WorldWideScience

Sample records for line chemical analyzers

  1. General-purpose chemical analyzer for on-line analyses of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Kronberg, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    An automated analyzer is being developed to perform analytical measurements on radioactive solutions on-line in a hostile environment. This General Purpose Chemical Analyzer (GPCA) samples a process stream, adds reagents, measures solution absorbances or electrode potentials, and automatically calculates the results. The use of modular components, under microprocessor control, permits a single analyzer design to carry out many types of analyses. This paper discusses the more important design criteria for the GPCA, and describes the equipment being tested in a prototype unit

  2. On-line neutron activation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flahaut, V.; Colmon, A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutronic analyser has been designed to determine the composition of the flow of raw materials entering a cement factory on the conveyor belt. This new system gives a reliable analysis of the whole cargo that outdates the sampling or the usual surface analysis based on fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy is about 1%.The neutrons interact with the materials on an average depth of 25 cm and are absorbed by nuclei, these nuclei produce photons whose energy is characteristic of the chemical element itself. The composition can be deduced by measuring the number of photons emitted and their energy. The analysis is made on-line and can concern the search for about 10 compounds. In the case of cement the list of compounds is: SiO 2 , CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O, TiO 2 , S, Mn 2 O 3 , K 2 O, and H 2 O. The neutron generator involves a deuterium ion source whose deuterium ions are accelerated by means of an electrical field and impinge on a tritiated target, the nuclear reactions between deuterium and tritium produce 14 MeV neutrons. This neutron analysing technique can be adapted to any need of on-line composition determination. (A.C.)

  3. Using wavelet features for analyzing gamma lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Abdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Uzhinskii, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Data processing methods for analyzing gamma ray spectra with symmetric bell-shaped peaks form are considered. In many cases the peak form is symmetrical bell shaped in particular a Gaussian case is the most often used due to many physical reasons. The problem is how to evaluate parameters of such peaks, i.e. their positions, amplitudes and also their half-widths, that is for a single peak and overlapped peaks. Through wavelet features by using Marr wavelet (Mexican Hat) as a correlation method, it could be to estimate the optimal wavelet parameters and to locate peaks in the spectrum. The performance of the proposed method and others shows a better quality of wavelet transform method

  4. On line chemical analyzers for high purity steam and water, applied to steam power plants; Analizadores quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, aplicados a centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Perez, Ruth [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    This article presents a general overview of the advances in the subject of on line analyzers of chemical parameters for high purity water and steam and specifies which ones are commercially available. Also are mentioned besides, the criteria nowadays applied for the selection of the sites for sample grabbing and the analysis that is necessary to perform in each point, depending on the power plant type and the treatment administered (phosphates-Ph coordinated or AVT treatment). [Espanol] El articulo presenta un panorama general de los avances que en materia de analizadores de parametros quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, y especifica cuales estan disponibles en forma comercial. Se citan, ademas los criterios que se aplican actualmente para seleccionar los puntos de toma de muestra y los analisis que es necesario efectuar en cada punto, dependiendo del tipo de central y del tratamiento que se le administre (fosfatos-pH coordinado o tratamiento AVT).

  5. On line chemical analyzers for high purity steam and water, applied to steam power plants; Analizadores quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, aplicados a centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Perez, Ruth [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    This article presents a general overview of the advances in the subject of on line analyzers of chemical parameters for high purity water and steam and specifies which ones are commercially available. Also are mentioned besides, the criteria nowadays applied for the selection of the sites for sample grabbing and the analysis that is necessary to perform in each point, depending on the power plant type and the treatment administered (phosphates-Ph coordinated or AVT treatment). [Espanol] El articulo presenta un panorama general de los avances que en materia de analizadores de parametros quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, y especifica cuales estan disponibles en forma comercial. Se citan, ademas los criterios que se aplican actualmente para seleccionar los puntos de toma de muestra y los analisis que es necesario efectuar en cada punto, dependiendo del tipo de central y del tratamiento que se le administre (fosfatos-pH coordinado o tratamiento AVT).

  6. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  7. Using linear programming to analyze and optimize stochastic flow lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helber, Stefan; Schimmelpfeng, Katja; Stolletz, Raik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete time...... programming and hence allows us to solve buffer allocation problems. We show under which conditions our method works well by comparing its results to exact values for two-machine models and approximate simulation results for longer lines....

  8. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  9. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  10. Semi-continuous on-line uranium ore analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Gurdy, E.M.; Hatchowski, L.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient process control of a uranium mill and its associated mining operation requires a nearly continuous knowledge of the uranium concentration in the ore. Generally, the approach is to use laboratory assays of grab samples from the mill feed belt. In some cases, elaborate and expensive systems have been used to ensure random sampling, but even with these systems, mass-balance discrepancies still exist. There is a requirement for an on-line instrument that can give a prompt, accurate analysis of a large portion of the feed stock. The authors have recently evaluated a laboratory system that achieves these goals using neutron activation and delayed neutron counting. The development of the on-line uranium ore analyzer is a consequence of previous work done at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) (Campbell et al., 1978 and 1981), and is based on the emission of delayed neutrons after the neutron irradiation of fissionable materials. The mechanism of delayed neutron emission has been described (Keepin, 1965), but briefly is as follows. The fission fragments resulting from irradiation are in an excited state. Certain of these delayed fission products, precursors, decay to a more stable state by the emission of a delayed neutron. The delayed neutrons can be divided into six groups with effective half-lives ranging from 0.2-55 sec. It is important to note that more than 50% of the delayed neutrons are emitted within the first 6 sec after irradiation; this has an influence on the design of the analysis instrument

  11. X-ray chemical analyzer for field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba, O.O.M.

    1977-01-01

    A self-supporting portable field multichannel x-ray chemical analyzer system is claimed. It comprises a lightweight, flexibly connected, remotely locatable, radioisotope-excited sensing probe utilizing a cryogenically-cooled solid state semi-conductor crystal detector for fast in situ non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in solid, powder, liquid or slurried form, utilizing an x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry technique

  12. ELT-MELAS analyzer and its on-line programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Berezhnoj, V.A.; Glupova

    1976-01-01

    ELT-MELAS device constructed for an automatic analysis of pictures from big bubble chambers is described. It is controlled by a medium-size ICL-1903A computer and has two measuring modes: analysis of the ''agreement'' signal and digitation of slice-scans. Main features of the hardware and of on-line controlling and diagnostic software are presented. The test results of the MELAS complex as well as preliminary results of the scan-slice measurements of pictures from 15sup(') chamber are given

  13. Development and performance of on-line uranium analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofalt, A.E.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1985-10-01

    A diode-array spectrophotometer and and x-ray fluorescence analyzer were installed online in a full-scale prototype facility to monitor uranium loading and breakthrough of ion exchange columns. Uranium concentrations of 10 ppM in uranyl nitrate solutions can be detected online to improve process control and material accountability. 9 figs

  14. Progress and performance of on-line analyzers of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.M.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Bernatowicz, H.; Tassicker, O.J.; Karlson, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the past year's progress in the laboratory testing of the most comprehensive Nucoalyzer, the CONAC, and the performance of a Nucoalyzer-Sulfurmeter in special field tests. Previous papers and presentations provide more detailed background information. The near real-time analysis provided by a Nucoalyzer can be used in a variety of strategies to optimize efficiency of coal use. Nucoalyzers can be used to monitor coal deliveries and achieve uniformity in coal storage and recovery. In a coal cleaning plant, on-line analysis with a Nucoalyzer can lead to optimum Btu recovery while meeting specifications for the washed coal. A Nucoalyzer can monitor the blending of different coals to maintain a key cosntituent such as sulfur below a specified level, or can predict sulfur dioxide emissions, allowing feed-forward control to gas scrubbers and precipitators. Variability in coal feed to the boiler can lead to gross changes in thermodynamic efficiency in combustion. In addition, fouling and slagging incidents due to poor coal quality cause costly boiler shutdowns and maintenance. Nucoalyzer monitoring of key constituents and Btu in the coal feed allows operators to adjust boiler parameters for increased efficiency. To summarize, the primary advantages of Nucoalyzers relate to their ability to quickly identify changes in coal composition so that adjustments can be made in a timely manner to accommodate these changes in the process being monitored. Nucoalyzers are the only instruments available that can monitor the coal (for ash, Btu, sulfur, etc.) on-line and provide real-time continuous results. One Nucoalyzer is already working in the field, and by the time of the next Symposium we will have had performance reports on two more

  15. Analyze On-line Star Economy Basing on Models of Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志豪

    2016-01-01

    The outstanding performance of the On-line Star Economy is bound up with social media and promotion by fans, stimulating a new round of consumption upgrading and capital tendency. There is no denying that the On-line Star Economy may be the fortuitous outcome of the times. But the fact remains it can be analyzed rationally using Models of Entrepreneurship.

  16. New luminescence lines in nanodiamonds obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, V. G.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The spectral characteristics of the photoluminescence lines detected for nanodiamonds obtained by the reactive ion etching of diamond particles in oxygen plasma, deposited by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate, are studied. At room temperature, narrow lines are observed in the visible and infrared spectral regions, with a full width at half-maximum in the range of 1-2 nm at an almost complete absence of a broadband photoluminescence background signal. At decreasing temperature, the lines narrowed to 0.2-0.6 nm at T = 79 K, and the minimum line width was 0.055 nm at T = 10 K. With increasing temperature, the narrow lines shifted to the long-wavelength region of the spectrum, and their intensity decreased.

  17. High rate spectroscopy for on-line nuclear coal analyzer (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, J.H.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    A high count rate, time-variant Ge(Li) spectrometer has been developed for on-line coal analysis. The analyzer is being fabricated for use in a power generating station. Prompt neutron activation of coal samples is the basis of analysis, with 252 Cf as the source for irradiation. The spectroscopy system allows counting rates up to 150 k counts per second without significant loss in energy resolution or peak shape. The high data throughput allows the coal analyzer to be used for on-line process control. The coal analyzer will be discussed, with emphasis on the high-rate signal processing system. Results of analysis of coal samples will be presented

  18. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  19. Designing on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono

    2014-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this neutron activation technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed include the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition subsystem design, and operator computer console design. This program will use Nal(Tl) scintillation detector to detect gamma-rays emitted by elements in coal due to neutron activation of a neutron source, "2"5"2Cf (Californium-252). This basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  20. DHS Office of Health Affairs Chemical Defense Program Analyzes Subway Safety Against Chemical Terrorist Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM In an article for the journal Domestic Preparedness, Joselito Ignacio examines how to protect subway riders from chemical attacks. Ignacio graduated from the Center for Homeland Defense and Security in...

  1. Development of a new lines of sight analyzer while playing sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Mochiduki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Olympics will be held in Tokyo in 2020, and the training of the athlete using technology has been gaining attention. In an effort to refine the competitive ability of top athletes by evaluating their performance objectively, we have focused on eye movement and head movement. Since the field of view moves according to the athlete’s head movement, which is a problem for the conventional method of measuring eye movement, we proposed a new method of analysis of lines of sight which can record head movement during a competition and make it easier to analyze by superimposing the lines of sight on an externally recorded fixed image. With the goal of measuring the lines of sight of an athlete during an actual competition, we made a video during a competition and had an athlete observe the video in a laboratory. First we compared the video in which only the eye movement was measured and the field-of-view image moved according to the head movement with another video in which the head movement and eye movement were measured and the image did not move in spite of the occurrence of head movement. The results of the experiment, which involved baseball as the competitive sport, showed the effectiveness of our proposed system. Furthermore, we showed the difference between the lines of sight of an experienced and an inexperienced catcher.

  2. Characterizing chemical systems with on-line computers and graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.; Rigdon, L.P.; Brand, H.R.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Incorporating computers and graphics on-line to chemical experiments and processes opens up new opportunities for the study and control of complex systems. Systems having many variables can be characterized even when the variable interactions are nonlinear, and the system cannot a priori be represented by numerical methods and models. That is, large sets of accurate data can be rapidly acquired, then modeling and graphic techniques can be used to obtain partial interpretation plus design of further experimentation. The experimenter can thus comparatively quickly iterate between experimentation and modeling to obtain a final solution. We have designed and characterized a versatile computer-controlled apparatus for chemical research, which incorporates on-line instrumentation and graphics. It can be used to determine the mechanism of enzyme-induced reactions or to optimize analytical methods. The apparatus can also be operated as a pilot plant to design control strategies. On-line graphics were used to display conventional plots used by biochemists and three-dimensional response-surface plots

  3. On-line measurement of oil contaminants in water by filter-based infrared analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelae, P.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a dedicated infrared analyzer for on-line measurement of the oil content of water, the Oili analyzer, are evaluated theoretically and with laboratory measurements. The analyzer was originally developed for controlling the discharge of ballast and bilge water from oil tankers and more than 200 such instruments have now been supplied for that purpose, representing about 10 % of the total market. Some technical improvements are suggested, and the improved instrument is shown to be capable of measuring oil in water to an accuracy of +- 20 % down to a detection limit of +5-10 ppm in the presence of high concentrations of interfering components and under varying environmental conditions. This opens up new potential applications for the instrument, e.g. the monitoring of water discharges from oil and gas production platforms. The infrared analyzer responds only to the dispersed oil fraction, and if the dissolved fraction is of interest as well, the instrument must be equipped with a UV option, as suggested here

  4. Development of an on-line analyzer for organic phase uranium concentration in extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanwu; Song Yufen; Zhu Yaokun; Cong Peiyuan; Cui Songru

    1998-10-01

    The working principle, constitution, performance of an on-line analyzer and the development characteristic of immersion sonde, data processing system and examination standard are reported. The performance of this instrument is reliable. For identical sample, the signal fluctuation in continuous monitoring for four months is less than +-1%. According to required measurement range by choosing appropriate length of sample cell the precision of measurement is better than 1% at uranium concentration 100 g/L. The detection limit is (50 +- 10) mg/L. The uranium concentration in process stream can be automatically displayed and printed out in real time and 4∼20 mA current signal being proportional to the uranium concentration can be presented. So the continuous control and computer management for the extraction process can be achieved

  5. STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES IN BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING ANALYZED THROUGH AN ON LINE ACADEMIC DROP-IN CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schoenmaker

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The biochemistry discipline integrates the curriculum of all graduation courses onthe Biological Area and is a basis for other disciplines. The students’ difficulties inthis discipline are already widely recognized. To investigate these difficulties, wecreated a drop-in on line service that has two purposes: (1 To give support tostudents’ learning by answering their questions and solving their problemswhenever they appear and (2 to analyze the questions presented, as a strategy todiagnose the most prevalent difficulties. After two semesters of this service on line,217 questions were received and answered. There were few conceptual questionsbeing the majority related to problems and exercises. The most frequent questionsdealt with cell metabolism (54,4%, mainly lipid metabolism and aerobicmetabolism; basic concepts (11,5% such as about amino acids and buffer, proteinstructure (8,3% and enzymes (7,8%. These percentages are correlated to thenumber of hours dedicated to each subjects in the disciplines. The main difficultiesfounded were: integration of metabolic processes in different tissues, induction ofenergy reserve oxidation, reciprocal regulation between glycolysis andgluconeogenesis. We suppose that the lack of laboratory practice difficults thelearning of basic concepts. A more in-deep analysis will be necessary toinvestigate the causes of the pointed difficulties.

  6. Process measuring techniques applying in-line and on-line analyzers. Betriebsmesstechnik unter Einsatz von in-line und on-line Analysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, F; Jola, M

    1982-01-01

    The measurement and control of classical physical parameters such as pressure, temperature etc, is frequently not sufficient now for optimum process control in chemistry and associated fields. Only the use of inline and online analysers makes it possible to maintain the narrow limits of chemical reaction conditions. This ABC pocket book should help the user to select the best from the large number of available methods of measurement. Using 120 alphabetically arranged key words with many cross-references, it has a well-thought-out treatment of basic measurements and descriptions of apparatus, and on the other hand, it contains selected typical examples of applications. Width rather than depth of information is aimed at. The electrochemical methods discussed are potentiometry (pH value, redox potential, direct potentiometry with ion selective electrodes), conductometry (measurement of conductivity) and voltammetry (polarography, ammetry). Photometry, the measurement of density, the refractive index, surface tension and viscosity are described. From the large number of applications, the examples of textile processing, the cellulose and paper industry, the surface treatment of materials and petrochemicals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the treatment of service water, drinking water and boiler feed water. In connection with questions of work and environmental protection, emission control and the treatment of domestic and industrial waste water are described. With 119 figs.

  7. Mechanical design and development of analyzing magnet for the RIB charge breeder beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Pranab; Ghosh, Sundeep; Bhattacharya, Mahuwa; Gupta, Anjan Dutta; Pal, Gautam; Naik, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    An iron dominated analyzing magnet of uniform peak field 0.6 T has been developed for Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) charge breeder beam line at VECC, Kolkata. It has two room temperature coils made of copper having channels for passage of cooling water. The other important parts of the magnet includes two yokes, two poles, vacuum chamber, view port, iron plates and the support structures. The most important properties of magnets designed and fabricated for this application is the need for high field quality. The magnet assembly has got overall dimensions of 1.1 metres x 0.91 metres x 0.63 metres and the required field uniformity is 6 x 10 -4 over pole width of ± 2.5 cm. The most critical parameter that has to be maintained to achieve the desired magnetic field is the pole gap of 80 ± 0.25 rom.This paper describes in detail about the mechanical design, coil cooling analysis, development and assembly of this magnet. (author)

  8. SPLLIFT: Statically Analyzing Software Product Lines in Minutes instead of Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodden, Eric; Tolêdo, Társis; Ribeiro, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    IFDS framework for inter-procedural, finite, distributive, subset problems to an SPL-aware analysis formulated in the IDE framework, a well-known extension to IFDS. Using a full implementation based on Heros, Soot, CIDE and JavaBDD, we show that with SPLLIFT one can reuse IFDS-based analyses without...... changing a single line of code. Through experiments using three static analyses applied to four Java-based product lines, we were able to show that our approach produces correct results and outperforms the traditional approach by several orders of magnitude....

  9. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  10. The Size of Narrow Line Region and [OIII] Luminosity Analyzed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we constructed a sample of 4002 quasars from. SDSS DR7 quasar catalogue to calculate the electron density and size of narrow line region. We find that the electron densities are ∼103/cm3, and the sizes are between 27 and 775 pc. We also find that, in the ionization cone, the sizes are tightly ...

  11. Dionex series 8000 on-line analyzer, Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This project was initiated to develop a custom-designed online water analyzer (ion chromatograph) for secondary water chemistry control in TVA's nuclear plants. This water analyzer development was conducted pursuant to a cooperative research agreement with the Dionex Corporation. Dionex developed and installed a dual channel, six stream analyzer on the secondary side of TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. The analyzer was developed for real time detection of sodium, chloride, and sulfate in any of the six sampling streams. The analyzer is providing Sequoyah's plant personnel with reliable secondary water chemistry data in a much more timely manner than the past grab sampling techniques. Results on the performance of the analyzer show that it is performing above and beyond the expectations of plant personnel. Since its installation at Sequoyah, there have been 29 units ordered from Dionex including 1 unit for Sequoyah, 5 units for Browns Ferry, and 23 units for other utilities. In the future, the analyzer will allow plant staffs to take corrective action before corrosive conditions occur or before having to derate a unit

  12. Procedure for analyzing the x-ray line profiles of disordered carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.G.; Bragg, R.H.; Bose, S.

    1981-12-01

    A systematic procedure to correct for various distortions in the broad x-ray line profiles of glass-like carbons (GC) is described. The profile is first corrected for distortions due to low specimen absorption, secondly for incoherent (Compton) scattering, and then strong small angle scattering. The resulting profile is then multiplied by the appropriate trigonometric (Lorentz and polarization) factors. Finally, correction is made for the variation of the atomic scattering factor across the broad peaks. Two examples of the GC heat treatment at 1000 0 C and 2700 0 C have been used to illustrate the outcome of the corrections. 8 figures

  13. A Straight-Line Method for Analyzing Residual Drawdowns at an Observation Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Çimen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the hydraulic parameters (transmissivity and storage coefficients of a confined aquifer is important for effective groundwater resources. For this purpose, the residual drawdowns have been in use to estimate the aquifer parameters by the classical Theis recovery method. The proposed method of this paper depends on a straight-line through the field data and it helps to calculate the parameters quickly without any need for long-term pumping data. It is based on the expansion series of the Theis well function by consideration of three terms, and this approach is valid for the dimensionless time factor u′=S′r2/4Tt′≤0.2. The method can be applied reliably to extensive and homogeneous confined aquifers resulting in different storage coefficients during the pumping and recovery periods S≠S′. It presents a strength methodology for the parameters decision making from the residual data in the groundwater field of civil engineering.

  14. Analyzing the Health Risks Resulting from Extending the 400kV High Voltage Transmission Lines on the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Dervish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult to imagine life without electricity, there are compiling confirmations show thatexposure to magnetic fields correlated electricity and radio frequencies pose magnificent hazards to human health. The most economist method to transfer electricity from power generation stations to users is by measures of high power transmission lines, buoyed by big transmission towers. The cables laced between the towers radiate magnetic and electric fields. In this research study, the magnetic field at ground level under 400 kV network lines extended in residential places have been conducted in two ways, mathematical calculation and practical measurement then the obtained results analyzed and compared with the international standards reference values. the reason of chose this type of transmission line is frequently using. The results indicate that they fall within the safe limiter commended by the WorldHealth Organization. the strength of radiation increasing with high of sea level and moisture ratiobecause of air ionization.

  15. Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Ahmad Suntoro; Ikhsan Shobari; Usep Setia Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this X-ray fluorescence technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed including the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition sub-system design, and operator computer console design. This program will use silicon drift or CdTe X-ray detector to detect X-ray fluorescence emitted by elements in sheet paper due to X-ray interaction of a X-ray source, 55 Fe (Ferro-55).This basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a novel automated water analyzer for continuous monitoring of toxicity and chemical parameters in municipal water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Sergio F; Malizia, Marzio; Tortelli, Annalisa; Sanfilippo, Luca; Zhou, Xingpeng; Arosio, Roberta; Bernasconi, Marzia; Di Lucia, Stefano; Manenti, Angela; Moscetta, Pompeo

    2018-08-15

    A novel tool, the DAMTA analyzer (Device for Analytical Monitoring and Toxicity Assessment), designed for fully automated toxicity measurements based on luminescent bacteria as well as for concomitant determination of chemical parameters, was developed and field-tested. The instrument is a robotic water analyzer equipped with a luminometer and a spectrophotometer, integrated on a thermostated reaction plate which contains a movable carousel with 80 cuvettes. Acute toxicity is measured on-line using a wild type Photobacterium phosphoreum strain with measurable bioluminescence and unaltered sensitivity to toxicants lasting up to ten days. The EC50 values of reference compounds tested were consistent with A. fischeri and P. phosphoreum international standards and comparable to previously published data. Concurrently, a laboratory trial demonstrated the feasibility of use of the analyzer for the determination of nutrients and metals in parallel to the toxicity measurements. In a prolonged test, the system was installed only in toxicity mode at the premises of the World Fair "Expo Milano-2015″, a high security site to ensure the quality of the supplied drinking water. The monitoring program lasted for six months during which ca. 2400 toxicity tests were carried out; the results indicated a mean non-toxic outcome of -5.5 ± 6.2%. In order to warrant the system's robustness in detecting toxic substances, Zn was measured daily with highly reproducible inhibition results, 70.8 ± 13.6%. These results assure that this novel toxicity monitor can be used as an early warning system for protection of drinking water sources from emergencies involving low probability/high impact contamination events in source water or treated water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Edge Detection and Feature Line Tracing in 3D-Point Clouds by Analyzing Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated and effective method for detecting 3D edges and tracing feature lines from 3D-point clouds. This method is named Analysis of Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods (AGPN, and it includes two main steps: edge detection and feature line tracing. In the edge detection step, AGPN analyzes geometric properties of each query point’s neighborhood, and then combines RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC and angular gap metric to detect edges. In the feature line tracing step, feature lines are traced by a hybrid method based on region growing and model fitting in the detected edges. Our approach is experimentally validated on complex man-made objects and large-scale urban scenes with millions of points. Comparative studies with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that our method obtains a promising, reliable, and high performance in detecting edges and tracing feature lines in 3D-point clouds. Moreover, AGPN is insensitive to the point density of the input data.

  18. Chemical composition and effective temperatures of metallic line white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Model atmosphere techniques have been employed to determine the composition, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities of white dwarfs Ross 640 and van Maanen 2. The non-gray, LTE, convective, constant flux models employed collisional damping constants for the Ca II H and K lines that were measured in a laboratory device that simulated white dwarf atmospheric conditions. Ross 640 was found to have an extremely helium-rich composition and T/sub eff/ = 8500K, while the observed properties of van Maanen 2 were fitted best by a model with 91 percent helium, 9 percent hydrogen and T/sub eff/ = 6100K. The laboratory measurements of pressure shifts for the Ca II lines casts some doubt on the interpretation of recent radial velocity determinations for van Maanen 2. (U.S.)

  19. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Battistin, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berry, S.; Bitadze, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bonneau, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bousson, N. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boyd, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Egorov, K. [Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Godlewski, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. PNPI, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appelton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Perez-Rodriguez, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vacek, V.; Vitek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  20. Systematization of by-product plant. (1) Development of on-line analyzers for treatment of gas liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Susumu; Taketomi, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Shigeru [Nippon Kokan K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-04-07

    As a part of systematization of absorption and refinery processing installation for coke oven gas, on-line analyzers for gas liquor treatment with activated sludge were developed and established. A T-NH{sub 3} analyzer using a potential difference titration method was equipped to control NH{sub 3} which had a bad influence upon activated sludge. The oxygen intake rate is measured with an activity measuring instrument in order to get the activity condition of bacteria. The SCN concentration of precipitator outlet solution is measured with an SCN(thiocyanogen) measuring instrument so that conditions of bacteria can be seized. An absorptiometry with ferric chloride is used to analyze it. For a COD measuring instrument, precipitator outlet solution is used and analysis with the JIS method is entirely automated. As a transparency measuring instrument, a color-difference colorimeter is used instead of the former instrument made of glass. According to the collected data, charged coal conditions, and operating conditions of coke oven, the process computer does the calculation for optimization and indicates operation control guidances to the operator. Automated on -line analyzers are useful to save a great deal of labor and contribute to the control and stabilization of operations. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Chemical Degradation of Cathode Linings in Hall-Héroult Cells—An Autopsy Study of Three Spent Pot Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöpe, Kati; Schøning, Cristian; Rutlin, Jørn; Grande, Tor

    2012-04-01

    Cathode autopsies are used frequently in the aluminum industry to investigate pot failure and the degradation of the cathode lining. The materials observed in spent pot lining (SPL) has so far been assumed to reflect the sequence of layers from the cathode to the nonreacted refractory lining as present during the operation of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal gradient in the lining is reversed during cooling and that the physical appearance of the SPL is caused both by processes taking place during operation and cooling of the shutdown cell. X-ray diffraction and microscopy of the SPL from three shutdown cells revealed that sodium metal is the main component responsible for the chemical degradation of the refractory lining. Two distinct reaction fronts were identified in the three SPL showing that sodium is penetrating deeper down into the lining than the molten fluorides from the electrolyte. The mechanisms for the transport of sodium and bath components in the refractory lining are proposed based on the experimental observations. The sodium penetration is inhibited by the formation of a viscous barrier as suggested previously, but the current findings suggest that the barrier retards diffusion of O2- and F- anions rather than Na+ as proposed previously.

  2. The magnetic field near power lines in the Moscow region: the results of measurements and their analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokofyeva A.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to analyze the real power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz values near power lines. The material. Long-term measurements of the power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz near power lines of 110 kV, 220 kVand 500 kVin the Moscow region. Methods. Measurements were made by tracks which were perpendicular to the wires. Length of tracks was up to 40 m. Sensor of measurer was located on 1.8 m under the ground. General quantity of measurement points were 1103. The results. Was obtained general characteristics of real values of strength of electric field and values of magnetic flux density depending to distance to the projection last wire near power lines. Conclusion. Analysis of the results has the values of the magnetic field of power lines correspond to the Russian rules in all cases. Using additional World Health Organization safety criteria for magnetic fields (the class of carcinogenic risks 2B requires the expansion of the health safety zone 2-3 times.

  3. On-line chemical sensors for applications in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sensors are essential components of fast reactor sodium circuits. These sensors are needed in fast reactors for the immediate detection of any steam leak into sodium during reactor operation which can lead to failure of steam generator. Depending on the operating power of the reactor, sodium-water reaction results in either an increase in dissolved hydrogen level in sodium or an increase in hydrogen content of argon cover gas used above sodium coolant. Hence, on-line monitoring of hydrogen continuously in sodium and cover circuits helps in detection of any steam leak. In the event of accidental leak of high temperature sodium, it reacts with oxygen and moisture in air leading to sodium fires. These fires produce sodium aerosol containing oxides of sodium (Na 2 O and Na 2 O 2 ) and NaOH. For early detection of sodium fires, sensor systems based on sodium ionization detector, pH measurement and modulation of conductivity of graphite films are known in the literature. This presentation deals with the development of on-line sensors for these two applications. A diffusion based sensor using a thin walled nickel coil at 773 K and a sensitive thermal conductivity detector (TCD) has been developed for monitoring hydrogen levels in argon cover gas. This sensor has a lower detection limit of 30 ppm of hydrogen in argon. To extend the detection limit of the sensor, a surface conductivity based sensor has been developed which makes use of a thin film of semi-conducting tin oxide. Integration of this sensor with the TCD, can extend the lower detection limit to 2 ppm of hydrogen in cover gas. Electrochemical sensor based on sodium-beta-alumina has been designed, fabricated and its performance in laboratory and industrial environment was evaluated. This paper presents the logical development of these sensors highlighting their merits and limitations

  4. Constraining the QCD phase diagram by tricritical lines at imaginary chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We present unambiguous evidence from lattice simulations of QCD with three degenerate quark species for two tricritical points in the (T,m) phase diagram at fixed imaginary \\mu/T=i\\pi/3 mod 2\\pi/3, one in the light and one in the heavy mass regime. These represent the boundaries of the chiral and deconfinement critical lines continued to imaginary chemical potential, respectively. It is demonstrated that the shape of the deconfinement critical line for real chemical potentials is dictated by tricritical scaling and implies the weakening of the deconfinement transition with real chemical potential. The generalization to non-degenerate and light quark masses is discussed.

  5. Combined echo offset (Dixon) and line volume chemical shift imaging as a clinical imaging protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listerud, J.; Chan, T.; Lenkinski, R.E.; Kressel, H.Y.; Chao, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the sensitivity and specificity of the line-volume chemical-shift imaging (CSI) method as compared with the Dixon method they have recently implemented on a Signa, which supports a variety of options. Potential sources or error for the Dixon method include line broadening due to susceptibility, field inhomogeneity, and errors form olefinic resonances associated with fat, which behave like water in the Dixon regime. The authors investigate whether a combined Dixon/line-volume CSI method could be used to improve the placement of the line volume and to provide higher sensitivity and specificity than does the Dixon method alone

  6. Transitioning Submersible Chemical Analyzer Technologies for Sustained, Autonomous Observations from Profiling Moorings, Gliders and other AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Alfred K; Donaghay, Percy L; Moore, Casey; Arrieta, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The long term goal is to transition existing prototype autonomous profiling nutrient analyzers into commercial products that can be readily deployed on autonomous profiling moorings, coastal gliders...

  7. Transitioning Submersible Chemical Analyzer Technologies for Sustained, Autonomous Observations From Profiling Moorings, Gliders and other AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Alfred K; Donaghay, Percy L; Moore, Casey; Arrieta, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The long term goal is to transition existing prototype autonomous profiling nutrient analyzers into commercial products that can be readily deployed on autonomous profiling moorings, coastal gliders...

  8. Multisensor analyzer detector (MSAD) for low cost chemical and aerosol detection and pattern fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.; Merdes, Daniel W.; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Curtis, Richard C.; Lang, Derek C.; Mazzara, Andrew F.; Nicholas, Nicholas C.

    2002-08-01

    MSAD is being developed as a low-cost point detection chemical and biological sensor system designed around an information fusion inference engine that also allows additional sensors to be included in the detection process. The MSAD concept is based on probable cause detection of hazardous chemical vapors and aerosols of either chemical or biological composition using a small portable unit containing an embedded computer system and several integrated sensors with complementary capabilities. The configuration currently envisioned includes a Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensor of chemical vapors and a detector of respirable aerosols based on Fraunhofer diffraction. Additional sensors employing Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) detection, Flame Photometric Detection (FPD), and other principles are candidates for integration into the device; also, available commercial detectors implementing IMS, SAW, and FPD will be made accessible to the unit through RS232 ports. Both feature and decision level information fusion is supported using a Continuous Inference Network (CINET) of fuzzy logic. Each class of agents has a unique CINET with information inputs from a number of available sensors. Missing or low confidence sensor information is gracefully blended out of the output confidence for the particular agent. This approach constitutes a plug and play arrangement between the sensors and the information pattern recognition algorithms. We are currently doing simulant testing and developing out CINETs for actual agent testing at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) later this year.

  9. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1986-06-01

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO 2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup1 3 C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  10. Radiation equivalence of genotoxic chemicals - Validation in cultered mammalian cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Published data on mutations induced by ionizing radiation and 6 monofunctional alkylating agents, namely EMS, MMS, ENNG, MNNG, ENU and MNU, in different cell lines (Chinese hamster ovary, Chinese hamster lung V79, mouse lymphoma L5178 and human cells) were analysed so that radiation-equivalent chemical (REC) values could be calculated. REC values thus obtained for a given alkylating agent with different cell lines fall within a narrow range suggesting its validation in cultured mammalian cell systems including human. (orig.)

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Non Line of Sight Chemical Detection Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    aircraft system that is used to perform point detection of chemical warfare agents and collection of vapor, liquid, and solid samples. A modular payload...their goals to better protect the Warfighter. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization members have divided detection distances into the following three...materials for onboard analysis or transporting chemical samples for analysis to a mobile laboratory. An innovative proposed solution to non-line-of

  12. Effect on stone lines on soil chemical characteristics under continuous sorghum cropping in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Gnankambary, Z.; Guillobez, L.S.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2002-01-01

    In the semiarid Sahel, farmers commonly lay stone lines in fields to disperse runoff. This study was conducted in northern Burkina Faso to assess the chemical fertility of soil under a permanent, non-fertilised sorghum crop, which is the main production system in this area, 5 years after laying

  13. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    ... States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lerner, Steve. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States / Steve Lerner. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-01440-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Environmental toxicology- United States- Case studies. 2. Che...

  14. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  15. An in-Situ Chemical Analyzer for the Determination of Trace Ammonia in Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornthammarong, N.; Ortner, P. B.; Hendee, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades chemists have devoted a considerable effort to automating classical wet chemistry. The instruments manufactured for analysis of a large number of samples can be categorized into two main groups—batch and continuous flow analyzers. Our technique, autonomous batch analyzer (ABA), takes advantages of previously described batch analysis and continuous flow analysis. With its simpler design, ABA is robust, flexible, inexpensive, and requires minimal maintenance. ABA achieves complete mixing of sample with reagents using a syringe and a simple mixing chamber. The system can autonomously produce a calibration curve by auto-diluting a single stock standard solution. In addition it incorporates a pre-filtering subsystem enabling measurements in turbid, sediment-laden waters. Over the typical range for ammonia in marine waters (0-10 µM), the response is linear (r2 = 0.9930) with a limit of detection (S/N ratio > 3) of 10 nM. The working range for marine waters is 0.05-10 µM. Repeatability is 0.3% (n = 10) at an ammonia level of 2 μM. Results from automated operation in 15 min cycles over 16 days had good overall precision (RSD = 3%, n = 660). The system was field tested at three shallow South Florida sites, a tidal pond and the Indian River Lagoon, FL. Diurnal cycles and possibly a tidal influence were expressed in the concentration variability observed.

  16. Modeling and analyzing flow of third grade nanofluid due to rotating stretchable disk with chemical reaction and heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ahmad, Salman; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-05-01

    This article addresses flow of third grade nanofluid due to stretchable rotating disk. Mass and heat transports are analyzed through thermophoresis and Brownian movement effects. Further the effects of heat generation and chemical reaction are also accounted. The obtained ODE's are tackled computationally by means of homotopy analysis method. Graphical outcomes are analyzed for the effects of different variables. The obtained results show that velocity reduces through Reynolds number and material parameters. Temperature and concentration increase with Brownian motion and these decrease by Reynolds number.

  17. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  18. Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO/sub x/ and NOmaterials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Schener Institute in Villigen...

  19. Impact of lining material on chemical and microbial irrigation water quality of Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Azzam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lining material (cement of Nubaria canal (Beheira Governorate, Egypt on its water quality. Methods: Trace metal ions (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and bacterial indictors for water samples collected from two types of stations (lined and unlined during successive four seasons were analyzed. The effect of lining on bacterial indicators; total viable bacterial count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci and presence of some bacterial species were studied. Results: Bacterial indicators and trace metals showed seasonal variations, where the highest values were recorded during summer. A significant reduction for Cu (P < 0.05, Zn (P < 0.01 and Cd (P < 0.001 was recorded in lined stations compared to those of unlined ones. Bacterial indicators recorded the lowest counts in lined stations during all seasons, while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05 between total coliform values (1.70 ± 0.50 in lined stations and unlined ones (3.57 ± 1.01 during summer. Escherichia coli bacteria were predominant in water samples of Nubaria canal, where it recorded 34.4% of bacterial isolates. Conclusions: Lined material plays a role for reducing the bacterial growth and metals concentration, therefore the lining of canal helps in preventing the discharge of sewage pollution into canal.

  20. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  1. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of nano-molar quantification in few seconds, in addition to an accelerated extraction-free GC-MS method that through automation can deliver results much faster than other similar methods. The implementation of these high tech methods will provide the meat industry with a leading edge not only with product...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  2. Changing Mental Representations Using Related Physical Models: The Effects of Analyzing Number Lines on Learner Internal Scale of Numerical Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linear relationship of numbers is essential for doing practical and abstract mathematics throughout education and everyday life. There is evidence that number line activities increase learners' number sense, improving the linearity of mental number line representations (Siegler & Ramani, 2009). Mental representations of…

  3. In Vitro Comparison of the New In-Line Monitor BMU 40 versus a Conventional Laboratory Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, F. Oliver; Holzhey, David; Falk, Volkmar; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Kraemer, Klaus; Mohr, Friedrich W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Reliable information about different blood parameters is essential in maintaining hemodynamics, perfusion, and gas exchange during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). For this purpose, a precise and continuous monitoring is needed. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare a novel continuous in-line blood parameter monitoring system versus a reference laboratory analyzer. The study was conducted as an in vitro prospective experimental study during a CPB simulation. The reliability of BMU 40 was tested in monitoring the pO2, oxygen saturation (SO2), and hematocrit (Hct) under physiological and extreme conditions with regards to temperature, oxygenation, and blood concentration. Four different tests were performed and conducted with five sensors each. Correlation analyses and Bland-Altman analyses were performed. A total of 350 measurement points were compared. All monitored values of blood parameters correlated highly with laboratory values (all r values >.90). Test 1: Biases of pO2 (act) varied from −3.24 mmHg (±6.86 mmHg) up to 6.0 mmHg (±17.89 mmHg). The biases of pO2 (37°C) ranged from −3.52 mmHg (±6.01 mmHg) up to 68.8 mmHg (±67.82 mmHg). Test 2: The biases standard deviations (SD) for Hct ranged from −0.35% (±.79%) up to 2.35% (±.91%). The biases (SD) for SO2 varied from −.45% (±.86%) up to .85% (±1.01%). Test 3: The biases (SD) of Hct ranged from −1.00% (±1.84%) up to −.67% (±1.49%). Test 4: The biases (SD) for SO2 varied from −.36% (±1.60%) up to.48% (±.90%). The BMU 40 is a reliable device in measuring the partial oxygen pressure (pO2), SO2, and Hct under normal physiological and extreme conditions with regards to temperature, oxygenation, and blood concentration in simulation of CPB. The algorithm to calculate pO2 (37°C) under hypothermic conditions needs to be adjusted. (Before the official market launch a new software version of the BMU 40 has been developed. The algorithm to calculate pO2 (37°C) under

  4. CHEMICAL IMAGING OF THE CO SNOW LINE IN THE HD 163296 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Chunhua; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Hogherheijde, Michiel [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); D’Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomi´a y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-10

    The condensation fronts (snow lines) of H{sub 2}O, CO, and other abundant volatiles in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk affect several aspects of planet formation. Locating the CO snow line, where the CO gas column density is expected to drop substantially, based solely on CO emission profiles, is challenging. This has prompted an exploration of chemical signatures of CO freeze-out. We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} J = 3−2 and DCO{sup +} J = 4−3 emission lines toward the disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 at ∼0.″5 (60 AU) resolution, and evaluate their utility as tracers of the CO snow line location. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is distributed in a ring with an inner radius at 90 AU, corresponding to a midplane temperature of 25 K. This result is consistent with a new analysis of optically thin C{sup 18}O data, which implies a sharp drop in CO abundance at 90 AU. Thus N{sub 2}H{sup +} appears to be a robust tracer of the midplane CO snow line. The DCO{sup +} emission also has a ring morphology, but neither the inner nor the outer radius coincide with the CO snow line location of 90 AU, indicative of a complex relationship between DCO{sup +} emission and CO freeze-out in the disk midplane. Compared to TW Hya, CO freezes out at a higher temperature in the disk around HD 163296 (25 versus 17 K in the TW Hya disk), perhaps due to different ice compositions. This highlights the importance of actually measuring the CO snow line location, rather than assuming a constant CO freeze-out temperature for all disks.

  5. Application of on-line near-infrared analyzer to process control in fermentation plant; Hakko plant no unten kanri ni okeru kinsekigai bunsekikei no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKayasu, S.; Kitayama, M.; Miyashiro, S. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Aiming for stable operation and rationalization of a fermentation plant, a near-infrared analyzer was introduced into the on-line analyzing system of the fermentation process. An on-line sampling system with a deforming apparatus was applied to a fermenter in a commercial scale plant. A new efficient method for obtaining highly accurate calibration curves of the near-infrared analyzer was presented. The established method for on-line determination of the main components in the fermentation medium for amino acid production was applied to a real-time measurement system in a commercial fermentation plant. The pattern of sugar concentration change was successfully obtained on a real-time basis. The system was partially incorporated into operation control, even if there was room for improvement of analytical accuracy in response to raw material differences in each lot. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of QLARIVIA-line of deuterium depleted Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Ov. S.; Mladin, C.; Petre, R.M.; Mitu, F.; Costinel, Diana; Vremera, Raluca; Sandru, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    QLARIVIA is the brand-name of Deuterium Depleted Water line of products of drinking water differentiating mainly by the deuterium concentration. It is the result of a national technological transfer project and it is based on an original, patented technology for deuterium depletion from the normal water. The paper presents the measuring and analysis results of the chemical and physical properties of the QLARIVIA brand-line of drinking DDW, as: pH; water hardness; permanganate index; Ca; Mg; Cl - ; SO4 2 - ; NH 4 ; NO 3 - ; NO 2 - , as well as the deuterium concentration determination by mass spectrometry. The analysis has been performed on at least 20 batch-samples, by usual, standardized and/or validated analytical methods, in ISO 17025:2005 accredited laboratories. The results are discussed considering the requirements of the EU directive on drinking water as well as of the Romanian Act on drinking water no. 458/2002 with its supplemental modification by the Act no.363/2004. The conclusion is that QLARIVIA - brand line of drinking DDW fulfills all the official physical and chemical requirements for the drinking water. (authors)

  7. Benchmarking state-of-the-art numerical simulation techniques for analyzing large photonic crystal membrane line defect cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we perform numerical studies of two photonic crystal membrane microcavities, a short line-defect L5 cavity with relatively low quality (Q) factor and a longer L9 cavity with high Q. We compute the cavity Q factor and the resonance wavelength λ of the fundamental M1 mode in the two...

  8. Comparison of numerical and physico-chemical models for on-line spectrophotometric control of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriou, J.P.; Boisde, G.

    1986-04-01

    In view of on-line spectrophotometric control of fuel reprocessing streams, a physico-chemical model able to predict uranium and nitric acid concentrations in an uranyl nitrate-nitric acid system has been searched. Thus the influences of the following parameters: uranium, nitrate, hydrogen ion concentrations, ionic strength, on the equilibria of complexation of uranium (VI) nitrate have been evaluated. Extinction coefficients for the uranium mononitrate and uranium dinitrate complexes are given between 410 and 440 nm. The apparent equilibrium constants are determined as a function of the ionic strength. The limitations of this predictive model are emphasized and comparisons with numerical models are discussed. (16 refs)

  9. Similarity Laws for the Lines of Ideal Free Energy and Chemical Potential in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S

    2017-09-21

    We have found the curves on the density-temperature plane, along which the values of free energy and chemical potential correspond to ideal gas quantities. At first, we have applied the van der Waals equation to construct them and to derive their equations. Then we have shown that the same lines for real substances (Ar, N 2 , CH 4 , SF 6 , H 2 , H 2 O) and for the model Lennard-Jones system constructed on the basis of the measurements data and calculations are well matched with the derived equations. The validity and deviations from the obtained similarity laws are discussed.

  10. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkard, Michael, E-mail: Michael.burkard@eawag.ch [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Whitworth, Deanne [The University of Queensland, School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD (Australia); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogechemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lausanne (Switzerland); Nash, Susan Bengtson [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO{sub 2} in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC{sub 50} value) was approximately six times greater than the EC{sub 50} value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone

  11. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkard, Michael; Whitworth, Deanne; Schirmer, Kristin; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO_2 in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC_5_0 value) was approximately six times greater than the EC_5_0 value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. Thus, we

  12. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  13. Cobalt toxicity: Chemical and radiological combined effects on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandre, C.; Moulin, C.; Bresson, C.; Gault, N.; Poncy, J. L.; Lefaix, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element well known as a constituent of vitamin B 12 , but different compounds of Co are also described as highly toxic and/or radio-toxic for individuals or the environment. In nuclear power plants, 58 Co and 60 Co are radioactive isotopes of cobalt present as activation products of stable Co and Ni used in alloys. Skin exposure is a current occupational risk in the hard metal and nuclear industries. As biochemical and molecular cobalt-induced toxicological mechanisms are not fully identified, we investigated cobalt toxicity in a model human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we propose a model to determine the in vitro chemical impact on cell viability of a soluble form of cobalt (CoCl 2 ) with or without gamma-ray doses to mimic contamination by 60 Co, to elucidate the mechanisms of cobalt intracellular chemical and radiological toxicity. Intracellular cobalt concentration was determined after HaCaT cell contamination and chemical toxicity was evaluated in terms of cellular viability and clonogenic survival. We investigated damage to DNA in HaCaT cells by combined treatment with chemical cobalt and a moderate gamma-ray dose. Additive effects of cobalt and irradiation were demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of cobalt toxicity is not clearly established, but our results seem to indicate that the toxicity of Co(II) and of irradiation arises from production of reactive oxygen species. (authors)

  14. Cobalt toxicity: Chemical and radiological combined effects on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gault, N. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, DSV/IRCM/SCSR/LRTS, 92265 Fontenay aux Rose (France); Sandre, C.; Moulin, B.; Bresson, C. [CEA, DEN, SECR, Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Bruyeres Le Chatel, DSV/IRCM/SREIT/LRT, 91680 Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA Caen, DSV/IRCM/SRO/LARIA, 14070 Caen (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element well known as a constituent of vitamin B12, but different compounds of Co are also described as highly toxic and/or radio-toxic for individuals or the environment. In nuclear power plants, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co are radioactive isotopes of cobalt present as activation products of stable Co and Ni used in alloys. Skin exposure is a current occupational risk in the hard metal and nuclear industries. As biochemical and molecular cobalt-induced toxicological mechanisms are not fully identified, we investigated cobalt toxicity in a model human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we propose a model to determine the in vitro chemical impact on cell viability of a soluble form of cobalt (CoCl{sub 2}) with or without {gamma}-ray doses to mimic contamination by {sup 60}Co, to elucidate the mechanisms of cobalt intracellular chemical and radiological toxicity. Intracellular cobalt concentration was determined after HaCaT cell contamination and chemical toxicity was evaluated in terms of cellular viability and clonogenic survival. We investigated damage to DNA in HaCaT cells by combined treatment with chemical cobalt and a moderate {gamma}-ray dose. Additive effects of cobalt and irradiation were demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of cobalt toxicity is not clearly established, but our results seem to indicate that the toxicity of Co(II) and of irradiation arises from production of reactive oxygen species. (authors)

  15. Cobalt toxicity: Chemical and radiological combined effects on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandre, C.; Moulin, C.; Bresson, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN, SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides and Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Gault, N. [CEA Fontenay Roses, DSV IRCM SCSR LRTS, F-92265 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Poncy, J. L. [CEA Bruyeres Le Chatel, DSV IRCM SREIT LRT, F-91680 Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Lefaix, J. L. [CEA Caen, DSV IRCM SRO LARIA, F-14070 Caen (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element well known as a constituent of vitamin B{sub 12}, but different compounds of Co are also described as highly toxic and/or radio-toxic for individuals or the environment. In nuclear power plants, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co are radioactive isotopes of cobalt present as activation products of stable Co and Ni used in alloys. Skin exposure is a current occupational risk in the hard metal and nuclear industries. As biochemical and molecular cobalt-induced toxicological mechanisms are not fully identified, we investigated cobalt toxicity in a model human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we propose a model to determine the in vitro chemical impact on cell viability of a soluble form of cobalt (CoCl{sub 2}) with or without gamma-ray doses to mimic contamination by {sup 60}Co, to elucidate the mechanisms of cobalt intracellular chemical and radiological toxicity. Intracellular cobalt concentration was determined after HaCaT cell contamination and chemical toxicity was evaluated in terms of cellular viability and clonogenic survival. We investigated damage to DNA in HaCaT cells by combined treatment with chemical cobalt and a moderate gamma-ray dose. Additive effects of cobalt and irradiation were demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of cobalt toxicity is not clearly established, but our results seem to indicate that the toxicity of Co(II) and of irradiation arises from production of reactive oxygen species. (authors)

  16. The transmission theory of electrostatic analyzer in six dimensional phase space and the concept design of a supersensitive mass spectrometer beam line for HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xialing; Cao Qingxi; Zhang Jie; Ye Jingping

    1986-01-01

    It follows from the motion equations of charged particle in curvilinear coordinates system that the transfer matrix of electrostatic analyzer was derived in six dimensional phase space. In accordance with these matrixes, the concept design of the supersensitive mass spectrometer beam line for HI-13 tandem accelerator was calculated

  17. Evaluation of some chemical and technological properties of induced erect chickpea mutant lines developed under drought stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of the chickpea variety Flip 99-47 C were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 50 and 75 Gy and sown in the winter season of 2004/2005 to raise M1 generation under ordinary (normal) irrigation conditions. Bulked seeds from each treatment were planted in the subsequent growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 to advance M2 and M3 generations, respectively under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stress condition. In the third generation, three erect mutant lines were derived from 75 Gy mutagenic treatment under drought stress compared to semi spreading growth habit of the initiated variety Flip 99-47 C. In the winter season of 2007/2008, M4 bulked seeds from the three erect lines as well as unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation (2152.5 m 3 /fad.) or drought (1159.2 m 3 /fad.) conditions were analyzed for the chemical composition and nutritional values. Obtained results indicated that there were slight decreases in protein and fat contents accompanied with marginal increases in both ash and carbohydrates in seed samples of the erect mutant developed under drought stress as compared to unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation treatment. An opposite trend was noticed between seed samples derived from the erect lines compared to seeds of the parent variety developed under drought condition. Negligible changes in levels of the minerals (iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were detected between seeds of the erect lines and the original variety that grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought conditions. Cooking time (min) and hydration coefficient values did not much differ between the three tested seed samples. Marginal differences in essential and non-essential amino acids were detected between seeds of the erect mutants and those of the initial variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stressed conditions

  18. Stick-Slip Motion of Moving Contact Line on Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siulong; Qian, Tiezheng; Wang, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Based on our continuum hydrodynamic model for immiscible two-phase flows at solid surfaces, the stick-slip motion has been predicted for moving contact line at chemically patterned surfaces [Wang et al., J. Fluid Mech., 605 (2008), pp. 59-78]. In this paper we show that the continuum predictions can be quantitatively verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD simulations are carried out for two immiscible Lennard-Jones fluids confined by two planar solid walls in Poiseuille flow geometry. In particular, one solid surface is chemically patterned with alternating stripes. For comparison, the continuum model is numerically solved using material parameters directly measured in MD simulations. From oscillatory fluid-fluid interface to intermittent stick-slip motion of moving contact line, we have quantitative agreement between the continuum and MD results. This agreement is attributed to the accurate description down to molecular scale by the generalized Navier boundary condition in our continuum model. Numerical results are also presented for the relaxational dynamics of fluid-fluid interface, in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. © 2010 Global-Science Press.

  19. Chemical Composition and Rumen Degradation Characteristics of Different Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L. Lines Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Kılıçalp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identfy chemical composition, ruminal degradation characeristics and metabolizable energy (ME content of five different chickpea line and a check cultivar’s straw using nylon bag technique. Feed samples were incubated as three replicates of each fistulated Holstein heifer for 0, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in rumen were determined by using this mathematical expression D=a+b(1-e-ct. Crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and ash contents of straw were ranged from 5.61 to 7.42%, 51.33 to 56.0%, 63.67 to 67.0%, and 8.0 to 9.0% respectively. Besides Rapidly soluble fraction (a, potantial degradability (a+b and effective dry matter degradability (EDDM were ranged from 17.86 to 21.41, 54.40 to 59.43, 49.65 to 54.91% respectively. Estimated ME of chickpea entries straw were ranged from 5.96 to 7.37 MJ/kg. Metabolizable energy content of control chickpea cultivar was significantly higher than the other chickpea straw of lines. The research values of ME revealed that significant differences were determined among the lines in terms of energy content. In addition to, a strong relationship between straw NDF level and ME content were determined.

  20. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

  1. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirzaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer (HT29 cells by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow-cytometry methods. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to September of 2014. At first, the A. citrodora chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. In addition, antioxidant assay, antibacterial and anti-cancer effect was performed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, disk diffusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT methods, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value was calculated. We extracted total RNA molecules by using RNX solution, after which cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the pro-apoptotic (Bax and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and apoptotic effects were analyzed using Flow-cytometry method. Results: GC-MS analysis of Aloysia citrodora extract was shown 37 major components and the most frequent component was belonged to Spathulenol (17.57% and Caryophyllene oxide (15.15% The antioxidant activity of the extract was IC50= 0.6±0.03 mg/ml. The maximum and minimum antibacterial effects of extract were belonged to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Cytotoxic results revealed that the A.citrodora extract have IC50= 20.1±0.78 mg/ml against colon cancer (HT29 cell line and real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed the expression level of Bax and Bcl2 was increased and decreased respectively in colon cancer cell line (3.470±0.72 (P< 0.05, 0.43±0.35 (P< 0.05. In addition, the flow-cytometry results indicated the 38

  2. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  3. Analyzing Hydrogen Recombination Lines in the Infrared and Optical to Determine Extinction and SFRs of Local LIRGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Anna; Inami, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements for dust extinction and star formation rates (SFRs) for luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). We utilized the hydrogen recombination lines Brα, Hα, and Hβ observed in the infrared and optical wavelengths with AKARI and the Lick Observatory's Kast Double spectrograph to produce spectra. By calculating Brα/Hα ratios for the target galaxies, extinction is estimated. A possible correlation between higher LIR, IR/UV, specific SFRs and higher Brα/Hα has been found. Through comparisons with Hα/Hβ, it may be possible to determine if Hα is, in fact, underestimating extinction, since Hα is more strongly affected by extinction compared to longer wavelengths such as Brα. The accuracy of using Hα in extinction corrections is important for SFR studies, and, thus, one goal is to find a more accurate reddening correction factor. Payne was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  4. Chemical variations in Yellowknife Bay formation sedimentary rocks analyzed by ChemCam on board the Curiosity rover on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Dromart, G.; Stack, K.M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, Olivier; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Anderson, Ryan B.; Barraclough, Bruce; Bell, J.F.; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.L.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef, F.; Clark, Brian R.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Cousin, Agnes; Edgar, L.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, S.C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, Linda C.; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, S.; Lewin, Eric; Malin, Michael; McLennan, Scott M.; Maurice, S.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Milliken, Ralph E.; Newsome, H.L.; Ollila, A.; Rowland, Scott K.; Sautter, Violaine; Schmidt, M.E.; Schroder, S.; D'Uston, C.; Vaniman, Dave; Williams, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowknife Bay formation represents a ~5 m thick stratigraphic section of lithified fluvial and lacustrine sediments analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater, Mars. Previous works have mainly focused on the mudstones that were drilled by the rover at two locations. The present study focuses on the sedimentary rocks stratigraphically above the mudstones by studying their chemical variations in parallel with rock textures. Results show that differences in composition correlate with textures and both manifest subtle but significant variations through the stratigraphic column. Though the chemistry of the sediments does not vary much in the lower part of the stratigraphy, the variations in alkali elements indicate variations in the source material and/or physical sorting, as shown by the identification of alkali feldspars. The sandstones contain similar relative proportions of hydrogen to the mudstones below, suggesting the presence of hydrous minerals that may have contributed to their cementation. Slight variations in magnesium correlate with changes in textures suggesting that diagenesis through cementation and dissolution modified the initial rock composition and texture simultaneously. The upper part of the stratigraphy (~1 m thick) displays rocks with different compositions suggesting a strong change in the depositional system. The presence of float rocks with similar compositions found along the rover traverse suggests that some of these outcrops extend further away in the nearby hummocky plains.

  5. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iC...

  6. A combined on-line acoustic flowmeter and fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Girolamo, B. Di; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; Konstantinov, B.P.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2012-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C 3 F 8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C 2 F 6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic flowmeter and binary gas analyzer for the real-time measurement of the C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10 -3 for C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixtures with about 20% C 2 F 6 , and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30 gs -1 . In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of -4 to leaks of C 3 F 8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons, vapours for semi-conductor manufacture and anaesthesia. (authors)

  7. Application of factor analysis to chemically analyzed data in environmental samples after x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The underlying principle of factorial analysis is frequency distribution and description of reaction in between and through the element series in specific environmental samples. Application of this factor analysis was elaborated to interpret the variance and covariance of certain elements Si, Al, Ca. K, Fe, Ti and Mg in three different types of common materials in environmental sediments, soil, and rock. These evaluations were proceeded after x-ray fluorescence measurements. Results of applications of factorial statistical data analysis show that three factors cause relationship between the above elements in a certain type of environmental samples are mainly recognized. In such cases, these factors represent the main reason for findings and interpret all hidden relationship between the chemical analyzed data. Factor one, the effect of weathering type alteration and oxidation reaction processes as a main one in case of soil and rock where they are characterized by the close covariance of a group of metals, like iron and manganese, commonly derived from weathered and altered igneous rocks. Factor two and three represents other processes. In case of soil, formation of alumino-silicate is revealed in factor two due to the positive covariance of these elements and also the presence of aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and silicon dioxide together is explained by these positive values. The inverse relation between Ca, K, Fe and Mg while indicate the presence of mineral salts which may be due to fertilization and water of irrigation. In case of factor three in that soil, it is the weakest factor that can be used to explain the relationship between the above elements

  8. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  9. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  10. Design of a chemical batch plant : a study of dedicated parallel lines with intermediate storage and the plant performance

    OpenAIRE

    Verbiest, Floor; Cornelissens, Trijntje; Springael, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Production plants worldwide face huge challenges in satisfying high service levels and outperforming competition. These challenges require appropriate strategic decisions on plant design and production strategies. In this paper, we focus on multiproduct chemical batch plants, which are typically equipped with multiple production lines and intermediate storage tanks. First we extend the existing MI(N) LP design models with the concept of parallel production lines, and optimise the as...

  11. Standard Reference Line Combined with One-Point Calibration-Free Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) to Quantitatively Analyze Stainless and Heat Resistant Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Wang, Huadong; Jia, Junwei; Ni, Zhibo; Dong, Fengzhong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the influence of major elements' self-absorption, scarce observable spectral lines of trace elements, and relative efficiency correction of experimental system, accurate quantitative analysis with calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) is in fact not easy. In order to overcome these difficulties, standard reference line (SRL) combined with one-point calibration (OPC) is used to analyze six elements in three stainless-steel and five heat-resistant steel samples. The Stark broadening and Saha - Boltzmann plot of Fe are used to calculate the electron density and the plasma temperature, respectively. In the present work, we tested the original SRL method, the SRL with the OPC method, and intercept with the OPC method. The final calculation results show that the latter two methods can effectively improve the overall accuracy of quantitative analysis and the detection limits of trace elements.

  12. DOUBLE code simulations of emissivities of fast neutrals for different plasma observation view-lines of neutral particle analyzers on the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitosinkova, K.; Tomes, M.; Stockel, J.; Varju, J.; Stano, M.

    2018-03-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) measure line-integrated energy spectra of fast neutral atoms escaping the tokamak plasma, which are a product of charge-exchange (CX) collisions of plasma ions with background neutrals. They can observe variations in the ion temperature T i of non-thermal fast ions created by additional plasma heating. However, the plasma column which a fast atom has to pass through must be sufficiently short in comparison with the fast atom’s mean-free-path. Tokamak COMPASS is currently equipped with one NPA installed at a tangential mid-plane port. This orientation is optimal for observing non-thermal fast ions. However, in this configuration the signal at energies useful for T i derivation is lost in noise due to the too long fast atoms’ trajectories. Thus, a second NPA is planned to be connected for the purpose of measuring T i. We analyzed different possible view-lines (perpendicular mid-plane, tangential mid-plane, and top view) for the second NPA using the DOUBLE Monte-Carlo code and compared the results with the performance of the present NPA with tangential orientation. The DOUBLE code provides fast-atoms’ emissivity functions along the NPA view-line. The position of the median of these emissivity functions is related to the location from where the measured signal originates. Further, we compared the difference between the real central T i used as a DOUBLE code input and the T iCX derived from the exponential decay of simulated energy spectra. The advantages and disadvantages of each NPA location are discussed.

  13. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  14. Regioisomers of octanoic acid-containing structured triacylglycerols analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry using ammonia negative ion chemical ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvinen, J.P.; Mu, Huiling; Kallio, H.

    2001-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry based on ammonia negative ion chemical ionization and sample introduction via direct exposure probe was applied to analysis of regioisomeric structures of octanoic acid containing structured triacylglycerols (TAG) of type MML, MLM, MLL, and LML (M, medium-chain fatty acid...

  15. Managing, profiling and analyzing a library of 2.6 million compounds gathered from 32 chemical providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Aurélien; Arrault, Alban; Marot, Christophe; Morin-Allory, Luc

    2006-08-01

    The data for 3.8 million compounds from structural databases of 32 providers were gathered and stored in a single chemical database. Duplicates are removed using the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier. After this, 2.6 million compounds remain. Each database and the final one were studied in term of uniqueness, diversity, frameworks, 'drug-like' and 'lead-like' properties. This study also shows that there are more than 87 000 frameworks in the database. It contains 2.1 million 'drug-like' molecules among which, more than one million are 'lead-like'. This study has been carried out using 'ScreeningAssistant', a software dedicated to chemical databases management and screening sets generation. Compounds are stored in a MySQL database and all the operations on this database are carried out by Java code. The druglikeness and leadlikeness are estimated with 'in-house' scores using functions to estimate convenience to properties; unicity using the InChI code and diversity using molecular frameworks and fingerprints. The software has been conceived in order to facilitate the update of the database. 'ScreeningAssistant' is freely available under the GPL license.

  16. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Christina T.; Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B.; Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles; Jetten, Anton M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway

  17. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Christina T., E-mail: teng1@niehs.nih.gov [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B. [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles [DIR, Viral Core Lab, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Jetten, Anton M. [DIR Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway.

  18. A Cassie-Like Law Using Triple Phase Boundary Line Fractions for Faceted Droplets on Chemically Heterogeneous Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2009-01-01

    We present experimental contact angle data for surfaces, which were surface-engineered with a hydrophobic micropattern of hexagonal geometry. The chemically heterogeneous surface of the same hexagonal pattern of defects resulted in faceted droplets of hexagonal shape. When measuring the advancing...... contact angles with a viewing position aligned parallel to rows of defects, we found that an area averaged Cassie-law failed in describing the data. By replacing the area fractions by line fractions of the triple phase boundary Line segments in the Cassie equation, we found excellent agreement with data....

  19. Automatic analyzer of the coefficient of excess air and products of chemical under firing of heat and power engineering installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babushkin, V V; Furman, N I; Shcherban, A N; Tarasevich, V N

    1981-01-01

    A sensor of the combustion quality of gas and oil fuel in boiler furnaces which is intended to be used for automatic measurement of an excess amount of 0/sub 2/ and fuel components, and also of associated elements present in a stoichiometric ratio of 0/sub 2/ and fuel components in the waste gasses is proposed. The AST-2 fuel combustion analyzer is developed based on this sensor. It consists of a sample preparation unit of the controlled environment and a power source. The sample preparation unit is determined by the structural engineering specifics of the power unit in which the fuel combustion controlled process is carried out. The sample preparation unit, which is made for 11 open-hearth ovens of ''Azovstal''' factory, is intended for drying and purging of mechanical and aggressive impurities the samples of the gas to be analyzed and additional reagents, and also for controlling and monitoring constancy and amount of pressure, temperature, and humidity.

  20. Line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging for authentication of powdered foods and ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulteration and fraud for powdered foods and ingredients are rising food safety risks that threaten consumers’ health. In this study, a newly developed line-scan macro-scale Raman imaging system using a 5 W 785 nm line laser as excitation source was used to authenticate the food powders. The system...

  1. The influence of plastic deformation and chemical environment on the resistively of al-alloy overhead lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak-Woźny D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical resistively and intensity of X-ray diffraction reflexes were determined for overhead line wires deformed plastically and immersed at different solutions. Immersing (chemical ageing was performed by plastic deformation along the wire axis. During chemical ageing the samples were exposed to the action of the Cl-, SO4 2-, and SO3 2- ions. Resistively was measured at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. After the X-ray and resistively measurement data were compared, it was found that three processes could take place: the flow of ions through the boundary between a sample and environment; the mechanical relaxation of vacancies near a line of dislocations, and the ordering of microstructure. These effects can lead to the anisotropy of resistively.

  2. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  3. Integrating chemical and biological status assessment: Assembling lines of evidence for the evaluation of river ecosystem risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gracia, Isabel; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes various approaches to evaluating ecological risk in rivers affected by multiple chemical stressors, with emphasis on biofilm and invertebrate community responses. Metrics should be considered as different lines of evidence that, when weighted, form an advanced weight of evidence approach to establishing the environmental risk on a basin scale. Combination of field surveys to obtain observational data of communities, in situ experiments, toxicological sediment tests and a good chemical description of the medium (water and sediment) helps give an integrative view of the chemical and biological state of a river ecosystem. The greater and more distinct the variables used, the greater is our ability to identify the effects of major stressors impairing communities. Weight of evidence is an integrative methodology for tackling the challenge of determining causal relations and applying this knowledge in the decision-making processes of river management.

  4. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  5. Chemical characterization of soil organic matter in a Chesapeake Bay salt marsh: analyzing microbial and vegetation inputs to SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, E.; Schreiner, K. M.; Abdulla, H. A.; Minor, E. C.; Guntenspergen, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. These ecosystems sequester and store carbon, known as "blue carbon," at a rate two or three orders of magnitude larger than other terrestrial ecosystems, such as temperate, tropical, and boreal forests. Anthropogenic changes to the climate are threatening blue carbon stores in coastal wetland ecosystems. To understand and predict how these important carbon stores will be affected by anthropogenic climate changes, it is necessary to understand the formation and preservation of soil organic matter (SOM) in these ecosystems. This study will present organic geochemical data from two sediment cores collected from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center site on a salt marsh in Maryland along the Chesapeake Bay. One core is from a location that recently transitioned from a C4 to C3 plant regime, currently dominated by the sedge Shoenplectis americanus. The second core is from a C4 plant (Spartina patens) dominated location in the marsh. The organic geochemistry of these 100 cm deep sediment cores was studied through multiple bulk analyses including stable isotopes, elemental ratios, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state magic-angle-spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and compound specific lignin-phenol analysis. By using comprehensive chemical characterization techniques, this study aims to discern between vegetation- and microbially-derived inputs to SOM in blue carbon ecosystems. The results show a general increase in the aromatic content with a concomitant decrease of carbohydrates with depth in both cores. However, substantial differences between the two cores, indicates differing inputs and/or stabilization mechanisms within SOM formed from different vegetation regimes. Further compound specific work will help to elucidate the specific source of compounds within each compound class, in surface and deep SOM, and additionally can help provide evidence for different

  6. PALOMA : an isotope analyzer using static mass spectrometry, coupled with cryogenic and chemical trapping, for the MSL mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, E.; Jambon, A.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Goulpeau, G.; Leblanc, F.; Montmessin, F.; Sarda, P.; Agrinier, P.; Fouchet, T.; Waite, H.

    The technique of GCMS analysis has to be completed by static mass spectrometry for precise in-situ measurements of the isotopic composition of planetary atmospheres (noble gases, stable isotopes), and volatile outgassed products from solid sample pyrolysis. Static mass spectrometry, coupled with gas separation by cryo-separation and gettering, is commonly used in the laboratory to study volatiles extracted from terrestrial and meteoritic samples. Such an instrument (PALOMA) is presently developed in our laboratories, and it will be coupled with a Pyr-GCMS analyzer (MACE), built by a US consortium of science laboratories and industrials (University of Michigan, Southwest Research Institute, JPL, Ball Aerospace). The MACE/PALOMA experiment will be proposed on the NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission, planned to be launched in 2009. The scientific objectives of PALOMA, coupled with MACE, may be listed as follows : (i) search for isotopic signatures of past life in atmosphere, rock, dust and ice samples, with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen; (ii) accurately measure isotopic composition of atmospheric noble gases, and stable isotopes, in order to better constrain past escape, surface interaction, outgassing history and climate evolution; (iii) precisely measure diurnal/ seasonal variations of isotopic ratios of H2O, CO2, and N2, for improving our understanding of present and past climate, and of the role of water cycle. Main measurement objectives are : (i) C, H, O, N isotopic composition in both organic evolved samples (provided by MACE pyrolysis system) and atmosphere with high accuracy (a few per mil at 1-s level); (ii) noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) and stable (C, H, O, N) isotope composition in atmosphere with high accuracy (a few per mil at 1-s level); (iii) molecular and isotopic composition of inorganic evolved samples (salts, hydrates, nitrates, {ldots}), including ices; (iv) diurnal and seasonal monitoring of D/H in water vapor, and water ice.

  7. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Fat and Oil Deposits in Mashhad City Sewer Lines and the Solutions Developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi kamali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of oil, fat, and grease deposits in sewer pipelines is a major concern as they result in sewage overflow and pose health problems. Analysis of two sample deposits collected from the sewer lines of Imam Reza Street in the city of Mashhad suggested that the chemical reactions promoted by edible oils in the sewer lines lead to the formation of insoluble soap and deposits. Being sticky, the deposits accumulate over time to eventually block the lines. The analysis also showed that the moisture content of the samples ranged between 50‒62%, indicating that water does not play a main role in their formation. The samples were also found to contain 61.78% and 84.35% saturated fatty acids, with palmitic acid being the dominant one. Calcium was the main metal in the samples, which is due to both water hardness and corrosion of the sewer lines. Based on the results obtained, the origin of these deposits, and the relevant protocols for the management of oil and fat wastes, solutions were proposed to prevent deposit formation and sewer line clogging that suit the special cultural and environmental conditions of the city. These proposals are under consideration for implementation in the region.

  8. Physico-chemical changes in grains of some advance lines/ varieties of rice (oryza sativa l.) after parboiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.; Haider, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the advance lines/varieties developed at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, including approved fragrant (Basmati) rice variety i.e., Basmati-2000, were used to assess interactive efficacy of parboiling on these varieties/lines and practical expediency of using standardized parboiling technique for improving nutritional, milling and cooking qualities of these lines/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain length and considerable rise in vitamin B6 contents, higher total milling recovery and head rice recovery in almost all the samples. While crude fiber, crude protein and crude fat decreased non-significantly. Furthermore, quality reducing factors such as number of broken grains, bursting and curling percentage of cooked rice were also reduced significantly in parboiled samples. It may, therefore, be suggested that parboiling offers a better alternative to conserve and increase nutritional, milling and cooking quality values of rice varieties/lines. Less percentage of broken, burst and curled grains may result in augmented net income. (author)

  9. Analysis of multivariate stochastic signals sampled by on-line particle analyzers: Application to the quantitative assessment of occupational exposure to NOAA in multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Vaquero, C; Gutierrez-Cañas, C; Pui, D Y H

    2015-01-01

    In multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS) coexist NOAA generating activities with other productive sources of airborne particles, such as parallel processes of manufacturing or electrical and diesel machinery. A distinctive characteristic of MSIS is the spatially complex distribution of aerosol sources, as well as their potential differences in dynamics, due to the feasibility of multi-task configuration at a given time. Thus, the background signal is expected to challenge the aerosol analyzers at a probably wide range of concentrations and size distributions, depending of the multisource configuration at a given time. Monitoring and prediction by using statistical analysis of time series captured by on-line particle analyzersin industrial scenarios, have been proven to be feasible in predicting PNC evolution provided a given quality of net signals (difference between signal at source and background). However the analysis and modelling of non-consistent time series, influenced by low levels of SNR (Signal-Noise Ratio) could build a misleading basis for decision making. In this context, this work explores the use of stochastic models based on ARIMA methodology to monitor and predict exposure values (PNC). The study was carried out in a MSIS where an case study focused on the manufacture of perforated tablets of nano-TiO 2 by cold pressing was performed. (paper)

  10. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  11. On-line services offered by 'Fachinformationszentrum Chemie' to the chemical engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krietsch, W.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to some basic concepts of computerized literature searches is followed by an account of the data stores at 'Fachinformationszentrum Chemie', insofar as they are of interest to chemical engineers. An example of a dialogue search is presented. Some data banks of affiliated organizations and other information centres are then presented. In conclusion current developments and especially EURONET are considered. (orig.) [de

  12. Continuous, real-time bioimaging of chemical bioavailability and toxicology using autonomously bioluminescent human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Price, Sarah L.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2013-05-01

    Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17β-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety.

  13. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  14. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  15. Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklem, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H ↔ X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H ↔ X + + H − have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  16. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...... to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  17. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  18. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Biotransformation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in the benthic polychaete, Nereis succinea: quantitative estimation by analyzing the partitioning of chemicals between gut fluid and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pei, Yuan-yuan; You, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Biotransformation plays an important role in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of a chemical in biota. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) commonly co-occurs with its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]), in the environment; thus it is a challenge to accurately quantify the biotransformation rates of DDT and distinguish the sources of the accumulated metabolites in an organism. The present study describes a method developed to quantitatively analyze the biotransformation of p,p'-DDT in the benthic polychaete, Nereis succinea. The lugworms were exposed to sediments spiked with DDT at various concentrations for 28 d. Degradation of DDT to DDD and DDE occurred in sediments during the aging period, and approximately two-thirds of the DDT remained in the sediment. To calculate the biotransformation rates, residues of individual compounds measured in the bioaccumulation testing (after biotransformation) were compared with residues predicted by analyzing the partitioning of the parent and metabolite compounds between gut fluid and tissue lipid (before biotransformation). The results suggest that sediment ingestion rates decreased when DDT concentrations in sediment increased. Extensive biotransformation of DDT occurred in N. succinea, with 86% of DDT being metabolized to DDD and biotransformation, and the remaining 30% was from direct uptake of sediment-associated DDD. In addition, the biotransformation was not dependent on bulk sediment concentrations, but rather on bioaccessible concentrations of the chemicals in sediment, which were quantified by gut fluid extraction. The newly established method improved the accuracy of prediction of the bioaccumulation and toxicity of DDTs. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Organic environments on Saturn's moon, Titan: simulating chemical reactions and analyzing products by FT-ICR and ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpad; Oh, Chu-Ha; Smith, Mark A; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory simulations have been carried out to model chemical reactions that possibly take place in the stratosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. The aerosol products of these reactions (tholin samples) have been systematically analyzed by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) and laser desorption (LD). A wide variety of ions with a general formula C(x)H(y)N(z) detected by ultrahigh resolution and accurate mass measurements in a Fourier transform/ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cell reflect the complexity of these polymeric products, both in chemical compositions and isomeric distributions. As a common feature, however, tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) data and H/D exchange products in the solution phase support the presence of amino and nitrile functionalities in these (highly unsaturated) "tholin" compounds. The present work demonstrates that ESI-MS coupled with FT-ICR is a suitable and "intact" method to analyze tholin components formed under anaerobic conditions; only species with C(x)H(y)N(z) are detected for freshly prepared and harvested samples. However, when intentionally exposed to water, oxygen-containing compounds are unambiguously detected.

  1. Analysis of Protein–Protein Interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines Using Phthalic Acid Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shin Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of plasticizers that have been characterized as endocrine disrupters, and are associated with genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity in the GeneOntology gene/protein database. In this study, we synthesized phthalic acid chemical probes and demonstrated differing protein–protein interactions between MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Phthalic acid chemical probes were synthesized using silicon dioxide particle carriers, which were modified using the silanized linker 3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane (APTES. Incubation with cell lysates from breast cancer cell lines revealed interactions between phthalic acid and cellular proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequent proteomics analyses indicated 22 phthalic acid-binding proteins in both cell types, including heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, ATP synthase subunit beta, and heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. In addition, 21 MCF-7-specific and 32 MDA-MB-231 specific phthalic acid-binding proteins were identified, including related proteasome proteins, heat shock 70-kDa protein, and NADPH dehydrogenase and ribosomal correlated proteins, ras-related proteins, and members of the heat shock protein family, respectively.

  2. On line surveillance of large systems: applications to nuclear and chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.

    1978-01-01

    An on line surveillance method for large scale and distributed parameter systems is achieved by comparing in real time the internal physical parameter values to the reference values. It is shown that the following steps are necessary: modeling, model validation using dynamic testing and on line estimation of parameters. For large scale systems where only few outputs are measurable, an estimation algorithm was developed, selecting the measurable output giving the minimum variance of the physical parameters. This estimation scheme uses a quasilinearization technique associated to the sensitivity equation and the recursive least squares techniques. For large scale systems of order greater than 100, two versions of the estimation scheme are proposed to decrease the computation time. An application to a nuclear reactor core (state variable model of order 29) is proposed and used real data. For distributed systems the estimation scheme was developed with either measurements at fixed time or at fixed space. The estimation algorithm selects the set of measurements that gives the minimum variance of the estimates. An application to a liquid-liquid extraction column, modelized by a set of four coupled partial differential equations, demonstrates the efficiency of the method

  3. A chemically selective laser ion source for the on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, F.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis a laser ion source is presented. In a hot chamber the atoms of the elements to be studied are resonantly by light of pulsed dye lasers, which are pumped by pulsed copper-vapor lasers with extremely high pulse repetition rate (ν rep ∼ 10 kHz), stepwise excited and ionized. By the storage of the atoms in a hot chamber and the high pulse repetition rate of the copper-vapor lasers beyond the required high efficiency (ε ∼ 10%) can be reached. First preparing measurements were performed at the off-line separator at CERN with the rare earth elements ytterbium and thulium. Starting from the results of these measurements further tests of the laser ion source were performed at the on-line separator with in a thick tantalum target produced neutron-deficient ytterbium isotopes. Under application of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer in Mainz an efficient excitation scheme on the resonance ionization of tin was found. This excitation scheme is condition for an experiment at the GSI for the production of the extremely neutron-deficient, short-lived nucleus 102 Sn. In the summer 1993 is as first application of the newly developed laser ion source at the PSB-ISOLDE at CERN an astrophysically relevant experiment for the nuclear spectroscopy of the neutron-rich silver isotopes 124-129 Ag is planned. This experiment can because of the lacking selectivity of conventional ion sources only be performed by means of the here presented laser ion source. The laser ion source shall at the PSB-ISOLDE 1993 also be applied for the selective ionization of manganese. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. High content screening of defined chemical libraries using normal and glioma-derived neural stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovi, Davide; Folarin, Amos A; Baranowski, Bart; Pollard, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with potent biological effects on the fate of normal and cancer-derived stem cells represent both useful research tools and new drug leads for regenerative medicine and oncology. Long-term expansion of mouse and human neural stem cells is possible using adherent monolayer culture. These cultures represent a useful cellular resource to carry out image-based high content screening of small chemical libraries. Improvements in automated microscopy, desktop computational power, and freely available image processing tools, now means that such chemical screens are realistic to undertake in individual academic laboratories. Here we outline a cost effective and versatile time lapse imaging strategy suitable for chemical screening. Protocols are described for the handling and screening of human fetal Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and their malignant counterparts, Glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells (GNS). We focus on identification of cytostatic and cytotoxic "hits" and discuss future possibilities and challenges for extending this approach to assay lineage commitment and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In-line formation of chemically cross-linked P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes for H2/CO2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak; Jansen, Johannes C.; Tasselli, Franco; Barbieri, Giuseppe; Drioli, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, chemically cross-linked asymmetric P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes with enhanced separation performance were fabricated, using a dry-wet spinning process with an innovative in-line cross-linking step. The chemical

  6. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joinet, A.

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO 2 , Nb, Ti, V,TiO 2 , CeO x , ThO 2 , C, ZrC 4 and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target

  7. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  8. Chemical and biological insights into uranium-induced apoptosis of rat hepatic cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; You, Yong [University of South China, College of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Hengyang (China); Du, Ke-Jie [University of South China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hengyang (China); Fang, Zhen [Anhui Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Wuhu (China); Wen, Ge-Bo [University of South China, College of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Laboratory of Protein Structure and Function, Hengyang (China); Lin, Ying-Wu [University of South China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Laboratory of Protein Structure and Function, Hengyang (China)

    2015-05-15

    Uranium release into the environment is a threat to human health, and the mechanisms of cytotoxicity caused by uranium are not well-understood. To improve our understanding in this respect, we herein evaluated the effects of uranium exposure on normal rat hepatic BRL cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis, uranyl nitrate was found to be transformed into uranyl phosphate particles in the medium and taken up by BRL cells in an endocytotic uptake manner, which presumably initiates apoptosis of the cell, although soluble uranyl ion may also be toxic. The apoptosis of BRL cells upon uranium exposure was also confirmed by both the acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining assay and the Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay. Further studies revealed that uranium induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the uranium-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, indicating both a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway and a death receptor pathway by a crosstalk. This study provides new chemical and biological insights into the mechanism of uranium toxicity toward hepatic cells, which will help seek approaches for biological remediation of uranium. (orig.)

  9. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: synthesis, X-Ray line analysis and chemical composition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi, E-mail: mahmoudi_hossein@guilan.ac.ir, E-mail: h.mahmoudiph@gmail.com [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seibel, Christoph; Hauschild, Dirk; Reinert, Friedrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Abdollahian, Hossein [Nanotechnology Research Center of Urmia University, Urmia, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been synthesized by the sol-gel method using titanium alkoxide and isopropanol as a precursor. The structural properties and chemical composition of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.The X-ray powder diffraction pattern confirms that the particles are mainly composed of the anatase phase with the preferential orientation along [101] direction. The physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density were investigated from the Williamson- Hall (W-H) plot assuming a uniform deformation model (UDM), and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). The W-H analysis shows an anisotropic nature of the strain in nano powders. The scanning electron microscopy image shows clear TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with particle sizes varying from 60 to 80nm. The results of mean particle size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show an inter correlation with the W-H analysis and SEM results. Our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra show that nearly a complete amount of titanium has reacted to TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  10. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate.

  11. Operational on-line coupled chemical weather forecasts for Europe with WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for the assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. Meteorology is simulated simultaneously with the emissions, turbulent mixing, transport, transformation, and fate of trace gases and aerosols. The emphasis of the application is on predicting pollutants over Austria. Two domains are used for the simulations: the mother domain covers Europe with a resolution of 12 km, the inner domain includes the alpine region with a horizontal resolution of 4 km; 45 model levels are used in the vertical direction. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 72 hours and is initialized with ECMWF forecasts. On-line coupled models allow considering two-way interactions between different atmospheric processes including chemistry (both gases and aerosols), clouds, radiation, boundary layer, emissions, meteorology and climate. In the operational set-up direct-, indirect and semi-direct effects between meteorology and air chemistry are enabled. The model is running on the HPCF (High Performance Computing Facility) of the ZAMG. In the current set-up 1248 CPUs are used. As the simulations need a big amount of computing resources, a method to safe I/O-time was implemented. Every MPI task writes all its output into the shared memory filesystem of the compute nodes. Once the WRF/Chem integration is finished, all split NetCDF-files are merged and saved on the global file system. The merge-routine is based on parallel-NetCDF. With this method the model runs about 30% faster on the SGI

  12. Predictive performance of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for lipophilic chemicals with high octanol-water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    To meet the urgent need for a reliable alternative test for predicting skin sensitizing potential of many chemicals, we have developed a cell-based in vitro test, human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). However, the predictive performance for lipophilic chemicals in the h-CLAT still remains relatively unknown. Moreover, it's suggested that low water solubility of chemicals might induce false negative outcomes. Thus, in this study, we tested relatively low water soluble 37 chemicals with log Kow values above and below 3.5 in the h-CLAT. The small-scale assessment resulted in nine false negative outcomes for chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5. We then created a dataset of 143 chemicals by combining the existing dataset of 106 chemicals and examined the predictive performance of the h-CLAT for chemicals with a log Kow of less than 3.5; a total of 112 chemicals from the 143 chemicals in the dataset. The sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 143 chemicals were 83% and 80%, respectively. In contrast, sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 112 chemicals with log Kow values below 3.5 improved to 94% and 88%, respectively. These data suggested that the h-CLAT could successfully detect sensitizers with log Kow values up to 3.5. When chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5 that were deemed positive by h-CLAT were included with the 112 chemicals, the sensitivity and accuracy in terms of the resulting applicable 128 chemicals out of the 143 chemicals became 95% and 88%, respectively. The use of log Kow values gave the h-CLAT a higher predictive performance. Our results demonstrated that the h-CLAT could predict sensitizing potential of various chemicals, which contain lipophilic chemicals using a large-scale chemical dataset.

  13. ISM chemical abundances in two intermediate-velocity clouds in the line of sight to SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Siobahn; Bohm-Vitense, Erika

    1988-01-01

    The earliest IUE high-resolution spectra of SN 1987A have been studied and reveal the presence of several clouds in the line of sight to the LMC. In particular, there are two clouds with radial velocities of about 130 km/s and about 180 km/s. These clouds' velocities are between those of Galactic clouds at 0-80 km/s and those of LMC gas at about 270 km/s. Chemical-abundance determinations may help to determine the origin and location of these clouds. Curve-of-growth analysis and 21-cm observations show that they may be underabundant in heavy elements by about a factor of 2 as compared to solar abundances. No depletion indicative of grain formation can be seen.

  14. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helium (He ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR, MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ and sensitivity (E0 of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  15. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Thakur, Neha; Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2017-08-01

    Helium (He) ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs) at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR), MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL) applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm) for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ) and sensitivity (E0) of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  16. On-line prediction of chemical composition of semi-frozen ground beef by non-invasive NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Arnesen, J F; Nilsen, B N; Hildrum, K I

    2003-04-01

    The chemical composition of industrial scale batches of frozen beef was measured on-line during grinding by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The MM55E filter based non-contact NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a meat grinder, and the fat, moisture and protein contents determined from the average of each filter reading throughout the grinding of the batch. The filters were selected from full spectra measurements to be as insensitive to water crystallization as possible. For on-line calibration and prediction, 55 beef batches of 400-800 kg in the range of 7.66-22.91% fat, 59.36-71.48% moisture, and 17.04-20.76% protein, were ground through 4 or 13 mm hole plates. The regression results, presented as root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were between 0.48 and 1.11% for fat, 0.43 and 0.97% for moisture and 0.41 and 0.47% for protein.

  17. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multi-scale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluation of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1° × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  18. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  19. A new chemical formulation for control of dental unit water line contamination: An 'in vitro' and clinical 'study'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci Giovanni

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water delivered by dental units during routine dental practice is highly contaminated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new chemical solution flushed through Dental Unit Water Lines (DUWL for the control of contamination inside dental units. Materials and methods Six old dental units equipped with a device designed to automatically flush disinfecting solutions through the water system (Castellini Autosteril were selected. Water samples from DUWL effluents were collected in each dental unit for 10 randomly selected days, before and after a 5 minute DUWL disinfecting cycle with TetraAcetylEthileneDiamine (TAED and persalt (Ster4spray produced by Farmec spa, and distributed by Castellini spa. Water samples were plated in R2A Agar and cultured at room temperature for 7 days, and the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms counted and expressed in Log10 CFU/mL A general linear model was fitted and multiple regression ANOVA for repeated measures was used for the statistical analysis. Results The mean contamination in DUWL effluent at baseline was 5.45 ± 0.35 CFU/mL (range 4.79 to 5.93 CFU/mL. When water samples were tested "in vitro" against the chemical, no growth of heterotrophic bacteria was detected after a 5 minute contact in any of the water samples tested. After undergoing a 5 minute disinfecting cycle with the chemical, DUWL mean contamination in water effluents was 2.01 ± 0.32 CFU/mL (range 1.30 to 2.74 CFU/mL (significant difference with respect to baseline. Conclusions An inbetween patient disinfecting procedure consisting of flushing DUWL with TAED and persalt equivalent to 0.26% peracetic acid could be useful in routine dental practice for cross-contamination control.

  20. Design of an expert system based on neuro-fuzzy inference analyzer for on-line microstructural characterization using magnetic NDT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanei, S.; Vafaeenezhad, H.; Kashefi, M.; Eivani, A.R.; Mazinani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tracing microstructural evolution has a significant importance and priority in manufacturing lines of dual-phase steels. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is presented for on-line microstructural characterization of dual-phase steels. A new method for microstructure characterization based on the theory of magnetic Barkhausen noise nondestructive testing method is introduced using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In order to predict the accurate martensite volume fraction of dual-phase steels while eliminating the effect and interference of frequency on the magnetic Barkhausen noise outputs, the magnetic responses were fed into the ANFIS structure in terms of position, height and width of the Barkhausen profiles. The results showed that ANFIS approach has the potential to detect and characterize microstructural evolution while the considerable effect of the frequency on magnetic outputs is overlooked. In fact implementing multiple outputs simultaneously enables ANFIS to approach to the accurate results using only height, position and width of the magnetic Barkhausen noise peaks without knowing the value of the used frequency. - Highlights: • New NDT system for microstructural evaluation based on MBN using ANFIS modeling. • Sensitivity of magnetic Barkhausen noise to microstructure changes of the DP steels. • Accurate prediction of martensite by feeding multiple MBN outputs simultaneously. • Obtaining the modeled output without knowing the amount of the used frequency

  1. Design of an expert system based on neuro-fuzzy inference analyzer for on-line microstructural characterization using magnetic NDT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, S., E-mail: Sadegh.Ghanei@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaeenezhad, H. [Centre of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology (CEHSAT), School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashefi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivani, A.R. [Centre of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology (CEHSAT), School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Tracing microstructural evolution has a significant importance and priority in manufacturing lines of dual-phase steels. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is presented for on-line microstructural characterization of dual-phase steels. A new method for microstructure characterization based on the theory of magnetic Barkhausen noise nondestructive testing method is introduced using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In order to predict the accurate martensite volume fraction of dual-phase steels while eliminating the effect and interference of frequency on the magnetic Barkhausen noise outputs, the magnetic responses were fed into the ANFIS structure in terms of position, height and width of the Barkhausen profiles. The results showed that ANFIS approach has the potential to detect and characterize microstructural evolution while the considerable effect of the frequency on magnetic outputs is overlooked. In fact implementing multiple outputs simultaneously enables ANFIS to approach to the accurate results using only height, position and width of the magnetic Barkhausen noise peaks without knowing the value of the used frequency. - Highlights: • New NDT system for microstructural evaluation based on MBN using ANFIS modeling. • Sensitivity of magnetic Barkhausen noise to microstructure changes of the DP steels. • Accurate prediction of martensite by feeding multiple MBN outputs simultaneously. • Obtaining the modeled output without knowing the amount of the used frequency.

  2. Integrated Chemical and Microorganism Monitoring of Air Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Mobility Spectometry: Toward an Expanded-Use Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this research program originated with the choice by NASA of an ion mobility spectrometer for air quality monitoring on-board the international spacestation. Though the gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometer analyzer known as VOA met or exceeded expectations, limitations in the basic understanding of response and the utilization of foundational principles into usable technology was considered unacceptable. In this research program, a comprehensive model for the origins of mobility spectra was proposed, tested and verified. The principles considered responsible for the appearance of mobility spectra have now been elucidated through this project. This understanding has been applied in automated identification of mobility spectra using neural networks and routine procedures for this now exist. Finally, the limitation on linear range has been shown to be a technical limitation and not a fundamental limitation so that a hardware component was crafted to extend the linear range of a mobility spectrometer by 10X. This project has led to one Ph.D. dissertation and one MS thesis. In addition, over ten public presentations at professional meetings and six journal publications have resulted from this program of research. The findings are so plentiful that total analysis of the findings may require four to six years or more. The findings confirm that the decision to use VOA was sound and that the chemical and physical principles of mobility spectrometry are both understandable and predictable.

  3. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  4. Breeding experiments in chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.), III. Chemical composition and In-vitro nutritional evaluation of chickpea developed lines compare with local varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Eisa, M.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Seed yield/plant, chemical composition and in vitro nutritional value of 4 developed lines of chickpea crop were studied in comparison with 3 recommended local varieties. According to appearance and size of size of the seeds, the line 1 and line 2 were compared with the local variety giza 1, while line 3 with giza 2 and line 4 with giza 88. Data showed that L 2 was better than giza 1 in grain yield/plant, in chemical composition and in nutritive value, too. Although L 1 was little less than giza 1 in yield quality, higher yield quantity of L 1 may correct the situation for its side. The L 3 surpassed the comparing variety Giza 2 in yield/plant, in chemical composition and in nutritive value. The L 4 can not be considered a promising variety because of its less quality and lower seed yield potentiality comparing with Giza 88. Thus, the new lines L 1 , L 2 and L 3 are considered good addition to the chickpea germplasm in Egypt. 4 tabs

  5. Chemical Constituents of Mangifera indica and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Do, Truong Nhat Van; Le, Tho Huu; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Awale, Suresh

    2016-08-26

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines such as PANC-1 have an altered metabolism, enabiling them to tolerate and survive under extreme conditions of nutrient starvation. The search for candidates that inhibit their viability during nutrition starvation represents a novel antiausterity strategy in anticancer drug discovery. A methanol extract of the bark of Mangifera indica was found to inhibit the survival of PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially under nutrient-deprived conditions with a PC50 value of 15.5 μg/mL, without apparent toxicity, in normal nutrient-rich conditions. Chemical investigation on this bioactive extract led to the isolation of 19 compounds (1-19), including two new cycloartane-type triterpenes, mangiferolate A (1) and mangiferolate B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, mangiferolate B (2) and isoambolic acid (12) exhibited potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under the nutrition-deprived condition with PC50 values of 11.0 and 4.8 μM, respectively.

  6. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer and flow meter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to Cherenkov and gaseous charged particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhroob, M.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Hasib, A.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom microcontroller-based electronics, currently used in the ATLAS Detector Control System, with numerous potential applications. Three instruments monitor C3F8 and CO2 coolant leak rates into the nitrogen envelopes of the ATLAS silicon microstrip and Pixel detectors. Two further instruments will aid operation of the new thermosiphon coolant recirculator: one of these will monitor air leaks into the low pressure condenser while the other will measure return vapour flow along with C3F8/C2F6 blend composition, should blend operation be necessary to protect the ATLAS silicon tracker under increasing LHC luminosity. We describe these instruments and their electronics.

  7. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Da Riva, E.; Degeorge, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of +/- 2% F.S. for flows up to 250 l.min-1, and +/- 1.9% F.S. for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1; the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.

  8. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  9. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  10. Interrogating Seyferts with NebulaBayes: Spatially Probing the Narrow-line Region Radiation Fields and Chemical Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adam D.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Groves, Brent A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Blanc, Guillermo A.

    2018-04-01

    NebulaBayes is a new Bayesian code that implements a general method of comparing observed emission-line fluxes to photoionization model grids. The code enables us to extract robust, spatially resolved measurements of abundances in the extended narrow-line regions (ENLRs) produced by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We observe near-constant ionization parameters but steeply radially declining pressures, which together imply that radiation pressure regulates the ENLR density structure on large scales. Our sample includes four “pure Seyfert” galaxies from the S7 survey that have extensive ENLRs. NGC 2992 shows steep metallicity gradients from the nucleus into the ionization cones. An inverse metallicity gradient is observed in ESO 138-G01, which we attribute to a recent gas inflow or minor merger. A uniformly high metallicity and hard ionizing continuum are inferred across the ENLR of Mrk 573. Our analysis of IC 5063 is likely affected by contamination from shock excitation, which appears to soften the inferred ionizing spectrum. The peak of the ionizing continuum E peak is determined by the nuclear spectrum and the absorbing column between the nucleus and the ionized nebula. We cannot separate variation in this intrinsic E peak from the effects of shock or H II region contamination, but E peak measurements nevertheless give insights into ENLR excitation. We demonstrate the general applicability of NebulaBayes by analyzing a nuclear spectrum from the non-active galaxy NGC 4691 using a H II region grid. The NLR and H II region model grids are provided with NebulaBayes for use by the astronomical community.

  11. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  13. Analyzing Clickstreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Giversen, Anders; Jensen, Allan H.

    in modern enterprises. In the data warehousing pproach, selected information is extracted in advance and stored in a repository. This approach is used because of its high performance. However, in many situations a logical (rather than physical) integration of data is preferable. Previous web-based data......On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) enables analysts to gain insight into data through fast and interactive access to a variety of possible views on information, organized in a dimensional model. The demand for data integration is rapidly becoming larger as more and more information sources appear....... Extensible Markup Language (XML) is fast becoming the new standard for data representation and exchange on the World Wide Web. The rapid emergence of XML data on the web, e.g., business-to-business (B2B) ecommerce, is making it necessary for OLAP and other data analysis tools to handleXML data as well...

  14. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  15. Metal and physico-chemical variations at a hydroelectric reservoir analyzed by Multivariate Analyses and Artificial Neural Networks: environmental management and policy/decision-making tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Y L; Hauser-Davis, R A; Saraiva, A C F; Brandão, I L S; Oliveira, T F; Silveira, A M

    2013-01-01

    This paper compared and evaluated seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters and metals at a hydroelectric power station reservoir by applying Multivariate Analyses and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) statistical techniques. A Factor Analysis was used to reduce the number of variables: the first factor was composed of elements Ca, K, Mg and Na, and the second by Chemical Oxygen Demand. The ANN showed 100% correct classifications in training and validation samples. Physico-chemical analyses showed that water pH values were not statistically different between the dry and rainy seasons, while temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia and DO were higher in the dry period. TSS, hardness and COD, on the other hand, were higher during the rainy season. The statistical analyses showed that Ca, K, Mg and Na are directly connected to the Chemical Oxygen Demand, which indicates a possibility of their input into the reservoir system by domestic sewage and agricultural run-offs. These statistical applications, thus, are also relevant in cases of environmental management and policy decision-making processes, to identify which factors should be further studied and/or modified to recover degraded or contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  17. Generation of dissolved organic matter and byproducts from activated sludge during contact with sodium hypochlorite and its implications to on-line chemical cleaning in MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Ng, Wun Jern; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of chemical and physical agents on recombination events in cells of the germ line of male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würgler, F E

    1991-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can induce mutations as well as recombination in the genetic material. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was one of the first assay systems to test physical and chemical agents for recombinogenic effects. Such effects can be observed in cells of the germ line as well as in somatic cells. At present information is available on 54 agents, among them 48 chemicals that have been tested in cells of the germ line of males and/or females. Effects on meiotic recombination in female germ cells cannot simply be classified as positive or negative since for a number of agents, depending on the chromosome region studied, recombination frequencies may be increased, unaffected or decreased. The male germ line of D. melanogaster represents a unique situation because meiotic recombination does not occur. Among 25 agents tested in male germ cells 24 did induce male recombination, among them alkylating, intercalating and cross-linking agents, direct-acting ones as well as compounds needing metabolic activation. With several compounds the frequency of induced recombination is highest in the heterochromatic regions near the centromeres. In brood pattern analyses, e.g., after exposure of adult males to ionizing radiation, the first appearance of crossover progeny is indicative of the sampling of exposed spermatocytes. In premeiotic cells of the male and the female germ line mitotic recombination can occur. Upon clonal expansion of the recombinant cells, clusters of identical crossovers can be observed.

  19. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AT 0.7 < z < 1.6 DERIVED FROM ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, H. [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K., E-mail: sameshima@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ 2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 <  z  < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α -enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z  ∼ 2 or earlier.

  20. Establishment of IL-7 Expression Reporter Human Cell Lines, and Their Feasibility for High-Throughput Screening of IL-7-Upregulating Chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Sook Cho

    Full Text Available Interleukin-7 (IL-7 is a cytokine essential for T cell homeostasis, and is clinically important. However, the regulatory mechanism of IL-7 gene expression is not well known, and a systematic approach to screen chemicals that regulate IL-7 expression has not yet been developed. In this study, we attempted to develop human reporter cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology. For this purpose, we designed donor DNA that contains an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene, drug selection cassette, and modified homologous arms which are considered to enhance the translation of the eGFP reporter transcript, and also a highly efficient single-guide RNA with a minimal off-target effect to target the IL-7 start codon region. By applying this system, we established IL-7 eGFP reporter cell lines that could report IL-7 gene transcription based on the eGFP protein signal. Furthermore, we utilized the cells to run a pilot screen campaign for IL-7-upregulating chemicals in a high-throughput format, and identified a chemical that can up-regulate IL-7 gene transcription. Collectively, these results suggest that our IL-7 reporter system can be utilized in large-scale chemical library screening to reveal novel IL-7 regulatory pathways and to identify potential drugs for development of new treatments in immunodeficiency disease.

  1. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  2. Development of a chemically defined platform fed-batch culture media for monoclonal antibody-producing CHO cell lines with optimized choline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Shinobu; Miyakawa, Ichiko; Doi, Tomohiro

    2018-01-11

    A chemically defined platform basal medium and feed media were developed using a single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Cell line A, which showed a peak viable cell density of 5.9 × 10 6  cells/mL and a final mAb titer of 0.5 g/L in batch culture, was selected for the platform media development. Stoichiometrically balanced feed media were developed using glucose as an indicator of cell metabolism to determine the feed rates of all other nutrients. A fed-batch culture of cell line A using the platform fed-batch medium yielded a 6.4 g/L mAb titer, which was 12-fold higher than that of the batch culture. To examine the applicability of the platform basal medium and feed media, three other cell lines (A16, B, and C) that produce mAbs were cultured using the platform fed-batch medium, and they yielded mAb titers of 8.4, 3.3, and 6.2 g/L, respectively. The peak viable cell densities of the three cell lines ranged from 1.3 × 10 7 to 1.8 × 10 7  cells/mL. These results show that the nutritionally balanced fed-batch medium and feeds worked well for other cell lines. During the medium development, we found that choline limitation caused a lower cell viability, a lower mAb titer, a higher mAb aggregate content, and a higher mannose-5 content. The optimal choline chloride to glucose ratio for the CHO cell fed-batch culture was determined. Our platform basal medium and feed media will shorten the medium-development time for mAb-producing cell lines.

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-01-08 to 2009-01-07 (NCEI Accession 0162251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162251 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2016 (NCEI Accession 0165355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165355 includes surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0165353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165353 includes surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  6. Study the chemical composition and agronomic traits for some durum wheat lines (Triticum durum) selected from M4-irradiated populations under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kasem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out during four successive seasons 2005-2009 to access the effectiveness of gamma rays on inducing new drought tolerance lines from two durum wheat cultivars, i.e. Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3. Irradiated grains (0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy) of both cultivars were sown and at harvest, 20 grains (M1) from each treatment were planted as in the first season. In the second season, grains of 61 plants were selected as they had the following higher criteria, i.e. yield, grain yield/plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50 % or more the control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under drought or non-stress conditions, at the end of this season, six selected putative lines had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines have an excellent grain yield per plant under non stress condition as compared to Sohag3. The S3 and S4 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to Sohag 3. The B1 and B2 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under non stress condition comparing with Beni Suef 3. In the fourth season, growth, chemical composition and yield of the six putative lines as well as Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under non stress and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number/plant for S1, S2, B1 and B2 as compared each with their corresponding parent under non stress condition. Also, S3 and S4 lines had the same results comparing with Sohag 3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed and accumulation of organic protective osmolytes such as sugar proline and free amino acids. As well as N, P, K and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to Sohag 3 .The putative lines S1, S2 and B1 showed a significant increase for grain yield per plant comparing with their controls under non stress

  7. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-01

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  8. How to Incorporate Technology with Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance the Understanding of Chemical Composition; How to Analyze Unknown Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in teaching offers numerous amounts of possibilities and can be challenging for physics, chemistry and geology content courses. When incorporating technology into a science content lab it is better to be driven by pedagogy than by technology in an inquiry-based lab setting. Students need to be introduced to real-world technology in the beginning of first year chemistry or physics course to ensure real-world technology concepts while assisting with content such as periodic trends on the periodic table. This article will describe the use of technology with Raman Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive XRay Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to research chemical compositions in the real world of unknown samples. Such unknown samples utilized in this lab were clamshell (parts of clams that look like shark teeth versus shark teeth. The data will be shared to show how the students (pre-service teachers and in-service teachers solved the problem using technology while learning important content that will assist in the next level of chemistry, physics and even geology.

  9. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

  10. Differential response of human and rodent cell lines to chemical inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.; Ueno, A.M.; Dahlberg, W.K.

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the effects of several classes of metabolic inhibitors on the repair of potentially lethal damage in density-inhibited cultures of two rodent and two human cell systems which differ in their growth characteristics. Aphidicolin, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) and hydroxyurea showed no effect on PLD repair, whereas the effects of 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) and 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) were cell line dependent. For example, 3-AB suppressed PLD repair almost completely in CHO cells, but showed no inhibitory effects in human diploid fibroblasts. These results indicate that inhibitors of DNA replication and poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis are not efficient inhibitors of cellular recovery in irradiated cells and, moreover, that such effects may be cell line dependent.

  11. Resist Parameter Extraction from Line-and-Space Patterns of Chemically Amplified Resist for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2010-11-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has progressed owing to worldwide effort. As the development status of EUV lithography approaches the requirements for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with a minimum line width of 22 nm, the extraction of resist parameters becomes increasingly important from the viewpoints of the accurate evaluation of resist materials for resist screening and the accurate process simulation for process and mask designs. In this study, we demonstrated that resist parameters (namely, quencher concentration, acid diffusion constant, proportionality constant of line edge roughness, and dissolution point) can be extracted from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of patterned resists without the knowledge on the details of resist contents using two types of latest EUV resist.

  12. Autonomous Optofluidic Chemical Analyzers for Marine Applications: Insights from the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI for pH and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ze Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial availability of inexpensive fiber optics and small volume pumps in the early 1990's provided the components necessary for the successful development of low power, low reagent consumption, autonomous optofluidic analyzers for marine applications. It was evident that to achieve calibration-free performance, reagent-based sensors would require frequent renewal of the reagent by pumping the reagent from an impermeable, inert reservoir to the sensing interface. Pumping also enabled measurement of a spectral blank further enhancing accuracy and stability. The first instrument that was developed based on this strategy, the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for CO2 (SAMI-CO2, uses a pH indicator for measurement of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Because the pH indicator gives an optical response, the instrument requires an optofluidic design where the indicator is pumped into a gas permeable membrane and then to an optical cell for analysis. The pH indicator is periodically flushed from the optical cell by using a valve to switch from the pH indicator to a blank solution. Because of the small volume and low power light source, over 8,500 measurements can be obtained with a ~500 mL reagent bag and 8 alkaline D-cell battery pack. The primary drawback is that the design is more complex compared to the single-ended electrode or optode that is envisioned as the ideal sensor. The SAMI technology has subsequently been used for the successful development of autonomous pH and total alkalinity analyzers. In this manuscript, we will discuss the pros and cons of the SAMI pCO2 and pH optofluidic technology and highlight some past data sets and applications for studying the carbon cycle in aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer-chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-03-30

    Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is responsible for non-quantitative H 2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer-Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems. The EA-Cr/HTC reactor was substantially modified for the conversion of halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples. The performance of the novel conversion setup for solid and liquid samples was monitored and optimized using a simultaneously operating dual-detection system of IRMS and ion trap MS. The method with several variants in the reactor, including the addition of manganese metal chips, was evaluated in three laboratories using EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line method) and compared with traditional uranium-reduction-based conversion combined with manual dual-inlet IRMS analysis (off-line method) in one laboratory. The modified EA-Cr/HTC reactor setup showed an overall H 2 -recovery of more than 96% for all halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds. All results were successfully normalized via two-point calibration with VSMOW-SLAP reference waters. Precise and accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis was achieved for a variety of organics containing F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and S-bearing heteroelements. The robust nature of the on-line EA-Cr/HTC technique was demonstrated by a series of 196 consecutive measurements with a single reactor filling. The optimized EA-Cr/HTC reactor design can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available material and

  14. A 40 GHz fully integrated circuit with a vector network analyzer and a coplanar-line-based detection area for circulating tumor cell analysis using 65 nm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Taiki; Matsunaga, Maya; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2018-03-01

    A 40-GHz fully integrated CMOS-based circuit for circulating tumor cells (CTC) analysis, consisting of an on-chip vector network analyzer (VNA) and a highly sensitive coplanar-line-based detection area is presented in this paper. In this work, we introduce a fully integrated architecture that eliminates unwanted parasitic effects. The proposed analyzer was designed using 65 nm CMOS technology, and SPICE and MWS simulations were used to validate its operation. The simulation confirmed that the proposed circuit can measure S-parameter shifts resulting from the addition of various types of tumor cells to the detection area, the data of which are provided in a previous study: the |S 21| values for HepG2, A549, and HEC-1-A cells are -0.683, -0.580, and -0.623 dB, respectively. Additionally, the measurement demonstrated an S-parameters reduction of -25.7% when a silicone resin was put on the circuit. Hence, the proposed system is expected to contribute to cancer diagnosis.

  15. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  16. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  17. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF A DIFFUSE CLOUD ALONG A LINE OF SIGHT TOWARD W51: MOLECULAR FRACTION AND COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M. [LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris and ENS, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Black, J. H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Menten, K. M. [MPI fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Goicoechea, J. R. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-20

    Absorption lines from the molecules OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sup +} {sub 3} have been observed in a diffuse molecular cloud along a line of sight near W51 IRS2. We present the first chemical analysis that combines the information provided by all three of these species. Together, OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} are used to determine the molecular hydrogen fraction in the outskirts of the observed cloud, as well as the cosmic-ray ionization rate of atomic hydrogen. H{sup +} {sub 3} is used to infer the cosmic-ray ionization rate of H{sub 2} in the molecular interior of the cloud, which we find to be {zeta}{sub 2} = (4.8 {+-} 3.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} s{sup -1}. Combining the results from all three species we find an efficiency factor-defined as the ratio of the formation rate of OH{sup +} to the cosmic-ray ionization rate of H-of {epsilon} = 0.07 {+-} 0.04, much lower than predicted by chemical models. This is an important step in the future use of OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} on their own as tracers of the cosmic-ray ionization rate.

  18. In-line formation of chemically cross-linked P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes for H2/CO2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2010-12-13

    In this study, chemically cross-linked asymmetric P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes with enhanced separation performance were fabricated, using a dry-wet spinning process with an innovative in-line cross-linking step. The chemical modification was conducted by controlled immersion of the coagulated fibre in an aqueous 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane (DAMP) cross-linker solution before the take-up. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the thermal, mechanical, chemical and gas transport properties of the membranes was investigated. FT-IR/ATR analysis was used to identify the chemical changes in the polymer, while DSC analysis confirmed the changes in the Tg and the specific heat of the polymer upon cross-linking. Chemical cross-linking with a 10 wt.% aqueous DAMP solution strongly enhanced the H2/CO2 ideal selectivity from 5.3 to 16.1, while the H2 permeance of the membranes decreased from 7.06 × 10−3 to 1.01 × 10−3 m3(STP) m−2 h−1 bar−1 for a feed pressure of 1 bar at 25 °C. The increase of selectivity with decreasing permeance is somewhat higher than the slope in the Robeson upper bound, evidencing the positive effect of the cross-linking on the separation performance of the fibres. Simultaneously, the cross-linking leads to improved mechanical resistance of the membranes, which could be further enhanced by an additional thermal treatment. The produced membranes are therefore more suitable for use under harsh conditions and have a better overall performance than the uncross-linked ones.

  19. mRNA processing in mutant zebrafish lines generated by chemical and CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis produces unexpected transcripts that escape nonsense-mediated decay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Anderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As model organism-based research shifts from forward to reverse genetics approaches, largely due to the ease of genome editing technology, a low frequency of abnormal phenotypes is being observed in lines with mutations predicted to lead to deleterious effects on the encoded protein. In zebrafish, this low frequency is in part explained by compensation by genes of redundant or similar function, often resulting from the additional round of teleost-specific whole genome duplication within vertebrates. Here we offer additional explanations for the low frequency of mutant phenotypes. We analyzed mRNA processing in seven zebrafish lines with mutations expected to disrupt gene function, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 or ENU mutagenesis methods. Five of the seven lines showed evidence of altered mRNA processing: one through a skipped exon that did not lead to a frame shift, one through nonsense-associated splicing that did not lead to a frame shift, and three through the use of cryptic splice sites. These results highlight the need for a methodical analysis of the mRNA produced in mutant lines before making conclusions or embarking on studies that assume loss of function as a result of a given genomic change. Furthermore, recognition of the types of adaptations that can occur may inform the strategies of mutant generation.

  20. Self-assembled monolayers with different chemical group substrates for the study of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hongji; Yin, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Tian, Weiming; Zhang, Song; Nie, Yongzhan; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important with respect to a number of cell behavoirs, yet remain unclear. In this study, self-assembled monolayers with different terminal chemical groups (hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), animo (-NH 2 ), mercapto (-SH), and methyl (-CH 3 )) were employed as substrates for the culture of MCF-7 cells to examine effects on cell behavior. Cell spreading was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, tallin expression by immunofluorescence, proliferation rate by counting cell numbers, cell cycle by flow cytometry, metabolism by high-performance liquid chromatography and cell migration by live cell imaging. Annexin V-FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and JC-1 assays were performed to determine cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. Our results demonstrate the varied behaviors of MCF-7 cells in response to different chemical groups. Specifically, NH 2 and COOH terminal functional groups promote proliferation, the production of lactic acid and mobility of MCF-7 cells; SH and OH terminal groups enhance the expression and distribution of tallin but result in weak cell proliferation, metabolism, spreading and mobility. These results are meaningful for uncovering the interactions between the ECM and cancer cells; they are potentially useful for designing novel cancer treatment strategies. (paper)

  1. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAughey, J; McGrath, C; Adam, T; Mocker, C; Zimmermann, R

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex and dynamic physical and chemical matrix in which about 4800 components have been identified. It is known that deposition efficiencies of smoke particles in the lung in the lung (60-80%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150-- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of three studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. This information will improve dosimetry estimates in quantitative risk assessment tools as part of a harm reduction process. In this study smoke particle size and chemistry were measured simultaneously in real-time using electrical mobility spectrometry and soft-ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry respectively. Qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol, and styrene) are shown and compared with particle number and count median diameter from different smoking intensities and filter ventilation. Yields of chemical analysis, particle diameter and concentration are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation.

  2. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alba

    Full Text Available Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  3. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  4. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  5. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  6. Use of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to analyze disease biomarkers in dried serum spots compared with serum analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Arata; Iwata, Yosuke; Uchikata, Takato; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Azuma, Takeshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-05-30

    The analytical stability and throughput of biomarker assays based on dried serum spots (DSS) are strongly dependent on the extraction process and determination method. In the present study, an on-line system based on supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC/MS/MS) was established for analyzing the levels of disease biomarkers in DSS. The chromatographic conditions were investigated using the ODS-EP, diol, and SIL-100A columns. Then, we optimized the SFE-SFC/MS/MS method using the diol column, focusing on candidate biomarkers of oral, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer that were identified using liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS. By using this system, four hydrophilic metabolites and 17 hydrophobic metabolites were simultaneously detected within 15 min. In an experiment involving clinical samples, PC 16:0-18:2/16:1-18:1 exhibited 93.8% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity, whereas PC 17:1-18:1/17:0-18:2 showed 81.3% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity for detecting oral cancer. In addition, assessments of the creatine levels demonstrated 92.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity for detecting colorectal cancer. The results of this study indicate that our method has great potential for clinical diagnosis and would be suitable for large-scale screening. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk. (Boraginaceae) extracts: chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssaoui, Hanane; Mencherini, Teresa; Esposito, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Benayache, Samir; Benayache, Fadila; Mekkiou, Ratiba

    2018-02-12

    Heliotropium bacciferum (Boraginaceae) is a perennial herb, growing in the Bechar region of Algeria, where it is traditionally used for skin diseases and tonsillitis. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of sixteen secondary metabolites from the aerial part extracts. They include a sterol (1), megastigman type nor-isoprenoids (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10), C-11 terpene lactones (5 and 9), and a monoterpene (7) from the chloroform extract (HB-C); monoterpene glucoside (14), and phenolic compounds (11-13, 15, 16) from the methanol one (HB-M). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and ESIMS analysis. HB-M showed a significant and concentration dependent scavenging activity in vitro against the radicals DPPH and ABTS, related to the phenol derivatives (11-13, and 15-16), and HB-C inhibited the growth of colon cancer cell lines, mainly for the presence of the antiproliferative C-11 terpene lactones (5 and 9).

  8. GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaminski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001–2005 on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.

  9. Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: a comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Gagnon, M Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren

    2014-03-01

    We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality. Copyright

  10. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments slurries by isotopic dilution calibration ICP-MS after chemical vapor generation using an on-line system or retention in an electrothermal vaporizer treated with iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Dias, Lucia Felicidade; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments reference materials by slurry sampling chemical vapor generation (CVG) using isotopic dilution (ID) calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is proposed. Two different systems were used for the investigation: an on-line flow injection system (FI-CVG-ICP-MS) and an off-line system with in situ trapping electrothermal vaporization (CVG-ETV-ICP-MS). About 100 mg of the reference material, ground to a particle size ≤50 μm, was mixed with acid solutions (aqua regia, HF and HCl) in an ultrasonic bath. The enriched isotopes 111 Cd, 198 Hg, 206 Pb and 77 Se were then added to the slurry in an adequate amount in order to produce an altered isotopic ratio close to 1. For the on-line system, a standing time for the slurry of 12 h before measurement was required, while for the batch system, no standing time is needed to obtain accurate results. The conditions for the formation of the analyte vapor were optimized for the evaluated systems. The following altered isotope ratios were measured: 111 Cd/ 114 Cd, 198 Hg/ 199 Hg, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb e 77 Se/ 82 Se. The obtained detection limits in the on-line system, in μg g -1 , were: Cd: 0.15; Hg: 0.09; Pb: 6.0 and Se: 0.03. Similar detection limits were obtained with the system that uses the ETV: 0.21 for Hg, 6.0 for Pb and 0.06 μg g -1 for Se. No signal for Cd was obtained in this system. One estuarine, two marine and two river certified sediments were analyzed to check the accuracy. The obtained values by both systems were generally in agreement with the certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a confidence level of 95%, demonstrating that isotope equilibration was attained in the slurries submitted to a chemical vapor generation procedure and detection by ICP-MS. The relative standard deviations were lower than 10%, adequate for slurry analysis. The almost quantitative analytes extractions to the aqueous phase

  11. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  12. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) as a process monitoring solution for a production line of roll compaction and tableting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the application of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) supported by chemometric modeling as non-destructive tool for monitoring and assessing the roller compaction and tableting processes was investigated. Based on preliminary risk-assessment, discussion with experts...... compound for both roller compacted ribbons and corresponding tablets. In order to select the optimal process, setting the standard deviation of tablet tensile strength and tablet weight for each tablet batch was considered. Strong linear correlation between tablet tensile strength and amount of fines...... and granule size was established, respectively. These approaches are considered to have a potentially large impact on quality monitoring and control of continuously operating manufacturing lines, such as roller compaction and tableting processes....

  13. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  14. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  15. A study of some neutron-rich isotopes of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium by means of fast chemical on-line separation technique SISAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    1977-01-01

    The fast on-line chemical separation technique SISAK has been utilized to study the decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes of La, Ce and Pr. The results include partial decay schemes and γ-ray intensity data for 14 min 143 La, 42 s 144 La, 25 s 145 La, 9 s 146 La, 3 min 145 Ce, 14 min 146 Ce, 56 s 147 Ce, 50 s 148 Ce, 12 min 147 Pr, 2 min 148 Pr, 3 min 149 Pr and 6 s 150 Pr. Half-lives and γ-ray energies are reported for the previously unknown nuclides 147 La (Tsub(1/2) = 2.2 s), 148 La (Tsub(1/2) approximately 1 s), 149 Ce (Tsub(1/2) = 5.7 s) and 150 Ce (Tsub(1/2) = 4.1 s). The nuclides were formed in thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U. The fission products were transferred to the SISAK system via a gas jet recoil transportation (GJRT) system. The combination of the GJRT system with SISAK is discussed, as well as the chemical separation systems used for the isolation of La, Ce and Pr. The appendices I - IX contain previously published material which is included in the thesis. (Auth.)

  16. Importance of chemical binding type between As and iron-oxide on bioaccessibility in soil: Test with synthesized two line ferrihydrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seulki [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 6-7, Inchon-ro 22-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02855 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung [Division of Public Infrastructure Assessment, Environmental Assessment Group, Korea Environmental Institute, Sejong 30147 (Korea, Republic of); Jho, Eun Hea [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 81 Oedae-ro, Mohyeonmyeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17035 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyoungphile, E-mail: kpnam@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic (As)-adsorbed and As-coprecipiated two-line ferrihydrites were synthesized. • Bioaccessibility was closely related to chemical binding type of As in Fe oxide. • Chemical binding type needs to be considered to characterize the risk of As in soil. - Abstract: Bioaccessible concentrations of As associated with Fe oxide as different chemical binding types were determined in soils using the in vitro Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET). When compared to the five-step sequential extraction data, most of the As extracted by in vitro PBET originated from the amorphous Fe oxide-bound fraction, and more importantly, the bioaccessibility of As ranged from 0 to 58.8% in 24 soil samples. Two batches of ferrihydrite were synthesized separately. For one batch, As was adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite after synthesis; for the other one, As was added while synthesizing ferrihydrite to co-precipitate. The bioaccessible concentration of As determined by in vitro PBET of the former was 415 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite and that of the latter was 67 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) analysis indicated that As–O–Fe bonds were evident in As-associated ferrihydrite sample and especially, As was found within the Fe oxide lattice in the co-precipitated sample. Our data suggest that binding type between As and Fe oxide should be considered when determining the bioaccessibility of As in soil, which, in turn, greatly influences the realistic risk of As present in soil.

  17. Evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals using expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, on the naive THP-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Sakaguchi, H; Ito, Y; Okuda, M; Suzuki, H

    2003-04-01

    It has been known that dendritic cells (DCs) including Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the skin sensitization process. Many attempts have been made to develop in vitro sensitization tests that employ DCs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-DC) or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ HPC) purified from cord blood or bone marrow. However, the use of the DCs in in vitro methods has been difficult due to the nature of these cells such as low levels in the source and/or donor-to-donor variability. In our studies, we employed the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, in order to avoid some of these difficulties. At the start, we examined whether treatment of the cells with various cytokines could produce DCs from THP-1. Treatment of THP-1 cells with cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and/or PMA did induce some phenotypic changes in THP-1 cells that were characteristic of DCs. Subsequently, responses to a known sensitizer, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and a non-sensitizer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, were examined between the naive cells and the cytokine-treated cells. Interestingly, the naive THP-1 cells responded only to DNCB and the response to the sensitizer was more distinct than cytokine-treated THP-1 cells. Similar phenomena were also observed in the human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1. Furthermore, with treatment of DNCB, naive THP-1 cells showed augmented expression of HLA, CD80 and secretion of IL-1 beta. The response of THP-1 cells to a sensitizer was similar to that of LCs/DCs. Upon demonstrating the differentiation of monocyte cells in our system, we then evaluated a series of chemicals, including known sensitizers and non-sensitizers, for their potential to augment CD54 and CD86 expression on naive THP-1 cells. Indeed, known sensitizers such as PPD and 2-MBT significantly augmented CD54 and CD86 expression in a

  18. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jin Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han Weiying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Miao, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi Shuping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: bisp@nju.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH{sub 4} solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h{sup -1} with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l{sup -1} for Hg{sup 2+} and 2.0 ng l{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 {mu}g l{sup -1} of Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  19. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hong; Jin Yan; Han Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi Shuping

    2006-01-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h -1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l -1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l -1 for CH 3 Hg + . The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l -1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples

  20. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in protein structure makeup and conformation between the two lines. In terms of energy values, there were significant differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN; 149 vs 133 g/kg DM), metabolizable energy (ME; 58 vs 52 MJ/kg DM), and net energy for lactation (NEL; 42 vs 37 MJ/kg DM) between CS-Y and CS-B lines. For in situ rumen degradation kinetics, the two lines differed in soluble fraction (S; 284 vs 341 g/kg CP), potential degradation fraction (D; 672 vs 590 g/kg CP), and effective degraded

  1. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Separation and characterization of chemical constituents in Ginkgo biloba extract by off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuai; He, Dan-Dan; Wang, Tian-Yun; Han, Jie; Li, Zheng; Du, Yan; Zou, Jia-Hui; Guo, Meng-Zhe; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2017-11-30

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide. Due to high structural diversity and low abundance of chemical constituents in GBE, conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography has limited power to meet the needs of its quality control. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC×RP 2D-LC) system coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was established to comprehensively analyze the chemical constituents of GBE. After optimizing the chromatographic columns and mobile phase of 2D-LC, a Waters XBridge Amide column using acetonitrile/water/formic acid as the mobile phase was selected as the first dimension to fractionate GBE, and the obtained fractions were further separated on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column with methanol/water/formic acid as the mobile phase. As a result, a total of 125 compounds were detected in GBE. The orthogonality of the 2D-LC system was 69.5%, and the practical peak capacity was 3864 and 2994, respectively, calculated by two different methods. The structures of 104 compounds were tentatively characterized by qTOF-MS analysis, and 21 of them were further confirmed by comparing with reference standards. This established HILIC×RP 2D-LC-qTOF/MS system can greatly improve the separation and characterization of natural products in GBE or other complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  4. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  5. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa, E-mail: vendramini.debora@gmail.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Alcaide, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, João Ernesto de [Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Motilva, Virginia [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10 μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. - Highlights: • Goniothalamin (GTN) inhibits the development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. • Moreover, GTN prevents the development of spontaneous colitis in IL-10 deficient mice. • This activity relies on downregulation of TNF-α and upregulation of SIRT-1 expression

  6. CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY IN THE HELIX NEBULA: MULTI-LINE OBSERVATIONS OF H{sub 2}CO, HCO{sup +}, AND CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M., E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210041, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Observations of CO, HCO{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO have been carried out at nine positions across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. Measurements of the J = 1 {yields} 0, 2 {yields} 1, and 3 {yields}2 transitions of CO, two transitions of HCO{sup +} (J = 1 {yields} 0 and 3 {yields}2), and five lines of H{sub 2}CO (J{sub Ka,Kc} = 1{sub 0,1} {yields} 0{sub 0,0}, 2{sub 1,2} {yields} 1{sub 1,1}, 2{sub 0,2} {yields} 1{sub 0,1}, 2{sub 1,1} {yields} 1{sub 1,0}, and 3{sub 0,3} {yields}2{sub 0,2}) were conducted in the 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm bands toward this highly evolved planetary nebula. HCO{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO were detected at all positions, along with three transitions of CO. From a radiative transfer analysis, the kinetic temperature was found to be T{sub K} {approx} 15-40 K across the Helix with a gas density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.1-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. The warmer gas appears to be closer to the central star, but high density material is distributed throughout the nebula. For CO, the column density was found to be N{sub tot} {approx} 0.25-4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, with a fractional abundance of f (CO/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. Column densities for HCO{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO were determined to be N{sub tot} {approx} 0.2-5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and 0.2-1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, respectively, with fractional abundances of f (HCO{sup +}/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and f (H{sub 2}CO/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-several orders of magnitude higher than predicted by chemical models. Polyatomic molecules in the Helix appear to be well-protected from photodissociation and may actually seed the diffuse interstellar medium.

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  8. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  9. Application of the Spectral Neighborhood of Soil Line Technique to Analyze the Intensity of Soil Use in 1985-2014 (by the Example of Three Districts of Tula Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The technique of separation of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) makes it possible to perform quantitative estimates of the intensity of agricultural land use. This is achieved via calculation of the frequency of occurrence of bare soil surface (BSS). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of BSS in 1984-1994 was linearly related to the soil type within the sequence of soddy strongly podzolic, soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic (Eutric Albic Glossic Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)); light gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)), gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Ochric)), and dark gray forest soils (Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric)); podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)). The intensity of exploitation of the least and most fertile soils in this sequence comprised 28 and 48%, respectively. In the next decade (1995-2004) the relationship between the type of soil and the intensity of its exploitation drastically changed; the intensity of exploitation of the leas and most fertile soils comprised 14 and 43%, respectively. Nearly a half of agricultural lands in the zones of soddy-podzolic and gray forest soils were abandoned, because the cultivation of the soils with the natural fertility below that in the podzolized chernozems became economically unfeasible under conditions of the economic crisis of the 1990s. The spatiotemporal relationships between the character of the soil cover and the intensity of exploitation of the agricultural lands manifest themselves by the decreasing frequency of occurrence of BSS from leached chernozems to soddy strongly podzolic soils and from 1985 to 2014.

  10. Heat stress-induced loss of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masanori; Kaino, Seiji; Kondoh, Satoshi; Okita, Kiwamu

    2002-02-01

    Alterations of intracellular proteins during the process of heat stress-induced cell death of a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell biology techniques. Incubation of MIA PaCa-2 at 45 degrees C for 30 min decreased the cell growth rate and cell viability without causing chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Incubation at 51 degrees C for 30 min suppressed cell growth and again led to death without DNA fragmentation. The cell death was associated with the loss of an intracellular protein of M(r) 17,500 and pI 5.2 on 2-DE gel. This protein was determined to be eukaryotic initiation factor SA (eIF-5A) by microsequencing of the N-terminal region of peptide fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment of the protein blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The sequences detected were QXSALRKNGFVVLKGRP and STSKTGXHGHAKVHLVGID, which were homologous with the sequence of eIF-5A from Gln 20 to Pro 36 and from Ser 43 to Asp 61, respectively. Furthermore, the result of sequencing suggested that the protein was an active form of hypusinated eIF-5A, because Lys 46 could be detected but not Lys 49, which is the site for hypusination. These results suggest that loss of the active form of eIF-5A is an important factor in the irreversible process of heat stress-induced death of MIA PaCa-2 cells.

  11. Modeling and interpretation of line observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for the interpretation of line observations from protoplanetary disks are summarized. The spectrum ranges from 1D LTE slab models to 2D thermo-chemical radiative transfer models and their use depends largely on the type/nature of observational data that is analyzed. I discuss the various types of observational data and their interpretation in the context of disk physical and chemical properties. The most simple spatially and spectral unresolved data are line fluxes, which can be interpreted using so-called Boltzmann diagrams. The interpretation is often tricky due to optical depth and non-LTE effects and requires care. Line profiles contain kinematic information and thus indirectly the spatial origin of the emission. Using series of line profiles, we can for example deduce radial temperature gradients in disks (CO pure rotational ladder. Spectro-astrometry of e.g. CO ro-vibrational line profiles probes the disk structure in the 1–30 AU region, where planet formation through core accretion should be most efficient. Spatially and spectrally resolved line images from (submm interferometers are the richest datasets we have to date and they enable us to unravel exciting details of the radial and vertical disk structure such as winds and asymmetries.

  12. A custom on-line ultrasonic gas mixture analyzer with simultaneous flowmetry developed for use in the LHC-ATLAS experiment, with wide application in high and low flow gas delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho- Direito, J.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Da Riva, E.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Lombard, D.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Deterre, C.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Degeorge, C.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.

    2013-06-01

    parts of the tracker is aspirated through two instruments and analyzed. A long duration continuous study of more than a year has demonstrated a sensitivity to mixture variation of better than 5.10 -5 . The developed instrument has many applications where continuous knowledge of binary gas composition is required. Such applications include anaesthesia, the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, and vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture. (authors)

  13. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  14. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  15. The present-day chemical composition of the SMC from UVES spectra of the sharp-lined, B-type dwarf AV 304

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolleston, WRJ; Venn, K; Tolstoy, E; Dufton, PL

    High-resolution spectroscopic VLT/UVES observations are presented for the B-type main-sequence star, AV 304, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These spectra have been analysed using LTE model-atmosphere techniques, to derive stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. As AV 304 is

  16. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  17. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  18. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  19. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  20. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  1. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  2. Search for an in-line nitric acid analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, K.Y.; Johnson, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify possible techniques for measuring mineral acid normality in the presence of heavy metal salts, undissolved solids, and high radiation fields. Of the techniques noted, eight were identified that could be applicable to the objective. The possibilities were reduced to two methods, which warrant further investigation. These two are refractometry and a modified coulometric-polarographic method. All methods are discussed in detail followed by rationale for including or rejecting each for further investigation

  3. Chemical characterization of polymeric surge arresters and insulators used in high voltage lines; Caracterizacao quimica de para-raios e isoladores utilizados em linhas de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Joao B. de; Castro Junior, Joao B. de; Silva, Maria Elisa S.R. e; Freitas, Roberto F.S.; Sousa, Ricardo G. de [Lab. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Polimeros, Dept. de Engenharia Quimica da EE.UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Souza, Breno P.G. de [CEMIG Distribuicao S/A, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: bpgsouza@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In the last two decades, traditional porcelain and glass surge arresters and insulators, used in the electrical system, have been replaced by polymeric materials. For this type of application it is recommended that these devices have a high resistance to environmental stresses and impacts without suffering degradation process. Considering the environmental conditions these polymers are exposed to, when used for this purpose, studies of their chemical composition are needed. In this work, polymeric materials present in surge arresters and insulators used in electrical system were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR analysis showed that the samples tested are made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) - PDMS (silicone) and additives such as alumina trihydrated [Al (OH)3] and calcium carbonate. (author)

  4. Improving the first-line treatment of febrile illnesses in Ghana: willingness to pay for malaria rapid diagnostic tests at licensed chemical shops in the Kintampo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Malam, Keziah; Kwarteng, Anthony; Bart-Plange, Constance; Febir, Lawrence; Aubyn, Vivian; Obermann, Konrad; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku Poku

    2018-01-01

    Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South District of Ghana. Contingent valuation method using the dichotomous approach was applied to explore patient's willingness to pay. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were used to obtain information from licensed chemical operators' willingness to sell. Majority 161 (97%) of the customers were willing to pay for mRDT while 100% of licensed chemical operators were also willing to sell mRDT. The average lowest amount respondents were willing to pay was Ghana cedis (GH¢) 1.1 (US$ 0.26) and an average highest amount of GH¢ 2.1 (US$ 0.49). LCS operators were willing to sell the test kit at an average lowest price of GH¢1 (US$ 0.23) and average highest price of GH¢2 (US$ 0.47). Community members were willing to pay for mRDT and LCS operators are willing to sell mRDTs. However, the high cost of the mRDT is likely to prevent the widespread use of mRDT. There is a clear need to find system-compatible ways to subsidize the use of mRDT via National Health Insurance scheme.

  5. Chemical profiling of anti-hepatocellular carcinoma constituents from Caragana tangutica Maxim. by off-line semi-preparative HPLC-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinzhou; Huang, Mi; Cai, Jinyan; Lv, Dan; Lv, Jingnan; Zheng, Sijian; Ma, Xinhua; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    An EtOAc fraction from the roots of Caragana tangutica Maxim. (CTEA) displayed promising anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) activity during screening of a traditional Chinese ethnic herb library against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. HPLC-based activity profiling of CTEA by combination of MS-guided large-scale semi-preparative HPLC and NMR methods led to the identification of a new pterocarpan glycoside, (-)-maackiain 3-O-6'-O-methyl malonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), together with three known pterocarpan glycosides, (-)-maackiain 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-6'-O-acrylyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (3), and (-)-maackiain 3-O-6'-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4). Compound 1 was isolated during a drug discovery programme aimed at identifying new anti-HCC leads from a natural product library. Anti-HCC study showed that all four compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC 50 values range of 29.1-53.5 μg/mL against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines.

  6. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

    2009-07-03

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient.

  7. Influence of sol-gel parameters on the properties of chemical optodes. Application to on-line analysis of high acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon, C.

    2000-01-01

    An optical chemical sensor (optode) has been optimized to control high acidity levels (ranging from 1 to 10 N) of solutions from nuclear fuel reprocessing. The sol-gel process has been used successfully to prepare a porous silica layer doped with an indicator called Chromoxane Cyanine R (CCR). The sensor response represents changes in the absorption properties of the dye according to the acidity. In a first step, the leaching of the dye has been studied according to the sol-gel parameters. An experimental Hadamard matrix has been used to find the most influent parameters. The influent parameters resulting from the first step have been studied using a parametrical optimization based on a Doelhert experimental design. This optimization highlights a quantitative correlation between sensor response and the chemical parameters. Results indicate that the most suitable microporous xerogel films are those prepared using tetramethoxysilane at a pH set below the isoelectric point (lEP) of silica. The two other influent parameters are: water / alkoxide ratio (R) and aging temperature (T a ). The optimized values are R = 4 and T a = 55 C. The lifetime of the sensor tested in a permanent circulation has been increased from several days to over 6 months in a 8 N nitric acid solution. Furthermore, this sensor can be used with hydrochloric and perchloric acids. (author) [fr

  8. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  9. seawaveQ: an R package providing a model and utilities for analyzing trends in chemical concentrations in streams with a seasonal wave (seawave) and adjustment for streamflow (Q) and other ancillary variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2013-01-01

    The seawaveQ R package fits a parametric regression model (seawaveQ) to pesticide concentration data from streamwater samples to assess variability and trends. The model incorporates the strong seasonality and high degree of censoring common in pesticide data and users can incorporate numerous ancillary variables, such as streamflow anomalies. The model is fitted to pesticide data using maximum likelihood methods for censored data and is robust in terms of pesticide, stream location, and degree of censoring of the concentration data. This R package standardizes this methodology for trend analysis, documents the code, and provides help and tutorial information, as well as providing additional utility functions for plotting pesticide and other chemical concentration data.

  10. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  11. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  12. Chemical Constituents of Propolis from Vietnamese Trigona minor and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai X; Nguyen, Mai T T; Nguyen, Nhan T; Awale, Suresh

    2017-08-25

    The ethanol extract of propolis from the Vietnamese stingless bee Trigona minor possessed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium, with a PC 50 value of 14.0 μg/mL. Chemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of 15 cycloartane-type triterpenoids, including five new compounds (1-5), and a lanostane-type triterpenoid. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, 23-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid B (5) and 27-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid (13) exhibited the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived conditions, with PC 50 values of 4.3 and 3.7 μM, respectively.

  13. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  14. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  15. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  16. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  17. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  18. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  19. Chemical analysis of industrial scale deposits by combined use of correlation coefficients with emission line detection of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozos, P.; Philippidis, A.; Hadjistefanou, M.; Gounarakis, C.; Anglos, D.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the mineral composition of various industrial scale samples. The aim of the study has been to investigate the capacity of LIBS to provide a fast, reliable analytical tool for carrying out routine analysis of inorganic scales, potentially on site, as a means to facilitate decision making concerning scale removal procedures. LIBS spectra collected in the range of 200–660 nm conveyed information about the metal content of the minerals. Via a straightforward analysis based on linear correlation of LIBS spectra it was possible to successfully discriminate scale samples into three main groups, Fe-rich, Ca-rich and Ba-rich, on the basis of correlation coefficients. By combining correlation coefficients with spectral data collected in the NIR, 860–960 nm, where sulfur emissions are detected, it became further possible to discriminate sulfates from carbonates as confirmed by independent analysis based on Raman spectroscopy. It is emphasized that the proposed LIBS-based method successfully identifies the major mineral or minerals present in the samples classifying the scales into relevant groups hence enabling process engineers to select appropriate scale dissolution strategies. - Highlights: • LIBS was used to determine the mineral composition of industrial scale samples. • Three groups of inorganic scales were identified: Ca rich, Ba rich and Fe rich. • A method that combines correlation coefficients and line detection is proposed. • The method successfully identifies the main mineral, or minerals, in the samples. • The results were compared with results obtained by use of Raman analysis

  20. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  1. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  2. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  3. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  4. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  5. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  6. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  7. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on the results on the international standardization R and D. Development of chemical methods to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen shori koban mekkiso no kagaku bunseki hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. Chemical composition and coating thickness (g/m{sup 2}) of 14 kinds of specimens including alloy coatings and organic coating with zinc and aluminum as base were analyzed by the above-mentioned methods to examine the relation between the both. As the chemical analysis method, used was inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. To study the relation between the methods, it was found to be necessary to recognize morphology at the boundary between the coating and base steel using, for example, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electro-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). To measure traceability of the analysis method, with the chemical analysis method as a judgement method, it is necessary to make reference materials by coating materials, to use the calibration graph confirmed by the materials and to adopt the glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. On the basis of such way of thinking, drafts were worked out for the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. 7 refs., 117 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  10. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  11. Analyzing Pseudophosphatase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Shantá D

    2016-01-01

    Pseudophosphatases regulate signal transduction cascades, but their mechanisms of action remain enigmatic. Reflecting this mystery, the prototypical pseudophosphatase STYX (phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine-binding protein) was named with allusion to the river of the dead in Greek mythology to emphasize that these molecules are "dead" phosphatases. Although proteins with STYX domains do not catalyze dephosphorylation, this in no way precludes their having other functions as integral elements of signaling networks. Thus, understanding their roles in signaling pathways may mark them as potential novel drug targets. This chapter outlines common strategies used to characterize the functions of pseudophosphatases, using as an example MK-STYX [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine binding], which has been linked to tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and neuronal differentiation. We start with the importance of "restoring" (when possible) phosphatase activity in a pseudophosphatase so that the active mutant may be used as a comparison control throughout immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses. To this end, we provide protocols for site-directed mutagenesis, mammalian cell transfection, co-immunoprecipitation, phosphatase activity assays, and immunoblotting that we have used to investigate MK-STYX and the active mutant MK-STYXactive. We also highlight the importance of utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) "knockdown" technology to determine a cellular phenotype in various cell lines. Therefore, we outline our protocols for introducing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids into mammalians cells and quantifying knockdown of gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A combination of cellular, molecular, biochemical, and proteomic techniques has served as powerful tools in identifying novel functions of the pseudophosphatase MK-STYX. Likewise, the information provided here should be a helpful guide to elucidating the

  12. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  13. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  14. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  15. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  16. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  17. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  18. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  19. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojon, C.

    1996-12-01

    The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work. The p.dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde has been chosen as reagent for its chemical and optical properties

  20. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a...

  1. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  2. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  3. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  4. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor. (b...

  5. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  6. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  7. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  8. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  9. Foreign Language Translation of Chemical Nomenclature by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Chemical compound names remain the primary method for conveying molecular structures between chemists and researchers. In research articles, patents, chemical catalogues, government legislation, and textbooks, the use of IUPAC and traditional compound names is universal, despite efforts to introduce more machine-friendly representations such as identifiers and line notations. Fortunately, advances in computing power now allow chemical names to be parsed and generated (read and written) with almost the same ease as conventional connection tables. A significant complication, however, is that although the vast majority of chemistry uses English nomenclature, a significant fraction is in other languages. This complicates the task of filing and analyzing chemical patents, purchasing from compound vendors, and text mining research articles or Web pages. We describe some issues with manipulating chemical names in various languages, including British, American, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Polish, and Hungarian, and describe the current state-of-the-art in software tools to simplify the process. PMID:19239237

  10. NUMATH: a nuclear material holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    NUMATH provides inventory estimation by utilizing previous inventory measurements, operating data, and, where available, on-line process measurements. For the present time, NUMATH's purpose is to provide a reasonable, near-real-time estimate of material inventory until accurate inventory determination can be obtained from chemical analysis. Ultimately, it is intended that NUMATH will further utilize on-line analyzers and more advanced calculational techniques to provide more accurate inventory determinations and estimates

  11. Deviation from additivity in mixture toxicity: relevance of nonlinear dose-response relationships and cell line differences in genotoxicity assays with combinations of chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Werner K; Vamvakas, Spyros; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Schlatter, Josef; Stopper, Helga

    2002-12-01

    Sublinear dose-response relationships are often seen in toxicity testing, particularly with bioassays for carcinogenicity. This is the result of a superimposition of various effects that modulate and contribute to the process of cancer formation. Examples are saturation of detoxification pathways or DNA repair with increasing dose, or regenerative hyperplasia and indirect DNA damage as a consequence of high-dose cytotoxicity and cell death. The response to a combination treatment can appear to be supra-additive, although it is in fact dose-additive along a sublinear dose-response curve for the single agents. Because environmental exposure of humans is usually in a low-dose range and deviation from linearity is less likely at the low-dose end, combination effects should be tested at the lowest observable effect levels (LOEL) of the components. This principle has been applied to combinations of genotoxic agents in various cellular models. For statistical analysis, all experiments were analyzed for deviation from additivity with an n-factor analysis of variance with an interaction term, n being the number of components tested in combination. Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,c]anthracene were tested at the LOEL, separately and in combination, for the induction of revertants in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and rat liver S9 fraction. Combined treatment produced no deviation from additivity. The induction of micronuclei in vitro was investigated with ionizing radiation from a 137Cs source and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells revealed a significant 40% supra-additive combination effect in an experiment based on three independent replicates for controls and single and combination treatments. On the other hand, two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (TK6 and WTK1) as well as a pilot study with human primary fibroblasts from fetal lung did not show deviation from additivity. Data derived from one cell line should therefore

  12. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  13. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  14. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  15. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  16. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  17. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  18. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  19. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, A.M.; Laasonen, A.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Pyrhoenen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D MID ) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  20. Analyzing Subsidies in Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Applying the budget line/indifference curve apparatus to policy issues reveals important and sometimes counterintuitive policy implications. Also, it provides practice in using the apparatus. The author applies these tools to subsidies. The analysis follows textbook treatments but is extended at some points. In particular, the present analysis…

  1. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  2. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  3. Miniature multichannel analyzer for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Wiig, L.G.; Ianakiev, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    A new, 4,000-channel analyzer has been developed for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. A design philosophy of hardware and software building blocks has been combined with design goals of simplicity, compactness, portability, and reliability. The result is a miniature, modular multichannel analyzer (MMMCA), which offers solution to a variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) needs in many areas of general application, independent of computer platform or operating system. Detector-signal analog electronics, the bias supply, and batteries are included in the virtually pocket-size, low-power MMMCA unit. The MMMCA features digital setup and control, automated data reduction, and automated quality assurance. Areas of current NDA applications include on-line continuous (process) monitoring, process material holdup measurements, and field inspections

  4. A new approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility,

  5. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  6. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  7. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  8. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  9. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  10. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  11. Global Controllability of Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Dániel András; Tóth, János

    2015-01-01

    Controllability of chemical reactions is an important problem in chemical engineering science. In control theory, analysis of the controllability of linear systems is well-founded, however the dynamics of chemical reactions is usually nonlinear. Global controllability properties of chemical reactions are analyzed here based on the Lie-algebra of the vector fields associated to elementary reactions. A chemical reaction is controllable almost everywhere if all the reaction rate coefficients can...

  12. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor; Preparation par procede sol-gel et evaluation des performances analytiques d`un capteur chimique specifique de l`hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gojon, C

    1996-12-01

    The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work. The p.dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde has been chosen as reagent for its chemical and optical properties. 186 refs.

  13. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  14. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  15. Device for analyzing a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Joseph.

    1978-01-01

    The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr

  16. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  17. service line analytics in the new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  18. Chemical analysis report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbouzidi, Saliha; Elyahyaoui, Adil; Ghassan, Acil; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report highlights the results of chemical analyzes related to Major elements, traces and heavy metals carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 120 samples. The report presents the analytical techniques used (parameters and methods), a legend and the results tables.

  19. Chemical analysis report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights the results of chemical analyzes of fluorides, bromides, lithium and boron carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 120 samples. The report presents the analytical techniques used (parameters and methods), a legend and the results tables.

  20. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  1. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  2. From Chemical Analysis to Analyzing Chemical Education: An Interview with Joseph J. Lagowski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2010-01-01

    This interview provides glimpses of Joseph J. Lagowski and his life from the time he played with a Gilbert chemistry set, to his tenure at The University of Texas at Austin. His initial interest in chemistry was further nurtured and developed thanks to an excellent high school teacher. In the interview, Lagowski discusses his research in…

  3. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga

    Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe

  4. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  5. Chemical environment effects on the Kβ emission spectra in P compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceppi, S.; Tirao, G.; Stutz, G.; Riveros, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Several clusters of PO 4 3- and P 2 O 7 4- were studied in different chemical environment by measuring the Kβ 1,3 , Kβ x and Kβ' lines from P-Kβ emission spectrum. The Kβ spectrum structures were analyzed from its relation with its chemical environment. In this paper, the cation influence and the cation substitution with H on satellite Kβ' line parameters were also studied. It was found that this line allows the light ligand atom to be identified and also the number of H bonds with the PO 4 3- cluster be characterized. Besides cation influence on the P-Kβ spectrum, it can be shown that this influence is smaller than the ligand atom and cation-H substitution. Theoretical spectra were obtained by using the DV-Xα method in order to compare it with the experimental data and to interpret the Kβ line structure in terms of molecular orbital theory

  6. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  7. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  8. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  9. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  10. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  11. Chemical Inhibition of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Eric; Lin Kim, Che; Gyeom Kim, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical...... autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine...... and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125...

  12. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  13. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  14. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  15. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Installation manual. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.; Grush, W.H.; Jones, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the installation instructions for the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) System. The NPA System consists of the Computer Visual System (CVS) program, the NPA libraries, the associated utility programs. The NPA was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of these analysis codes. The NPA also provides the user with a convenient means of interactively controlling the host program through user-defined pop-up menus. The NPA was designed to serve primarily as an analysis tool. After a brief introduction to the Computer Visual System and the NPA, an analyst can quickly create a simple picture or set of pictures to aide in the study of a particular phenomenon. These pictures can range from simple collections of square boxes and straight lines to complex representations of emergency response information displays

  16. Analyzing the Facebook Friendship Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) during last years acquired a huge and increasing popularity as one of the most important emerging Web phenomena, deeply modifying the behavior of users and contributing to build a solid substrate of connections and relationships among people using the Web. In this preliminary work paper, our purpose is to analyze Facebook, considering a significant sample of data reflecting relationships among subscribed users. Our goal is to extract, from this platform, relevant ...

  17. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  18. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  19. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  20. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  1. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  2. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  3. Anisotropy of the fluorine chemical shift tensor in UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, P.

    1965-04-01

    An 19 F magnetic resonance study of polycrystalline UF 6 is presented. The low temperature complex line can be analyzed as the superposition of two distinct lines, which is attributed to a distortion of the UF 6 octahedron in the solid. The shape of the two components is studied. Their width is much larger than the theoretical dipolar width, and must be explained by large anisotropies of the fluorine chemical shift tensors. The resulting shape functions of the powder spectra are determined. The values of the parameters of the chemical shift tensors yield estimates of the characters of the U-F bonds, and this gives some information on the ground state electronic wave function of the UF 6 molecule in the solid. (author) [fr

  4. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  5. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  6. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  7. Automatic analyzing device for chlorine ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Shinji; Morikawa, Yoshitake; Fukase, Kazuo; Kashima, Hiromasa.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device of automatically analyzing a trance amount of chlorine ions contained in feedwater, condensate and reactor water of a BWR type power plant. Namely, zero-adjustment or span calibration in this device is conducted as follows. (1) A standard chlorine ion liquid is supplied from a tank to a mixer by a constant volume pump, and the liquid is diluted and mixed with purified water to form a standard liquid. (2) The pH of the standard liquid is adjusted by a pH adjuster. (3) The standard liquid is supplied to an electrode cell to conduct zero adjustment or span calibration. Chlorine ions in a specimen are measured by the device of the present invention as follows. (1) The specimen is supplied to a head tank through a line filter. (2) The pH of the specimen is adjusted by a pH adjuster. (3) The specimen is supplied to an electrode cell to electrically measure the concentration of the chlorine ions in the specimen. The device of the present invention can automatically analyze trance amount of chlorine ions at a high accuracy, thereby capable of improving the sensitivity, reducing an operator's burden and radiation exposure. (I.S.)

  8. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  9. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, A.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laasonen, A. [Dept. of Pathology, Central Hospital of Etelae-Pohjanmaa, Seinaejoki (Finland); Linnainmaa, K. [Dept. of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D{sub MID}) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean {alpha} value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.).

  10. Magnetization of topological line-node semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using an approximate expression for the Landau levels of the electrons located near a nodal line of a topological line-node semimetal, we obtain formulas for the magnetization of this semimetal at an arbitrary shape of its line. It is also shown that the dependence of the chemical potential on the magnetic field can be strong in these materials, and this dependence can essentially influence the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The obtained results are applied to the rhombohedral graphite, which is one of the line-node semimetals. For this material, we find temperature and magnetic field dependencies of its magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  12. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  13. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  14. A computerised EEG-analyzing system for small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropveld, D.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Popken, R. J.; Smith, J.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental setup, including instrumentation and software packaging, is described for the use of a minicomputer as an on-line analyzing system of the EEG in rats. Complete fast Fourier transformation of the EEG sampled in 15 episodes of 10 s each is plotted out within 7 min after the start of

  15. Control of a pulse height analyzer using an RDX workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelongo, S.; Hunt, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National laboratory is in the midst of upgrading its radiation counting facilities to automate data acquisition and quality control. This upgrade requires control of a pulse height analyzer (PHA) from an interactive LSI-11/23 workstation running RSX-11M. The PHA is a micro-computer based multichannel analyzer system providing data acquisition, storage, display, manipulation and input/output from up to four independent acquisition interfaces. Control of the analyzer includes reading and writing energy spectra, issuing commands, and servicing device interrupts. The analyzer communicates to the host system over a 9600-baud serial line using the Digital Data Communications link level Protocol (DDCMP). We relieved the RSX workstation CPU from the DDCMP overhead by implementing a DEC compatible in-house designed DMA serial line board (the ISL-11) to communicate with the analyzer. An RSX I/O device driver was written to complete the path between the analyzer and the RSX system by providing the link between the communication board and an application task. The I/O driver is written to handle several ISL-11 cards all operating in parallel thus providing support for control of multiple analyzers from a single workstation. The RSX device driver, its design and use by application code controlling the analyzer, and its operating environment will be discussed

  16. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  17. Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Gupta, Satish C.; Jyoti, G.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample submicrometer-diameter ring particles and impact ejecta from Saturn's satellites. The CDA measures a mass spectrum of each particle that impacts the chemical analyzer sector of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target plate at velocities of 1-100 km/s and produce some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of positive valence, single-charged ions. These are analyzed via a TOF MS. Initial tests employed a pulsed N2 laser acting on samples of kamacite, pyrrhotite, serpentine, olivine, and Murchison meteorite induced bursts of ions which were detected with a microchannel plate and a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). Pulses from the N2 laser (1011 W/cm2) are assumed to simulate particle impact. Using aluminum alloy as a test sample, each pulse produces a charge of ~4.6 pC (mostly Al+1), whereas irradiation of a stainless steel target produces a ~2.8 pC (Fe+1) charge. Thus the present system yields ~10-5% of the laser energy in resulting ions. A CSA signal indicates that at the position of the microchannel plate, the ion detector geometry is such that some 5% of the laser-induced ions are collected in the CDA geometry. Employing a multichannel plate detector in this MS yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy and kamacite targets well-defined peaks at 24 (Mg+1), 27(Al+1), and 64 (Cu+1) and 56 (Fe+1), 58 (Ni+1), and 60 (Ni+1) dalton, respectively.

  18. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  19. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  20. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  1. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  2. Analysis and discussion on the experimental data of electrolyte analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinYu; Jiang, JunJie; Liu, MengJun; Li, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    In the subsequent verification of electrolyte analyzer, we found that the instrument can achieve good repeatability and stability in repeated measurements with a short period of time, in line with the requirements of verification regulation of linear error and cross contamination rate, but the phenomenon of large indication error is very common, the measurement results of different manufacturers have great difference, in order to find and solve this problem, help enterprises to improve quality of product, to obtain accurate and reliable measurement data, we conducted the experimental evaluation of electrolyte analyzer, and the data were analyzed by statistical analysis.

  3. The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) A new rapid separation and alpha-detection system for on-line chemical studies of highly volatile osmium and hassium (Z=108) tetroxides

    CERN Document Server

    Kirbach, U W; Gregorich, K E; Lee, D M; Ninov, V; Omtvedt, J P; Patin, J B; Seward, N K; Strellis, D A; Sudowe, R; Türler, A; Wilk, P A; Zielinski, P M; Hoffman, D C; Nitsche, H

    2002-01-01

    The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) was designed and constructed for rapid, continuous on-line separation and simultaneous detection of highly volatile compounds of short-lived alpha-decaying isotopes of osmium and hassium (Hs, Z=108). A flowing carrier gas containing the volatile species is passed through a channel formed by two facing rows of 32 alpha-particle detectors, cooled to form a temperature gradient extending from 247 K at the channel entrance down to 176 K at the exit. The volatile species adsorb onto the SiO sub 2 -coated detector surfaces at a characteristic deposition temperature and are identified by their observed alpha-decay energies. The CTS was tested on-line with OsO sub 4 prepared from sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 3 Os isotopes produced in sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 sup , sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Sn( sup 5 sup 6 Fe, 3,4,5n) reactions. An adsorption enthalpy for OsO sub 4 of -40.2+-1.5 kJ/mol on SiO sub 2 was deduced by comparing the measured deposition distribution with Monte Carlo...

  4. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  5. Cluster Analysis of Maize Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of diversity among inbred lines is important for heterosis breeding. Sixty maize inbred lines were evaluated for their eight agro morphological traits during winter season of 2011 to analyze their genetic diversity. Clustering was done by average linkage method. The inbred lines were grouped into six clusters. Inbred lines grouped into Clusters II had taller plants with maximum number of leaves. The cluster III was characterized with shorter plants with minimum number of leaves. The inbred lines categorized into cluster V had early flowering whereas the group into cluster VI had late flowering time. The inbred lines grouped into the cluster III were characterized by higher value of anthesis silking interval (ASI and those of cluster VI had lower value of ASI. These results showed that the inbred lines having widely divergent clusters can be utilized in hybrid breeding programme.

  6. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  7. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  8. Analyzing the Pension System of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Pudovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title "ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR" deals with numerous aspects of development of the pension system of the former USSR. Since the improvement of the Russian pension system is presently high on the agenda, the author believes that analyzing the own historical experience in the first line is essential in order to create a sound and efficient pension system in Russia. The study presented in the article aims to execute an in-depth analysis of legislature on the soviet pension system with the view to recreate the architecture of the pension system of the USSR. In addition, the study also reflects on the official statistics for the said period to make a qualified and fundamental conclusion on the efficiency of the soviet pension system. The evolution of the pension system, based on statistical data evidently proves the efficiently of the soviet pension system. It is highly recommended that the positive aspects of the soviet pension system are taken into consideration when reforming the actual pension system of Russian Federation.

  9. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  10. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  11. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  12. In vitro screening of environmental chemicals for targeted testing prioritization: the ToxCast project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Richard S; Houck, Keith A; Kavlock, Robert J; Knudsen, Thomas B; Martin, Matthew T; Mortensen, Holly M; Reif, David M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M; Dix, David J

    2010-04-01

    Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the types of molecular and pathway perturbations caused by environmental chemicals and to build initial prioritization models of in vivo toxicity. We tested 309 mostly pesticide active chemicals in 467 assays across nine technologies, including high-throughput cell-free assays and cell-based assays, in multiple human primary cells and cell lines plus rat primary hepatocytes. Both individual and composite scores for effects on genes and pathways were analyzed. Chemicals displayed a broad spectrum of activity at the molecular and pathway levels. We saw many expected interactions, including endocrine and xenobiotic metabolism enzyme activity. Chemicals ranged in promiscuity across pathways, from no activity to affecting dozens of pathways. We found a statistically significant inverse association between the number of pathways perturbed by a chemical at low in vitro concentrations and the lowest in vivo dose at which a chemical causes toxicity. We also found associations between a small set of in vitro assays and rodent liver lesion formation. This approach promises to provide meaningful data on the thousands of untested environmental chemicals and to guide targeted testing of environmental contaminants.

  13. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  14. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  15. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  16. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Patin, Joshua B.

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a 252 Cf fission fragment collection device. A 252 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A new fission fragment device would allow the study of the chemical properties of the homologues of the heaviest elements. This new device would be capable of producing fission fragments for fast gas chemistry and aqueous chemistry experiments, long-lived tracers for model system development and neutrons for neutron activation. Fission fragment activities produced in this way should have the same chemical form as those produced in Cyclotron irradiations. The simple operation of this source will allow more rapid and reliable development of radiochemical separations with homologues of transactinide elements

  17. Development of Chemical Technology in Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    This project mainly concentrates on the development of technologies related to elemental analysis for the mass balance of pyro-chemical process, on the development of in-line measurement system for high temperature molten salt, and on the development of radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD system to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel. Chemical analysis methods for the quantitative determination of fissile elements, minor actinide elements, fission products, chemical additive and corrosion products in Uranium Metal Ingots are established. It will be applied to the evaluation of mass balance in electrolytic reduction process for the optimization of the process. Optical fiber based UV-VIS spectrophotometer combined with reaction cell was developed for the measurement of reactions in high temperature molten salt. This system is applicable to in-line monitoring of electro-refining process and contribute to clarify the chemical reactions. Radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems are planned to be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution and structural changes from core to rim of spent nuclear fuel pellet, respectively. The developed techniques can contribute to produce database needed for authorization and practical use of ultra high burn-up fuel. In addition, it can be applicable to the other industries such as microelectronics, nano material science and semiconductor to analyze micro region

  18. Fourteen months of on-line measurements of the non-refractory submicron aerosol at the Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) - chemical composition, origins and organic aerosol sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, R.; Cubison, M. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Croteau, P. L.; Gysel, M.; Henne, S.; Herrmann, E.; Jayne, J. T.; Steinbacher, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Chemically resolved (organic, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium) data of non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) aerosol from the first long-term deployment (27 July 2012 to 02 October 2013) of a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) at the Swiss high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (JFJ; 3580 m a.s.l.) are presented. Besides total mass loadings, diurnal variations and relative species contributions during the different meteorological seasons, geographical origin and sources of organic aerosol (OA) are discussed. Backward transport simulations show that the highest (especially sulfate) concentrations of NR-PM1 were measured in air masses advected to the station from regions south of the JFJ, while lowest concentrations were seen from western regions. OA source apportionment for each season was performed using the Source Finder (SoFi) interface for the multilinear engine (ME-2). OA was dominated in all seasons by oxygenated OA (OOA, 71-88 %), with lesser contributions from local tourism-related activities (7-12 %) and hydrocarbon-like OA related to regional vertical transport (3-9 %). In summer the OOA can be separated into a background low-volatility OA (LV-OOA I, possibly associated with long-range transport) and a slightly less oxidised low-volatility OA (LV-OOA II) associated with regional vertical transport. Wood burning-related OA associated with regional transport was detected during the whole winter 2012/2013 and during rare events in summer 2013, in the latter case attributed to small-scale transport for the surrounding valleys. Additionally, the data were divided into periods with free tropospheric (FT) conditions and periods with planetary boundary layer (PBL) influence, enabling the assessment of the composition for each. Most nitrate and part of the OA are injected from the regional PBL, while sulfate is mainly produced in the FT. The south/north gradient of sulfate is also pronounced in FT air masses (sulfate mass fraction from the south: 45

  19. Schinus terebinthifolius scale-up countercurrent chromatography (Part I): High performance countercurrent chromatography fractionation of triterpene acids with off-line detection using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana Neves; Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2015-04-10

    'Countercurrent chromatography' (CCC) is an ideal technique for the recovery, purification and isolation of bioactive natural products, due to the liquid nature of the stationary phase, process predictability and the possibility of scale-up from analytical to preparative scale. In this work, a method developed for the fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries dichloromethane extract was thoroughly optimized to achieve maximal throughput with minimal solvent and time consumption per gram of processed crude extract, using analytical, semi-preparative and preparative 'high performance countercurrent chromatography' (HPCCC) instruments. The method using the biphasic solvent system composed of n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was volumetrically scaled up to increase sample throughput up to 120 times, while maintaining separation efficiency and time. As a fast and specific detection alternative, the fractions collected from the CCC-separations were injected to an 'atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometer' (APCI-MS/MS) and reconstituted molecular weight MS-chromatograms of the APCI-ionizable compounds from S. terebinthifolius were obtained. This procedure led to the direct isolation of tirucallane type triterpenes such as masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids. Also oleanonic and moronic acids have been identified for the first time in the species. In summary, this approach can be used for other CCC scale-up processes, enabling MS-target-guided isolation procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of boron on molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, W.; Nakaanishi, N.; Kato, E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental rate data of chemical vapor deposition of boron by reduction of boron trichloride with hydrogen are analyzed to determine the reaction mechanism. The reaction orders with respect to the partial pressures of hydrogen and boron trichloride are one half and one third, respectively. It has been found that the outer layer of a deposited film is Mo/sub 2/B/sub 5/ and the inner layer is MoB by the use of X-ray diffraction and EPMA line analysis

  1. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  2. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  3. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.

  4. Box-Behnken design for optimum extraction of biogenetic chemicals from P. lanceolata with an energy audit (thermal × microwave × acoustic): a case study of HPTLC determination with additional specificity using on-line/off-line coupling with DAD/NIR/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pooja; Ajayakumar, P V; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    The genus Pluchea comprises about 80 species distributed worldwide, out of them, only Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, is used extensively in the traditional system of India. No chromatographic method is available for its quality. To perform the energy audit for the extraction of biogenetic pentacyclic triterpene, its acetate and sterol from P. lanceolata utilising organic and four alternative solvents. Additionally to resolve the uncertainty of TLC determination, on-line/off-line coupling with a diode-array detector (DAD), and near-infrared (NIR) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS was introduced. The extraction of taraxasterol (Tx), taraxasterol acetate (TxAc) and stigmasterol (St) from P. lanceolata was performed using three energy modes. The effects of different operating parameters were studied for optimum extraction yield using the design of experiments, that is, the central composite design and Box-Behnken design. In addition to the retention factor (Rf ) and visible spectral matching, two additional optical spectroscopic techniques, that is, NIR and ESI-MS, were applied for extended specificity. The method was developed for Tx, TxAc and St determination using HPTLC at 645 nm. The optimum extraction yield of targeted compounds was found to be higher with organic solvents than eco-friendly surfactants. The pulse ultrasonic assisted extraction (PUAE) has resulted in optimum extraction of compounds comparable to hot extraction. Both NIR and ESI-MS provided extended specificity in determination. The 5/1-PUAE was determined to be effective, reproducible, simple and energy efficient for the determination of Tx, TxAc and St in P. lanceolata. The offline coupling of NIR and ESI-MS with HPTLC led to considerable improvement in specificity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H; Saerme, T; Kotiaho, T; Hiissa, T; Savolahti, P; Komppa, V [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  6. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H.; Saerme, T.; Kotiaho, T.; Hiissa, T.; Savolahti, P.; Komppa, V. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  7. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  8. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  9. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  10. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, P.; Kuchhal, N. K.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble prot...

  11. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  12. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  13. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  14. What's the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in analytical instrumentation have not only increased the number and types of chemicals measured, but reduced the quantitation limits, allowing these chemicals to be detected at progressively lower concentrations in various environmental matrices. Such analytical advanc...

  15. Uranium as a possible criterion for the hydro-chemical alteration of betafite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour Khanmiri, Mohammad; Yanson, Svetlana Yu.; Fomin, Edward V.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Grebeniuk, Andrey V.; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Bogdanov, Roman V.

    2018-01-01

    Hydro-chemical processes significantly alter the original composition of metamict minerals. In the work presented here, an attempt was made to reconstruct the chemical composition of betafite in the earlier stages of its geological history. The time scale is determined by the leaching rate of the isotope 238U, a process that takes its course in line with first-order kinetics, or something close to it. The leaching rate constant of this uranium isotope was assessed. Based on available data in the literature, the hydro-chemical behavior of various atoms in group A of betafite was analyzed. The chemical composition of the mineral was calculated taking into account the total charge of the cations that the betafite had at the time it was formed, or possibly the last time it was completely reformed as a result of diverse endogenic processes.

  16. Uranium as a possible criterion for the hydro-chemical alteration of betafite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour Khanmiri, Mohammad; Yanson, Svetlana Yu.; Fomin, Edward V.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Grebeniuk, Andrey V.; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Bogdanov, Roman V.

    2018-06-01

    Hydro-chemical processes significantly alter the original composition of metamict minerals. In the work presented here, an attempt was made to reconstruct the chemical composition of betafite in the earlier stages of its geological history. The time scale is determined by the leaching rate of the isotope 238U, a process that takes its course in line with first-order kinetics, or something close to it. The leaching rate constant of this uranium isotope was assessed. Based on available data in the literature, the hydro-chemical behavior of various atoms in group A of betafite was analyzed. The chemical composition of the mineral was calculated taking into account the total charge of the cations that the betafite had at the time it was formed, or possibly the last time it was completely reformed as a result of diverse endogenic processes.

  17. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  18. Chemical Abundances in SFG and DLA

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; König, Brigitte; Cherinka, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the chemical abundances of local star-forming galaxies which cause Damped Lyman Alpha lines. A metallicity versus redshift diagram is constructed, on which the chemical abundances of low-redshift star-forming galaxy populations are compared with those of high-redshift Damped Lyman Alpha systems. We disucss two types of experiments on individual star-forming galaxies. In the first, the Damped Lyman Alpha line is created against an internal ultraviolet light source generated by a...

  19. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  20. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  2. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual

  3. Your employees: the front line in cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, D

    2016-01-01

    First published in The Chemical Engineer and reproduced by Crest - Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats, 26/01/2016 (https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/employees-front-line-cyber-security/)

  4. Economic Impact Analysis of Short Line Railroads : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Rail transportation is of vital : importance to the state of : Louisiana and is a key : component of the states : business infrastructure, supporting agricultural, petroleum, chemical, and manufacturing : industries across the state. Short line (C...

  5. Initial results with the Berkeley on-line mass separator-RAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Moltz, D.M.; Evans, H.C.; Vieira, D.J.; Parry, R.F.; Wouters, J.M.; Gough, R.A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1977-11-01

    Initial performance is described for a reasonably fast and universal (having little or no chemical selectivity) on-line mass analysis system used to expand capabilities in studying nuclei far from stability. The system is termed RAMA, an acronym for Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer. Basically, this system utilizes the helium-jet method to transport activity to a Sidenius hollow-cathode ion source which is coupled to a mass spectrometer. Initial experiments and planned improvements are discussed. Transport efficiencies of between 10 and 60 percent have routinely been achieved, though the latter is much more typical when conditions are optimized

  6. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  7. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  8. Imidacloprid does not induce Cyp genes involved in insecticide resistance of a mutant Drosophila melanogaster line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajdzic, Predrag; Markaki, Maria; Oehler, Stefan; Savakis, Charalambos

    2013-10-01

    Certain xenobiotics have the capacity to induce the expression of genes involved in various biological phenomena, including insecticide resistance. The induction potential of different chemicals, among them different insecticides, has been documented for a number of insect species. In this study, we have analyzed the induction potential of Imidacloprid, a widely used member of the neonicotinoid insecticide family. Genes Cyp6g1 and Cyp6a2, known to be involved in the resistance of mutant Drosophila melanogaster line MiT[W⁻]3R2 to Imidacloprid and DDT were included in the analyzed sample. We find that Imidacloprid does not induce expression of the analyzed genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calculation of baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential in resonance matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Hu Shouyang; Lu Zhongdao

    2006-01-01

    Based on the high energy heavy-ion collisions statistical model, the baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential are calculated for resonance matter with net baryon density and net strangeness density under given temperature. Furthermore, the relationship between net baryon density, net strangeness density and baryon chemical potential, strangeness chemical potential are analyzed. The results show that baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential increase with net baryon density and net strangeness density increasing, the change of net baryon density affects baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential more strongly than the change of net strangeness density. (authors)

  10. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  11. Benchmarking state-of-the-art optical simulation methods for analyzing large nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2018-01-01

    Five computational methods are benchmarked by computing quality factors and resonance wavelengths inphotonic crystal membrane L5 and L9 line defect cavities. Careful convergence studies reveal that some methods are more suitable than others for analyzing these cavities....

  12. Analyzing the Formation, Physicochemical, and Optical Properties of Aging Biomass Burning Aerosol Using an Indoor Smog Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Fiddler, M. N.; Bililign, S.; Spann, M.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is recognized as one of the largest sources of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere and significantly influences the radiative properties of the atmosphere. The chemical composition and physical properties of particles evolve during their atmospheric lifetime due to condensation, oxidation reactions, etc., which alters their optical properties. To this end, an indoor smog chamber was constructed to study aging BB aerosol in a laboratory setting. Injections to the chamber, including NOx, O3, and various biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs, can simulate a variety of atmospheric conditions. These components and some of their oxidation products are monitored during the aging process. A tube furnace is used for combustion of biomass to be introduced to the chamber, while size distributions are taken as the aerosol ages. Online measurements of optical properties are determined using a Cavity Ring-down Spectrometry and Integrating Nephelometry system. Chemical properties are measured from samples captured on filters and analyzed using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled in-line to both a Diode Array Detector and High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization. The measured changes in the optical properties as a function of particle size, aging, and chemical properties are presented for fuel sources used in Africa.

  13. Chemical pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaning materials such as chlorine bleach, during industrial accidents, or near swimming pools) Grain and fertilizer dust ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Chemical Emergencies ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  14. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  15. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  17. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    CERN Document Server

    Sudowe, R

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device. A sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A ...

  18. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  19. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  20. Method of analyzing the shipping inspection water in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tatsuo; Izumoji, Yoshiaki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically perform radioactive-corrosion-products removing operation and thereby automatic analysis for shipping inspection water. Method: An radioactive-corrosion-product removing device has a column filled with a chelate resin layer. Shipping-inspection water as a specimen is injected from a sample-water inlet to the column, passes through the chelate resin layer, issues through the sample-water exit and is then stored once in a sample collector. The shipping inspection water sampled in the sampling collector is sent to an inspection port in an on-line or off-line manner and gamma-ray determination is made by a gamma-ray spectrum analyzer. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Chemical and Photographic Evaluation of Rigid Explosive Transfer Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    and Kaplan , L. A., J. Org. Chem., Vol. 31, 1966, p. 857. 4. Dacons, J. C., Adolph, H. G., and Kpmlet, M. J., Heat Resistant Explosives, XIII...Sand Canyon Road % Saugus, CA 91351 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Attn: W. Gin 125-124 1 Rockwell International 4800 Oak Grove Drive Attn: L. Corvin ( MA2

  2. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  3. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

  4. Power flow studies of magnetically insulated lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, D.H.; Poukey, J.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; VanDevender, J.P.; Johnson, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The designs for relativistic electron beam accelerators with power levels of 20 to 100 TW are greatly restricted by the inductance of a single diode of reasonable size. This fact leads to modular designs of very large accelerators. One concept uses several small insulators at a large radius arranged around the accelerator center. The total effective inductance is then low, but the energy must then be transported by self-magnetic insulated vacuum lines to the target volume. A triplate vacuum line configuration eases many mechanical support problems and allows more A-K gaps or feeds to be packaged around a given radius. This type of vacuum transmission line was chosen for initial experiments at Sandia. The experiments were conducted on the MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) accelerator. The water pulse forming lines are connected to a vacuum triplate line through a conventional stacked insulator. Diagnostics on the experiment consisted of: (1) input V; (2) input I; (3) I monitors at the input, middle, and output of both the center conductor and ground plane of the transmission line; (4) magnetic energy analyzer to view peak electron energy in the A-K gap; (5) calorimetry; and (6) Faraday cups to look at electron current flowing across the transmission line. The main goal of the experiment is to obtain input impedance of the transmission line as a function of voltage and to measure electron loss currents. These measurements are compared to theoretical models for the input impedance and energy losses

  5. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  6. Composição proximal e qualidade da carne de frangos das linhagens Paraíso Pedrês e Pescoço Pelado Physical-chemical characteristics of meat in chickens of the Paraíso Pedrês and Label Rouge lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bitencourt Faria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas da carne de frangos de duas linhagens (Paraíso Pedrês e Pescoço Pelado criados em sistema semiextensivo, machos e fêmeas, abatidos aos 65, 75, 85 e 95 dias. As características analisadas nos cortes peito e coxa foram umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo, cinzas, cor (CIEL*a*b*, pH final e perda de peso por cocção. As fêmeas da linhagem Paraíso Pedrês apresentaram no peito mais gordura (0,86% em comparação aos machos das linhagens Paraíso Pedrês (0,63% e Pescoço Pelado (0,57%. A coxa das aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado aos 85 dias apresentou maior umidade e menor porcentagem de gordura em comparação à linhagem Paraíso Pedrês, e aos 95 dias, as fêmeas Paraíso Pedrês apresentaram mais gordura que os machos. A cor amarela (b* no peito foi mais intensa nas aves Pescoço Pelado (6,24 que nas aves Paraíso Pedrês (5,41. Também foi mais intensa nas fêmeas (6,47 que nos machos (5,18. A cor da coxa nas aves Pescoço Pelado foi mais amarelada aos 95 dias (6,87 que aos 85 dias (5,90. Aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado podem fornecer cortes mais magros, no caso dos machos, e com coloração mais amarelada, no caso das fêmeas, que aves da linhagem Pescoço Pelado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of chicken meat from two lines (Paraíso Pedrês or Label Rouge and Pescoço Pelado, raised in a semi-extensive system, and slaughtered at 65, 75, 85 and 95 days of age. The variables assessed in the breast and leg of experimental animals were moisture, protein, fat, ashes, objective colour (CIEL*a*b* system, final pH and cooking loss. The breast of Paraíso Pedrês females showed a higher fat content (0.86% than in males of the Paraíso Pedrês (0.63% or Pescoço Pelado (0.57% lines. In the leg, Pescoço Pelado chicken slaughtered at 85 days showed higher moisture and lower fat than the Paraíso Pedrês line, while Para

  7. Multi-faceted data gathering and analyzing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.; Rich, K.

    1977-10-01

    A low-cost general purpose data gathering and analyzing system based on a microprocessor, an interface to CAMAC, and a phone link to a time-sharing system was implemented. The parts cost for the microprocessor system was about $6000. The microprocessor buffers the data such that the variable response of the time-sharing system is acceptable for performing real-time data acquisition. The full power and flexibility of the time-sharing system excels at the task of on-line data analysis once this buffering problem is solved. 4 figures

  8. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  9. Program for Analyzing Flows in a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) version 4 is a general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady-state and transient flows in a complex fluid network. The program is capable of modeling compressibility, fluid transients (e.g., water hammers), phase changes, mixtures of chemical species, and such externally applied body forces as gravitational and centrifugal ones. A graphical user interface enables the user to interactively develop a simulation of a fluid network consisting of nodes and branches. The user can also run the simulation and view the results in the interface. The system of equations for conservation of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum is solved numerically by a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive-substitution methods.

  10. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  11. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  12. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  13. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  14. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  15. Chemical monitoring of mud products on drilled cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.L.; Jones, T.G.J.; Tomkins, P.G.; Gilmour, A.; Houwen, O.H.; Sanders, M.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing area of concern for offshore drilling practices in the environmental impact of discharged drilled cuttings contaminated with drilling fluids. The standard retort analysis is of limited accuracy and chemical specificity. Anticipating future requirements for a more complete accounting of mud chemicals discharged to the environment, we present here results for chemical monitoring using a modern comprehensive chemical analysis technique. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In this paper description is given of sampling methods found to be practical and the main calibration requirements are discussed. The techniques developed in the course of this work give a good mineralogical breakdown of mud solids (commercial and drilled solids) in addition to the environmentally relevant measurements relating to mud on cuttings. The possibility of using the new technique for the rigsite monitoring of drilling cuttings is demonstrated. Cuttings samples simultaneously from the flow line, shaker screen, desilter and mud cleaner were analyzed. It is found that mud polymers and other organic additives can be measured with sufficient accuracy to measure the removal of mud products by discharged cuttings. The technique is also applicable to quantify the losses of oil-based mud on cuttings. Field testing has shown that the instrumentation used in sufficiently robust and simple to use for rig-site application

  16. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  17. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  18. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  19. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. The calculus and the design of a miniature quadrupole mass filter: a selected solution from different types of mass analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C.; Ioanoviciu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Chis, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mass spectrometers are very precise tools used in chemical and isotopic analysis for environmental surveillance. Traditionally environmental analysis is done by sampling the soil, air or water and taking the sample back to the laboratory for analysis. To avoid the difficulties related with the sample alteration during the sampling process and the transport the analysis 'in situ' is to be preferred. This type of analysis combines the sampling and analysis and produces an analytical result almost instantly. Fast-response detection methods are highly desirable in cases where relatively short-lived species are to be examined. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzers can be miniaturized, but some are better suited for miniaturization than others. We studied comparatively different types of mass analyzers that can be miniaturized, especially quadrupole, magnetic sector and time of flight types, in view to select from all these, the best solution for our purpose, the application to the 'in situ' environmental monitoring and inspection, analytical process control. We investigated and calculated the properties of some geometrical arrangements that we reported, one of these being a double focusing mass analyzer with electric deflector and magnetic deflector combined in a reversed geometry. From the different calculated versions we selected the following one, with the characteristic parameters: n = 62, f = 2 MHz, L = 0.07 m, r 0 = 2.616 x 10 -3 m, E z = 5 V, R housing = 3.5 r 0 , V m = 1000 V, R max = 200, M max = 200 u. Starting from these mechanical and electrical parameters we calculated and designed a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer. A theoretical study of the ion trajectories in the quadrupole analyzer by matrix formalism as well as by using Mathieu functions was made. Using the program SIMION 6, the trajectories inside the quadrupole filter were also simulated. The calculus of the ion trajectories starts by numerically solving of the Mathieu type equation

  1. Molecular Line Survey of CRL618 and Complete Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Phillips, T. G.

    allows for different shells with different physical conditions. The geometry is not restricted to be spherical, to agree with the observed morphology, and shells with both radial and azimuthal velocity components can be defined. Since the observations reveal that different gas regions are traced by different molecular species, we proceed in our analysis in different steps. The first one has been to study those species arising from the inner ~1.5" slowly expanding envelope, with outflow velocities of ~10 to 15 km s-1, turbulence velocities around 3.5 km s-1, and temperatures in the range 250-275 K. Then, we included both the colder and outer circumstellar gas (necessary to explain the rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of HC3N, HC5N, HC7N, and several other molecules) and the high velocity wind component (seen in the line wings of some abundant species, including v=0 HC3N). Among the observed features, only H and He recombination lines, arising from the same region of the continuum emission have not been analyzed yet. Tables with the derived physical parameters and chemical abundances will be presented in the poster. The general model for all observed frequencies and species and the comparison with the data will also be discussed.

  2. In-line monitoring and interpretation of an indomethacin anti-solvent crystallization process by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Eun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Cho, Young-Sang; Choi, Guang Jin

    2011-11-28

    PAT (process analytical technology) has been emphasized as one of key elements for the full implementation of QbD (quality-by-design) in the pharmaceutical area. NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) has been studied intensively as an in-line/on-line monitoring tool in chemical and biomedical industries. A precise and reliable monitoring of the particle characteristics during crystallization along with a suitable control strategy should be highly encouraged for the conformance to new quality system of pharmaceutical products. In this study, the anti-solvent crystallization process of indomethacin (IMC) was monitored using an in-line NIRS. IMC powders were produced via anti-solvent crystallization using two schemes; 'S-to-A' (solvent-to-antisolvent) and 'A-to-S' (antisolvent-to-solvent). In-line NIR spectra were analyzed by a PCA (principal component analysis) method. Although pure α-form IMC powder was resulted under A-to-S scheme, a mixture of the α-form and γ-form was produced for S-to-A case. By integrating the PCA results with off-line characterization (SEM, XRD, DSC) data, the crystallization process under each scheme was elucidated by three distinct consecutive steps. It was demonstrated that in-line NIRS, combined with PCA, can be very useful to monitor in real time and interpret the anti-solvent crystallization process with respect to the polymorphism and particle size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  4. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  5. The IFUSP microtron accelerator beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Paulo Beolchi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the electron optical project of the IFUSP microtron beam transport line is presented, including the operational values for the parameters of the dipolar and quadrupolar electromagnets, as well as their location along the beam line. Analytical calculations and computer simulations were performed to obtain these results, and a programming tool was developed in order to analyze the beam parameters and to help studying racetrack microtrons. The electron optical simulations were split into two different study cases: the microtron booster, and the transfer line. In the first case, it was determined the main operational parameters of a microtron working far from its usual stability conditions. In the latter, it was done the basic design of the linking line between the booster and main (not yet built) microtrons, and between them and the experimental hall, with a total path length of approximately 32 m including large horizontal and vertical deflections with variable beam energy. (author)

  6. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  8. Mammography imaging studies using a laue crystal analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W.; Arfelli, F.

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron based mammography imaging experiments have been performed with monochromatic x-rays in which a laue crystal placed after the object being imaged has been used to split the beam transmitted through the object. The X27C R ampersand D beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source was used with the white beam monochromatized by a double crystal Si(111) monochromator tuned to 18 keV. The imaging beam was a thin horizontal line approximately 0.5 mm high by 100 mm wide. Images were acquired in line scan mode with the phantom and detector both scanned together. The detector for these experiments was an image plate. A thin Si(l11) laue analyzer was used to diffract a portion of the beam transmitted through the phantom before the image plate detector. This ''scatter free'' diffracted beam was then recorded on the image plate during the phantom scan. Since the thin laue crystal also transmitted a fraction of the incident beam, this beam was also simultaneously recorded on the image plate. The imaging results are interpreted in terms of an x-ray schliere or refractive index inhomogeneities. The analyzer images taken at various points in the rocking curve will be presented

  9. Very low cost multichannel analyzer with some additional features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudyka, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.tudyka@polsl.pl [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland); Bluszcz, Andrzej [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-11

    In this paper we present a multichannel analyzer (MCA) based on a digital signal controller (DSC). The multichannel analyzer is characterized by a very low cost and an additional feature of recording time intervals between pulses. The total cost of electronic parts used in construction of the MCA is around 50 USD. The electronic circuit is based on dsPIC30F2020 DSC unit from Microchip. The device has a 10-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) which can sample and convert 2 samples per {mu}s. The DSC samples the input voltage continuously and detects incoming pulses. The data belonging to a detected pulse and its time stamp are sent to a PC on-line. The analysis of data stored on the PC is performed off-line with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) used to fit the pulse shape function. This allows determination of amplitude of each individual pulse. The effective resolution varies with the pulse length and is typically 1000 channels for pulses approximately 4{mu}s long.

  10. CTG Analyzer: A graphical user interface for cardiotocography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Burattini, Luca; Morettini, Micaela; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most commonly used test for establishing the good health of the fetus during pregnancy and labor. CTG consists in the recording of fetal heart rate (FHR; bpm) and maternal uterine contractions (UC; mmHg). FHR is characterized by baseline, baseline variability, tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and decelerations. Instead, UC signal is characterized by presence of contractions and contractions period. Such parameters are usually evaluated by visual inspection. However, visual analysis of CTG recordings has a well-demonstrated poor reproducibility, due to the complexity of physiological phenomena affecting fetal heart rhythm and being related to clinician's experience. Computerized tools in support of clinicians represents a possible solution for improving correctness in CTG interpretation. This paper proposes CTG Analyzer as a graphical tool for automatic and objective analysis of CTG tracings. CTG Analyzer was developed under MATLAB®; it is a very intuitive and user friendly graphical user interface. FHR time series and UC signal are represented one under the other, on a grid with reference lines, as usually done for CTG reports printed on paper. Colors help identification of FHR and UC features. Automatic analysis is based on some unchangeable features definitions provided by the FIGO guidelines, and other arbitrary settings whose default values can be changed by the user. Eventually, CTG Analyzer provides a report file listing all the quantitative results of the analysis. Thus, CTG Analyzer represents a potentially useful graphical tool for automatic and objective analysis of CTG tracings.

  11. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  12. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  13. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  14. New high voltage parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Masai, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Abe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new modification on the parallel plate analyzer for 500 keV heavy ions to eliminate the effect of the intense UV and visible radiations, is successfully conducted. Its principle and results are discussed. (author)

  15. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  16. Analyzing Evolving Social Network 2 (EVOLVE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    WORK UNIT NUMBER N2 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Southern California 3720 S. Flower Street, Third Floor Los...score, and resource allocation. Below the double line are link prediction heuristics introduced in this paper. name symbol definition common neighbors...LIST OF SYMBOLS , ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A adjacency matrix of a network D diagonal out-degree matrix DW out-degree matrix of the reweighted network

  17. Critical Line of the Deconfinement Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Mark I.

    Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ B , and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or μ B . The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag massvolume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the μ B /T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1 st order transition at a high μ B/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2 nd order phase transition at an intermediate μ B/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low μ B /T. This talk is based on a recent paper (Gorenstein, Gaździcki, and Greiner, 2005).

  18. Digital dynamic amplitude-frequency spectra analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; )

    2006-01-01

    The spectra analyzer is intended for the dynamic spectral analysis of signals physical installations and noise filtering. The recurrence Fourier transformation algorithm is used in the digital dynamic analyzer. It is realized on the basis of the fast logic FPGA matrix and the special signal ADSP microprocessor. The discretization frequency is 2 kHz-10 MHz. The number of calculated spectral coefficients is not less 512. The functional fast-action is 20 ns [ru

  19. FST Based Morphological Analyzer for Hindi Language

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar; Manjeet Singh; Seema Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Hindi being a highly inflectional language, FST (Finite State Transducer) based approach is most efficient for developing a morphological analyzer for this language. The work presented in this paper uses the SFST (Stuttgart Finite State Transducer) tool for generating the FST. A lexicon of root words is created. Rules are then added for generating inflectional and derivational words from these root words. The Morph Analyzer developed was used in a Part Of Speech (POS) Tagger based on Stanford...

  20. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Samuel D [Aiken, SC; Fondeur, Fernando F [North Augusta, SC

    2011-10-18

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  1. Large-acceptance-angle gridded analyzers in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic retarding-potential gridded analyzers have been used to measure the current and the axial energy distributions of ions escaping along magnetic field lines in the 2XIIB magnetic mirror fusion experiment at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Three analyzers are discussed: a large scanning analyzer with a movable entrance aperture that can measure ion or electron losses from a different segment of the plasma diameter on each shot, a smaller analyzer that mounts in 5-cm-diam ports, and a multicollector analyzer that can continuously measure losses from the entire plasma diameter

  2. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance ( C 2 ) and resistance ( R 2 ) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process. (paper)

  3. Line ratios and wavelengths of helium-like argon n=2 satellite transitions and resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Fournier, K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic X-ray emission from helium-like argon was investigated as a mean to diagnose hot plasmas. We have measured the radiation from n=2-1 parent lines and from KLn dielectronic recombination satellites with high wavelength resolution as function of the excitation energy using the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap. Values of wavelength relative to the resonance and forbidden line are tabulated and compared with references. The line intensity observed over a wide range of excitation energies is weighted with a Maxwellian electron-energy distribution to analyze line ratios as function of plasma temperature. Line ratios (j+z)/w and k/w compare nicely with theoretical predictions and demonstrate their applicability as temperature diagnostic. The ratio z/(x+y) shows not to depend on the electron density

  4. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  5. Intra lines uniformity and inter lines variation of rice mutants resulting from irradiation of South Kalimantan local varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raihani Wahdah; Gusti Rumayadi; Rahmi Zulhidiani

    2016-01-01

    The preference of farmer in tidal swamp on local rice varieties are quite high, but local varieties have a long life and low yield characters, so it needs to be improved for the trait. This study is part of activities of the local rice varieties improvement to generate promising lines were short-moderate aged, but the slimming and pera (high amylose content) grains maintained. The aims of this study were to determine the intra lines uniformity and the inter lines variation of M5 generation of rice mutant lines. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station of Agriculture Faculty, Lambung Mangkurat University from March to September 2014. The experiment used 150 earliest flowering lines of 300 M5 mutant lines that were planted. Intra lines uniformity were analysed by comparing the variance of each mutant lines with variance of its parent, while the variation among lines were analyzed by comparing the variance of all lines with variance of its parent. More than 85 % M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli as parent and > 79 % of Siam Kuatek as parent are uniform. The uniform character at all M5 mutant lines, both of Siam Harli or Siam Kuatek parent are the harvest age, the filled grains number, and the empty grains number. There is no variability between M5 mutant lines, but some of M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli and Siam Kuatek have some better characters than their parents, so there is an opportunity for selection. (author)

  6. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  7. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  8. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  9. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  10. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  11. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  12. A new automatic analyzer for uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyan; Zhang Lan

    1992-08-01

    An intellectual automatic analyzer for uranium based on the principle of flow injection analysis (FIA) has been developed. It can directly determine the uranium solution in range of 0.02 to 500 mg/L without any pre-process. A chromatographic column with extractant, in which the trace uranium is concentrated and separated, has special ability to enrich uranium, is connected to the manifold of the analyzer. The analyzer is suited for trace uranium determination in varies samples. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) is used as color reagent. Uranium is determined in aqueous solution by adding cation surfactant, cetyl-pyridinium bromide (PCB). The rate of analysis is 30 to 90 samples per hour. The relative standard deviation of determination is 1% ∼ 2%. The analyzer has been used in factories and laboratory, and the results are satisfied. The determination range can easily be changed by using a multi-function auto-injection valve that changes the injection volume of the sample and channels. So, it could adopt varies FIA operation modes to meet the needs of FIA determination for other substance. The analyzer has universal functions

  13. Study of a digital spectro analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Pierre

    1969-01-01

    This report includes a theoretical study of a device achieving the multiplication of a matrix by a vector. This type of device is interesting because it enables to process on-line all sorts of problems which can be reduced to convolutions, for instance the spectro coefficient calculation in a mixture quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry. In the studied device, the matrix is available on magnetic tape and the vector may be directly produced, for instance from a multi-channel selector, as in the preceding case. Works carried out enabled to index the problems involved by achieving such as a device, by means of a complete circuit definition. (author) [fr

  14. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  15. Scintiscans data analyzer model AS-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesa, J.; Wierzbicki, W.

    1975-01-01

    The principle of work and construction elements of the device made up for scintiscans data analyzation by ''square root scaling'' is presented. The device is equipped with cassette tape recorder type MK-125, made in Poland serving like scintiscans data bank, and with scintiscans data analyzation three programs. The cassette of two types, C-60 and C-90, is applied with working time of 2 x 30 min. and 2 x 45 min. respectivly. Results of scintiscans data analysation are printed by electric typewriter at figures in form of digital scintigram. (author)

  16. Analyzing Engineered Nanoparticles using Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko

    . To facilitate occupational safety and health there is a need to develop instruments to monitor and analyze nanoparticles in the industry, research and urban environments. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to develop new sensors that can analyze engineered nanoparticles. Two sensors were studied: (i......) a miniaturized toxicity sensor based on electrochemistry and (ii) a photothermal spectrometer based on tensile-stressed mechanical resonators (string resonators). Miniaturization of toxicity sensor targeting engineered nanoparticles was explored. This concept was based on the results of the biodurability test...

  17. Analyzing Web Behavior in Indoor Retail Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongli; Tomko, Martin; Salim, Flora; Ong, Kevin; Sanderson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We analyze 18 million rows of Wi-Fi access logs collected over a one year period from over 120,000 anonymized users at an inner-city shopping mall. The anonymized dataset gathered from an opt-in system provides users' approximate physical location, as well as Web browsing and some search history. Such data provides a unique opportunity to analyze the interaction between people's behavior in physical retail spaces and their Web behavior, serving as a proxy to their information needs. We find: ...

  18. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  19. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer

  20. X-ray fluorescence analyzer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, Endre; Ando, Laszlo; Gal, Janos.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence analyzer for the quantitative determination of one or more elements of complex samples is reported. The novelties of the invention are the excitation of the samples by x-rays or γ-radiation, the application of a balanced filter pair as energy selector, and the measurement of the current or ion charge of ionization detectors used as sensors. Due to the increased sensitivity and accuracy, the novel design can extend the application fields of x-ray fluorescence analyzers. (A.L.)

  1. A Novel Architecture For Multichannel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, E.; Elhanani, I.; Nir, J.; Ellenbogen, M.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    A novel digital approach to real-time, high-throughput, low-cost Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for radiation spectroscopy is being presented. The MCA input is a shaped nuclear pulse sampled at a high rate, using an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) chip. The digital samples are analyzed by a state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Away (FPGA). A customized algorithm is utilized to estimate the peak of the pulse, to reject pile-up and to eliminate processing dead time. The valid pulses estimated peaks are transferred to a micro controller system that creates the histogram and controls the Human Machine Interface (HMI)

  2. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  3. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  4. K-line photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  5. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  6. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  7. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  8. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  9. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  10. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  11. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  12. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  13. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  14. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  15. Building with a Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  16. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  17. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  18. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  19. Formation and Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Nanosilver Lines on Plasma-Treated Glass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Kwon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated geometrical characteristics of the inkjet-printed lines with non-zero receding contact angle (CA on plasma-treated substrates in terms of various printing variables and analyzed the fluidic behavior and hydrodynamic instability involved in the line formation process. The printing variables included surface energy, droplet overlap ratio, printing frequency, a number of ink droplets, substrate temperature and printing procedures. For the study, a colloidal suspension containing 56 wt % silver nanoparticles in tetradecane solvent was used as a printing ink. It has electrical resistivity of 4.7 μΩ·cm. The substrates were obtained by performing a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD process with C4F8 and O2 under various treatment conditions. As results of the experiments, the surface shape and pattern of the inkjet-printed Ag lines were dominantly influenced by the surface energy of the substrates, among the printing variables. Accordingly even when the receding CA was non-zero, bulging instability of the lines occurred forming separate circular patterns or regular bulges connected by ridges. It is a new finding of this study, which is completely different with the bulging instability of inkjet lines with zero receding CA specified by previous researches. The bulging instability decreased by increasing surface temperature of the substrates or employing interlacing procedure instead of continuous procedure for printing. The interlacing procedure also was advantageous to fabricate thick and narrow Ag lines with well-defined shape through overprinting on a hydrophobic substrate. These results will contribute greatly to not only the production of various printed electronics containing high-aspect-ratio structures but also the improvement of working performance of the devices.

  20. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  1. SINDA, Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, L. C.; Pan, H. M. Y.; Ishimoto, T.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program has been written to analyze group of 100-node areas and then provide for summation of any number of 100-node areas to obtain temperature profile. SINDA program options offer user variety of methods for solution of thermal analog modes presented in network format.

  2. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  3. Analyzing the Acoustic Beat with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Hirth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this column, we have previously presented various examples of how physical relationships can be examined by analyzing acoustic signals using smartphones or tablet PCs. In this example, we will be exploring the acoustic phenomenon of small beats, which is produced by the overlapping of two tones with a low difference in frequency ?f. The…

  4. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE's NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R ampersand D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, 131m Xe(11.9 d), 133m Xe(2.19 d), 133 Xe (5.24 d), and 135 Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m 3 /h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 μBq/m 3 of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers

  5. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  6. Environmental applications of the centrifugal fast analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.; Strain, J.E.; Bowling, J.L.

    1975-12-01

    The centrifugal fast analyzer (GeMSAEC Fast Analyzer) was applied to the analysis of pollutants in air and water. Since data acquisition and processing are computer controlled, considerable effort went into devising appropriate software. A modified version of the standard FOCAL interpreter was developed which includes special machine language functions for data timing, acquisition, and storage, and also permits chaining together of programs stored on a disk. Programs were written and experimental procedures developed to implement spectrophotometric, turbidimetric, kinetic (including initial-rate, fixed-time, and variable-time techniques), and chemiluminescence methods of analysis. Analytical methods were developed for the following elements and compounds: SO 2 , O 3 , Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se(IV), Zn, Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , PO 4 -3 , S -2 , and SO 4 -2 . In many cases, standard methods could be adapted to the centrifugal analyzer, in others new methods were employed. In general, analyses performed with the centrifugal fast analyzer were faster, more precise, and more accurate than with conventional instrumentation

  7. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  8. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  9. Dipolar and quadrupolar defects in a transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleux, G.; Nghiem, P.

    1991-01-01

    The defects on a transport line of linear accelerator are studied. A transport line where the elements are influenced by the design or position defects is analyzed. Only dipolar and quadrupolar defects are considered, and the coupling betwen transversal motions are excluded. The data from the literature and those calculated by transfer matrices are compared. The defects on a line are considered from an analytical point of view. Closed optical structures are also studied [fr

  10. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  11. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Turkish Air Force's Experiences in Chemical Material Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taskiran, Huseyin

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, it analyzes the chemical material acquisition from business perspective. Due to operating in different environments, the Turkish Air Force and the private sector have different objectives in the acquisition of chemical materials...

  13. Chemical performance of multi-environment trials in lens (Lens culinaris M.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadavut, Ufuk; Palta, Cetin

    2010-01-15

    Genotype-environment (GE) interaction has been a major effect to determine stable lens (Lens culinaris (Medik.) Merr.) cultivars for chemical composition in Turkey. Utilization of the lines depends on their agronomic traits and stability of the chemical composition in diverse environments. The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the influence of year and location on the chemical composition of lens genotypes; and (ii) to determine which cultivar is the most stable. Genotypes were evaluated over 3 years (2005, 2006 and 2007) at four locations in Turkey. Effects of year had the largest impact on all protein contents. GE interaction was analyzed by using linear regression techniques. Stability was estimated using the Eberhart and Russell method. 'Kişlik Kirmizi51' was the most stable cultivar for grain yield. The highest protein was obtained from 'Kişlik Kirmizi51' (4.6%) across environments. According to stability analysis, 'Firat 87' had the most stable chemical composition. This genotype had a regression coefficient (b(i) = 1) around unity, and deviations from regression values (delta(ij) = 0) around zero. Chemical composition was affected by year in this study. Temperature might have an effect on protein, oil, carbohydrate, fibre and ash. Firat 87 could be recommended for favourable environments. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  15. Development of Flexible Software Process Lines with Variability Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrmann, Patrick; Schramm, Joachim; Kuhrmann, Marco

    2016-01-01

    the development of flexible software process lines. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study in which we studied 5 variants of the V-Modell XT process line for 2 years. Results: Our results show the variability operation instrument feasible in practice. We analyzed 616 operation exemplars addressing various...

  16. Oxygen consumption by hydrazine in long sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Lisheng; Turner, Carl-W.

    2012-09-01

    In nuclear power plants secondary side system dissolved oxygen concentration is a strictly controlled chemistry parameter intended to minimize corrosion and fouling of steam cycle components. Low dissolved oxygen concentration is maintained by a combination of mechanical de-aeration and chemical reaction. The dissolved oxygen concentration in feedwater is monitored by sampling systems to ensure it remains within station specification during operation. The sample lines in a nuclear power plant's sampling system can be from 5 to nearly 200 meters in length, resulting in sample residence times between the take-off point to the analyzer from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the flow rate and the length of the sample line. For many chemical parameters the residence time is of no concern. For measurements of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine in the secondary coolant, however, for residence times longer than one minute, it is uncertain whether the sample is representative of conditions in the secondary coolant, especially for samples taken from locations where the temperature is well over 100 deg. C. To address this concern, a series of tests were conducted under both warm-up and power operation conditions, respectively, to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time, sample line length, surface area, hydrazine-to-oxygen ratio, and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine on the consumption of oxygen by hydrazine. The test results revealed that dissolved oxygen measurements in CANDU plants are underestimated to various degrees, depending on the sampling system operating conditions. Two distinct types of behaviours are observed for the oxygen removal rate: 1) the percentage removal of dissolved oxygen is invariant with time during the tests, and increases with increasing residence time in the test section, when the reaction between hydrazine and oxygen is better described by a homogenous reaction mechanism, and 2) the percentage oxygen

  17. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica evaluated under organic farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sahamishirazi

    Full Text Available In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany. Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (p< 0.0001 higher biomass fresh weight. Some experimental lines had significant lower head fresh weight in spring in comparison to the fall season. The high temperature during the harvest period for the spring season affected the yield negatively through decreasing the firmness of broccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable

  18. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  19. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  20. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and