competition for limited resources. To tackle water scarcity and promote more sustainable use of water, the government has implemented national and regional "3 Red Lines" water policies but they are not integrated with energy and food policies. The aim of this analysis is to assess the sustainability of the regional "3 Red Lines" water targets and their compatibility with energy and food security. This study uses a spatially-explicit, integrated resource model which integrates a hydrological model (GWAVA) with energy and food sub-models in order to analyse current and future resource availability and demand. To assess resource futures, different demand and supply scenarios were analysed up to 2030. Results are visualised as maps and connected Sankey diagrams and outputs are compared with the "3 Red Lines" water targets as well as against indicators related to land and energy policies. The results show that under a business-as-usual scenario, total water demands for Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei are unlikely to comply with future water targets. Reducing water use in the industry and agriculture sectors will be critical in this water-scarce region and whilst efficiency improvements are important, technology choices appear to make the most significant impact e.g. irrigation method for agriculture and cooling technology for power generation. However, both these water saving-measures have trade-offs in energy consumption. Proposed water saving plans of

  20. Catherine Parayre, « Les impostures de l’écriture : “Comment réussir sa vie” de Paul Savoie et La critique de Céline Forcier

    Catherine Parayre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En soi, les calculs secrets de tout imposteur ont pour objectif de manipuler autrui et de le convaincre à croire vrai ce qui ne l’est pas. Dans la nouvelle « Comment réussir sa vie » de Paul Savoie (L’empire des rôdeurs, 2004 tout autant que dans le roman La critique (2012 de Céline Forcier, l’imposture consiste chez le protagoniste à s’arroger le rôle d’écrivain sans toutefois se soumettre à la critique, c’est-à-dire à publier un texte en passant outre les règles du monde de l’édition. Savoie et Forcier dressent ainsi le portrait complexe, ni approbateur ni antipathique, d’auteurs isolés mais opiniâtres. Dans une critique sous-jacente, ils n’épargnent pas non plus les excès et autres dysfonctionnements de l’institution littéraire. Au-delà de destins particuliers, « Comment réussir sa vie » et La critique se font surtout l’écho de questions et thèmes volontiers abordés dans l’écriture en milieu minoritaire. L’article entreprend de déterminer dans quelle mesure ces deux textes explorent diverses facettes de la figure de l’écrivain franco-ontarien.

  1. Air pollution or global warming: Attribution of extreme precipitation changes in eastern China—Comments on "Trends of extreme precipitation in Eastern China and their possible causes"

    Wang, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    The recent study "Trends of Extreme Precipitation in Eastern China and Their Possible Causes" attributed the observed decrease/increase of light/heavy precipitation in eastern China to global warming rather than the regional aerosol effects. However, there exist compelling evidence from previous long-term observations and numerical modeling studies, suggesting that anthropogenic pollution is closely linked to the recent changes in precipitation intensity because of considerably modulated cloud physical properties by aerosols in eastern China. Clearly, a quantitative assessment of the aerosol and greenhouse effects on the regional scale is required to identify the primary cause for the extreme precipitation changes.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of saxagliptin vs glimepiride as a second-line therapy added to metformin in Type 2 diabetes in China.

    Gu, Shuyan; Deng, Jing; Shi, Lizheng; Mu, Yiming; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of saxagliptin + metformin (SAXA + MET) vs glimepiride + metformin (GLI + MET) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with MET in China. The Cardiff Model was used to simulate disease progression and estimate the long-term effect of treatments on patients. Systematic literature reviews and hospital surveys were conducted to obtain patients profiles, clinical data, and costs. Health insurance costs (2014¥) were estimated over a 40-year period. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. SAXA + MET had lower predicted incidences of cardiovascular and hypoglycemia events and a decreased total cost compared with GLI + MET (¥241,072,807 vs ¥285,455,177). There were increased numbers of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 1.01/patient) and life-years (Lys; 0.03/patient) gained with SAXA + MET compared with GLI + MET, and the incremental cost of SAXA + MET vs GLI + MET (-¥44,382) resulted in -¥43,883/QALY and -¥1,710,926/LY gained with SAXA + MET. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the results were robust. In patients with T2DM in China, SAXA + MET was more cost-effective and was well tolerated with fewer adverse effects (AEs) compared with GLI + MET. As a second-line therapy for T2DM, SAXA may address some of the unmet medical needs attributable to AEs in the treatment of T2DM.

  3. Ten-day bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is effective as first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis: a prospective randomized study in China.

    Wang, L; Lin, Z; Chen, S; Li, J; Chen, C; Huang, Z; Ye, B; Ding, J; Li, W; Wu, L; Jiang, Y; Meng, L; Du, Q; Si, J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from October 2011 to December 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly provided either 10-day omeprazole-based triple therapy (OM-triple; omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily) or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily). H. pylori status, pathologic findings and dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication rates by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The secondary outcomes were the histologic and symptomatic benefits from H. pylori eradication. A total of 351 patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis were recruited. The eradication rates of the OM-triple and B-quadruple groups were 58.4% (108/185) and 86.1% (143/166) respectively according to ITT analysis (p gastritis and intestinal metaplasia did not regress in both groups (n=326). The reduction of dyspeptic symptoms score was significantly higher in the B-quadruple group than in the OM-triple group (0.59±0.057 vs. 0.39±0.046) (p gastritis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Trial-Based Cost-Utility Analysis of Icotinib versus Gefitinib as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in China.

    Zhang, Chunxiang; Zhang, Hongmei; Shi, Jinning; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiuwei; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Qizhi; Ma, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to compare the cost-utility of icotinib and gefitinib for the second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Model technology was applied to assess the data of randomized clinical trials and the direct medical costs from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Five-year quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed. Our model suggested that the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.2 months in the icotinib group and 3.5 months in the gefitinib group while they were 4.6 months and 3.4 months, respectively, in the trials. The 5-year QALYs was 0.279 in the icotinib group and 0.269 in the gefitinib group, and the according medical costs were $10662.82 and $13127.57. The ICUR/QALY of icotinib versus gefitinib presented negative in this study. The most sensitive parameter to the ICUR was utility of PFS, ranging from $-1,259,991.25 to $-182,296.61; accordingly the icotinib treatment consistently represented a dominant cost-utility strategy. The icotinib strategy, as a second-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients in China, is the preferred strategy relative to gefitinib because of the dominant cost-utility. In addition, icotinib shows a good curative effect and safety, resulting in a strong demand for the Chinese market.

  5. Trial-Based Cost-Utility Analysis of Icotinib versus Gefitinib as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in China.

    Chunxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Our objective is to compare the cost-utility of icotinib and gefitinib for the second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system.Model technology was applied to assess the data of randomized clinical trials and the direct medical costs from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Five-year quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs were calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA were performed.Our model suggested that the median progression-free survival (PFS was 4.2 months in the icotinib group and 3.5 months in the gefitinib group while they were 4.6 months and 3.4 months, respectively, in the trials. The 5-year QALYs was 0.279 in the icotinib group and 0.269 in the gefitinib group, and the according medical costs were $10662.82 and $13127.57. The ICUR/QALY of icotinib versus gefitinib presented negative in this study. The most sensitive parameter to the ICUR was utility of PFS, ranging from $-1,259,991.25 to $-182,296.61; accordingly the icotinib treatment consistently represented a dominant cost-utility strategy.The icotinib strategy, as a second-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients in China, is the preferred strategy relative to gefitinib because of the dominant cost-utility. In addition, icotinib shows a good curative effect and safety, resulting in a strong demand for the Chinese market.

  6. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    2010-08-13

    ... the surrogate values for shrimp larvae, diesel fuel, shrimp waste, and by- products. For further... Korean Import Data Comment 3: Shrimp Larvae Comment 4: Shrimp Feed Comment 5: Electricity Comment 6... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission...

  7. Predicting the volume of comments on online news stories

    Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Cheung, D.; Song, I.-Y.; Chu, W.; Hu, X.; Lin, J.; Li, J.; Peng, Z.

    2009-01-01

    On-line news agents provide commenting facilities for readers to express their views with regard to news stories. The number of user supplied comments on a news article may be indicative of its importance or impact. We report on exploratory work that predicts the comment volume of news articles

  8. 78 FR 14515 - Extension of Comment Period for Request for Comments on a Patent Small Claims Proceeding in the...

    2013-03-06

    ... be sent by email to ip[email protected] . Comments may also be submitted by postal mail addressed to... be submitted by postal mail, the USPTO prefers to receive comments via email. Written comments should be identified in the subject line of the email or postal mailing as ``Patent Small Claims.'' Because...

  9. PSA time to nadir as a prognostic factor of first-line docetaxel treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer: evidence from patients in Northwestern China.

    Wu, Kai-Jie; Pei, Xin-Qi; Tian, Ge; Wu, Da-Peng; Fan, Jin-Hai; Jiang, Yu-Mei; He, Da-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy remains the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in China; however, the prognostic factors associated with effects in these patients are still controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 71 eligible Chinese patients who received docetaxel chemotherapy from 2009 to 2016 in our hospital and experienced a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥50% during the treatment and investigated the potential role of time to nadir (TTN) of PSA. TTN was defined as the time from start of chemotherapy to the nadir of PSA level during the treatment. Multivariable Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to predict overall survival (OS). In these patients, the median of TTN was 17 weeks. Patients with TTN ≥17 weeks had a longer response time to chemotherapy compared to TTN PSA progression in patients with TTN ≥17 weeks was 11.44 weeks compared to 5.63 weeks when TTN was PSA level at the diagnosis of cancer (HR: 4.337, 95% CI: 1.616-11.645, P = 0.004), duration of initial androgen deprivation therapy (HR: 2.982, 95% CI: 1.104-8.045, P = 0.031), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR: 3.963, 95% CI: 1.380-11.384, P = 0.011), and total PSA response (Class 1 [PSA remains an important prognostic marker in predicting therapeutic outcome in Chinese population who receive chemotherapy for mCRPC and have >50% PSA remission.

  10. Identification of Metal Absorption Lines on Quasar Spectra of SDSS ...

    . Baise 533000, China. 2Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. 3Centre for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: cysu@gdut.edu.cn. Abstract. Absorption lines are an important ...

  11. Bike Map Lines

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  12. 76 FR 55741 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    2011-09-08

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Qualified Separate Lines of Business. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 7...: Title: Qualified Separate Lines of Business. OMB Number: 1545-1221. Regulation Project Number: EE-147-87...

  13. A new genus and species of winter stoneflies (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Southwest China, with a commented checklist of the family in the Oriental Realm.

    Murányi, Dávid; Li, Weihai; Yang, Ding

    2015-12-22

    A new genus and species of the family Capniidae (Plecoptera), Sinocapnia kuankuoshui gen. n., sp. n. is described from the adult male and a female collected in Guizhou Province of southwest China. The new taxon is distinguished from all extant Capniidae genera and the assemblage of species currently included in Capnia sensu lato by combination of unique genitalic, wing, and thoracic sclerites characters. No closely related taxon is indicated on the basis of morphological characters. An annotated checklist of the family Capniidae from the Oriental Realm is given.

  14. Ethics, Economics and Higher Education: A Comment

    Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This comment was given to an international panel on the economics of education at the invitation of the Beijing Forum, China, on 3 November 2012. It was published in Chinese in Volume 11, 2013, of the "Peking University Education Review". It considers the connections between ethics, economics and policy towards higher education, using a…

  15. South China Sea Dispute

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  16. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the

  17. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and economic foundations of interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the

  18. Accuracy of epidemiological inferences based on publicly available information: retrospective comparative analysis of line lists of human cases infected with influenza A(H7N9) in China.

    Lau, Eric H Y; Zheng, Jiandong; Tsang, Tim K; Liao, Qiaohong; Lewis, Bryan; Brownstein, John S; Sanders, Sharon; Wong, Jessica Y; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Rivers, Caitlin; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yu; Yu, Jianxing; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Peng, Zhibin; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Luzhao; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-05-28

    Appropriate public health responses to infectious disease threats should be based on best-available evidence, which requires timely reliable data for appropriate analysis. During the early stages of epidemics, analysis of 'line lists' with detailed information on laboratory-confirmed cases can provide important insights into the epidemiology of a specific disease. The objective of the present study was to investigate the extent to which reliable epidemiologic inferences could be made from publicly-available epidemiologic data of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus. We collated and compared six different line lists of laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in the 2013 outbreak in China, including the official line list constructed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention plus five other line lists by HealthMap, Virginia Tech, Bloomberg News, the University of Hong Kong and FluTrackers, based on publicly-available information. We characterized clinical severity and transmissibility of the outbreak, using line lists available at specific dates to estimate epidemiologic parameters, to replicate real-time inferences on the hospitalization fatality risk, and the impact of live poultry market closure. Demographic information was mostly complete (less than 10% missing for all variables) in different line lists, but there were more missing data on dates of hospitalization, discharge and health status (more than 10% missing for each variable). The estimated onset to hospitalization distributions were similar (median ranged from 4.6 to 5.6 days) for all line lists. Hospital fatality risk was consistently around 20% in the early phase of the epidemic for all line lists and approached the final estimate of 35% afterwards for the official line list only. Most of the line lists estimated >90% reduction in incidence rates after live poultry market closures in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou. We demonstrated that analysis of

  19. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  20. 77 FR 3748 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearings on Genetic Diagnostic Testing

    2012-01-25

    ...: Written comments should be sent by email to [email protected] . Comments may also be submitted by postal... subject line of the email or postal mailing as ``Genetic Testing Study.'' Because written comments and... wishing to present oral testimony at either hearing must request an opportunity to do so in writing no...

  1. Extracting the Discussion Structure in Comments on News-Articles

    Schuth, A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Several on-line daily newspapers offer readers the opportunity to directly comment on articles. In the Netherlands this feature is used quite often and the quality (grammatically and content-wise) is surprisingly high. We develop techniques to collect, store, enrichand analyze these comments. After

  2. Networking with China

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China

  3. Introductory Comments

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe.   Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.

  4. 77 FR 58204 - International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via...

    2012-09-19

    ... to dial in 10 minutes before the 7 p.m. (EDT) start time: English speaking line: Telephone 877-413-4814, PIN 7297456 French speaking line: Telephone 877-413-4814, PIN 2641187 Written comments may also...

  5. AREVA in China

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  6. Introductory Comments

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The sixth issue (not just in the Thematic Section is devoted to the borders of civilization in our memory, in culture, in art, in literature, in the arrangement of political objectives. Both their demarcation and their crossing is a matter of the objectives we can and want to set ourselves in the context of the order that exists and into which we try to fit, transforming it or levelling. The value of this survey of  “images of borders” is its setting in such varied material, owing to which the theoretical speculations gain a representative illustration and, at the same time, a guarantee of being rooted, even if it is only a “contact zone”.   Wprowadzenie Szósty numer (nie tylko sekcja tematyczna jest poświęcony kwestii granic cywilizacji w naszej pamięci, kulturze, sztuce, literaturze, w definiowaniu celów politycznych. Zarówno ich wyznaczanie, jak i przekraczanie, jest kwestią celów, jakie możemy i chcemy postawić sobie w kontekście istniejącego ładu, w który staramy się wpisać, przekształcając go lub dostosowując się do niego. Wartością niniejszego przeglądu "obrazów granic" jest przedstawienie ich poprzez tak zróżnicowany materiał, dzięki czemu rozważania teoretyczne zyskują reprezentatywną ilustrację, a zarazem gwarancję zakorzenienia, nawet jeśli będzie to tylko "sfera kontaktu".

  7. The Impact of High-Speed Rail on Residents’ Travel Behavior and Household Mobility: A Case Study of the Beijing-Shanghai Line, China

    Hongsheng Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of China’s high-speed rail network, there have been many economic and social benefits for local residents. Based on a questionnaire conducted in stations on the Beijing-Shanghai line, and through an analysis of high-speed rail passenger travel behavior and family relocation, we explored the social effects of high-speed rail. The study found that high-speed rail passengers are mainly young, highly educated, and have a middle to high income. However, with the popularization of high-speed rail, such differences in the social stratum of high-speed rail passengers are expected to disappear. Through an analysis of passenger travel status, we found that the areas surrounding high-speed rail stations are very accessible to the main cities, and are well connected by other public transport. With the emergence of the “high mobility era” based on the high-speed rail network, the separation of workplace and residence and the number of “double city” households are increasing, primarily in the Beijing-Tianjin and Shanghai-Nanjing (especially in Suzhou-Kunshan-Shanghai regions. In addition, high-speed rail introduces the possibility of household mobility, with 22.7% of the respondents in this study having relocated since the Beijing-Shanghai line opened. Household mobility is apparent primarily among big cities, with movement toward nearby cities. We also found that occupation, income, residence time, and schooling of children have a significant impact on households. With the improvement of high-speed rail networks, household mobility will become a common phenomenon and research on domestic mobility will continue to increase.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of gefitinib, icotinib, and pemetrexed-based chemotherapy as first-line treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in China.

    Lu, Shun; Ye, Ming; Ding, Lieming; Tan, Fenlai; Fu, Jie; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-07

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are becoming the standard treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an EGFR mutation, but the economic impact of this practice is unclear, especially in a health resource-limited setting. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate 21-day patient transitions in a 10-year time horizon. The health and economic outcomes of four first-line strategies (pemetrexed plus cisplatin [PC] alone, PC followed by maintenance with pemetrexed, or initial treatment with gefitinib or icotinib) among patients harboring EGFR mutations were estimated and assessed via indirect comparisons. Costs in the Chinese setting were estimated. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed. The icotinib strategy resulted in greater health benefits than the other three strategies in NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations. Relative to PC alone, PC followed by pemetrexed maintenance, gefitinib and icotinib resulted in ICERs of $104,657, $28,485 and $19,809 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, respectively. The cost of pemetrexed, the EGFR mutation prevalence and the utility of progression-free survival were factors that had a considerable impact on the model outcomes. When the icotinib Patient Assistance Program was available, the economic outcome of icotinib was more favorable. These results indicate that gene-guided therapy with icotinib might be a more cost-effective treatment option than traditional chemotherapy.

  9. Your employees: the front line in cyber security

    Ashenden, D

    2016-01-01

    First published in The Chemical Engineer and reproduced by Crest - Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats, 26/01/2016 (https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/employees-front-line-cyber-security/)

  10. Networking with China

    Cottrell, R L.A.; Granieri, C [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Karita, Yukio [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1944-04-01

    This paper presents the history and current status Of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 thru X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first Chinese institution to have a fully operational world-wide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China.

  11. China's Work Safety Report

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  12. Response to Commentators

    Tomasello Michael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to the comments by Henrike Moll, Glenda Satne, Ladislav Koreň and Michael Schmitz on Michael Tomasello, A Natural History of Human Thinking (Harvard University Press, 2014.

  13. A report on the hybridization between two species of threatenedAsian box turtles (Testudines: Cuora) in the wild on Hainan Island(China) with comments on the origin of 'Serrata'-like turtles.

    Shi, H.; Parham, James F.; Simison, W. Brian; Wang, J.; Gong, S.; Fu, B.

    2004-03-01

    Ten new turtle taxa were described from pet trade specimens from China since the 1980s (see Fritz and Obst, 1998; Fritz and Obst, 1999; Parham et al., 2001 for a review). Specimens similar to one of these taxa, Cuora serrata Iverson and McCord, 1992 (originally Cuora galbinifrons serrata, elevated by Fritz and Obst, 1997), were shown to be hybrids of male Cuora mouhotii (Gray, 1862; formerly Pyxidea, but see Stuart and Parham, 2004) and females of Cuora galbinifrons Bourret, 1939 or Cuora bourreti Obst and Reimann, 1994 (Parham et al., 2001; and Stuart and Parham, 2004).

  14. High Line

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  15. 75 FR 60725 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of...

    2010-10-01

    ... revise its calculation of the surrogate financial ratios. Comment 3: Whether the Department should issue... the calculations of the surrogate financial ratios.\\10\\ \\10\\ See Issues and Decision Memorandum at... China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The Department invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary...

  16. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  17. China Emerging

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  18. World lines.

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  19. 76 FR 51346 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    2011-08-18

    ... annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States, total... merchandise line, percent of sales by class of customer, and percent of e-commerce sales to customers located... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will...

  20. It was just a joke: improper comments and practice liability.

    Gregg, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    There can be a fine line between humor and harassment, and that line is now frequently explored in litigation. A racial, sexual, or ethnic joke or bullying comment is not nearly as funny in the courtroom as it was in the break room. In addition, a practice's owner or partner can be utterly undefendable. This article casts light on crucial issues of workplace humor, banter, and liability.

  1. Comment on "Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX" by A. Goyal, I. Khatri, S. Aggarwal, A.K. Singh, M. Mohan [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2015;161:157

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Goyal et al. [1] reported energies and lifetimes (τ) for the lowest 113 levels of the 2s22p5, 2s2p6, 2s22p43ℓ, 2s2p53ℓ and 2p63ℓ configurations of F-like Sr XXX. For the calculations they adopted the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) and the flexible atomic code (FAC). Additionally, they also listed radiative rates (A- values), oscillator strengths (f- values) and line strengths (S- values) for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2), but only from the ground to the higher excited levels. However, there are two clear anomalies in their reported data. Firstly, the f-values listed from FAC in their Tables 3-6 are larger than from MCDF by a factor of two, for all transitions. This is because they have blindly listed the output from FAC without realising that, unlike MCDF, FAC lists ωf where ω is the statistical weight, and happens to be exactly 2 in the present case. Secondly, their lifetime for level 2 (2s22p51/2 o 2P) is incorrect. This is because the dominant contributing transition for this level is 1-2 M1 for which A=3.25×106 s-1, listed (correctly) in their Table 5, and this leads to τ=3.08×10-7 s, and not 1.54×10-7 s, as listed in their Table 1.

  2. Students' Responses to Teacher Comments

    Gee, Thomas C.

    1972-01-01

    In an investigation of the effects of praise, negative comment and no comment on expository compositions of eleventh grade students, author hypothesized that praise might increase motivation more than criticism or no comment. He suggests an experiment to test this phypothesis. (NL)

  3. Comments on Tobin's Contribution to Comparative Research in Anthropology and in Education

    Varenne, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tobin's work has been groundbreaking. Famously, he and his team put together a sophisticated comparative study of three ways of doing pre-school--in Japan, China, and the United States (1989). As such, this study has precedents in anthropology. What is unique in Tobin's work is that he got people from one place to comment on what they saw people…

  4. 75 FR 18571 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    2010-04-12

    ... this opportunity to comment on a new information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act..., Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico... of Review: New collection. Affected Public: Businesses or other for-profit. Estimated Number of...

  5. 75 FR 3966 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    2010-01-25

    ... agencies to take this opportunity to comment on a new information collection, as required by the Paperwork..., Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea... of Review: New collection. Affected Public: Businesses or other for-profit. Estimated Number of...

  6. Silver linings.

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy security in China and in India

    2014-04-01

    In the first part, this report addresses the issue of energy security in China. The authors first consider renewable energies by discussing the Chinese policy (incentive policies, delayed reforms, issue of a legal framework to promoter these energies), and by commenting the case of wind energy (a too strong emergence, promotion policies, wind energy industry, a disordered growth, quality vs quantity) and the case of solar energy (a recent but strong lift off, uncertainty about the international context and focus on the domestic market). The authors outline the necessity of a reform, the difficulties faced on the short term, and some suggested solutions. They more briefly address the cases of hydraulic energy and biomass. They address the case of fossil energies for which China is facing an increasing demand but also technical and institutional challenges which limit the development of this sector. Therefore, China uses foreign supplies: this a source of partnerships but also of conflicts. Opportunities for the French expertise are outlined. The specific case of coal is analysed: a pillar of energy security for China, a new industry, with necessary reforms, and opportunities for foreign companies. The second part of the report addresses the issue of energy security in India. The authors first comment the Indian energy mix. They outline that energy security is weakened by governance problems, and that imports are used to address domestic shortages

  8. The China Dream and the American Dream

    WILLIAM A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked "The China Dream" as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China's future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of 20 prominent "China dreamers" in terms of debates over the proper relationship between (1) politics and economics,(2) equality and hierarchy,(3) civilization and civility,and (4) nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary (i)deals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  9. Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Ya-Jie; Chen, Chan; Liang, Ying; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer-Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11504285, and 11404090), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, the Scientific Research Program Fund of the Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15JK1363), and the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province, China.

  10. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    2013-05-28

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  11. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Navya

    Weishan Ma duck (WS) is the eugenic endemic breed, one of the four famous ducks in China, as well Cherry Valley duck (CV) is the largest number of breeding variety. WS is egg strain and CV is meat type. The two duck lines mainly support the. Chinese waterfowl industry. In this study, MHC class Ⅰ genes of WS and CV ...

  12. production lines

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  13. China Biobanking.

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  14. Line facilities outline

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  15. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  16. Comments on Unruh's Paper

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1998-01-01

    Unruh has commented upon my recent proof that certain predictions of quantum theory are incompatible with the assertion that no influence of any kind acts backward in time in any Lorentz frame. Unruh fails to make a necessary distinction between statements that assert the existence of values, and statements that assert the existence merely of correlations between possible values. Consequently his argument fails to show that my proof involves a tacit or hidden reality assumption that is alien ...

  17. Qualitative content analysis of online news media coverage of weight loss surgery and related reader comments.

    Glenn, N M; Champion, C C; Spence, J C

    2012-10-01

    The media has the ability to affect public opinion and policy direction. Prevalence of morbid obesity in Canada is increasing; as is the only effective long-term treatment, weight loss surgery (WLS). Limited research has explored media re/presentations of WLS. The purpose of this study was to examine national online news coverage (and reader comments) of WLS using content analysis. We sought to understand the dominant messages being conveyed within the news texts and reader comments, specifically whose voice was represented, who was the intended audience and what was the overall tone. Articles and comments were retrieved from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation news web site and analysed using line-by-line techniques. Articles were predominantly 'positive/supportive' (63%) in tone and frequently presented the voices and opinions of 'experts' conveying a biomedical perspective. Comments were overwhelmingly 'negative' (56%) and often derogatory including such language as 'piggy' and 'fatty'. Comments were almost exclusively anonymous (99%) and were frequently directed at other commenters (33%) and 'fat' people (6%). The potentially problematic nature of media framing and reader comments, particularly as they could relate to weight-based stigmatization and discrimination is discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Parallel Lines

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  19. China's revival

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  20. China White

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  1. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  2. [Comments on "A practical dictionary of Chinese medicine" by Wiseman].

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-02-01

    At least 24 Chinese-English dictionaries of Chinese Medicine have been published in China during the recent 24 years (1984-2003). This thesis comments on "A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine" by Wiseman, agreeing on its establishing principles, sources and formation methods of the English system of Chinese medical terminology, and pointing out the defect. The author holds that study on the origin and development of TCM terms, standardization of Chinese medical terms in different layers, i.e. Chinese medical in classic, in commonly used modern TCM terms, and integrative medical texts, are prerequisites to the standardization of English translation of Chinese medical terms.

  3. The China Dream and the American Dream

    WILLIAM; A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked"The China Dream"as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China’s future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of20 prominent"China dreamers"in terms of debates over the proper relationship between(1)politics and economics,(2)equality and hierarchy,(3)civilization and civility,and(4)nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary ideals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  4. Population and Employment in China

    Keyfitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  5. The Changing Landscape of Journalism Education in China

    Guo, Ke; Chen, Peiqin

    2017-01-01

    Journalism education in China can be traced back to the U.S. tradition of the 1920s and was influenced by the Soviet model in the 1950s. Although it has become very Chinese ever since, journalism education in China fluctuates between the two lines represented by the U.S. tradition and the Soviet model. This article hopes to expound upon the…

  6. China prices up, ahead of major rail maintenance

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    An update is given in China's coal industry. IN a move to keep more of its coal in China, a coal export quota of 38 mt has been set-up. Part. time closure of the Daqin railway line for maintenance is affecting prices. Development projects and mine safety are discussed. 1 photo.

  7. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  8. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  9. China's new path

    Liu Yingling

    2008-01-01

    The recent policy tools have also consolidated and advanced traditional renewable energy industries, including hydropower and solar thermal panels, where China has already been a world leader. The technologies are comparatively simple and low-cost, and the country has developed fairly strong construction, manufacturing and installation industries for both sources. They are still dominant in China's renewable energy use, and are expected to see continuous strong growth. Hydropower accounts for about two-thirds of China's current renewable energy use. It has grown by over 8 per cent annually from 2002 to 2006, and installed capacity will reach 190 GW by 2010 and 300 GW by 2020. China also has nearly two-thirds of the world's solar hot water capacity: more than one in every ten households bathe in water heated by the sun. Such solar thermal has witnessed 20-25 per cent annual growth in recent years, with installed capacity rising from 35 million square metres in 2000 to 100 million square metres by the end of 2006. The government aims for 150 million square metres by 2010 and double that figure by 2020. A more optimistic prediction envisages 800 million square metres installed capacity by 2030, which would mean that more than half of all Chinese households would be using solar energy for water heating. Renewable energy has become a strategic industry in China. The country has more than 50 domestic wind turbine manufacturers, over 15 major solar cell manufacturers and roughly 50 companies constructing, expanding or planning for polysilicon production lines, the key components for solar PV systems. Those two industries together employ some 80,000 people. The country also has thousands of hydropower manufacturers and engineering and design firms. More than a thousand solar water heater manufacturers throughout the country - and associated design, installation and service providers - provide some 600,000 jobs. As renewable industries are scaled up, costs will come down

  10. A Trilogy of Unfortunate Events in China: Reflecting on the Management of Crises

    Zhang A. Long; William Crandall; John Parnell

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address three recent organizational crises that have occurred in China; the SK-II cosmetic incident, the Sharon Stone comment on the May 2008 earthquake in China, and the melamine milk contamination crisis. Each held significant notoriety due to the crises involving major companies and an assortment of negative outcomes. After presenting an overview of each case, the authors outline their reflections on the management of these crises in relation to their cultural co...

  11. Is China different?

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  12. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  13. Development of isotope hydrology technology in China

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    The development of isotope hydrology technology in China is described. The isotope technology provides an independent approach for solving hydrological problems. Isotope hydrology is applied in three ways: the use of change in environmental isotopic composition of water (especially used in water resources exploitation), the use of artificial radioactive tracers and the use of redioisotope instruments. Many important achievements have been obtained in application of isotopic hydrology technology. For the sake of promoting rapid development of isotope hydrology the topics on management, technology and others are commented

  14. The U-line line balancing problem

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  15. 76 FR 61682 - Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Application

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-546-000] Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Application On September 16, 2011, Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on October 19, 2011. Dated...

  16. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  17. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  18. The Rate of Return to Educational Investment in China: A Comparative Commentary

    Li, Fengliang; Zhao, Yandong; Morgan, W. John

    2011-01-01

    This article comments on several features of the rate of return (ROR) to educational investment in China: first, the ROR to educational investment has increased with the expansion of educational provision since the 1980s. Second, the greater the educational provision, the greater the ROR. Third, the ROR in urban areas is more than that in rural…

  19. China Energy Primer

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  20. China Pop

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  1. China opens the door

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  2. Comment on Chinese food culture

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada test site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Public comment and response document, Volume 3, Part A comments

    1996-08-01

    On February 2, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS) for review by the state of Nevada, Indian tribes, local governments, other federal agencies, groups and organizations, and the general public. The formal comment period lasted 90 days, ending May 3, 1996. As part of the comment process, the DOE held public hearings in St. George, Utah, and in Pahrump, Reno, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Community Workshops were held in Caliente, Tonopah, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, Nevada, in conjunction with the University of Nevada Las Vegas to discuss the Draft NTS EIS. Volume 3 of the Final NTS EIS contains 3 chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the major issues raised by the public. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the Draft NTS EIS received by the DOE; it includes public hearing transcripts, written comments, and comments received via a toll-free comment open-quotes hot line.close quotes Chapter 3 contains the DOE's responses to the public comments and describes how the comments were considered in the Final NTS EIS

  4. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    2010-03-25

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and..., if applicable: 2535-0102. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment...

  5. 76 FR 20654 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    2011-04-13

    ... installation of two new raw water intake structures. The raw water would be sent via a new raw water line to... Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and... Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The requested easement will be...

  6. Incentives needed for foreign participation on China's natural gas sector

    Logan, J.; Chandler, W.

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a workshop organized by Battelle Memorial Institute's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, July 31, 1997, to identify ways to expand natural gas use in China. The workshop was attended by representatives from four natural gas companies active in China, the US Department of Energy, and the Natural Resources Defense Council. To ensure a frank discussion, it was agreed that none of the companies' comments would be made for attribution. However, the companies attending were all major firms with deep commitments to China. The workshop resulted in recommendations to the Chinese government for boosting the exploration and development activities of these companies and to the US government for supporting those efforts. This paper includes a section which summarizes the recommendations that came out of the workshop. After describing the gas resource base, the paper discusses gas trade and drivers of greater natural gas use

  7. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  8. Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu:China Is Striving for the World's Most Developed Capital Market

    Sun Yongjian; Zhang Yue

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market is a hot issue in the new year. The best strategy to develop the Chinese capital market in the coming 15 to 20 years was discussed in the China Capital Market Forum, which was held in China at Renmin University on January 13. Government officials, scholars, and entrepreneurs commented that by 2020, the Chinese capital market will develop into one of the best capital markets in the world,not only in terms of size, but also asset quality, liquidity and dynamic trade. Is this a realistic goal? What steps should we take to pursue this target? With these questions in mind, after the forum, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu, Vice President of Renmin University of China,and the Director of the Finance & Securities Institute of Renmin University.

  9. Exploring the Destination Image of Mainland China Tourists to Taiwan by Word-of-Mouth on Web

    Y. R. Li; Y. Y. Wang

    2013-01-01

    After allowing direct flights from Mainland China to Taiwan, Chinese tourists increased according to Tourism Bureaustatistics. There are from 0.19 to 2 million tourists from 2008 to 2011. Mainland China has become the main source of Taiwan developing tourism industry. Taiwanese government should know more about comments from Chinese tourists to Taiwan in order toproperly market Taiwan tourism and enhance the overall quality of tourism. In order to understand Chinese visit...

  10. Comments on EPA's LLW preproposal

    Littleton, B.K.; Weinstock, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing standards for the management, storage, and disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW). The Atomic Energy Act delegated EPA, among other provisions, the authority to establish generally applicable standards for the disposal of radioactive waste to ensure that the public and the environment are adequately protected from potential radiation impacts. As an initial effort to open communications on a standard for LLW, the Agency developed a preproposal draft (Preproposal Draft of 40 CFR Part 193 - 30 Nov 94) and circulated it to interested parties for review and comment. The extended comment period ended April 12, 1995. A summary of the comments received and analyzed to date follows. After all comments have been analyzed, the rule will undergo an Agency clearance process and be sent to the Office of Management and Budget for review. After that review, the formal process of publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register and the formal public comment period will begin

  11. Electric power industry in China

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  12. 77 FR 35661 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-06-14

    ... annual financial statement certified by an independent Certified Public Accountant. No specific form is... extension of a public information collection and seeks public comment on the provisions thereof. Comments... policy for comments and other submissions from members of the public is to make these submissions...

  13. Contextualizing Female Infanticide: Ming China in Early Modern European Travelogues

    Rachana Sachdev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of the early modern European response to China was an emphasis on the fabulous wealth and social organization of Chinese society. Despite their knowledge of the wide-scale abandonment and killing of newborns within the society, and despite the categorization of infanticide as a great moral sin by the early Christian church, the European travelers to China commented on infanticide dispassionately, without any moral revulsion, and continued to project an image of China as a virtual utopia for its residents. One reason for the detached descriptions of abandonment of children and infanticide in China might be the fact that conditions with regard to children in Europe were no superior to those in China and were probably far worse; the vast numbers of abandoned and dead children in Europe blunted the edge of criticism with regard to Chinese customs. Another might be that infanticide was practiced within Europe contemporaneously, even though the killing of newborn children there was practiced much more surreptitiously, and public opinion had firmed up connections among single women, illegitimacy, concealment, and murder. However, the dire social circumstances within their own countries had not prevented the Europeans from soundly criticizing and morally reproving cannibalism or infanticide in other cultures. In order to understand their acceptance of this “sinful” practice in China, we must look elsewhere.

  14. [Progress in industrial bioprocess engineering in China].

    Zhuang, Yingping; Chen, Hongzhang; Xia, Jianye; Tang, Wenjun; Zhao, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The advances of industrial biotechnology highly depend on the development of industrial bioprocess researches. In China, we are facing several challenges because of a huge national industrial fermentation capacity. The industrial bioprocess development experienced several main stages. This work mainly reviews the development of the industrial bioprocess in China during the past 30 or 40 years: including the early stage kinetics model study derived from classical chemical engineering, researching method based on control theory, multiple-parameter analysis techniques of on-line measuring instruments and techniques, and multi-scale analysis theory, and also solid state fermentation techniques and fermenters. In addition, the cutting edge of bioprocess engineering was also addressed.

  15. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  16. IDRC in China

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  17. Have Fun in China

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  18. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  19. Cable line engineering

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  20. Comments on numerical simulations

    Sato, T.

    1984-01-01

    The author comments on a couple of things about numerical simulation. One is just about the philosophical discussion that is, spontaneous or driven. The other thing is the numerical or technical one. Frankly, the author didn't want to touch on the technical matter because this should be a common sense one for those who are working at numerical simulation. But since many people take numerical simulation results at their face value, he would like to remind you of the reality hidden behind them. First, he would point out that the meaning of ''driven'' in driven reconnection is different from that defined by Schindler or Akasofu. The author's definition is closer to Axford's definition. In the spontaneous case, for some unpredicted reason an excess energy of the system is suddenly released at a certain point. However, one does not answer how such an unstable state far beyond a stable limit is realized in the magnetotail. In the driven case, there is a definite energy buildup phase starting from a stable state; namely, energy in the black box increases from a stable level subject to an external source. When the state has reached a certain position, the energy is released suddenly. The difference between driven and spontaneous is whether the cause (plasma flow) to trigger reconnection is specified or reconnection is triggered unpredictably. Another difference is that in driven reconnection the reconnection rate is dependent on the speed of the external plasma flow, but in spontaneous reconnection the rate is dependent on the internal condition such as the resistivity

  1. Global China Insights

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  2. On China dream

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  3. Debating China's assertiveness

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  4. Global China Insights

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  5. An extraordinary opportunity for China's brightest

    2006-01-01

    CERN hosted the 20 Chinese students who won the 'E=mc2 to modern science' Einstein Award during their first trip to Europe. Hui Liu has travelled 8000 km to visit Europe and commented on her experience at CERN, 'I was very impressed to see the huge detectors and see how they extract the data.' Previously, she had only read about or saw photos of the LHC. Now that she has visited the CMS experiment she hopes to one day work with one of these experiments. Twenty of the top physics PhD students in China were honoured with the 'E=mc2 to modern science' Einstein Award and received a three week tour of major laboratories in Germany and Switzerland, including CERN, DESY and the Max Planck Institute. The Einstein Award is co-sponsored by the German and Swiss Embassies in celebration of the 'Year of Physics' in 2005. For many years, Germany, Switzerland and China have been involved in numerous areas of scientific research and cooperation. These 20 students come from various regions of China, including Beijing, Sh...

  6. China’s Forbearance Has Limits: Chinese Threat and Retaliation Signaling and Its Implications for a Sino-American Military Confrontation

    2013-04-01

    operate businesses and live on the mainland; communications and travel are now easier; cross-strait tourism is growing; academic contacts are increasing...People’s Daily COMMENTATOR ARTICLE on upholding “one- China principle” Xinhua Commentator on Lee Teng- hui “ doomed to be pinned on the pole of...illegal act that went against the will of the people”; any effort toward Taiwan independence “is doomed to fail” Xinhua reports failure of CSB

  7. The State Power Corporation of China

    2001-01-01

    @@General Description of SP The State Power Corporation of China (SP) was established on January 16, 1997 under the approval of the State Council. As the largest power corporation in China, with 160 billion Yuan of registered capital and 1.38 million staff, SP's business scope covers generation, transmission, distribution, engineering design, construction, project management, as well as trade and financing etc. The core business of SP is power network construction and operation. SP has 146,150 km transmission lines at the voltage of 220 kV and above, which accounts for 89.5% of that in China's mainland, among which there are 26,730 km and 8,680 km of 500 kV and 330 kV respectively.Power Sources Planning,

  8. A critical analysis towards research perspectives: Reply to comments on "Modeling human behavior in economics and social science".

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    We take advantage of the challenging comments to the modeling approach we proposed in [35] to look ahead at a number of applications of the methods to the alternative questions these comments raise. In turn, our effort results in a number of interesting and valuable research perspectives. The presentation goes along three main lines. In the first line, we summarize briefly the aims and results in [35]. In the second section we give a technical the issues raised and, finally, the focus moves to the above mentioned research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    2013-10-23

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Final Results of Antidumping... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. For the final results we... pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. We...

  10. China's Organic Revolution

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  11. Green markets in China?

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  12. Headache care in China.

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  13. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  14. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  15. 75 FR 11185 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010...

    2010-03-10

    ...; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010, Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research ACTION: Correction notice. On March 2, 2010 the... Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research''. In the second paragraph of the notice...

  16. 77 FR 24509 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Emergency Comment Request; Single...

    2012-04-24

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment Emergency Comment Request; Single Family Customer Satisfaction... information: Title of Proposal: Single Family Customer Satisfaction Survey. Description of Information... and changes in performance. In addition to the importance HUD management places on the information...

  17. NCPA No. 2: IX comments and responses to Draft JES

    1980-01-01

    Comments received from twenty-six separate entities are included. Following each letter or set of comments are staff responses. Sections of the draft environmental statement which have been revised in response to these comments are noted

  18. 76 FR 51126 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice; Notice

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice; Notice AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... in electing investment partnership (EIP). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before...

  19. 75 FR 66165 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-10-27

    ... additional information should be collected to further the aims of government transparency. DATES: Comments... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment... are warranted. We are particularly interested in comments on whether the information collected in the...

  20. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history.

    Elman, Benjamin A

    2007-09-01

    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  1. 75 FR 19613 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China...

    2010-04-15

    ... Critical Circumstances, In Part: Certain Lined Paper Products from the People's Republic of China, 71 FR... Administrative Review: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 52355, 52356 (September... Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, Negative Preliminary Determination of Critical...

  2. China on the eve of Copenhagen

    Niquet, V.

    2009-01-01

    The author first gives an overview of the Chinese worrying energy situation because of its high economic growth and its high energy demand and consumption. She highlights the preponderant share of coal and the associated environmental issues. She comments the economic and strategic implications of the oil share increase in energy consumption in China with respect to its energy supply security. She discusses the present debate on costs which would result from not taking environmental issues into account, and the weight of lobbies and local policies on these issues. Then, she notices that, however, significant evolutions can be observed in the Chinese environmental strategy: implemented policies and actions, research and development policy and investments. She discusses the consequences of these aspects and evolutions for the international negotiations in Copenhagen, and also the influence of the present economic and financial crisis on the Chinese environmental strategy

  3. Understanding China's Transformations

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  4. Innovation in China

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  5. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  6. ACHP | News | ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication

    Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification The Advisory Council on

  7. China's renewables law

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  8. Nuclear Parity with China?

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  9. Should Latin America Fear China?

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  10. 78 FR 33403 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF13-5-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leidy Southeast Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federal...

  11. 77 FR 59391 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-497-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assesment for the Proposed Brandywine Creek Replacement Project; Request for Comments on Environmental Issues; and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal...

  12. 76 FR 40717 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF11-4-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Northeast Supply Link Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federal Energy...

  13. 75 FR 42738 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF10-16-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Mid-Atlantic Connector Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting July 15, 2010. The...

  14. Goal line technology in soccer: Are referees ready for technology in ...

    When controversial decisions are made, the referee comes under extensive scrutiny by players, fans and spectators as well as commentators who have the tendency of scapegoating the referee. The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of soccer referees regarding the use of goal line technology in soccer.

  15. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  16. China Report, Economic Affairs

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  17. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  18. Directed line liquids

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. 75 FR 16819 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Civil Rights Front End and Limited...

    2010-04-02

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment Civil Rights Front End and Limited Monitoring Review AGENCY: Office... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The...-free Federal Information Relay Service at 800-877-8339. (Other than the HUD USER information line and...

  1. Online reputation systems: The effects of feedback comments and reactions on building and rebuilding trust in online auctions

    Utz, S.; Matzat, U.; Snijders, C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on reputation systems primarily focused on their trust-building function. The present research addresses their trust-rebuilding function-specifically, the role of the short text comments given in reaction to negative feedback. Rebuilding trust is often necessary because on-line

  2. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  3. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China

    Pilli R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A comment is made on a recent letter published on Nature, in which different methodologies are applied to estimate the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China. A global carbon sink of 0.19-0.26 Pg per year is estimated during the 1980s and 1990s, and it is estimated that in 2006 terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 28-37 per cent of global carbon emissions in China. Most of the carbon absorption is attributed to large-scale plantation made since the 1980s and shrub recovery. These results will certainly be valuable in the frame of the so-called “REDD” (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation forest Degradation in developing countries mechanism (UN convention on climate change UNFCCC.

  4. Contrasting perspectives on China's rare earths policies: Reframing the debate through a stakeholder lens

    Hayes-Labruto, Leslie; Schillebeeckx, Simon J.D.; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This article critically compares China's rare earth policy with perspectives upheld in the rest of the world (ROW). We introduce rare earth elements and their importance for energy and present how China and the ROW are framing the policy debate. We find strongly dissonant views with regards to motives for foreign direct investment, China's two-tiered pricing structure and its questionable innovation potential. Using the metaphor of “China Inc.”, we compare the Chinese government to a socially responsible corporation that aims to balance the needs of its internal stakeholders with the demands from a resource-dependent world. We find that China's internal stakeholders have more power and legitimacy in the REE debate than the ROW and reconceptualise various possible mitigation strategies that could change current international policy and market dynamics. As such, we aim to reframe the perspectives that seem to govern the West and argue in favor of policy formation that explicitly acknowledges China's triple bottom line ambitions and encourages the ROW to engage with China in a more nuanced manner. - Highlights: • Very different perspectives persist regarding China's rare earth policies. • Scarcity, substitutability and uncertainty drive the divergent perspectives. • We compare China to a socially responsible corporation, “China Inc.”. • China's internal stakeholders have higher salience than ROW. • We propose and reframe policy mitigation strategies

  5. Carbon emissions in China

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  6. China's Innovation Paradox

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  7. China's 'recycling economy'

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  8. Carbon emissions in China

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  9. Trilogy of China's Banking

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  10. Outsourcing to China.

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  11. Action Learning in China

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  12. China and nuclear power

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  13. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  14. Heat roadmap China

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  15. Financial Derivatives in China

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  16. China's water crisis

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  17. Educational Technology in China

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  18. Private power in China

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  19. 77 FR 31898 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-05-30

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles[email protected] . Written comments should be received within 60 days of this notice...

  20. 75 FR 21685 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-04-26

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish...-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be... days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-9531 Filed 4-23-10; 8:45 am...

  1. 75 FR 36451 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-06-25

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... send an e-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection... within 60 days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-15449 Filed 6-24-10; 8...

  2. 78 FR 6152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-01-29

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will [email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles...

  3. 78 FR 76336 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-12-17

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... be addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles[email protected] . Written comments should be received within 60 days of...

  4. 76 FR 72010 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-11-21

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish..., and/or supporting material, contact Charles Mierzwa, the RRB Clearance Officer, at (312) 751-3363 or Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be addressed to Patricia...

  5. 78 FR 13914 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-03-01

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... collection should be addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles[email protected] . Written comments should be received within 60...

  6. 76 FR 15351 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-03-21

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish.../Password. Completion is voluntary, however, the RRB will be unable to provide a PRC or allow a requestor to... Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be sent to Patricia A...

  7. 77 FR 53936 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-09-04

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles.[email protected] . Written comments should be received within 60 days of this...

  8. 78 FR 38412 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-06-26

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will [email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2092 or emailed to Charles...

  9. 75 FR 21370 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-04-23

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information collection should be addressed to Patricia A.... Charles Mierzwa, Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-9435 Filed 4-22-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7905-01-P ...

  10. 75 FR 41557 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-07-16

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish...) 751-3363 or send an e-mail request to Charles[email protected] . Comments regarding the information... received within 60 days of this notice. Charles Mierzwa, RRB Clearance Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-17368 Filed 7...

  11. 76 FR 62098 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-10-06

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish periodic summaries of proposed data collections. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed... that the information provided is correct and the applicant's agreement to sign the form by proxy. The...

  12. 78 FR 64293 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-10-28

    ... Investment Companies. OMB Number: 1545-1010. Form Number: 1120-RIC. Abstract: Internal Revenue Code sections... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [Form 1120-RIC] Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY...

  13. 77 FR 71176 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-11-29

    ...; Comment Request AGENCY: TRICARE Management Activity, Office of Administration, Personnel Security Division... techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  14. 75 FR 57506 - Summary of Comments

    2010-09-21

    ... on the environmental impact of the good or service produced or the production process used. Several... comment noted environmental impacts in this category, i.e., using fresh versus packaged food, reduces... activities in this category. One comment recommended moving nuclear energy to category 1, renewable energy...

  15. 77 FR 13175 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-03-05

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also available at...

  16. 77 FR 65248 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-10-25

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments...

  17. 77 FR 43430 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-07-24

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments...

  18. 77 FR 19057 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-03-29

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also available at www...

  19. 78 FR 34161 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2013-06-06

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the...: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  20. 77 FR 19058 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-03-29

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the...: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  1. 77 FR 32178 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-05-31

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also available at www...

  2. 76 FR 61479 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2011-10-04

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also available at...

  3. 77 FR 74053 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-12-12

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments...

  4. 77 FR 69547 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-11-19

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the.... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  5. 77 FR 19754 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-04-02

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  6. 78 FR 25535 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-05-01

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also available at...

  7. 77 FR 5090 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2012-02-01

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently the... all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  8. 78 FR 149 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    2013-01-02

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments...

  9. 78 FR 25533 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-05-01

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently the.... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Bureau of the Public Debt, Bruce A. Sharp, 200 Third Street A4-A, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328, or bruce.sharp@bpd.treas.gov . The opportunity to make comments online is also...

  10. Comments on management of radioactive wastes

    Kindness, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    A few comments are made concerning the recognized need for a management of radioactive wastes. The comment is made that perhaps a lack of a set of specific understandable goals is why the need hasn't been met. An outline is included that the author feels would lead to a filling of the need

  11. 78 FR 41035 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-07-09

    ...; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) announces a proposed public information collection and seeks public comment on the...

  12. 78 FR 43864 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-07-22

    ...; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service announces a proposed public information collection and seeks public comment on the...

  13. 77 FR 18794 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-03-28

    ... to the Bureau's authorities under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0011] Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment...

  14. 36 CFR 801.4 - Council comments.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Council comments. 801.4 Section 801.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.4 Council comments. The following...

  15. 77 FR 8841 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-02-15

    ... Force Academy announces a proposed public information collection and seeks public comment on the...://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management... Air Force Academy. Each student's background and aptitude is reviewed to determine eligibility. If the...

  16. POINT CLOUD ORIENTED SHOULDER LINE EXTRACTION IN LOESS HILLY AREA

    L. Min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder line is the significant line in hilly area of Loess Plateau in China, dividing the surface into positive and negative terrain (P-N terrains. Due to the point cloud vegetation removal methods of P-N terrains are different, there is an imperative need for shoulder line extraction. In this paper, we proposed an automatic shoulder line extraction method based on point cloud. The workflow is as below: (i ground points were selected by using a grid filter in order to remove most of noisy points. (ii Based on DEM interpolated by those ground points, slope was mapped and classified into two classes (P-N terrains, using Natural Break Classified method. (iii The common boundary between two slopes is extracted as shoulder line candidate. (iv Adjust the filter gird size and repeat step i-iii until the shoulder line candidate matches its real location. (v Generate shoulder line of the whole area. Test area locates in Madigou, Jingbian County of Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 600 million points are acquired in the test area of 0.23km2, using Riegl VZ400 3D Laser Scanner in August 2014. Due to the limit Granted computing performance, the test area is divided into 60 blocks and 13 of them around the shoulder line were selected for filter grid size optimizing. The experiment result shows that the optimal filter grid size varies in diverse sample area, and a power function relation exists between filter grid size and point density. The optimal grid size was determined by above relation and shoulder lines of 60 blocks were then extracted. Comparing with the manual interpretation results, the accuracy of the whole result reaches 85%. This method can be applied to shoulder line extraction in hilly area, which is crucial for point cloud denoising and high accuracy DEM generation.

  17. Point Cloud Oriented Shoulder Line Extraction in Loess Hilly Area

    Min, Li; Xin, Yang; Liyang, Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Shoulder line is the significant line in hilly area of Loess Plateau in China, dividing the surface into positive and negative terrain (P-N terrains). Due to the point cloud vegetation removal methods of P-N terrains are different, there is an imperative need for shoulder line extraction. In this paper, we proposed an automatic shoulder line extraction method based on point cloud. The workflow is as below: (i) ground points were selected by using a grid filter in order to remove most of noisy points. (ii) Based on DEM interpolated by those ground points, slope was mapped and classified into two classes (P-N terrains), using Natural Break Classified method. (iii) The common boundary between two slopes is extracted as shoulder line candidate. (iv) Adjust the filter gird size and repeat step i-iii until the shoulder line candidate matches its real location. (v) Generate shoulder line of the whole area. Test area locates in Madigou, Jingbian County of Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 600 million points are acquired in the test area of 0.23km2, using Riegl VZ400 3D Laser Scanner in August 2014. Due to the limit Granted computing performance, the test area is divided into 60 blocks and 13 of them around the shoulder line were selected for filter grid size optimizing. The experiment result shows that the optimal filter grid size varies in diverse sample area, and a power function relation exists between filter grid size and point density. The optimal grid size was determined by above relation and shoulder lines of 60 blocks were then extracted. Comparing with the manual interpretation results, the accuracy of the whole result reaches 85%. This method can be applied to shoulder line extraction in hilly area, which is crucial for point cloud denoising and high accuracy DEM generation.

  18. Situation and problematic of energy in China: nuclear power development perspectives

    Chavardes, D.

    2004-09-01

    The author first comments the Chinese GDP growth and electricity production increase, which raise the question of energy security and electricity shortage for this country. He comments the evolution of the primary energy assessment in China since 1996, and more precisely the evolutions of coal production and consumption, oil consumption (China is the second world consumer), gas consumption (the objective is to reach 7 % in 2010 and 10 % in 2020, and gas has to be imported). The author comments the evolution of the electric power sector in terms of production (thermal energy and hydraulic energy as sources, consumption evolution, and production stock), of capacity, of predictions for the next three years, and of implemented policies. He discusses the introduction and development of the electronuclear sector (objective of 36 GW in 2020, i.e. 4 % of the total installed power). The author then comments the development of the Chinese electronuclear program since its first steps in 1955 with the cooperation agreement with the USSR, the launching of a civilian program and the building of the first power plant, the French-Chinese cooperation which resulted in the construction of several plants. It outlines the initial dispersion of technologies and the focussing on pressurized water reactors. The author finally describes the current situation and the re-launching of a more-standardized nuclear program

  19. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  20. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  1. Database of emission lines

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  2. Three-dimensional Seismic Survey of the Continental-Ocean Transition Zone of the Northern South China Sea

    Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Sibuet, J. C.; Sun, L.; Sun, Z.; Qiu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific, which has experienced extension, rifting, breakup, post-spreading magmatism on its northern margin during the Cenozoic era. The complexity of this margin is exacerbated by rifting and seafloor spreading processes, which developed at the expenses of the subducting proto-South China Sea. Based on Sun et al. (2014, 2016) proposals, 6 sites were drilled on the northern SCS margin from February to June 2017, during IODP Expeditions 367/368. The preliminary results indicate that the width of the COT is about 20 km and is different from the typical magma-poor Iberia margin whose width is around 100 km. The combination of three-dimensional (3D) Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) refractive survey with IODP drilling results, will improve the drilling achievement and greatly contribute to the understanding of the specific mechanism of rifting and breakup processes of the northern SCS. In particular, it is expected to constrain: 1) the nature of the crust in the COT, 2) the degree of serpentinization of the upper mantle beneath the COT, and 3) the 3D extension of the COT, the oceanic crust and the serpentinized mantle. We firstly carry out the resolution tests and calculate the interval of OBSs using a ray tracing and travel time modelling software. 7-km interval between OBSs is the optimal interval for the resolution tests and ray coverage, which will provide optimal constraints for the characterization of the 20-km wide COT. The 3D seismic survey will be carried out in 2018. The design of the OBSs arrangement and the location of shooting lines are extremely important. At present, we propose 5 main profiles and 14 shooting lines along the multi-channel seismic lines already acquired in the vicinity of the 6 drilling sites. Any comments and suggestions concerning the OBSs arrangement will be appreciated. This work is supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (contracts

  3. Sentiment topic mining based on comment tags

    Zhang, Daohai; Liu, Xue; Li, Juan; Fan, Mingyue

    2018-03-01

    With the development of e-commerce, various comments based on tags are generated, how to extract valuable information from these comment tags has become an important content of business management decisions. This study takes HUAWEI mobile phone tags as an example using the sentiment analysis and topic LDA mining method. The first step is data preprocessing and classification of comment tag topic mining. And then make the sentiment classification for comment tags. Finally, mine the comments again and analyze the emotional theme distribution under different sentiment classification. The results show that HUAWEI mobile phone has a good user experience in terms of fluency, cost performance, appearance, etc. Meanwhile, it should pay more attention to independent research and development, product design and development. In addition, battery and speed performance should be enhanced.

  4. Drawing the Ethical Line

    ADAMMINTER

    2004-01-01

    An American businessman with over ten years experience in China opens his wallet in the back of a Shanghai taxi. Inside are several blue and green Shanghai Public Transportation Cards stacked like credit cards. “At my wife's office, the vendors show up and hand these out as gifts,”he says as he hands one to the driver. “She can accept them because [the company's] gift policy limits gifts to two-hundred yuan, and the vendor only puts two-hundred yuan on the card.” He opens the door and steps onto a busy street frequented by Shanghai's foreign business community. “Now you tell me: is that bribe? For two hundred yuan? I don't think so. It's a gift between business partners. It's China,you know?”

  5. China from a regional perspective

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  6. Holography applications in recent China

    Hsu, Dahsiung

    2000-10-01

    Reports on recent developments on holography applications in China are given in this paper, including the development of anti-counterfeiting Holograms from 1986-2000, China issued Banknotes in 1999 with holograms and OVIs, the developments in Machine Readable Holograms in China, the developments in Anti-counterfeiting Information Networks in China.

  7. Delivering power system transition in China

    Yuan Jiahai; Xu Yan; Hu Zhaoguang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the transition to low carbon power systems in China. The methodology is built on the newly developed multi-level perspective (MLP) transitions, as well as literature on innovation systems. Three lines of thought on the transition process are integrated to probe the possible transition pathways in China's power sector. Five transition pathways, namely reproduction, transformation, substitution, reconfiguration, de-alignment/re-alignment and reconfiguration, with their possible technology options are presented. The requirements for a smart grid in the socio-technical transition process are addressed within the MLP framework. The paper goes further to propose an interactive framework for low carbon transition management in China. Representative technology options are appraised by employing innovation theory to demonstrate the logic of policy design within the framework. The work presented in this paper will be useful in informing policy-makers and other stakeholders in China and it may prove to be a valuable reference for other countries in energy transition management. - Highlights: ► The transition to low carbon power systems is studied from a multi-level perspective. ► Transition pathways with possible technology options are presented. ► An interactive framework is proposed for managing this transition. ► Representative technology options are appraised within the framework to show the logic of policy design.

  8. 12 CFR 516.130 - Where are comments filed?

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where are comments filed? 516.130 Section 516.130 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES Comment Procedures § 516.130 Where are comments filed? A commenter must file with the appropriate...

  9. Comments from physicsworld.com

    2009-02-01

    US President Barack Obama's decision to include several scientists in his cabinet-including two physicists, John Holdren and Steven Chu, who will serve as science advisor and energy secretary, respectively - is discussed in this month's news section (see pp8-9). Two articles posted on physicsworld.com when the announcements were first made ("Nobel laureate goes to Washington?" 11 December 2008 and "Obama nominates physicist as science advisor" 22 December 2008) sparked a number of comments, both sceptical and supportive, from readers.

  10. China's power policy

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  11. After the last IPCC publication and the China-USA agreement, the stage is set for the Paris conference

    Laville, Bettina

    2014-11-01

    After having commented some alarming data regarding greenhouse gas emissions and their brutal increase during the past decades, the author quotes and comments the content of the fifth IPCC report which states that global warming is, without any doubt, due to human activities, and that a solution is still in our hands. She outlines pitfalls and obstacles for the translation of this emergency into policies. She discusses the geopolitical weight of the main emitting countries (China, USA, Europe, Japan), and finally outlines the lack of regulatory economic instruments

  12. Wood pole overhead lines

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  13. Comments on the Poem “Architecture” by Joseph Brodsky

    Konstantin Lidin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The poem “Architecture” by Joseph Brodsky was commented on by Alexander Rappaport, Konstantin Lidin and Elena Bagina. The poem deserves to be studied at all architectural schools and to be learnt by heart by future architects; and the problems touched upon in this poem deserve to be thought about by architectural theorists. This poem is a quintessence of the contemporary theoretical thought about architecture. It raises such themes as time and memory, space, place and substance. It also speaks about ideal geometric shapes in architecture and dynamics of architectural forms. Architectural works are “a step beyond the drawing”, an unbreakable link of times. The domes of architectural masterpieces form a safety parachute of our civilization. Alexander Rappaport, Konstantin Lidin and Elena Bagina made a comment on each line of this short but remarkably concise, lofty and ironical work by Joseph Brodsky. These comments partially coincide and partially differ. You may either agree or argue with the authors’ opinion. But any meaningful talk about the place and the role of architecture and architectural profession in the present-day world is of importance. It is symptomatic that the modern architectural studies are focused on the history of architecture, being afraid (or unwilling due to a complex and controversial situation in today’s profession to deal with urgent and difficult problems. Wherever the architectural theory of the late 20th century looked for fertility drugs, be it in mathematics, semiotics, sociology, linguistics, it was in vain. In the early 21st century it came to the crossroads. It is no good to verify the death of architecture, because it would mean, according to Brodsky, the end of civilization. Let’s believe that architecture has its future and that it will remain “a thing of stone”, the strongest material on Earth.

  14. China's oil resources

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  15. Playing Against China

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  16. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  17. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  18. Energy supply in China

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  19. Venezuela and China

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  20. International transport of uranium materials from China

    Xu Chizhi; Long Xiuaowei; Achilles, G.

    1993-01-01

    An example of international cooperation is given on the transport of frontend materials from China to Europe. With the assistance of NCS, CNEIC entered into discussions and negotiations with COSCO, the national Chinese shipping line in order to make much cheaper sea transport possible. One of the difficulties to overcome was the passage through the Suez canal but CNEIC, NCS and the port authorities were present to assure smooth operation, during the first passage through the canal, CNEIC key personnels had training at the NCS office in Germany in relation to transport regulations and practice on the job. In turn, NCS personnels were introduced into site specific conditions in China by CNEIC. In the meantime, about 150 containers loaded with yellow cake and about 120 cylinders with low enriched UF6 have been smoothly transported by sea from Shanghai through the Suez canal to European ports. (E.Y.)

  1. Veterans Crisis Line

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  2. Product line design

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  3. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  4. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  5. SAF line powder operations

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  6. Capital Improvements Business Line

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  7. Nasca Lines, Peru

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. 76 FR 21742 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Extends Period for Filing Comments and Reply Comments on...

    2011-04-18

    ...In this document, the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau extends the deadline for filing comments and reply comments in response to the Public Notice seeking comment on the December 3, 2010 petition for declaratory ruling (Petition) filed by CTIA--The Wireless Association (Petitioners). The Petitioners asked the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) to clarify ``the scope of Section 332(c)(3)(A)'s ban on state and local entry regulation.''

  9. Protection of insulated cables and lines in case of overload

    Goltz, M

    1983-01-01

    After DIN 57100 Part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 for the protection of lines and cables was published in June 1981, the discussion flared up again whether this DIN/VDE-regulation is sufficient. Some papers have already been published on the right selection and arrangement of overload protection under normal operational conditions. The aim of this contribution is to explain abnormal operational conditions which are dealt with in DIN 57100 part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 in comments and the annex, and to supply some help for planning and projecting.

  10. China's Military Potential

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  11. IDRC in China

    reduced poverty in China, rural ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC. K. R. /D. A. V ... Chinese research institutions collaborate in regional, IDRC-supported research ... part of a regional consortium that is building.

  12. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  13. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  14. China Report, Economic Affairs

    1987-01-01

    .... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...

  15. The EU and China

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  16. Service innovation in China

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from...

  17. One Health in China

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  18. China's coal industry

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  19. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  20. China's water scarcity.

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  1. China's energy future

    Horsnell, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The influence of China's growing energy demand on world oil markets is considered. Starting from a very low base of energy consumption per capita, China's potential for growth in oil demand is likely still to be subject to the extremely strong impact of a stop-go economic policy in which the availability of oil is used as a macroeconomic control variable to counter inflation. This has led to considerable monthly variations in oil import levels. While this situation continues, the buying pressure from China will tend to alternate between a trickle and a flood with consequent destabilizing impacts on the market. The markets potentially involved are those of Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and the Mediterranean with knock-on effects in the North Sea and Rotterdam. China is likely to constitute a major indirect force in these markets as a volatile source of demand at the margin. (UK)

  2. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    .... Given China's domination of Tibet, incursions into the Spratly Islands, run-ins with the US and Japan, and a host of other seemingly assertive behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate...

  3. Food irradiation in China

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  4. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  5. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  6. All change for China

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on China's petrochemical industry and its planned raising of foreign investment and reform of the industry in preparation for international competition with the opening up of China's domestic market as part of the accession process to the World Trade Organisation. Details are given of the reorganisation of the industry, its financing, and the consumption of petrochemicals in the agriculture sector and construction, textile and packaging industries

  7. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  8. China's Innovation System

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...... and assess China's social and economic development in the 10 years that followed in the light of their original analysis of challenges and ideas for policy action...

  9. Biofuels in China.

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  10. Transmission line capital costs

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  11. Bioethics in China.

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  12. Green Grows The Bottom Line

    MARKGODFREY

    2004-01-01

    In promoting sustainable business practices in China, business leaders from the EU and Chinese companies have much to share but not that much in common. The EU is funding China's largest environmental program but, worried about the cost factor, some Chinese businesses areproving reluctant about going green.

  13. 78 FR 53195 - Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    2013-08-28

    ... Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department... notice solicits comments for information needed to measure patient satisfaction with VA's dental services... Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed...

  14. Studying Online Behavior: Comment on Anderson et al. 2014

    Kevin Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As social scientists increasingly employ data from online sources, it is important that we acknowledge both the advantages an limitations of this research. The latter have received comparatively little public attention. In this comment, I argue that a recent article by Anderson and colleagues: 1 inadequately describes the study sample; 2 inadequately describes how the website operates; and 3 inadequately develops the paper’s central measures — such that it is difficult to evaluate the generalizability, veracity, and importance of their claims and impossible to replicate their findings. These limitations are not unique to the Anderson et al. article; rather, they point to a set of concerns that all researchers in this growing and important line of study need to address if our work is to have enduring impact.

  15. China in the Copenhagen process: the difficult inclusion of an emerging power

    2009-06-01

    The authors propose an analysis of the Chinese assets and posture before the Copenhagen Conference. They evoke the environmental consequences of the rapid development of the Chinese economy and demography: urban pollution, acid rains, and desertification. They note that the Chinese government had to acknowledge these environmental concerns by specifying energetic performance objectives in its economic planning, by publishing a National Climate Change Programme and a middle and long term development plan for renewable energies. They outline that the different objectives related to energy performance, renewable energy production or greenhouse gas emissions are still difficult to implement at the local level as Chinese provinces are wishing to preserve their competitiveness. The authors comment China's posture in international negotiations as an emerging country or developing country which sets it free of any constraining objective. They examine the possibilities for changing this situation and involve China in reduction obligations. Then they try to foresee China's attitude in Copenhagen and to identify the possible scenarios

  16. China And The International Order

    2018-01-01

    existing order, it stated that China will “take an active part in reforming and developing 13 Feng Zhang, “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the...interests and those that do not align as closely with U.S. interests. China might be challenging 19 Zhang’s “Chinese Thinking on the South China...China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” New York Times, March 22, 2017a; Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Tech Investment

  17. 77 FR 54620 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-09-05

    ... prepared by the company. Written comments are invited on: (a) Whether this proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the...

  18. 76 FR 9814 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    2011-02-22

    ... 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Nora Kincaid, BLS Clearance Officer, Division of Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Nora Kincaid, BLS Clearance Officer, at 202-691-7628 (this is not a toll free number...

  19. 78 FR 29383 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    2013-05-20

    ... comments to Nora Kincaid, BLS Clearance Officer, Division of Management Systems, Bureau of Labor Statistics... by fax to 202-691-5111 (this is not a toll free number). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nora...

  20. 76 FR 2149 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    2011-01-12

    ... comments to Nora Kincaid, BLS Clearance Officer, Division of Management Systems, Bureau of Labor Statistics... by fax to 202-691-5111 (this is not a toll free number). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nora...

  1. 77 FR 11593 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    2012-02-27

    ... in the Addresses section of this notice on or before April 27, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Nora... (this is not a toll free number). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nora Kincaid, BLS Clearance Officer...

  2. Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas'

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas' by Gautam Sen ... Department of Geology & Geophysics, School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology (SOEST), University of .... Mahoney J J, Sheth H C, Chandrasekharan D and Peng Z.

  3. 78 FR 36607 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-06-18

    ... dealer to withdraw its registration. This information is also important to the municipal securities... person to contact regarding any of the municipal securities dealer's unfinished business. Based upon past... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request...

  4. Reply to comments by L. L. Lengyel

    Parks, P.B.; Turnbull, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In reply to comments by Lengyel, it is asserted that boundary conditions used in the pellet ablation model are quite satisfactory but that a more realistic equation of state than the ideal gas law should have been used

  5. 78 FR 59010 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-09-25

    ... submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, Suite... seamlessly to the SUS module for invoice data entry referencing the ERP contract data. Dated: September 20...

  6. 78 FR 19689 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-04-02

    ... information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments received by June 3, 2013. ADDRESSES... of Defense Access Card--Defense Biometric Identification System (DBIDS) Enrollment; OMB Control...

  7. 76 FR 72400 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-11-23

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments... developed biometric information systems capable of collecting and storing biometric images, associated biographic and contextual information; matching biometrics against local and external biometric galleries...

  8. Comment

    2001-01-01

    Physics...fun? 'Physics is Fun' - it's a book, a course, a summer school... Physics, with a reputation for hard maths, nonsensical equations and crazy teachers living with a permanent bad hair day, yes, PHYSICS IS FUN! Maybe if we say it often enough our students will believe us. PHYSICS IS FUN! Keep saying it, and try to believe it. But we are scientists, and we have to look at the evidence and acknowledge the truth: when most people recall the fun times they had at school-how many think about their physics classes? Try asking them. Let's face it - although our students enjoy our exciting demonstrations, the well-structured development of concepts in our classes, and the cooperative and supportive atmosphere of our classrooms and laboratories, even when they find that their physics teachers are the most kind, considerate and approachable of people, even then, when we've done all we can to make physics pleasant, fun and exciting, our students have to fathom out physics... and that can be hard! 'Physics isn't fun in the trivial sense, it's hard work: but you get a fantastic sense of achievement when you make progress.' This is my counsel to most young people who come to discuss whether or not to opt for physics. We try our best to make the material accessible and interesting, but at the end of the day, struggling with something that intially you can't do, but eventually you can do, is part of developing in physics. But what about the teachers? November's meeting of physics teachers from across Europe, Physics on Stage, featured many of the best innovations in physics teaching from the 22 countries which sent delegations (see News). It is probably no surprise, but we need to take note that the most popular stands, talks and lectures were the ones which were most fun. And there is lots of fun to be had doing physics. Whether it is toys, music, poetry, or simply talking about the symmetry in particle physics-the most popular stands, workshops and lectures were those where teachers could enjoy the fun in physics again. Even physics teachers are human! It is so easy to get bogged down in the drudge of everyday teaching and forget the students, let alone ourselves. But if you think back to the good teachers you had at school - weren't they the ones who were enjoying themselves, and maybe not perfectly organized. There has to be a moment at which a good teacher says 'I'm going to do this, because I want to... it's fun physics!' No other justification is needed. Our new look for 2001 So here is the first issue of the new-look Physics Education - and we sincerely hope that you enjoy it. The Editorial Board and the publishing team have been working hard for the past few months to keep the best of the old format, but to make a fresher, more user-friendly publication. As incoming Editor I must acknowledge the excellent work done by Ken Dobson and Jill Membrey, the outgoing team. It is a tough act to follow, but a challenge I am privileged to undertake. As a physics teacher I know how difficult it can be to stay inspired and up-to-date, so as Editor of Physics Education I want to support your professional development as much as possible. Starting with support for student teachers (see Starting Out), through to teachers in charge of equipment and budgets (see Technical Trimmings and Reviews): we want to share good practice. Finally, let's laugh at ourselves-don't miss Signing Off: a humorous look at physics teaching. I've really enjoyed working on this new format, and I hope that you enjoy the read. Please give us lots of feedback and send in your own contributions. I'm very pleased that our first issue has two special features: to me they represent the potential and the purpose of physics education. Sport is an exciting growth area of science in which increasing numbers of students want to understand the basic laws of motion and the application of sophisticated technology; and communicating physics - well that's not just fun, it's fundamental. EditorDr Kerry Parker

  9. Comment

    1972-01-01

    Our opening article in this issue celebrates the first operation, on 1 March, of the proton synchrotron at the National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, at its design energy of 200 GeV. The article gives a short description of the machine and some of its building and commissioning story. It is a great achievement to reach the highest energy in the world from a particle accelerator and NAL have done it in a style which is all their own.

  10. Comment

    2001-03-01

    Virtual reality - whose reality? There is an old joke about a farmer who wanted to improve his milk yields and employed an engineer, a psychologist and a physicist to make suggestions. They all went away for a month and came back with their proposals. The engineer had measured the size of the milking stalls, the ambient temperature and the milking process. She suggested a modest rise in ambient temperature and an alteration in the pumping equipment. The psychologist decided to paint the stalls green and play a tape-recording of birdsong to the cows to make them feel more content and release their milk more easily. The physicist explained that he had decided to look at things more fundamentally: 'Let us assume that the cow is a sphere' ... he began. And that's the joke. Some people think that this is the funniest thing out - a physicist can't recognize a cow when they see one. What troubles me is that I didn't get the joke straight away. I am so used to the language and the often-ludicrous assumptions in physics that it did not seem particularly strange or funny. What did you think? The joke, for me, illustrates the essence of our problem in physics teaching. In a very real way, physics is about another world. It isn't about the real world in which ordinary people live, and they know it. Physics has its own language, its own laws and its own values. Depleted uranium has been in the news of late. It is interesting to compare the casual way in which physics teachers have discussed the possibilitiy that one atom of uranium can kill someone with the shock-horror reporting of this fact in the press. We are caricatured, sometimes for good reason, being callous, calculating, cold people - out of touch with the things that really matter. And then there's that other 'real world' - of really tough people who make serious money. Our friends who work out in the worlds of commerce and industry like to mutter, with some superiority, that teachers would never survive in the real world. So here we are, buffered from the 'reality' of commerce by kind managers, left to teach equations at the expense of moral standards ... Excuse me! Physics is the only subject that confronts real reality head on. Physics is all about how this world, this Universe, this reality works. Moral laws, government legislation and theories of economics are all well, and sometimes good, but they take place within this space we call Our Universe. Physics is real This issue of Physics Education contains lots of excellent suggestions for practical work - demonstrations of what happens, and suggestions for investigations. I hope that readers will find them useful and maybe share some good ideas of their own. We are dealing with stuff that actually happens, and that is what makes physics both significant and attractive. The joke I really hate runs 'If it moves it's biology, if it smells it's chemistry and if it doesn't work it's physics'. This is rubbish: gravity always works, in my experience, physics never gets it wrong. In the classroom, maybe a piece of equipment is broken, or the technician forgot the batteries, but we can never say truthfully that 'the experiment didn't work'. Virtual physics Last week a school governor challenged me to justify the cost of so much laboratory space and equipment when, nowadays, so much can be done using computers. Probably the best 'virtual physics' currently available is on CD-ROM. In this issue of Physics Education we have concentrated on CDs for our review section. There is lots of good material out there which can enhance our teaching with wonderful images, immediate feedback for students, and the possibility of continuously monitored differentiated work but, as I explained to the governor, I don't want to teach virtual physics - physics is very firmly, fairly and squarely in this real world (which may, of course, approximate to a sphere ... .). EditorDr Kerry Parker

  11. Comment.

    Cossey, D

    1993-01-01

    In the UK, the Chairwoman of the Family Planning Association (FPA) praises the staff and volunteers with whom she has worked for their incessant inability to meet the many challenges they face. During her 6 years, however, the FPA had to reduce the number of regional offices and staff. It did not need to reduce salaries, however. FPA membership directly elects the National Executive Council which is now smaller. FPA is exploring new sources of funding and is adapting to the purchaser/provider relationship in the statutory sector, resulting in its successful financial strategy. The Department of Health helps in maintaining FPA's ability to continue to operate. The Chairwoman sees indications of needing to fight old battles again, e.g., some officials have suggested limiting the range of oral contraceptives available from prescription by the National Health Services (NHS) which would be the end of almost 20 years of free contraception and free choice under the NHS. The government is not open to including sex education the school curriculum. The NHS gives the impression in its report "The Health of the Nation" that it is committed to reducing adolescent pregnancies among the youngest teenagers and to recognizing the importance of good policies on sexual health. Yet, its actions exhibit no compassion for single parents. Participants at FPA's 1992 conference agree that variety, quality, and sensitivity of family planning provisions are needed and that family planning clinics and general practitioners should work together. FPA has contributed to the UK the clinic network; the concept of family planning being an integral part of a comprehensive health service; and the notion that family planning includes contraception, empowerment of women, sexual health, rights, and responsibilities. FPA should reaffirm these ideas and secure the future for informed choice and planned pregnancy.

  12. Comment

    Wasawo, David

    1973-01-01

    Presents a discussion showing that scientific development and technological innovation is feasible in sub-Saharan Africa. Stresses need for meaningful science education for pre-primary through adult levels as well as need for such organizations as the Organization of African Unity to formulate scientific and technological policy continent-wide.…

  13. Stylistic Features of Comment in Arabic Blogosphere

    Gabdulzyamil G. Zaynullin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of the functioning of the Internet language is the definition of the features of each Internet genre presented in online communication, taking into account the linguocultural features of the language in question. This paper studies the genre of the Internet comments of the Arabic-speaking blogosphere and reveals its stylistic features. The most common goal of the comment is gratitude, followed by praise. We created a corpus of comments from blogs of various subjects, and then conducted the tagging, having identified the group to which we attributed a comment, depending on the subject and the communicative goal. With the help of the Lexico 3 software, the most frequent lexical units were identified, the lexical features of the comments were described, the main one being the widespread use of religionyms, and the relationship between the blog subject and the stylistic characteristics of communication was revealed. The article traces the correlation between the literary and colloquial functional style in the comments, and also draws a conclusion that the comments are of a conversational, informal character. The main devices of expressiveness that are characteristic for both network and pre-network communication were revealed, and the tendency of the analysts to observe in the comments a stable three-part composition (greeting, message, final formula. The influence of traditional Arabic rhetoric, as well as the epistolary genre, was preserved. The results of the paper can be used when studying other genres of Internet communication in Arabic and in comparative studies to create the linguistic software.

  14. South China Sea

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  15. South China Sea

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  16. Along the line

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  17. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  18. Stokes line width

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  19. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Maps Bibliographic Database

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Maps Bibliographic Database is an historical collection of bibliographic information for more than 400 maps of China. The information resides in a searchable...

  20. China Dimensions Data Collection: Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 consists of full-text program descriptions supporting China's economic and social development. The descriptions represent 69...

  1. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  2. Sprayed concrete linings

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  3. Is South China Sea the new 'inalienable' part of China?

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    China’s growing military posture and unilateral behavior in South China Sea has raised red alarms in international politics, vehemently challenging the existing status quo. What is apparent is that China’s uncompromising attitude in the South China Sea presents China’s obsession over its territorial claims, wherein, South China Sea can be called the ‘new inalienable part’ of China.

  4. China's South China Sea Conundrum - No Easier Pass

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    On July 12, 2016, The Hague- based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) finally hit the hammer on the verdict of the landmark case of South China Sea arbitration. This case was unilaterally initiated by the Republic of the Philippines on January 22, 2013, on its relevant disputes in the South China Sea with the People’s Republic of China. At the very outset, this case brought China at crossroads to its international repute given Philippines’ allegations against its assertive and unlawful clai...

  5. Suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative of underground repository for HLW geological disposal in China

    Zheng Hualing; Fu Bingjun; Fan Xianhua; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2006-01-01

    Site selection for the underground repository is a vital problem with respect to the HLW geological disposal. Over the past decades, we have been focusing our attention on granite as a priority in China. However, there are some problems have to be discussed on this matter. In this paper, both experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community regarding the site selection are described. And then, after analyzing a lot of some key factors affecting the site selection, some comments and suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative before final decision making in China are presented. (authors)

  6. Medical ethics education in China: Lessons from three schools.

    Sherer, Renslow; Dong, Hongmei; Cong, Yali; Wan, Jing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Yanxia; Ma, Zhiying; Cooper, Brian; Jiang, Ivy; Roth, Hannah; Siegler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Ethics teaching is a relatively new area of medical education in China, with ethics curricula at different levels of development. This study examined ethics education at three medical schools in China to understand their curricular content, teaching and learning methods, forms of assessments, changes over time, and what changes are needed for further improvement. We used student and faculty surveys to obtain information about the ethics courses' content, teaching methods, and revisions over time. The surveys also included five realistic cases and asked participants whether each would be appropriate to use for discussion in ethics courses. Students rated the cases on a scale and gave written comments. Finally, participants were asked to indicate how much they would agree with the statement that medical professionalism is about putting the interests of patients and society above one's own. There were both similarities and differences among these schools with regard to course topics, teaching and assessment methods, and course faculty compositions, suggesting their courses are at different levels of development. Areas of improvement for the schools' courses were identified based on this study's findings and available literature. A model of the evolution of medical ethics education in China was proposed to guide reform in medical ethics instruction in China. Analysis identified characteristics of appropriate cases and participants' attitudes toward the ideal of professionalism. We conclude that the development of medical ethics education in China is promising while much improvement is needed. In addition, ethics education is not confined to the walls of medical schools; the society at large can have significant influence on the formation of students' professional values.

  7. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  8. 77 FR 32626 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF09-8-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Rockaway Delivery Lateral Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The staff of the Federa...

  9. 75 FR 78928 - Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River Barges on Lake Michigan, Delay of Effective...

    2010-12-17

    ...-AA17 Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River Barges on Lake Michigan, Delay of Effective Date AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of delay of effective date and reopening of the comment... 46 CFR part 45 as amended by the final rule published in the November 18, 2010, Federal Register (75...

  10. 77 FR 33218 - Graco, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    2012-06-05

    ... ``Graco, Dkt. No. 9350'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks... ``Graco, Dkt. No. 9350'' on your comment. Your comment--including your name and your state--will be placed... file a comment through that Web site. If you file your comment on paper, write ``Graco, Dkt. No. 9350...

  11. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  12. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  13. Foreign direct investment in China

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  14. China's place in global geopolitics

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Heurlin, Bertel

    This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power.......This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power....

  15. Glue-paste linings

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  16. Product line design

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  17. K-line photometry

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  18. SAF line pellet gaging

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  19. Drawing the Line

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  20. Developing Green Line Products

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  1. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  2. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  3. Lined canvas paintings

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  4. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  5. Labelling subway lines

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  6. Subjective poverty line definitions

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  7. Building with a Line

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  8. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  9. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  10. Defining line replaceable units

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  11. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  12. Exploring Servitization in China

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  13. China urges rapid growth

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  14. Pension Reform in China.

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  15. Coal combustion technology in China

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  16. The re-embodiment of bodies, tools, and worlds after spinal cord injury: An intricate picture. Reply to comments on "The embodiment of assistive devices-From wheelchair to exoskeleton"

    Pazzaglia, Mariella; Molinari, Marco

    2016-03-01

    We thank the commentators for their invaluable interdisciplinary contributions and perspectives and thought-provoking comments. Their suggestions have raised questions and provided insights that will guide future enquiries. Herein, we consider important theoretical ideas proposed by Cole [1]; Ferrara, Tempesta, and De Gennaro [2]; Kannape and Lenggenhager [3]; Longo, Sadibolova, and Tame [4]; Papadimitriou [5]; and Serino [6], alongside additional, potentially conflicting lines of discussion.

  17. Taxonomic notes on Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Sichuan Province of China with the description of two new species.

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-17

    Species of the perlid genus Neoperla from Sichuan Province, China are reviewed. Two new species are described, Neoperla caii Li & Wang, sp. nov. and N. emeishana Li & Wang, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners. Available types of several known Neoperla species from Sichuan Province were studied and complementary descriptions or brief taxonomic comments are presented for N. bilineata Wu & Claassen, N. chui Wu & Claassen, N. microtumida Wu & Claassen, N. quadrata Wu & Claassen and N. truncata Wu.

  18. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  19. Development in China and Africa

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We

  20. The China Development Bank and Sustainable Development

    Valentina Levanchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author presents an empirical study of sustainable banking in China and examines the flagship China DevelopmentBank (CDB. The CDB is directly supervised by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China and is one ofthe largest state-owned financial institutions in the country. Its overseas lending is growing rapidly; it increasingly acts as aglobal player, influenced by a variety of international actors. Using the mercantilist framework, the author investigates how the CDB’s social policies diverge from those set by the Chinese authorities. The analysis discusses CDB’s policy variations that are not in line with government interests or prescribed directly by governmental bodies. It concludes that the bank has been active in developing and establishing its own corporate strategy for implementing the concept of sustainable development to promote a balanced development of the economy, society and the environment. That strategy contains the norms and rules set by Chinese regulatory agencies with regard to social and environmental areas, as well as important elements ofthe international practice of corporate responsibility and sustainable funding. The CDB is most likely driven by its desire tobe considered internationally a good corporate citizen and often acts independently from governmental guidance, which insome sense undermines mercantilist perceptions.

  1. Sustainable Building in China -- A Green Leap Forward?

    Diamond, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Qing [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China); Feng, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Tao [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China); Mao, Hongwei [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China); Li, Yutong [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China); Guo, Yongcong [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China); Wang, Jialiang [Shenzhen Inst. of Building Research (China)

    2013-09-01

    China is constructing new commercial buildings at an enormous rate -- roughly 2 billion square meters per year, with considerable interest and activity in green design and construction. We review the context of commercial building design and construction in China, and look at a specific project as an example of a high performance, sustainable design, the Shenzhen Institute of Building Research (IBR). The IBR building incorporates over 40 sustainable technologies and strategies, including daylighting, natural ventilation, gray-water recycling, solar-energy generation, and highly efficient Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. We present measured data on the performance of the building, including detailed analysis by energy end use, water use, and occupant comfort and satisfaction. Total building energy consumption in 2011 was 1151 MWh, with an Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of 63 kWh/m2 (20 kBtu/ft2), which is 61% of the mean EUI value of 103 kWh/m2 (33 kBtu/ft2) for similar buildings in the region. We also comment on the unique design process, which incorporated passive strategies throughout the building, and has led to high occupant satisfaction with the natural ventilation, daylighting, and green patio work areas. Lastly we present thoughts on how the design philosophy of the IBR building can be a guide for low-energy design in different climate regions throughout China and elsewhere.

  2. Sport Management Taught On-Line: A Discussion

    William F. Stier Jr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.

  3. Household Wealth in China

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  4. China's petroleum industry

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  5. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  6. 78 FR 39829 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...: Title: Reporting of Nonpayroll Withheld Tax Liabilities. OMB Number: 1545-1413. Regulation Project...

  7. 78 FR 23975 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... definition of a controlled foreign corporation, foreign base company income and foreign personal holding...

  8. 76 FR 43381 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Financial Asset Securitization Investment Trusts; Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (TD 9004 (final...

  9. 75 FR 39583 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    2010-07-09

    ... the World Wide Web. The survey is a fully automated web data collection effort and is handled... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request. SUMMARY: The...

  10. The last line effect explained

    Beller, M. (Moritz); Zaidman, A. (Andy); Karpov, A. (Andrey); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMicro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or

  11. The last line effect explained

    Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, Andrey; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We do

  12. 75 FR 9418 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010...

    2010-03-02

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. Type of Information...; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010, Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell... of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell...

  13. CHILI: China Lijiang IFU

    Hao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Wide-field IFU technology on medium-size telescope provides a unique science capability that compliments larger future facilities. Here I introduce a program to employ a VIRUS-like unit on the 2.4 meter telescope in GaoMeiGu Observatory in LiJiang, China. We name the instrument "CHILI (China Lijiang IFU)". It will be an IFU with very large field of view at 1.8'x3.6'. We discuss its science capabilities and its potential benefit to the Chinese astronomical community.

  14. NEV Technology in China

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. Nuclear Industry in China

    Cong, W., E-mail: eweike@263.net.cn [Bureau of Geology, China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  18. Contact Line Dynamics

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  19. Adaptive method of lines

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  20. Limit lines for risk

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  1. Draw the Line!

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  2. SLIA beam line design

    Petillo, J.; Chernin, D.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is a multi-kiloampere compact electron accelerator. It uses linear induction accelerator modules on the straight sections of a racetrack spiral, with strong-focusing bends to recirculate the electrons. The strong focusing is provided by stellarator windings on the bends. Stellarator coils are used to provide the strong focusing on the bends. The matching of the electron beam from a diode through a series of accelerator modules and stellarator bends is a major issue in the design of this accelerator. The beam line design for a proof-of-concept SLIA experiment (10 kA, 7 MeV) to be carried out at Pulse Sciences, Inc. will be presented. The design will demonstrate beam matching from element to element in the focusing system, the design of an achromatic bend, and the requirements for avoiding collective instabilities

  3. Remote mechanical C line

    Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed

  4. Pink-line syndrome

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  5. Law on the Rocks: International Law and China’s Maritime Disputes

    2014-12-01

    example the PRC voted against the 2007 UNSC condemnation of human rights abuses in Myanmar because it has a long standing relationship with China). China...coordinates that mariners and aviators could use to stay out of Chinese waters?181 Fourth, the dashed line is drawn on such a small scale, its detail...www.bjreview.com.cn/print/txt/2013-12/02/content_580743.htm. 114 Chinese intent of the ADIZ is to protect sovereignty and maintain aviation safety

  6. China’s Interests and Goals in the Arctic: Implications for the United States

    2017-03-01

    dominated the international media discussion of China and the Arctic. At the same time that China has been elaborating its position on the Arctic...opportunities for shipping and tourism . Arctic cruises are now an option and the Crystal Line, an American luxury cruise outfit, made its first 32-day cruise...between government, academia, business, and social organizations. The second policy revolved around protecting the Arctic and developing the regional

  7. China's income inequality in the global context

    Han, Jin; Zhao, Qingxia; Zhang, Mengnan

    2016-01-01

    Although China's GDP has become the world's second largest, China's long-term economic growth with high speed and long-lasting “efficiency first” policy guidance, has brought China into a complicated situation, therein serious inequality exists in China and it has become one of the most serious problems in China nowadays. This paper focuses on China's inequality issues in the context of the world, especially on comparison between China and the European countries, concerning of our common purs...

  8. Line managers as marketers.

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  9. Comment on ``Communicating Government Science''

    Lins, Harry F.

    2006-05-01

    Soroosh Sorooshian's editorial in the 18 April issue of Eos (87(16) 2005) is a timely reminder of the need for unambiguous guidelines governing the interactions between government scientists and the media. His comments implicitly recognize the central role that science plays in a modern democratic society, which includes informing policy at the highest levels of government and educating the general public about the world we inhabit. Federal research scientists, who constitute approximately 15 percent of the AGU's U.S. membership, have a unique public responsibility. They would welcome a consistent policy for the review and approval of publications, oral presentations, and media communications. An example of the value and success that such a policy can have to both science and the nation is evident in the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For more than a century, the USGS has had clear policies and procedures for ensuring the communication of accurate, high-quality, and impartial scientific information. These policies and procedures are set forth in the USGS Manual under sections entitled ``Approval by the director for outside publication and oral presentation,'' ``Review of USGS publications and abstracts of oral presentations for policy-sensitive issues,'' and ``News release and media relations policy.'' These policies are available online at http:// www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-9.html (.../500-8.html and .../500 5.html).

  10. Development of Live-working Robot for Power Transmission Lines

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Ren, Chengxian; Li, Jinliang; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Dream-I, the first reconfigurable live-working robot for power transmission lines successfully developed in China, has the functions of autonomous walking on lines and accurately positioning. This paper firstly described operation task and object of the robot; then designed a general platform, an insulator replacement end and a drainage plate bolt fastening end of the robot, presented a control system of the robot, and performed simulation analysis on operation plan of the robot; and finally completed electrical field withstand voltage tests in a high voltage hall as well as online test and trial on actual lines. Experimental results show that by replacing ends of manipulators, the robot can fulfill operation tasks of live replacement of suspension insulators and live drainage plate bolt fastening.

  11. Investigation of Beam Emittance and Beam Transport Line Optics on Polarization

    Fiedler, Andrew [Northern Illinois U.; Syphers, Michael [Fermilab

    2017-10-06

    Effects of beam emittance, energy spread, optical parameters and magnet misalignment on beam polarization through particle transport systems are investigated. Particular emphasis will be placed on the beam lines being used at Fermilab for the development of the muon beam for the Muon g-2 experiment, including comparisons with the natural polarization resulting from pion decay, and comments on the development of systematic correlations among phase space variables.

  12. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    2011-11-28

    ... manufacturers, warehouse them, and then resell the products to pool retail stores, pool service companies and.... ADDRESSES: Interested parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the... 0115'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc...

  13. 49 CFR 1110.5 - Consideration of comments received.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... PROCEEDINGS § 1110.5 Consideration of comments received. All timely comments will be considered before final...

  14. 78 FR 29205 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 4952

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 4952 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... 4952, Investment Interest Expense Deduction. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before...

  15. 78 FR 45616 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8960

    2013-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8960 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... 8960, Net Investment Income Tax-Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. DATES: Written comments should be...

  16. 75 FR 33380 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 4952

    2010-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 4952 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY... 4952, Investment Interest Expense Deduction. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before...

  17. The Impact of Teachers' Commenting Strategies on Children's Vocabulary Growth

    Barnes, Erica M.; Dickinson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relations between teachers' use of comments during book reading sessions in preschool classrooms and the vocabulary growth of children with low and moderately low language ability. Using data from a larger randomized controlled trial, we analyzed comments defined as utterances that give, explain, expand, or define. Comments were…

  18. 76 FR 44048 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    2011-07-22

    .../webcaspar . A public release file is also made available on the World Wide Web. Comment: On May 11, 2011 we... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Submission for OMB review; Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The National...

  19. China (country/area statements).

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, China is similar to other countries in the region in that its rate of population growth has declined due to government family planning efforts while the absolute size of the population continues to increase because of the widening population base. However, China's enormous population of over 1 billion sets it apart and places great strain on economic development efforts. In the past decade the Chinese government has provided population education for the masses, explaining the relationship between population and socioeconomic development, and its overall family planning program has helped reduce population growth from 24.82/1000 in 1974 to 10.81/1000 in 1984. The net population increase has been over 100 million in the past 10 years, and if the present rate of increase with a total fertility rate of 2.1 is maintained for another 15 years, the total population would exceed 1.3 billion by 2000, posing a grave threat to China's socioeconomic development. The nucleus of China's population policy is its birth policy, whose main points are to promote family planning so that population growth will be in keeping with socioeconomic development and the utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. The policy is in line with the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979 to carry out the population policy and limit the total population to about 1.2 billion by the century's end. 28.17 million couples, 18.25% of the 150 million married couples of childbearing age, had received 1-child certificates by the end of 1984. Generally speaking, most couples in urban areas would be satisfied with 1 child, while those in rural areas usually prefer 2 children. The family planning program is carried out through publicity

  20. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  1. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  2. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. WAVFH delegates' reports: China

    Deng Mingyi

    1986-01-01

    The work of radiation protection has been given great attention in China. The Ministry of Health is the competent authority in charge of the work. Before the accident at Chernobyl, the government had formulated and promulgated laws and regulations concerning the radiation protection, such as the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection, the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection of Nuclear Plants, the institutions and organizations for monitoring radioactive pollution at national level and provincial level had been set up. After the accident at Chernobyl, each of the monitoring institutions and organizations took samples of air, subsided substances of atmosphere, rainwater, terrestrial surface water from various sources, vegetables, milk and thyroid glands of sheep and goats immediately, for the detection of radiation contamination. As far as we know that the samples had small extent contamination, the extent of contamination of samples in the south of China is smaller than that of samples in the north of China, that the content of nuclides in various samples is lower than the limits of radioactive substances set in national standard, and that radiation dosage subjected by residents of China caused by the contamination is also lower than the set quota in the national standard. The contamination did not interfere with the regular life of the residents

  4. JPRS Report, China

    1989-07-07

    not ask him for help?" Comrade Yaobang immediately wrote a letter of recommendation for the man. Comrade Yaobang’s honesty and kindness were also...relatively low technology and small amounts of capital. This was the sweatshop era. China Investors Taking ’Wait-and-See’ Attitude HK0306070989 Hong

  5. China: Demographic Billionaire.

    Tien, H. Yuan

    1983-01-01

    This document reviews China's population trends and policies since the People's Republic was founded in 1949. Areas addressed include: population growth before 1949, population growth from 1949-1982, and policy responses to population growth (including wan xi shao: later marriages, longer intervals between birth, and fewer children); mortality…

  6. China's Vocational Evolution.

    Kiernan, Owen B.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes his observations on Chinese society and education during his 1978 visit with the official delegation of United States educators. He notes what Americans would consider primitive facilities and programs, the tremendous problems of China's size and population, and the overriding influence of political concerns on education. (MF)

  7. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  8. 4th CHINA AUTOMOTIVE

    2002-01-01

    <正> 9-10 September 2002·Shanghai JC Mandarin Hotel, Shanghai CHINA Key issues ■ Industry Updates & Consumer Insights ■ Imported Car v.s. Domestic Car: Combat Price Reduction ■ Sales Networks & Auto Finance ■ Global Sourcing & Supply Chain Management

  9. Interlinguistics in China.

    Haitao, Liu

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of interlinguistics in China through scientific and specialist journals, tracing a path from early discussions of language policy through growing recognition of Esperanto as an object of scientific study to the application of interlinguistics in computing and terminology. (Author/JL)

  10. China, South Korea, Japan

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  11. Road Traffic in China

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  12. Geothermal studies in China

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  13. Narrating Self and China

    Kristensen, Irina

    about China and its people. Thus this study explores the questions of how these women writers adopted the roles of cultural interpreters, which allowed them to position themselves as authoritative and representative voices and, at the same time, rejuvenate China’s image in the global arena...

  14. EMNEs from China

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  15. Smart grid in China

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  16. A Fragmented China

    S. Poncet

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the degree of integration of China's domestic market and investigates the determinants of inter-provincial trade barriers under the rubric endogenous trade policy theory. I rely on industry-level trade flows extracted from provincial input-output tables to develop a

  17. China - energy situation 1986

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of China is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  18. The Case of China

    pwust

    This report examines the motivations, operations, and collaboration methods of ... Research for development is the use of science and technology to reduce poverty in developing countries through practical, long-term solutions to social, economic, and ..... expenditure of central and local governments” table, China Statistical.

  19. Urban development in China

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao

  20. China and Coexistence

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges...

  1. Greening China Naturally

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  2. China: The Awakened Dragon

    2012-04-01

    United States should abandon the issues of human rights or censorship ; however, U.S. leaders should limit open criticism of China over issues the...Paracels, Spratlys, Macclesfield Bank, and Pratas. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, the Philippines, and Taiwan also in part, lay claim to the

  3. Murdoch Retreats from China

    Jessy Zhang

    2006-01-01

    @@ News Corp's Asian flagship enterprise Star Group announced in early June it would sell a 19.9 percent stake in Phoenix Satellite Television to China Mobile. This move is widely interpreted as a signal that Rudolf Murdoch, the helmsman of News Corp,might have lost his patience and could eventually retreat from the Chinese media market.

  4. Biotechnology in China

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  5. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    Chai, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Feng, S.; Yang, J.; Ouyang, H.; Feng, X.; Mao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  6. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  7. ADS National Programmes: China

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  8. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  9. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  10. α-line systematics

    Caurier, E.; Zuker, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the α-line, defined as a set of differences (D α ) characterized binding energies of (N,Z) nuclei, is presented. The 2p2n-separation energies for even-even nuclei, odd-odd nuclei, even(Z)-odd(N) nuclei, odd(Z)-even(N) nuclei are presented. Trends and details in even-even nuclei, magic numbers of even-even and odd-odd nuclei are discussed. (G.P.) 1 ref.; 8 figs

  11. Impulsive Noise Characterization in Narrowband Power Line Communication

    Li Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, narrowband Power line communication (PLC is considered an attractive communication system in smart grid environments for applications such as advanced metering infrastructure (AMI. In this paper, we will present a comprehensive comparison and analysis in time and frequency domain of noise measured in China and Italy. In addition, impulsive noise in these two countries are mainly analyzed and modeled using two probability based models, Middleton Class A (MCA model and α stable distribution model. The results prove that noise measured in China is rich in impulsive noise, and can be modeled well by α stable distribution model, while noise measured in Italy has less impulsive noise, and can be better modeled by the MCA model.

  12. When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold?

    Sohrab Rafiq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the effects of a China slowdown on Emerging Market Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand and Frontier Developing Economies (Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., and Vietnam in ASEAN. The main findingis that the impact of China growth shocks on ASEAN has risen since the global financial crisis. A one percent decline in China’s growth implies a 0.3 percent reduction in growth for ASEAN EMEs and 0.2 for FDEs. An important component of inflation is also shared between ASEAN and China. These magnitudes are double what they were two decades ago due to stronger trade and financial linkages. Finally, a slowdown in China, while having real effects, also has a financial impact via slower credit growth and lower equity prices. This is in line with the existence of both portfolio balance and signaling channels, in which ASEAN market participants absorb news on China economic activity as an indicator over domestic growth prospects.

  13. AP1000 - update on projects in US and China

    Godfrey, M.

    2012-01-01

    Westinghouse is the only company solely focused on commercial nuclear technology. Westinghouse business is based on four product lines regionally divided: nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel, nuclear services and nuclear automation. The AP1000 is the technology of choice for more than half of the new plants identified in the US. Westinghouse has the only certified Generation III+ technology by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The first Generation III+ plants are under construction in China and the US.

  14. Translations on People’s Republic of China, Number 405.

    1977-11-30

    henchman who knew nothing about films to tightly control the film industry of our country. Exploiting this important mass media, they frenziedly...8217gang of four’ on China’s historical stage, conspiratorial films also overran the film industry for some time. But following the complete collapse of...with regard to questions of right and wrong in line, in ideology and in theory, so that our socialist film industry can develop soundly and

  15. China Report, Economic Affairs, Energy: Status and Development -- XXVI

    1984-04-09

    better technology for open-cut mining; — renovating 9 railway trunk lines while building 8 new ones, bringing the total number in the area up to 20 and...CSO: 4013/119 91 SUPPLEMENTAL SOURCES CHINA’S SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION ANALYZED Beijing TAIYANGNENG XUEBAO [ACTA ENERGIAE SOLARIS...Calculation in Our Country, TAIYANGNENG XUEBAO [ACTA ENERGIAE SOLARIS SINICA], Vol 1, 1980 pp 1-9. 12553 CSO: 4013/19 102 CONSERVATION CONSERVATION

  16. AP1000 - update on projects in US and China

    Godfrey, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, Pennsy lvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Westinghouse is the only company solely focused on commercial nuclear technology. Westinghouse business is based on four product lines regionally divided: nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel, nuclear services and nuclear automation. The AP1000 is the technology of choice for more than half of the new plants identified in the US. Westinghouse has the only certified Generation III+ technology by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The first Generation III+ plants are under construction in China and the US.

  17. Integrated Air Pollution Management in China : Developing Particulate Matter Control

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study is a joint effort of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Chinese experts, and the World Bank to inform the policy-making process in line with the government of China s medium- and long-term objectives. Specifically the study aims to assist MEP, provincial governments, and municipalities by: (1) Proposing a national PM10 compliance plan to help non-compliant cities at...

  18. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  19. The innominate line

    Whelan, M.A.; Myung, K.H.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The innominate line continues to be of value in evaluating the integrity of the sphenoid bone since plain skull radiographs remain a primary screening tool for metastatic disease, seizure disorder and headache. The detection of lesions involving the sphenoid bone can be difficult. The accuracy of the radionulcide scan is reduced because of confusion caused by uptake in the adjacent nasal and sinus mucosa. On computed tomography, the sections through the base of the skull and orbit can contain many artifictual densities caused by a combination of bone, soft tissue and sinus air interfaces. In addition, routine settings of window width and level on CT scan are designed to best demonstrate the soft tissues, and bony lesions can easily be missed. Thus, disruption of the ''integrity'' of this line on plain films, particularly the Caldwell projection, can be a sensitive first indicator of disease involving the sphenoid bone. Such a determination on plain film leads to more accurate CT scanning, in that attention will be given to the skull base and scans will be imaged with both soft tissue and bone windows. (orig./MG)

  20. Radiation resistant lining material

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  1. Strategic production line synchronisation

    Hattingh, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.

  2. Rheumatic Diseases in China

    Zeng, Qing Yu; Chen, Ren; Darmawan, John; Xiao, Zheng Yu; Chen, Su Biao; Wigley, Richard; Le Chen, Shun; Zhang, Nai Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. Methods Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases) protocol and those that did not employ this protocol but were published in recognized journals were identified and analyzed. Results Thirty-eight surveys including 241,169 adults from 25 provinces/cities were pooled for analysis. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints ranged from 11.6% to 46.4%, varying by locality, study protocol and age of the people surveyed. Prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) varied from 5.1% to 20.8%, with common sites of involvement being the lumbar spine, knee joint and cervical spine. Compared with rates of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA in the USA, elderly men in Beijing exhibited similar prevalence rates and elderly women exhibited a higher prevalence. The prevalence of hip OA and hand OA was much lower in Chinese than in Caucasian populations, but both kinds of OA were more common in coal miners. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis ranged from 0.2% to 0.54% among Han ethnic Chinese and were lower among mixed ethnic populations. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis ranged from 0.01% to 0.1%, and that of reactive arthritis was 0.02%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy was identified in 0.64% to 1.2% of the individuals included in the surveys. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranged from 0.2% to 0.93%, with the highest rate being reported from a Taiwan urban area. In mainland China there were no significant differences in prevalence of RA between the northern and southern parts of China, or between different ethnic groups. The prevalence of

  3. Taxonomic Review on the Genus Sciota (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae in Northeast China

    Qi, Mu-Jie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the genus Sciota Hulst, 1888 are recognized from Northeast China: Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881, Sciota fumella (Eversmann, 1844, and Sciota adelphella (Fischer von R$\\ddot{o} $ 수식 이미지slerstamm, 1836, of which Sciota cynicella (Christoph, 1881 is reported for the first time from China. This species can be distinguished from congeners by the gray color of basal area, the straight antemedial line and the distinct postmedial line on the forewing; by the stout aedeagus in male genitalia. In this study, a key to Northeastern Chinese species of genus Sciota is presented, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are also provided.

  4. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  5. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  6. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  7. An exploratory study of radiographer's perceptions of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images in rural community based hospitals

    Howard, Morag L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study sought to explore the perceptions of community hospital based radiographers in North East Scotland regarding the practice of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images. Method: A purposive sample of radiographers (n = 8) were recruited from community hospitals throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted employing semi-structured interviews consisting of one focus group and two individual interviews. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in full to allow thematic analysis of the data using a framework adapted from Pope and Mays (2006). Main findings: This study revealed that the practice of radiographer commenting in the community provides a valuable front line opinion on musculo-skeletal trauma image appearances to enhance diagnostic outcomes for patients and streamline their care pathway. The appreciation shown from inter-professional colleagues for this practice induced feelings of professional pride and job satisfaction in the sample group. All participants expressed a desire to undertake additional training to allow progression from radiographer commenting to radiographer reporting of musculo-skeletal trauma images. Perceived barriers to the practice of radiographer commenting were time constraints and a lack of support with regards to continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and mentorship from radiology colleagues. Conclusion: The practice of radiographer commenting in the community setting should be supported by ongoing training, and radiologist involvement in mentoring could provide radiographers with a valuable support mechanism. The voice of all radiographers regarding this extended role must be heard by professional leaders to ensure that the skills and education required for radiographer commenting are provided and subsequent patient care is not compromised

  8. Adam Smith and the new era of China

    Aníbal Carlos Zottele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ural area has been the quiet main character of China’s economic development. The history of this thousand-year-old culture seems to be exempted from further comments about its role. Its importance has been strongly expressed during crisis which institutions of that great nation in XX century were shook. Agricultural sector was the key in modernization period initiated in 1980 even in the later phases. Agriculture preponderance as progress support of the nations is presented by Scottish thinker Adam Smith in his work An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The status of Chinese development in XVII y XVIII centuries has been characterized in this document as well as the natural order of progress against unnatural or retrograde order followed by the Netherlands, in that time the country that had achieved higher levels growth in Europe. Apparently, at present, China repeats its old experiences by concentrating on the path praised by Smith.

  9. Space Law and China

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  10. Geothermal studies in China

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  11. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  12. Reply to comment on: “Local lattice distortions vs. structural phase transition in NdFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}”

    Calamiotou, M., E-mail: mcalam@phys.uoa.gr [Solid State Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-15784 Athens (Greece); Liarokapis, E. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR15780, Athens (Greece)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A reply to comment by A. Martinelli (PHYSC-D-15-00255) on: “Local lattice distortions vs. structural phase transition in NdFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}” is presented. • The main conclusions drawn in the commented paper are based on the distinct different temperature evolution for T < 150 K among the superconducting and non-superconducting NdFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} compounds of both, atomic displacement parameters and Raman mode widths, rather than only on line broadening analysis or the detection of any symmetry breaking in the Raman spectra.

  13. Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.

    1981-05-19

    using long cavity. M8 Removable Pellicle Beam Splitter for He-Ne Lineup Beam. Removed before HF or DF laser is turned on. 27 A 27 * A r of the chopper...three probe laser lines, however three lines were sequentially measured to verify the diagnostic equipment. Two of the three lines have been monitored

  14. CLO : The cell line ontology

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  15. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  16. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    Zhang Kunmin

    1993-01-01

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  17. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  18. Line broadening by focusing

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  19. 75 FR 55356 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    2010-09-10

    ... (BLS) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed revision of the ``Telephone Point of Purchase... is being sought for the Telephone Point of Purchase Survey (TPOPS). Since 1997, the survey has been... Statistics. Title: Point of Purchase Survey. OMB Number: 1220-0044. Affected Public: Individuals or...

  20. 78 FR 23599 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-04-19

    ... public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish... Substitution of Payee, obtains information needed to determine the selection of a representative payee who will... regarding the information collection should be addressed to Charles Mierzwa, Railroad Retirement Board, 844...

  1. 78 FR 18563 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-03-27

    ... Public Law 110- 181 and DoD Instruction 3020.41, ``Operational Contract Support'' and other appropriate... information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given to all comments received by May 28, 2013. ADDRESSES... outside the United States. Data collection on contractors is a condition of their contract when DFARS 252...

  2. 75 FR 27602 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-05-17

    ... rules governing offers and sales of securities made outside the United States without registration under... clarification of the extent to which Section 5 of the Securities Act applies to offers and sales of securities... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and...

  3. 77 FR 8819 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-02-15

    ... also be used as an outcome measure to monitor progress on the goals of the DoDEA Community Strategic...; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness), DoD. ACTION... Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) announces a proposed public...

  4. 77 FR 3236 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-01-23

    ... survey results will also be used to measure the goals and initiatives of the Community Strategic Plan...; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness), DoD. ACTION... Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) announces the following proposed new...

  5. 75 FR 67693 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-11-03

    ... forms is essential to reduce preparation and processing time, increase productivity, and maximize... instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 1160 Defense Pentagon... increased because the Department of Defense must make additional written and telephonic inquiries with the...

  6. 76 FR 65220 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-10-20

    ... of a broker-dealer designed to effect securities transactions with or for a customer account over... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312 or send an e-mail to: [email protected

  7. 75 FR 27601 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-05-17

    ... effect trades with or for U.S. institutional investors through a U.S. registered broker-dealer, provided... other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted... Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312 or send an e- mail to: [email protected] . Dated: May 10, 2010...

  8. 78 FR 6362 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-01-30

    ... Commission declaring that the registration of that investment company cease to be in effect. The form... information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in writing within 60... Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA...

  9. 75 FR 22637 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-04-29

    ... orders of the Commission declaring that the registration of that investment company cease to be in effect... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... Boucher, Director/ CIO, Securities and Exchange Commission, C/O Shirley Martinson, 6432 General Green Way...

  10. 77 FR 9708 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-02-17

    ... benefits and overhead. The estimate of average burden hours is made solely for the purposes of the... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312; or send an email to: [email protected] . February 14, 2012. Kevin M...

  11. 75 FR 18246 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-04-09

    ... be issued in connection with employee benefit plans. We estimate that Form S-8 takes approximately 24... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... Boucher, Director/ CIO, Securities and Exchange Commission, C/O Shirley Martinson, 6432 General Green Way...

  12. 76 FR 13001 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-03-09

    ... M and Rule 17a-2 are necessary for covered persons to obtain certain benefits or to comply with... forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in..., Chief Information Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green...

  13. 78 FR 25322 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-04-30

    ... securities to be issued in connection with an employee benefit plan. We estimate that Form S-8 takes... forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in... Exchange Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, Virginia 22312; or send an...

  14. 77 FR 19037 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-03-29

    ... in order for the investment adviser to obtain the benefits of Rule 206(3)-2. The collection of... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions..., 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312; or send an email to: [email protected] . Dated: March...

  15. 78 FR 79711 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-12-31

    ... the rule is necessary to obtain the benefit of relying on the rule's permission for funds to maintain... other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted..., Chief Information Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green...

  16. 77 FR 8297 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-02-14

    ... benefits and overhead. The estimate of average burden hours is made solely for the purposes of the... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312; or send an email to: [email protected] . Dated: February 8, 2012...

  17. 75 FR 44296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-07-28

    ..., guardian, conservator, assignee for the benefit of creditors, receiver, trustee in insolvency or bankruptcy... technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in writing within 60 days of... Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, c/o Shirley Martinson, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria...

  18. 75 FR 82416 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-12-30

    ... investment advisers also registered as broker-dealers to obtain the benefit of the alternative means of... forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in.../CIO, Securities and Exchange Commission, C/O Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA...

  19. 75 FR 81681 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2010-12-28

    .... Complying with this collection of information requirement is necessary to obtain the benefit of relying on... forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in... Information Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way...

  20. 78 FR 75391 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-12-11

    .... Complying with this collection of information requirement is necessary to obtain the benefit of relying on... forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions submitted in... Information Officer, Securities and Exchange Commission, C/O Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way...