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Sample records for line balancing problem

  1. An Assembly Line Balancing Problem Automotive Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triki Hager

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP is presented in a real-world automotive cables manufacturer company. This company found it necessary to balance its line, since it needs to increase the production rate. In this ALBP, the number of stations is known and the objective is to minimize cycle time where both precedence and zoning constrains must be satisfied. This problem is formulated as a binary linear program (BLP. Since this problem is NP-hard, an innovative Genetic Algorithm (GA is implemented. The full factorial design is used to obtain the better combination GA parameters and a simple convergence experimental study is performed on the stopping criteria to reduce computational time. Comparison of the proposed GA results with CPLEX software shows that, in a reasonable time, the GA generates consistent solutions that are very close to their optimal ones. Therefore, the proposed GA approach is very effective and competitive.

  2. A Network Model for Parallel Line Balancing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Benzer; Hadi Gökçen; Tahsin Çetinyokus; Hakan Çerçioglu

    2007-01-01

    Gökçen et al. (2006) have proposed several procedures and a mathematical model on single-model (product) assembly line balancing (ALB) problem with parallel lines. In parallel ALB problem, the goal is to balance more than one assembly line together. In this paper, a network model for parallel ALB problem has been proposed and illustrated on a numerical example. This model is a new approach for parallel ALB and it provides a different point of view for i...

  3. A Network Model for Parallel Line Balancing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Benzer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gökçen et al. (2006 have proposed several procedures and a mathematical model on single-model (product assembly line balancing (ALB problem with parallel lines. In parallel ALB problem, the goal is to balance more than one assembly line together. In this paper, a network model for parallel ALB problem has been proposed and illustrated on a numerical example. This model is a new approach for parallel ALB and it provides a different point of view for interested researchers.

  4. Simple assembly line balancing problem under task deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emrani Noushabadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the effect of task deterioration in simple assembly line balancing problem. In many realistic assembly lines, a deterioration task is considered when a task is started earlier than the assigned time since the station time is constant and the earliness of the task does not reduce the cycle time. This phenomenon is known as deteriorating tasks. Therefore, we seek an optimal assignment and schedule of tasks in workstations, in order to minimize the number of stations for a given cycle time, which is known as SALBP-1. For this purpose, a mathematical model is proposed. Since the pure SALBP-1 is proved to be NP-hard and considering task deterioration complicates problem further, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving such problem. Several well-known test problems are solved to study the performance of the proposed approach.

  5. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  6. A Tabu Search Algorithm for the Parallel Assembly Line Balancing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Uğur; ÇERÇİOĞLU, Hakan; GÖKÇEN, Hadi; TOKLU, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    In a production facility there may be more than one straight assembly line located in parallel. Balancing of parallel assembly lines will provide the flexibility to minimize the total number of workstations due to common resource. This type of problem is called as parallel assembly line balancing (PALB) problem. In this paper, a tabu search based approach is proposed for PALB problem with aim of maximizing line efficiency (LE) (or minimizing number of stations) and minimizing variation of wor...

  7. The Multiproduct Parallel Assembly Lines Balancing Problem: Model and Optimization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Scholl; Nils Boysen

    2008-01-01

    A production system which consists of a number of parallel assembly lines is considered. On each line a certain product is manufactured observing a common cycle time. By arranging the lines in a favourable manner, it is possible to increase efficiency of the production system by combining stations of neighbouring lines when balancing them. The objective is to minimize the number of operators required. This problem is called Multiproduct Parallel Assembly Lines Balancing Problem (MPALBP) and h...

  8. A survey of the literature on the multiple or parallel assembly Line balancing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Lusa García, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on production systems that consist of multiple parallel assembly lines. The main literature contributions are briefly described and used to present a summary of the state of the art. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting multiple lines are discussed and the multiple assembly line balancing problem and its relevant characteristics are described. Peer Reviewed

  9. A multi-objective method for solving assembly line balancing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the simple assembly line balancing (SALB problem has covered a wide range of real-world applications. The recent advances in optimization problems have created the opportunities to tackle more challenging problems. This paper presents a multi-objective decision making problem to consider two objectives, cost and cycle time, for simple assembly line balancing. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear optimization and the proposed study of this paper uses two metaheuristics to solve the resulted problem on some benchmark problems. The preliminary results have indicated that multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO has provided better quality solutions while the hybrid method based on MOPSO and simulated annealing has yielded more non-dominated Pareto solutions.

  10. Balancing assembly lines with variable parallel workplaces: Problem definition, model and exact solution procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Becker; Armin Scholl

    2008-01-01

    Assembly line balancing problems (ALBP) arise whenever an assembly line is con- figured, redesigned or adjusted. An ALBP consists of distributing the total workload for manu- facturing any unit of the products to be assembled among the work stations along the line sub- ject to a strict or average cycle time. Traditionally, stations are considered to be manned by one operator, respectively, or duplicated in form of identical parallel stations, each also manned by a single operator. In practice...

  11. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall may affect an older adult's life. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) There are many types of balance disorders. One of the most common is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. In BPPV, you experience a brief, ...

  12. Meta-heuristic algorithm to solve two-sided assembly line balancing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, A. D.; Maruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    Two-sided assembly line is a set of sequential workstations where task operations can be performed at two sides of the line. This type of line is commonly used for the assembly of large-sized products: cars, buses, and trucks. This paper propose a Decoding Algorithm with Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO), a recently developed nature-inspired search method to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem (TALBP). The algorithm aims to minimize the number of mated-workstations for the given cycle time without violating the synchronization constraints. The correlation between the input parameters and the emergence point of objective function value is tested using scenarios generated by design of experiments. A two-sided assembly line operated in an Indonesia's multinational manufacturing company is considered as the object of this paper. The result of the proposed algorithm shows reduction of workstations and indicates that there is negative correlation between the emergence point of objective function value and the size of population used.

  13. Multi-objective optimization algorithms for mixed model assembly line balancing problem with parallel workstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mixed model assembly line (MMAL balancing problem of type-I. In MMALs several products are made on an assembly line while the similarity of these products is so high. As a result, it is possible to assemble several types of products simultaneously without any additional setup times. The problem has some particular features such as parallel workstations and precedence constraints in dynamic periods in which each period also effects on its next period. The research intends to reduce the number of workstations and maximize the workload smoothness between workstations. Dynamic periods are used to determine all variables in different periods to achieve efficient solutions. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO are used to solve the problem. The proposed model is validated with GAMS software for small size problem and the performance of the foregoing algorithms is compared with each other based on some comparison metrics. The NSGA-II outperforms MOPSO with respect to some comparison metrics used in this paper, but in other metrics MOPSO is better than NSGA-II. Finally, conclusion and future research is provided.

  14. A Solution Approach to Assembly Line Balancing Problem With Task Related Constraints and an Application At An Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally certain tasks in an assembly line balancing problem are required to be kept together due to some specific reasons. These tasks are attained to the same work stations. Such problems are called as 'Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Task Related Constraints (ALBTRC'. Certain situations like awkward product construction, simultaneous operations or specific requirements leading to zoning and positional constraints like utilization of common resources as tools, jigs and fixtures are implemented thanks to these supplementary constraints. Additionally, materials handling and tooling costs, distances, set-up and lead times are also reduced. Literature on ALBTRC seems quite rare compared to Classical Line Balancing papers, although ALBTRC is one of the common real life balancing problems. This study aimed to develop and implement a novel line balancing method for a manufacturing concern where known methods are impractical to employ due to some specific positional constraints. 'Largest Candidate Method' known as a simple but effective tool is modified for this purpose first. Then a thorough 'method and time study' is conducted to get the necessary data to utilize that method. As a result, more efficient alternatives are generated and presented to decision maker.

  15. Cellular Genetic Algorithm with Communicating Grids for Assembly Line Balancing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUDARU, O.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach with cellular multigrid genetic algorithms for the "I"-shaped and "U"-shaped assembly line balancing problems, including parallel workstations and compatibility constraints. First, a cellular hybrid genetic algorithm that uses a single grid is described. Appropriate operators for mutation, hypermutation, and crossover and two devoration techniques are proposed for creating and maintaining groups based on similarity. This monogrid algorithm is extended for handling many populations placed on different grids. In the multigrid version, the population of each grid is organized in clusters using the positional information of the chromosomes. A similarity preserving communication protocol between the clusters placed on different grids is introduced. The experimental evaluation shows that the multigrid cellular genetic algorithm with communicating grids is better than the hybrid genetic algorithm used for building it, whereas it dominates the monogrid version in all cases. Absolute performance is evaluated using classical benchmarks. The role of certain components of the cellular algorithm is explained and the effect of some parameters is evaluated.

  16. Performance evaluation of ant colony optimization-based solution strategies on the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Sener; Mirac Bayhan, G.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the performances of iterative ant colony optimization (ACO)-based solution strategies on a mixed-model assembly line balancing problem of type II (MMALBP-II) by addressing some particular features of real-world assembly line balancing problems such as parallel workstations and zoning constraints. To solve the problem, where the objective is to minimize the cycle time (i.e. maximize the production rate) for a predefined number of workstations in an existing assembly line, two ACO-based approaches which differ in the mission assigned to artificial ants are used. Furthermore, each ACO-based approach is conducted with two different pheromone release strategies: global and local pheromone updating rules. The four ACO-based approaches are used for solving 20 representative MMALBP-II to compare their performance in terms of computational time and solution quality. Detailed comparison results are presented.

  17. Balancing parallel assembly lines with disabled workers

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Felipe F. B.; Costa,Alysson M.; Miralles, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We study an assembly line balancing problem that occurs in sheltered worker centers for the disabled, where workers with very different characteristics are present. We are interested in the situation in which parallel assembly lines are allowed and name the resulting problem as parallel assembly line worker assignment and balancing problem. We present a linear mixed-integer formulation and a four-stage heuristic algorithm. Computational results with a large set of instances recently proposed ...

  18. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  19. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  20. A multi-objective genetic algorithm for a mixed-model assembly U-line balancing type-I problem considering human-related issues, training, and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Montazeri, Mona; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Rafiei, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-model assembly lines are increasingly accepted in many industrial environments to meet the growing trend of greater product variability, diversification of customer demands, and shorter life cycles. In this research, a new mathematical model is presented considering balancing a mixed-model U-line and human-related issues, simultaneously. The objective function consists of two separate components. The first part of the objective function is related to balance problem. In this part, objective functions are minimizing the cycle time, minimizing the number of workstations, and maximizing the line efficiencies. The second part is related to human issues and consists of hiring cost, firing cost, training cost, and salary. To solve the presented model, two well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization, have been used. A simple solution representation is provided in this paper to encode the solutions. Finally, the computational results are compared and analyzed.

  1. A Novel Assembly Line Balancing Method Based on PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly line is widely used in manufacturing system. Assembly line balancing problem is a crucial question during design and management of assembly lines since it directly affects the productivity of the whole manufacturing system. The model of assembly line balancing problem is put forward and a general optimization method is proposed. The key data on assembly line balancing problem is confirmed, and the precedence relations diagram is described. A double objective optimization model based on takt time and smoothness index is built, and balance optimization scheme based on PSO algorithm is proposed. Through the simulation experiments of examples, the feasibility and validity of the assembly line balancing method based on PSO algorithm is proved.

  2. Integrated model for line balancing with workstation inventory management

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Roy; Debdip khan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address the optimization of an integrated line balancing process with workstation inventory management. While doing so, we have studied the interconnection between line balancing and its conversion process. Almost each and every moderate to large manufacturing industry depends on a long and integrated supply chain, consisting of inbound logistic, conversion process and outbound logistic. In this sense an approach addresses a very general problem of integrated line balancing....

  3. The Influencing Factor Analysis on the Performance Evaluation of Assembly Line Balancing Problem Level 1 (SALBP-1) Based on ANOVA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hu, Jiangnan

    2017-06-01

    Industry 4.0 and lean production has become the focus of manufacturing. A current issue is to analyse the performance of the assembly line balancing. This study focus on distinguishing the factors influencing the assembly line balancing. The one-way ANOVA method is applied to explore the significant degree of distinguished factors. And regression model is built to find key points. The maximal task time (tmax ), the quantity of tasks (n), and degree of convergence of precedence graph (conv) are critical for the performance of assembly line balancing. The conclusion will do a favor to the lean production in the manufacturing.

  4. Soft Computing in Optimizing Assembly Lines Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Matondang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of manufacturing systems, the assembly line has become one of the most valuable researches to accomplish the real world problems related to them. Many efforts have been made to seek the best techniques in optimizing assembly lines. Problem statement: Since it was published by Salveson in 1955, some methods and techniques have been developed based on mathematical modeling. In recent years, some researches in Assembly Line Balancing (ALB have been conducted using Soft Computing (SC approaches. However, there is no comprehensive survey studies conducted regarding the use of SC in ALB problems, which is became the aim of this study. Approach: This study reviewed published literatures and previous related works that applied SC in solving ALB problems. Main outcomes: This study looks into the suitability of SC approaches in several types of ALB problems. Furthermore, this study provides the classification of ALB problems that can facilitate distinguishing those problems as fields of research. Result: This study found that Genetic Algorithms (GAs are predominantly applied to solve ALB problems compared to other SC approaches. This high suitability in ALB refers to GAs' main characteristics that include its robustness and flexibility. These SC approaches have mostly been applied to simple ALB problems, which are not problems that are covered in a real complex manufacturing environment. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study recommends that future researches in ALB should be conducted with regard to other issues, beyond the simple ALB problems and more practical to the industries. Besides the advantages of GAs, there are still opportunities to use other SC approaches and the hybrid-systems among them that could increase the suitability of these approaches, especially for multi-objective ALB problems. This study also recommends that human involvement in ALB needs to be considered as a problem factor in ALB.

  5. optimal assembly line balancing using simulation techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University ..... tested as per the simulation design. Certain key ..... Industry using a Genetic Algorithm”,. International Journal of ... Optimization Models for Assembly Line. Balancing in ...

  6. Henry Ford vs. assembly line balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J M

    2014-01-01

    Ford’s Assembly Line at Highland Park is one of the most influential conceptualizations of a production system. New data reveal Ford’s operations were adaptable to strongly increasing and highly variable demand. These analyses show Ford’s assembly line was used differently than modern ones and their production systems were more flexible than previously recognized. Assembly line balancing theory largely ignores earlier practice. It will be shown that Ford used multiple lines flexibly to cope w...

  7. Harmony Search for Balancing Two-sided Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindriyanto Dwi Purnomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided assembly lines balancing problems are important problem for large-sized products such as cars and buses, in which, tasks operations can be performed in the two sides of the line. In this paper, Harmony Search algorithm is proposed to solve two-sided assembly lines balancing problems type-I (TALBP-I. The proposed method adopts the COMSOAL heuristic and specific features of TALBP in the Harmony operators – the harmony memory consideration, random selection and pitch adjustment – in order to maintain the local and global search. The proposed method is evaluated based on 6 benchmark problems that are commonly used in TALBP. The experiment results show that the proposed method work well and produces better solution than the heuristic method and genetic algorithm.

  8. Integrated model for line balancing with workstation inventory management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the optimization of an integrated line balancing process with workstation inventory management. While doing so, we have studied the interconnection between line balancing and its conversion process. Almost each and every moderate to large manufacturing industry depends on a long and integrated supply chain, consisting of inbound logistic, conversion process and outbound logistic. In this sense an approach addresses a very general problem of integrated line balancing. Research works reported in the literature so far mainly deals with minimization of cost for inbound and outbound logistic subsystems. In most of the cases conversion process has been ignored. We suggest a generic approach for linking the balancing of the line of production in the conversion area with the customers’ rate of demand in the market and for configuring the related stock chambers. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to translate the underlying problem in the form of mixed nonlinear programming problem and design the optimum supply chain so that the total inventory cost and the cost of balancing loss of the conversion process is jointly minimized and ideal cycle time of the production process is determined along with ideal sizes of the stock chambers. A numerical example has been added to demonstrate the suitability of our approach.

  9. 具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡问题研究%Study on balancing problem of two sided assembly line with concurrent operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 鲁建厦; 孔令革

    2011-01-01

    介绍了双边装配线以及双边装配线平衡问题的概念;阐述了并发操作的概念,以及在双边装配线上存在的并发操作情况;分析了并发操作对双边装配线平衡问题产生的重要性以及复杂性;指出前人对双边装配线平衡问题研究的不足,并在此基础上,追加考虑并发操作影响,建立了具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡模型;介于遗传算法全局搜索能力强、具有潜在的并行性、允许使用复杂的适应度函数等优点,采用遗传算法研究了具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡模型的求解过程,并给出了详细的求解步骤;最后,将研究成果应用于某企业冰箱装配线,实例证明了模型及其算法的有效性.%The concept of two sided assembly line and its balancing problem is introduced and the concept of concurrent operation is described, and its situation which is existed on two sided assembly line is also explained. Then the importance and the complexity which is concurrent operation on two sided assembly line balancing problem is analyzed and the lack of the predecessors' researches on two sided assembly line balancing problem is pointed out, based on which a two sided assembly line with concurrent operation balancing model is built considering the impact of concurrent operation. Since genetic algorithm has the advantages of strong global search ability, potential parallelism and allows to use a complex fitness function, it is used to solve two sided assembly line with concurrent operation balancing model, where the solving steps are given in detail. Finally the research results is applied on a company refrigerator assembly line, which proves the effectiveness of model and its algorithm.

  10. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  11. Assembly line balancing using genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tanyer, Muzaffer

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and Institute of Engineering and Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 69-73 For the last few decades, the genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used as a kind of heuristic in many areas of manufacturing. Facility layout, scheduling, process planning, and assembly line balancing are some of the areas where GAs are already popular. GAs are more efficie...

  12. The balanced academic curriculum problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarandini, Marco; Di Gaspero, Luca; Gualandi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    function does not balance effectively the credit load for the new instances, we also propose alternative objective functions. Whereas all the CSPLib instances are efficiently solved with Integer Linear Programming (ILP) state-of-the-art solvers, our new set of real-life instances turns out to be much more......The Balanced Academic Curriculum Problem (BACP) consists in assigning courses to teaching terms satisfying prerequisites and balancing the credit course load within each term. The BACP is part of the CSPLib with three benchmark instances, but its formulation is simpler than the problem solved...... in practice by universities. In this article, we introduce a generalized version of the problem that takes different curricula and professor preferences into account, and we provide a set of real-life problem instances arisen at University of Udine. Since the existing formulation based on a min-max objective...

  13. Possibilities of Simulation of a Technical Line which is subject to the Balancing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina COCULESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical line balancing is a mean of economic efficiency increasing of some industrial activities. Essentially, to balance a technical line means to organize human operator's activity, to establish manufacturing flux, to project the line so to minimize equipments and operators' pause time, having a use of these as good as possible. In this work we'll describe an algorithm of simulation of a technical process, relied on random generation of the main characteristics of working phases, which will be considered in solving balancing problem of a technical line whereon an only model of a product is assembled, operating times are established and line operating rhythm is fixed.

  14. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  15. Optimization of assembly line balancing using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Barathwaj; P Raja; S Gokulraj

    2015-01-01

    In a manufacturing industry, mixed model assembly line (MMAL) is preferred in order to meet the variety in product demand. MMAL balancing helps in assembling products with similar characteristics in a random fashion. The objective of this work aims in reducing the number of workstations, work load index between stations and within each station. As manual contribution of workers in final assembly line is more, ergonomics is taken as an additional objective function. Ergonomic risk level of a workstation is evaluated using a parameter called accumulated risk posture (ARP), which is calculated using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) check sheet. This work is based on the case study of an MMAL problem in Rane (Madras) Ltd. (India), in which a problem based genetic algorithm (GA) has been proposed to minimize the mentioned objectives. The working of the genetic operators such as selection, crossover and mutation has been modified with respect to the addressed MMAL problem. The results show that there is a significant impact over productivity and the process time of the final assembled product, i.e., the rate of production is increased by 39.5% and the assembly time for one particular model is reduced to 13 min from existing 18 min. Also, the space required using the proposed assembly line is only 200 m2 against existing 350 m2. Further, the algorithm helps in reducing workers fatigue (i.e., ergonomic friendly).

  16. On-line current feed and computer aided control tactics for automatic balancing head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the designed automatic balancing head,a non-contact induction transformer is used to deliver driving energy to solve the problem of current fed and controlling on-line.Computer controlled automatic balancing experiments with phase-magnitude control tactics were performed on a flexible rotor system.Results of the experiments prove that the energy feeding method and the control tactics are effective in the automatic balancing head for vibration controlling.

  17. The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Accessible to the Lean novice and shop floor employee, The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting explores line balancing and the pre-assembly of components into a finished product in a just-in-time fashion (JIT Kitting). It explains how to use time studies, develop yamazumi charts, discover and eliminate waste, balance your line, and create new standard work content for the shop floor. The book facilitates a clear understanding of the seven deadly wastes (muda) as well as what you can do to eliminate them from your facility. Describing the purpose and use of standard work, it explains how t

  18. CONCURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO PLANNING AND MIXED PRODUCT ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRYAN April; HU S Jack; KOREN Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems have enabled manufacturers to provide "cost effective" variety to the market. In spite of these new technologies, the expense of manufacturing makes it infeasible to supply all the possible variants to the market for some industries. Therefore, the determination of the right number of product variants to offer in the product portfolios becomes an important consideration. The product portfolio planning problem had been independently well studied from marketing and engineering perspectives. However, advantages can be gained from using a concurrent marketing and engineering approach. Concurrent product development strategies specifically for reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems can allow manufacturers to select best product portfolios from marketing, product design and manufacturing perspectives. A methodology for the concurrent design of a product portfolio and assembly system is presented. The objective of the concurrent product portfolio planning and assembly system design problem is to obtain the product variants that will make up the product portfolio such that oversupply of optional modules is minimized and the assembly line efficiency is maximized. Explicit design of the assembly system is obtained during the solution of the problem. It is assumed that the demand for optional modules and the assembly times for these modules are known a priori. A genetic algorithm is used in the solution of the problem. The basic premise of this methodology is that the selected product portfolio has a significant impact on the solution of the assembly line balancing problem. An example is used to validate this hypothesis. The example is then further developed to demonstrate how the methodology can be used to obtain the optimal product portfolio. This approach is intended for use by manufacturers during the early design stages of product family design.

  19. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  20. Genetic algorithm based on structural decoding algorithm for Multi-Manned Assembly Line Balancing Problem%基于结构式译码遗传算法平衡多人共站装配线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童科娜; 徐克林; 郑永前

    2013-01-01

    To solve Multi-Manned Assembly Line Balancing Problem of type II(MM-ALBP II), a mathematical model, aiming to minimize the cycle time firstly, the number of parallel operators secondly and the workload variances between operators thirdly, is constructed. A genetic algorithm is developed. Especially in the decoding stage a two-phase structural decoding algorithm is designed, which first optimally assigns the tasks to the sequential stations, and then the cycle time is further decreased by merging stations. The computational results demonstrate the feasibility and outstanding character of the proposed algorithm.%针对多人共站装配线第二类平衡问题,以最小化装配线节拍为主要目标,最小化平行操作工人数为第一辅助目标,最小化工人负荷标准差为第二辅助目标构建数学模型,在此基础上,构建结构式译码遗传算法,其中特别设计了两阶段结构式译码算法,在第一阶段,求解给定作业序列在单人工作站条件下的最优分配方案,第二阶段将方案中的工作站进行合并,以使节拍最小化.通过算例验证算法的有效性和可行性.

  1. The balanced minimum evolution problem under uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbe, Martine; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Robust Deviation Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem (RDBMEP), a combinatorial optimization problem that arises in computational biology when the evolutionary distances from taxa are uncertain and varying inside intervals. By exploiting some fundamental properties of the objective

  2. An integrated tool to support engineers for WMSDs risk assessment during the assembly line balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Raffaele; Fanti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper wants to present an integrated approach to Line Balancing and Risk Assessment and a Software Tool named ErgoAnalysis that makes it easy to control the whole production process and produces a Risk Index for the actual work tasks in an Assembly Line. Assembly Line Balancing, or simply Line Balancing, is the problem of assigning operations to workstations along an assembly line, in such a way that the assignment be optimal in some sense. Assembly lines are characterized by production constraints and restrictions due to several aspects such as the nature of the product and the flow of orders. To be able to respond effectively to the needs of production, companies need to frequently change the workload and production models. Each manufacturing process might be quite different from another. To optimize very specific operations, assembly line balancing might utilize a number of methods and the Engineer must consider ergonomic constraints, in order to reduce the risk of WMDSs. Risk Assessment may result very expensive because the Engineer must evaluate it at every change. ErgoAnalysis can reduce cost and improve effectiveness in Risk Assessment during the Line Balancing.

  3. On-line generalized Steiner problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, B.; Azar, Y.; Bartal, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    The Generalized Steiner Problem (GSP) is defined as follows. We are given a graph with non-negative weights and a set of pairs of vertices. The algorithm has to construct minimum weight subgraph such that the two nodes of each pair are connected by a path. We consider the on-line generalized Steiner problem, in which pairs of vertices arrive on-line and are needed to be connected immediately. We give a simple O(log{sup 2} n) competitive deterministic on-line algorithm. The previous best online algorithm (by Westbrook and Yan) was O({radical}n log n) competitive. We also consider the network connectivity leasing problem which is a generalization of the GSP. Here edges of the graph can be either bought or leased for different costs. We provide simple randomized O(log{sup 2} n) competitive algorithm based on the on-line generalized Steiner problem result.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT IN BREWERIES THROUGH LINE BALANCING USING HEURISTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSUYA EMEKE GREAT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic procedure for improving productivity in breweries companies. A case study of Champion brewery Plc, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State was adopted. The aim of this paper is to balance theProduction line of Champion lager beer. In the course of line balancing, the idle time and the number of workstations on the production line was minimized so as to maximize the efficiency of the production line. All the required data was measured and the parameters such as elapsed time at each work station, efficiencies,number of workers, time of each of the workstations etc. was calculated from the existing line. A new heuristic approach, the Longest Operation Time (LOT method was used in designing the new production line. After set up of the new production line, the cost of production and effectiveness of the new line was computed and compared with those of the existing one. The new production line was found to have been increased by a significant amount reducing the overall production cost per unit.

  5. Variable and Value Ordering When Solving Balanced Academic Curriculum Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Carlos; Manzano, Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of Constraint Programming for solving balanced academic curriculum problems. We discuss the important role that heuristics play when solving a problem using a constraint-based approach. We also show how constraint solving techniques allow to very efficiently solve combinatorial optimization problems that are too hard for integer programming techniques.

  6. Re-scheduling in railways: the rolling stock balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Budai-Balke (Gabriella); G. Maróti (Gábor); R. Dekker (Rommert); D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Balancing Problem (RSBP). This problem arises at a passenger railway operator when the rolling stock has to be re-scheduled due to changing circumstances. These problems arise both in the planning process and during operations. The RSBP has as inpu

  7. Some recent attempts to simulate the Heider balance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kulakowski, K

    2006-01-01

    The Heider balance is a sociological problem of a division of a community into hostile groups, where all interpersonal relations within the groups are friendly and all relations between the members of different groups are hostile. Here we trace how the research of the process of attaining the Heider balance has moved during last ten years from a psycho-social to a computational problem.

  8. Solving the Balanced Academic Curriculum Problem Using the ACO Metaheuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Miguel Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The balanced academic curriculum problem consists in the assignation of courses to academic periods satisfying all the load limits and prerequisite constraints. In this paper, we present the design of a solution to the balanced academic curriculum problem based on the ACO metaheuristic, in particular via the Best-Worst Ant System. We provide an experimental evaluation which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a set of classic benchmarks as well as on real instances.

  9. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  10. An Algorithm to detect balancing of iterated line sigraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepa; Sethi, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    A signedgraph (or sigraph in short) S is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value [Formula: see text] called its sign   denoted specially as [Formula: see text]. Given a sigraph S,  H = L(S)   called the line sigraph of S is that sigraph in which edges of S are represented as vertices, two of these vertices are defined to be adjacent whenever the corresponding edges in S have a vertex in common and any such edge ef is defined to be negative whenever both e and f are negative edges in S. Here S is called root sigraph of H. Iterated signed line graphs [Formula: see text] = [Formula: see text] k [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text], S:= [Formula: see text] is defined similarly. In this paper, we give an algorithm to obtain iterated line sigraph and detect for which value of 'k' it is balanced and determine its complexity. In the end we will propose a technique that will use adjacency matrix of S and adjacency matrix of [Formula: see text] which is balanced for some 'k' as a parameter to encrypt a network and forward the data in the form of balanced [Formula: see text] and will decrypt it by applying inverse matrix operations.

  11. Line Broadening and the Solar Opacity Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D.

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ˜100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.

  12. Line broadening and the solar opacity problem

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, M; Gazit, D

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of line widths constitutes a theoretical as well as a computational challenge in the calculation of opacities of hot dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra nearby the convection zone boundary (CZB) of the sun, indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project. In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line-broadening. Atomic spectra of several elements are analyzed and compared within the solar interior. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to changes in the Stark widths are shown to be significant and to result mainly due to K-shell lines. In light of the solar opacity problem, the results are compared with the required opacity variations of the present day sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. It is shown that an increase of the line widths res...

  13. A HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR POLE BALANCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır KARASULU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing techniques can be used effectively for solution of the complex scientific problems. Pole balancing problem is a basic benchmark tool of robotic field, which is an important field of Artificial Intelligence research areas. In this study, a solution is developed for pole balancing problem using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and high performance computation technique. Algorithm, that basis of the Reinforcement Learning method which is used to find the force of pole's balance, is transfered to parallel environment. In Implementation, C is preferred as programming language and Message Passing Interface (MPI is used for parallel computation technique. Self–Organizing Map (SOM ANN model's neurons (artificial neural nodes and their weights are distributed to six processors of a server computer which equipped with each quad core processor (total 24 processors. In this way, performance values are obtained for different number of artificial neural nodes. Success of method based on results is discussed.

  14. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  15. British pharmacists' work-life balance - is it a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seston, Elizabeth; Hassell, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Using a validated tool, the study aimed to explore pharmacists' experiences of maintaining work/life balance in a large, nationally representative sample of pharmacists in Great Britain (GB). A two-page postal questionnaire was sent in 2008 to all GB-domiciled pharmacists who were registered with the regulatory body for pharmacy in GB (just over 44 000 pharmacists). Demographic information, work patterns and other employment data were collected and analysed using regression techniques to explore the link between these characteristics and a validated measure of work/life balance. The response rate to the census was 69.6% (n = 30 517). Eighty-three per cent (n = 25 243) of respondents were working as a pharmacist and were therefore eligible to complete the work/life balance statements. The results reported here relate to 12 364 individuals who had full data for the work/life balance scale and the demographic and work variables. Findings indicate that age, ethnicity, having caring responsibilities, sector of practice, hours of work and type of job are significant predictors of work/life balance problems. Pharmacy employers and government should recognise the changing demographic characteristics of the profession and consider what support might be available to the workforce to help alleviate work/life balance problems being experienced by certain groups of pharmacists. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. In-line balanced detection stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Crisafi, Francesco

    2017-08-31

    We introduce a novel configuration for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, called In-line Balanced Detection (IBD), which employs a birefringent plate to generate a time-delayed polarization-multiplexed collinear replica of the probe, acting as a reference. Probe and reference cross the sample at the same position, thus maintaining their balance during image acquisition. IBD can be implemented in any conventional SRS setup, by adding a few simple elements, bringing its sensitivity close to the shot-noise limit even with a noisy laser. We tested IBD with a fiber-format laser system and observed signal-to-noise ratio improvement by up to 30 dB.

  17. Work Hours And Sorting Balancing Study of One Auto Mixed Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouqi Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the former sub-frame assembling mixed line balance of One Automotive Industry Corporation, the study has used the methods from Industrial Engineering such as ECRS and motion analysis principles to find the problem factors and has improved the stations and their work hours and decreased the number of workers to reduce the personnel cost. Meanwhile it has used FLEXSIM to simulate and got the best production scheduling plan to improve the production efficiency.

  18. EVALUATION OF ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING METHODS USING AN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP AND TECHNIQUE FOR ORDER PREFERENCES BY SIMILARITY TO IDEAL SOLUTION (TOPSIS BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines are special flow-line production systems which are of great importance in the industrial production of high quantity standardized commodities. In this article, assembly line balancing problem is formulated as a multi objective (criteria problem where four easily quantifiable objectives (criteria's are defined. Objectives (criteria's included are line efficiency, balance delay, smoothness index, and line time. And the value of these objectives is calculated by five different heuristics. In this paper, focus is made on the prioritization of assembly line balancing (ALB solution methods (heuristics and to select the best of them. For this purpose, a bench mark assembly line balancing problem is solved by five different heuristics and the value of objectives criteria's (performance measures of the line is determined. Finally the prioritization of heuristics is carried out through the use of AHP-TOPSIS based approach by solving an example.

  19. The base line problem in DLTS technique

    OpenAIRE

    G. Couturier; Thabti, A.; Barrière, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a solution to suppress the base line problem in DLTS spectroscopy using a lock-in amplifier. The method has been used to characterize deep levels in a GaAs Schottky diode. Comparison with the classical method based on the use of a capacitance meter in the differential mode is established. The electric field dependence of the DLTS signal in a weakly doped semiconductor is also reported and proves the efficiency of the method. Finally, the data process is discussed.

  20. Moving contact line problem: Advances and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid interface, which is ubiquitous in nature and our daily life, plays fundamental roles in a variety of physical-chemical-biological-mechanical phenomena, for example in lubrication, crystal growth, and many biological reactions that govern the building of human body and the functioning of brain. A surge of interests in the moving contact line (MCL problem, which is still going on today, can be traced back to 1970s primarily because of the existence of the “Huh-Scriven paradox”. This paper, mainly from a solid mechanics perspective, describes very briefly the multidisciplinary nature of the MCL problem, then summarizes some major advances in this exciting research area, and some future directions are presented.

  1. Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2007-02-01

    Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1. Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.

  2. Evolution Balancing of the Small-Sized Wheel Loader Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshen Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly line balancing not only directly determines production efficiency but also influences precision and quality of key assemblies or even the overall performance of final products. Driven by market demand and development of science and technology, product family must evolve constantly, which necessitates frequent adjustment and rebalancing of product family assembly line (PFAL. In order to maintain production efficiency, improve assembly quality and precision, and reduce costs for adjustment, the evolution balancing problem of PFAL for small-sized wheel loader is solved in this paper. Firstly, the evolution balancing model of PFAL is put forward. Then, with minimizing the number of workstations, the in-station and between-station load indexes and adjustment costs, and maximizing relevancy between activities as optimization objectives, meanwhile regarding product platform planning, modularity design and the critical chain technology in concurrent engineering as constraint conditions, the evolution balancing problem of PFAL is optimized using improved genetic algorithm (IGA. Finally, the whole analysis procedure is demonstrated by the small-sized wheel loader PFAL case study and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.

  3. Balancing Disassembly Line in Product Recovery to Promote the Coordinated Development of Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For environmentally conscious and sustainable manufacturing, many more manufacturers are acting to recycle and remanufacture their post-consumed products. The most critical process of remanufacturing is disassembly, since it allows for the selective extraction of the valuable components and materials from returned products to reduce the waste disposal volume. It is, therefore, important to design and balance the disassembly line to work efficiently due to its vital role in effective resource usage and environmental protection. Considering the disassembly precedence relationships and sequence-dependent parts removal time increments, this paper presents an improved discrete artificial bee colony algorithm (DABC for solving the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested against nine other approaches. Computational results evidently indicate the superior efficiency of the proposed algorithm for addressing the environmental and economic concerns while optimizing the multi-objective SDDLBP.

  4. Balancing Lexicographic Multi-Objective Assembly Lines with Multi-Manned Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip Kellegöz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-manned assembly line, tasks of the same workpiece can be executed simultaneously by different workers working in the same station. This line has significant advantages over a simple assembly line such as shorter line length, less work-in-process, smaller installation space, and less product flow time. In many realistic line balancing situations, there are usually more than one objective conflicting with each other. This paper presents a preemptive goal programming model and some heuristic methods based on variable neighborhood search approach for multi-objective assembly line balancing problems with multi-manned stations. Three different objectives are considered, minimizing the total number of multi-manned stations as the primary objective, minimizing the total number of workers as the secondary objective, and smoothing the number of workers at stations as the tertiary objective. A set of test instances taken from the literature is solved to compare the performance of all methods, and results are presented.

  5. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  6. A Weighted Multiobjective Optimization Method for Mixed-Model Assembly Line Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Şükran Şeker; Mesut Özgürler; Mehmet Tanyaş

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-model assembly line (MMAL) is a type of assembly line where several distinct models of a product are assembled. MMAL is applied in many industrial environments today because of its greater variety in demand. This paper considers the objective of minimizing the work overload (i.e., the line balancing problem) and station-to-station product flows. Generally, transportation time between stations are ignored in the literature. In this paper, Multiobjective Mixed-Integer Programming (MOMIP)...

  7. On the complexity of the balanced vertex ordering problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a balanced ordering of the vertices of a graph. More precisely, we want to minimise the sum, taken over all vertices v, of the difference between the number of neighbours to the left and right of v. This problem, which has applications in graph drawing, was recently introduced by Biedl et al. [Discrete Applied Math. 148:27--48, 2005]. They proved that the problem is solvable in polynomial time for graphs with maximum degree three, but NP-hard for graphs with maximum degree six. One of our main results is to close the gap in these results, by proving NP-hardness for graphs with maximum degree four. Furthermore, we prove that the problem remains NP-hard for planar graphs with maximum degree four and for 5-regular graphs. On the other hand, we introduce a polynomial time algorithm that determines whetherthere is a vertex ordering with total imbalance smaller than a fixed constant, and a polynomial time algorithm that determines whether a given multigraph with even degrees has an `almost balanced' ordering.

  8. Algorithms for semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the classical multiprocessor scheduling problems, it is assumed that the problems are considered in off-line or on-line environment. But in practice, problems are often not really off-line or on-line but somehow in between. This means that, with respect to the on-line problem, some further information about the tasks is available, which allows the improvement of the performance of the best possible algorithms. Problems of this class are called semi on-line ones. The authors studied two semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems, in which, the total processing time of all tasks is known in advance, or all processing times lie in a given interval. They proposed approximation algorithms for minimizing the makespan and analyzed their performance guarantee. The algorithms improve the known results for 3 or more processor cases in the literature.

  9. Water--Problems and Solutions. A Report Concerning the Problems and Solutions of Negative Water Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    Outdoor leaders constantly face problems created by water shortage and, to act effectively, must thoroughly understand the body's use of water and the ways to delay dehydration when water shortage occurs. Dehydration begins when there is a negative water balance, or more water lost than ingested, and progresses from the stage of dryness, to the…

  10. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention. Twenty-

  11. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention.

  12. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  13. MILP model for integrated balancing and sequencing mixed-model two-sided assembly line with variable launching interval and assignment restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. I. L. Mohd; Ahmad, R.; Zainuddin, Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    This research explores the Mixed-Model Two-Sided Assembly Line (MMTSAL). There are two interrelated problems in MMTSAL which are line balancing and model sequencing. In previous studies, many researchers considered these problems separately and only few studied them simultaneously for one-sided line. However in this study, these two problems are solved simultaneously to obtain more efficient solution. The Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with objectives of minimizing total utility work and idle time is generated by considering variable launching interval and assignment restriction constraint. The problem is analysed using small-size test cases to validate the integrated model. Throughout this paper, numerical experiment was conducted by using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) with the solver CPLEX. Experimental results indicate that integrating the problems of model sequencing and line balancing help to minimise the proposed objectives function.

  14. Balancing mixed-model assembly lines: A computational evaluation of objectives to smoothen workload

    OpenAIRE

    Emde, Simon; Boysen, Nils; Scholl, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Mixed-model assembly lines are widely used in a range of production settings, such as the final assembly of the automotive and electronics industries, where they are applied to mass-produce standardized commodities. One of the greatest challenges when installing and reconfiguring these lines is the vast product variety modern mixed-model assembly lines have to cope with. Traditionally, product variety is bypassed during mid-term assembly line balancing by applying a joint ...

  15. THE INTERACTION PROBLEM BETWEEN THE ELASTIC LINE INCLUSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶昉敏; 张明焕; 汤任基

    2002-01-01

    Using the engineering model of elastic line inclusion and the basic solutions of a single inclusion, the interaction problem between line inclusions in an elastic solid was investigated. A set of standard Cauchy-type singular equations of the problem was presented. The stress intensity factors at points of inclusions and the interface stresses of two sides of the inclusion were calculated. Several numerical examples were given. The results could be regarded as a reference to engineering.

  16. Impact of different disassembly line balancing algorithms on the performance of dynamic kanban system for disassembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we compare the impact of different disassembly line balancing (DLB) algorithms on the performance of our recently introduced Dynamic Kanban System for Disassembly Line (DKSDL) to accommodate the vagaries of uncertainties associated with disassembly and remanufacturing processing. We consider a case study to illustrate the impact of various DLB algorithms on the DKSDL. The approach to the solution, scenario settings, results and the discussions of the results are included.

  17. A Weighted Multiobjective Optimization Method for Mixed-Model Assembly Line Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Şeker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-model assembly line (MMAL is a type of assembly line where several distinct models of a product are assembled. MMAL is applied in many industrial environments today because of its greater variety in demand. This paper considers the objective of minimizing the work overload (i.e., the line balancing problem and station-to-station product flows. Generally, transportation time between stations are ignored in the literature. In this paper, Multiobjective Mixed-Integer Programming (MOMIP model is presented to optimize these two criteria simultaneously. Also, this MOMIP model incorporates a practical constraint that allows to add parallel stations to assembly line to decrease higher station time. In the last section, MOMIP is applied to optimize the cycle time and transportation time simultaneously in mixed-model assembly line of a real consumer electronics firm in Turkey, and computational results are presented.

  18. Are Balance Problems Connected to Reading Speed or the Familial Risk of Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Kooistra, Libbe

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the connection between balance problems and reading speed in children with and without a familial risk of dyslexia by controlling for the effects of attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and motor functioning. Method: The prevalence of balance problems was studied in 94 children (48 females, 46 males)…

  19. Are balance problems connected to reading speed or the familial risk of dyslexia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Kooistra, Libbe

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the connection between balance problems and reading speed in children with and without a familial risk of dyslexia by controlling for the effects of attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and motor functioning. METHOD: The prevalence of balance problems was

  20. Resolución del “Lexicographic Bottleneck Assembly Line Balancing Problem” mediante métodos heurísticos

    OpenAIRE

    Chueca Closa, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es la resolución, mediante métodos heurísticos, de una variante novedosa y poco tratada del Problema de Equilibrado de Líneas de Montaje o Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP). Dentro del ALBP se trata la tipología de problema Lexicographic Bottleneck Assembly Line Balancing Problem (LB-ALBP), cuyo objetivo es: dado un número determinado de estaciones, minimizar el tiempo de la estación más cargada (tiempo de ciclo), posteriormente el tiempo de...

  1. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  2. Balance Roles of School Principals in the Light of Their Tasks-Related Problem Solving Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail YILDIRIM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to elicit problem solving stories of school principals about the balance which they had to maintain and present these stories as case studies to other school principals at practice. This is a qualitative research aiming at analyzing school principals’ problem solving stories about the problems they encountered in the past. The research employs the case study method. Twenty-two school principals working in the center, districts, and villages of Tokat, Turkey constitute the sample of the research. In the research, snowball or chain sampling approaches, which are appropriate for qualitative research tradition, were used to form the sample. Interview technique was employed as the data collection method. Data were analyzed by “content analysis” method. As a result of the research, it is observed that school principals are confronted with a lot of problems. It is observed that initially the balance between the parts that make up the system is lost when school principals are solving the problems. This situation is in fact, reinstating the balance. The balance is reinstated while school principal is solving the problems. It is detected that school principals also look after several balances while solving these problems. It is concluded that school principals use innovative balance when solving the problems they encounter. In the light of the findings of this study, school principals can be given in-service training seminars about innovative balance roles.

  3. Digital simulation studies on long transmission line protection based on balance of energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文明浩; 陈德树; 尹项根

    2001-01-01

    The protection based balance of energy is a new technique specially proposed for long transmission lines. This technique depends upon the calculation of net energy into the transmission line by two independent methods and comparing them to indicate healthy and faulty conditions. In order to study the performance and feasibility of the protection based on balance of energy, the new protection has been extensively tested by using EMTP on a long transmission line with various configurations and operating conditions (including single pole line, double circuit lines and two-phase operation). The results calculated by EMTP show that under any condition of a power system, the proposed technique has excellent performance,the viability even for high resistance ground faults and a short operation time.

  4. Theoretical quasar emission-line ratios. VII - Energy-balance models for finite hydrogen slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E. N.; Puetter, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The present energy balance calculations for finite, isobaric, hydrogen-slab quasar emission line clouds incorporate probabilistic radiative transfer (RT) in all lines and bound-free continua of a five-level continuum model hydrogen atom. Attention is given to the line ratios, line formation regions, level populations and model applicability results obtained. H lines and a variety of other considerations suggest the possibility of emission line cloud densities in excess of 10 to the 10th/cu cm. Lyman-beta/Lyman-alpha line ratios that are in agreement with observed values are obtained by the models. The observed Lyman/Balmer ratios can be achieved with clouds whose column depths are about 10 to the 22nd/sq cm.

  5. Problems of application of the balanced system of indicators on domestic enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Savchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to theoretical and methodical basics of the implementation of Balanced Scorecard in business organization. There were fundamental problems, advantages and disadvantages defined by the authors; methodical approaches to the choice of strategies and stages of formation and introduction of Balanced Scorecard analyzed; essential principles of development of key performance indicators for building-up of Balanced Scorecard formulated.

  6. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention. Twenty-eight children with BP and 20 TD-children participated in the study. Motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC2), three subtests of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test (BOT2): Bilateral Coordination, Balance and Running Speed & Agility, and a Wii Fit ski slalom test. The TD children and half of the children in the BP group were tested before and after a 6weeks non-intervention period. All children with BP received 6weeks of Wii Fit intervention (with games other than the ski game) and were tested before and afterwards. Children with BP were less proficient than TD children in playing the Wii Fit ski slalom game. Training with the Wii Fit improved their motor performance. The improvement was significantly larger after intervention than after a period of non-intervention. Therefore the change cannot solely be attributed to spontaneous development or test-retest effect. Nearly all children enjoyed participation during the 6weeks of intervention. Our study shows that Wii Fit intervention is effective and is potentially a method to support treatment of (dynamic) balance control problems in children.

  7. Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jensen Quas, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale, Kirsten Jensen Quas& Morten Arendt Rasmussen (2016): Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1188475......Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale, Kirsten Jensen Quas& Morten Arendt Rasmussen (2016): Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1188475...

  8. Balancing a U-Shaped Assembly Line by Applying Nested Partitions Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagwat, Nikhil V. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we applied the Nested Partitions method to a U-line balancing problem and conducted experiments to evaluate the application. From the results, it is quite evident that the Nested Partitions method provided near optimal solutions (optimal in some cases). Besides, the execution time is quite short as compared to the Branch and Bound algorithm. However, for larger data sets, the algorithm took significantly longer times for execution. One of the reasons could be the way in which the random samples are generated. In the present study, a random sample is a solution in itself which requires assignment of tasks to various stations. The time taken to assign tasks to stations is directly proportional to the number of tasks. Thus, if the number of tasks increases, the time taken to generate random samples for the different regions also increases. The performance index for the Nested Partitions method in the present study was the number of stations in the random solutions (samples) generated. The total idle time for the samples can be used as another performance index. ULINO method is known to have used a combination of bounds to come up with good solutions. This approach of combining different performance indices can be used to evaluate the random samples and obtain even better solutions. Here, we used deterministic time values for the tasks. In industries where majority of tasks are performed manually, the stochastic version of the problem could be of vital importance. Experimenting with different objective functions (No. of stations was used in this study) could be of some significance to some industries where in the cost associated with creation of a new station is not the same. For such industries, the results obtained by using the present approach will not be of much value. Labor costs, task incompletion costs or a combination of those can be effectively used as alternate objective functions.

  9. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  10. NET balancing: A problem in inflammatory lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Z Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are beneficial antimicrobial defense structures that can help fight against invading pathogens in the host. However, recent studies reveal that NETs exert adverse effects in a number of diseases including many lung diseases. Most of the inflammatory lung diseases are characterized with a massive influx of neutrophils into the airways. Neutrophils contribute to the pathology of these diseases. To date, NETs have been identified in the lungs of cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, allergic asthma and lungs infected with bacteria, virus, or fungi. These microbes and several host factors can stimulate NET formation, or NETosis. Different forms of NETosis have been identified; these NETotic pathways are dependent on the types of stimuli. All of these pathways however appear to result in the formation of NETs with DNA, modified extracellular histones, proteases and cytotoxic enzymes. Some of the NET components are immunogenic and damaging to the host tissue. Innate immune collectins such as pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D binds NETs, and enhances the clearance of dying cells and DNA by alveolar macrophages. In many inflammatory lung diseases, bronchoalveolar SP-D levels are altered and its deficiency results in the accumulation of DNA in the lungs. Some of the other therapeutic molecules under consideration for treating NET-related diseases include DNases, antiproteases, myeloperoxidase inhibitors, peptidylarginine deiminase-4 inhibitors and anti-histone antibodies. Too much of the good thing can be a bad thing. Maintaining the right balance of NET formation and reducing the amounts of NETs that accumulate in the tissues are essential for harnessing the power of NETs with minimal damage to the hosts.

  11. The Family Problem: Hints from Heterotic Line Bundle Models

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Andrei; Mishra, Challenger

    2015-01-01

    Within the class of heterotic line bundle models, we argue that N=1 vacua which lead to a small number of low-energy chiral families are preferred. By imposing an upper limit on the volume of the internal manifold, as required in order to obtain finite values of the four-dimensional gauge couplings, and validity of the supergravity approximation we show that, for a given manifold, only a finite number of line bundle sums are consistent with supersymmetry. By explicitly scanning over this finite set of line bundle models on certain manifolds we show that, for a sufficiently small volume of the internal manifold, the family number distribution peaks at small values, consistent with three chiral families. The relation between the maximal number of families and the gauge coupling is discussed, which hints towards a possible explanation of the family problem.

  12. A mouse chromosome 4 balancer ENU-mutagenesis screen isolates eleven lethal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskowitz Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ENU-mutagenesis is a powerful technique to identify genes regulating mammalian development. To functionally annotate the distal region of mouse chromosome 4, we performed an ENU-mutagenesis screen using a balancer chromosome targeted to this region of the genome. Results We isolated 11 lethal lines that map to the region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit117 and D4Mit281. These lines form 10 complementation groups. The majority of lines die during embryonic development between E5.5 and E12.5 and display defects in gastrulation, cardiac development, and craniofacial development. One line displayed postnatal lethality and neurological defects, including ataxia and seizures. Conclusion These eleven mutants allow us to query gene function within the distal region of mouse chromosome 4 and demonstrate that new mouse models of mammalian developmental defects can easily and quickly be generated and mapped with the use of ENU-mutagenesis in combination with balancer chromosomes. The low number of mutations isolated in this screen compared with other balancer chromosome screens indicates that the functions of genes in different regions of the genome vary widely.

  13. Effect of light touch on postural sway in individuals with balance problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, A M S; Alouche, S R; Araujo, I M G; Freitas, S M S F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to examine the experimental, case-control studies that investigated the effect of light touch on postural sway in individuals with balance problems due to aging, brain lesion or other motor or sensory deficits. Articles published before the end of March of 2013 were searched in PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs databases using terms related to postural control and sensory information. Twelve studies that assessed the postural sway of individuals with balance problems during quiet standing with the light touch using a force plate were reviewed. Two reviewers rated all selected articles as having good quality. The effect of light touch on postural control was reported by all eligible studies regardless of the cause of the balance problem of the participants. Such effect was more evident when the applied vertical force was greater than 1N, but if individuals with poor balance took more advantage of the light touch than healthy ones it depended on the source of their balance problems and not the amount of the applied force. These findings suggested that the maintenance of the fingertip lightly touching an external surface could provide additional somatosensory information for individuals with poor balance and then it could be used as a strategy to improve the control of upright standing during intervention programs.

  14. Framework to Solve Load Balancing Problem in Heterogeneous Web Servers

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ms Deepti

    2011-01-01

    For popular websites most important concern is to handle incoming load dynamically among web servers, so that they can respond to their client without any wait or failure. Different websites use different strategies to distribute load among web servers but most of the schemes concentrate on only one factor that is number of requests, but none of the schemes consider the point that different type of requests will require different level of processing efforts to answer, status record of all the web servers that are associated with one domain name and mechanism to handle a situation when one of the servers is not working. Therefore, there is a fundamental need to develop strategy for dynamic load allocation on web side. In this paper, an effort has been made to introduce a cluster based frame work to solve load distribution problem. This framework aims to distribute load among clusters on the basis of their operational capabilities. Moreover, the experimental results are shown with the help of example, algorithm...

  15. Postural deformities: potential morbidities to cause balance problems in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar, Ece; Akkoç, Yeşim; Karapolat, Hale; Durusoy, Raika; Keser, Gökhan

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of postural deformities caused by ankylosing spondylitis (AS) on balance problems. This study included 29 patients with AS and 21 healthy controls. For assessing exercise capacity and dynamic balance, timed up and go test, five times sit-to-stand test, gait speed, and 6-min walk test were performed. Romberg tests were used to evaluate static balance and proprioception, whereas Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Activity Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and functional reach test were used to assess dynamic balance and the risk of falling. Using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) scores, patients with AS were divided into two groups: those with scores 0-4 were assigned to subgroup AS1, and those with scores 5-10 were assigned to subgroup AS2. In the whole group of patients with AS, five times sit-to-stand test, tandem Romberg test with eyes closed, and BBS and ABC scores were significantly worse than the healthy controls (p<0.05). In the AS2 subgroup having more severe and advanced disease, five additional parameters, including timed up and go test, 6-min walk test, functional reach test, FGA, and DHI scores were also significantly worse than the healthy controls (p<0.05). Comparing the two subgroups with each other, only BBS scores were significantly worse in the AS2 subgroup than in the AS1 subgroup. Although in clinical practice, poor balance is not a common problem in AS, possibly because of compensatory mechanisms, patients with AS have poorer static and dynamic balance than healthy subjects. Significantly worse BBS scores in the AS2 subgroup than in the AS1 subgroup may suggest the presence of more dynamic balance problems in advanced disease; however, future studies comprising larger samples are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  16. Mercury's cross-tail current sheet: Structure, X-line location and stress balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James A.; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim M.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Sun, Wei-Jie; Gershman, Daniel J.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Genestreti, Kevin J.; Smith, Andy W.

    2017-01-01

    The structure, X-line location, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stress balance of Mercury's magnetotail were examined between -2.6 MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) measurements from 319 central plasma sheet (CPS) crossings. The mean plasma β in the CPS calculated from MESSENGER data is 6. The CPS magnetic field was southward (i.e., tailward of X-line) 2-18% of the time. Extrapolation of downtail variations in BZ indicates an average X-line location at -3 RM. Modeling of magnetic field measurements produced a cross-tail current sheet (CS) thickness, current density, and inner CS edge location of 0.39 RM, 92 nA/m2 and -1.22 RM, respectively. Application of MHD stress balance suggests that heavy planetary ions may be important in maintaining stress balance within Mercury's CPS. Qualitative similarities between Mercury's and Earth's magnetotail are remarkable given the differences in upstream conditions, internal plasma composition, finite gyro-radius scaling, and Mercury's lack of ionosphere.

  17. Resilience and work-life balance in first-line nurse manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Windsor, Carol

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how first-line nurse managers constructed the meaning of resilience and its relationship to work-life balance for nurses in Korea. Participants were 20 first-line nurse managers working in six university hospitals. Data were collected through in-depth interviews from December 2011 to August 2012, and analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. Analysis revealed that participants perceived work-life balance and resilience to be shaped by dynamic, reflective processes. The features consisting resilience included "positive thinking", "flexibility", "assuming responsibility", and "separating work and life". This perception of resilience has the potential to facilitate a shift in focus from negative to positive experiences, from rigidity to flexibility, from task-centered to person-centered thinking, and from the organization to life. Recognizing the importance of work-life balance in producing and sustaining resilience in first-line nurse managers could increase retention in the Korean nursing workforce. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The load-balanced multi-dimensional bin-packing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    that the average center of mass of the loaded bins falls as close as possible to an ideal point, for instance, the center of the bin. We formally describe the problem using mixed-integer linear programming models, from the simple case where we want to optimally balance a set of items already assigned to a single...... bin, to the general balanced bin-packing problem. Given the difficulty for standard solvers to deal even with small size instances, a multi-level local search heuristic is presented. The algorithm takes advantage of the Fekete-Schepers representation of feasible packings in terms of particular classes...

  19. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis Cataracts Fainting (Syncope) Falls Prevention Hearing Loss Macular Degeneration Physical Activity Related News Older Adults’ Use of Mobility Devices is on the Rise Thursday, May 7, ...

  20. Balance and optimization research of PCB production line%PCB生产线平衡改善研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2014-01-01

    In PCB production line operation the research object, from A company in certain conditions continued to improve production line. Production line bottleneck problem is analyzed with model method; Use ECRS method to reduce working procedure number and number; USES the advanced mechanical equipment and improves the operation time of SMT system compiler to improve production line balance rate and product quality, reduce cost, a very good competitive benefit finally.%以A公司的PCB的生产线作业研究对象,在特定的条件下持续对生产线进行改善。用模特法分析生产线瓶颈问题;用ECRS方法减少工序数和动作次数;采用先进的机械器具和编译程序提高SMT系统的作业时间来提高生产线的平衡率和产品质量,降低成本,最后产生很好的竞技效益。

  1. Application of Heat Balance Integral Methods to One-Dimensional Phase Change Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM to solve a number of thermal and phase change problems which occur in a multitude of industrial contexts. As part of our analysis, we propose a new error measure for the HBIM that combines the least-squares error with a boundary immobilisation method. We describe how to determine this error for three basic thermal problems and show how it can be used to determine an optimal heat balance formulation. We then show how the HBIM, with the new error measure, may be used to approximate the solution of an aircraft deicing problem. Finally we apply the new method to two industrially important phase change problems.

  2. Network Model for The Problem of Integer Balancing of a Fourdimensional Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of integer balancing of a four-dimensional matrix is studied. The elements of the inner part (all four indices are greater than zero of the given real matrix are summed in each direction and each two- and three-dimensional section of the matrix; the total sum is also found. These sums are placed into the elements where one or more indices are equal to zero (according to the summing directions. The problem is to find an integer matrix of the same structure, which can be produced from the initial one by replacing the elements with the largest previous or the smallest following integer. At the same time, the element with four zero indices should be produced with standard rules of rounding - off. In the article the problem of finding the maximum multiple flow in the network of any natural multiplicity   is also studied. There are arcs of three types: ordinary arcs, multiple arcs and multi-arcs. Each multiple and multi-arc is a union of   linked arcs, which are adjusted with each other. The network constructing rules are described. The definitions of a divisible network and some associated subjects are stated. There are defined the basic principles for reducing the integer balancing problem of an  -dimensional matrix (  to the problem of finding the maximum flow in a divisible multiple network of multiplicity  . There are stated the rules for reducing the four-dimensional balancing problem to the maximum flow problem in the network of multiplicity 5. The algorithm of finding the maximum flow, which meets the solvability conditions for the integer balancing problem, is formulated for such a network.

  3. On—Line Predicting Behaviors of Jobs in Dynamic Load Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠九滨; 徐高潮; 等

    1996-01-01

    A key issue of dynamic load balancing in a lossely coupled distributed system is selecting appropriate jobs to transfer.In this paper,a job selection policy based on on-line predicting behaviors of jobs is proposed.Tracing is used at the beginning of execution of a job to predict the approximate execution time and resource requirements of th job so as to make a correct decision about whether transferring the job is worthwhil.A dynamic load balancer using the job selection policy has been implemented.Experimental measurement results show that the policy proposed is able to improve mean response time of jobs and resource utilization of systems substantially.

  4. Unified characteristics line theory of spacial axisymmetric plastic problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞茂宏; 李建春; 张永强

    2001-01-01

    The unified strength theory proposed by Yu in 1991 is extended to spacial axisymmetric problem. A unified spacial axismymmetric characteristics line theory based on the unified strength theory is proposed. This theory takes account of different effects of intermediate principal stress on yielding or failure and the SD effect (tensile-compression strength difference) of materials. Various conventional axisymmetric characteristics line theories, whihc are based on the Haar-von Karman plastic condition, Szczepinski hypothesis, Tresca criterion, von Mises criterion and Mohr-Coulomb theory, are special cases of the new theory. Besides, a series of new spacial axisymmetric characteristics fields for different materials can be introduced. It forms a unified spacial axisymmetric characteristics theory. Two examples are calculated with the new theory, the results are compared with those obtained by the finite element program UEPP and those based on the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory. It is shown that the new theory is reliable and feasible. The economic benefit can be obtained from the engineering application of the new theory.

  5. Architecture of energy balance traits in emerging lines of the Collaborative Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Aylor, David L; Miller, Darla R; Churchill, Gary A; Chesler, Elissa J; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The potential utility of the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse resource was evaluated to better understand complex traits related to energy balance. A primary focus was to examine if genetic diversity in emerging CC lines (pre-CC) would translate into equivalent phenotypic diversity. Second, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 metabolism- and exercise-related phenotypes in this population. We evaluated metabolic and voluntary exercise traits in 176 pre-CC lines, revealing phenotypic variation often exceeding that seen across the eight founder strains from which the pre-CC was derived. Many phenotypic correlations existing within the founder strains were no longer significant in the pre-CC population, potentially representing reduced linkage disequilibrium (LD) of regions harboring multiple genes with effects on energy balance or disruption of genetic structure of extant inbred strains with substantial shared ancestry. QTL mapping revealed five significant and eight suggestive QTL for body weight (Chr 4, 7.54 Mb; CI 3.32-10.34 Mb; Bwq14), body composition, wheel running (Chr 16, 33.2 Mb; CI 32.5-38.3 Mb), body weight change in response to exercise (1: Chr 6, 77.7Mb; CI 72.2-83.4 Mb and 2: Chr 6, 42.8 Mb; CI 39.4-48.1 Mb), and food intake during exercise (Chr 12, 85.1 Mb; CI 82.9-89.0 Mb). Some QTL overlapped with previously mapped QTL for similar traits, whereas other QTL appear to represent novel loci. These results suggest that the CC will be a powerful, high-precision tool for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as those involved in regulation of energy balance.

  6. 双边多工位装配线平衡问题%Heuristic algorithm of two-sided with multi-parallel stations assembly line balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏林; 殷复鹏; 吴爱华

    2013-01-01

    针对装配线上一个位置左右两边各有多个工位的装配线平衡问题建立数学模型,提出一种启发式平衡算法.该算法分为两个阶段,阶段1从未分配的作业元素中找出能够分配给某一位置的作业,构成集合W;阶段2按照不违背作业优先关系、方位约束和工位时间不超过节拍的原则,把W中的部分或全部作业元素分配到该位置内的各工位上;依此循环,直至所有作业元素分配完毕.以某重型汽车装配翻车前的装配线平衡为例,说明了所提算法的有效性.%To study the complex assembly line balancing problem, such as two-sided with multi-stations assembly line balancing problem, a mathematical model based on some assumptions to this problem was set up and a heuristic balancing algorithm was proposed. The algorithm had two phases. Phase one was to find out the operations which could be assigned to one position, corresponding to the constraint conditions in the mathematical model, and set up the set W with them. And phase two was to select and assign operations from W to the right station of the position without violating rules as precedence, position constraint and station time. All operations' assignments were completed based on this cycle. Finally, a truck assembly line balancing problem was provided as example to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  7. Modeling the Scheduling Problem of Identical Parallel Machines with Load Balancing by Time Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhri Larbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal resources allocation to tasks was the primary objective of the research dealing with scheduling problems. These problems are characterized by their complexity, known as NP-hard in most cases. Currently with the evolution of technology, classical methods are inadequate because they degrade system performance (inflexibility, inefficient resources using policy, etc.. In the context of parallel and distributed systems, several computing units process multitasking applications in concurrent way. Main goal of such process is to schedule tasks and map them on the appropriate machines to achieve the optimal overall system performance (Minimize the Make-span and balance the load among the machines. In this paper we present a Time Petri Net (TPN based approach to solve the scheduling problem by mapping each entity (tasks, resources and constraints to correspondent one in the TPN. In this case, the scheduling problem can be reduced to finding an optimal sequence of transitions leading from an initial marking to a final one. Our approach improves the classical mapping algorithms by introducing a control over resources allocation and by taking into consideration the resource balancing aspect leading to an acceptable state of the system. The approach is applied to a specific class of problems where the machines are parallel and identical. This class is analyzed by using the TiNA (Time Net Analyzer tool software developed in the LAAS laboratory (Toulouse, France.

  8. Unified characteristics line theory of spacial axisymmetric plastic problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Maohong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Johnson, W., Sowerby, R., Venter, R. D., Plane Strain Slip Line Fields for Metal Deformation Processes——A Source Book and Bibliography, New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.[2]Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.[3]Sokolovsky, V. V., Theory of Plasticity(in Russia), Moskow: Nat. Tech. Press, 1950.[4]Kachanov, L. M., Foundations Theory of Plasticity, London: North-Holland, 1975.[5]Shield, R. T., On the plastic flow of metal condition of axial symmetry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1955, 233A: 267.[6]Lippmann, H., IUTAM Symposium on Metal Forming Plasticity, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979.[7]Spencer, A. J. M., The approximate solution of certain problem of axially-symmetric plastic flow, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1964, 12: 231.[8]Wang, R., Xiong, Z. H., Wang, W. B., Foundation of Plasticity (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1982.[9]Collins, I. E., Dewhurst, P., A slip line field analysis of asymmetrical hot rolling, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1975, 17: 643.[10]Collins, I. F., Slip line field analysis of forming processes in plane strain and axial symmetry, Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984, 11: 1074.[11]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., Liu, C. Y. et al., Unified plane-strain slip line field theory system, J. Civil Engineering (in Chinese), 1997, 30(2): 14[12]Simmons, J. A., Hauser, F., Dorn, E., Mathematical Theories of Plastic Deformation Under Impulsive Loading, Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.[13]Lin, C. C., On a perturbation theory based on the method of characteristies, J. Math. Phys., 1954, 33: 117—134.[14]Hopkins, H. G., The method of characteristics and its applications to the theory of stress waver in solids, in Engineering Plasticity, Combridge: Combridge University Press, 1968, 277—315.[15]Shield, R. T., The plastic indentation of a layer by a flat punch, Quart. Appl. Math., 1955, 13: 27.[16]Haar, A., von

  9. Application of Intelligence Based Genetic Algorithm for Job Sequencing Problem on Parallel Mixed-Model Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Norozi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the area of globalization the degree of competition in the market increased and many companies attempted to manufacture the products efficiently to overcome the challenges faced. Approach: Mixed model assembly line was able to provide continuous flow of material and flexibility with regard to model change. The problem under study attempted to describe the mathematical programming limitation for minimizing the overall make-span and balancing objective for set of parallel lines. Results: A proposed mixed-integer model only able to find the best job sequence in each line to meet the problem objectives for the given number of job allotted to each line. Hence using the proposed mathematical model for large size problem was time consuming and inefficient as so many job allocation values should be checked. This study presented an intelligence based genetic algorithm approach to optimize the considered problem objectives through reducing the problem complexity. A heuristic algorithm was introduced to generate the initial population for intelligence based genetic algorithm. Then, it started to find the best sequence of jobs for each line based on the generated population by heuristic algorithm. By this means, intelligence based genetic algorithm only concentrated on those initial populations that produce better solutions instead of probing the entire search space. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results obtained from intelligence based genetic algorithm were used as an initial point for fine-tuning by simulated annealing to increase the quality of solution. In order to check the capability of proposed algorithm, several experimentations on the set of problems were done. As the total objective values in most of problems could not be improved by simulated algorithm, it proved the well performing of proposed intelligence based genetic algorithm in reaching the near optimal solutions.

  10. Diffusive Heat Transport in Budyko's Energy Balance Climate Model with a Dynamic Ice Line

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, James

    2016-01-01

    M. Budyko and W. Sellers independently introduced seminal energy balance climate models in 1969, each with a goal of investigating the role played by positive ice albedo feedback in climate dynamics. In this paper we replace the relaxation to the mean horizontal heat transport mechanism used in the models of Budyko and Sellers with diffusive heat transport. We couple the resulting surface temperature equation with an equation for movement of the edge of the ice sheet (called the ice line), recently introduced by E. Widiasih. We apply the spectral method to the temperature-ice line system and consider finite approximations. We prove there exists a stable equilibrium solution with a small ice cap, and an unstable equilibrium solution with a large ice cap, for a range of parameter values. If the diffusive transport is too efficient, however, the small ice cap disappears and an ice free Earth becomes a limiting state. In addition, we analyze a variant of the coupled diffusion equations appropriate as a model for ...

  11. A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing

    2008-12-10

    The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Rajvi H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF...

  13. Introduction of a Population Balance Based Design Problem in a Particle Science and Technology Course for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Castellanos, Patricia; Dwivedi, Vivek; Diemer, R. Bertrum

    2007-01-01

    A particle technology design problem incorporating population balance modeling was developed and assigned to senior and first-year graduate students in a Particle Science and Technology course. The problem focused on particle collection, with a pipeline agglomerator, Cyclone, and baghouse comprising the collection system. The problem was developed…

  14. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  15. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers. PMID:28704489

  16. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  17. Problems and solutions for microprocessor protection of series compensated lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novosel, D. [ABB Transmission Technology Inst., Raleigh, NC (United States); Phadke, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Saha, M.M.; Lindahl, S. [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Protection of systems with series compensated lines is considered to be one of the most difficult tasks for relay manufacturers and utility engineers. Protection and control of surrounding circuit elements, particularly transmission line protection, needs to be adapted to the variations introduced by these devices. Fixed series capacitors and thyristor controlled devices introduce harmonics and non-linearities which adversely impact the protection function. To take full advantage of the series capacitor installation in a utility network, it is necessary to explore the impact of series capacitors on protection and implement appropriate schemes. (author)

  18. Modeling nonlinear problems in the mechanics of strings and rods the role of the balance laws

    CERN Document Server

    O'Reilly, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    This book presents theories of deformable elastic strings and rods and their application to broad classes of problems. Readers will gain insights into the formulation and analysis of models for mechanical and biological systems. Emphasis is placed on how the balance laws interplay with constitutive relations to form a set of governing equations. For certain classes of problems, it is shown how a balance of material momentum can play a key role in forming the equations of motion. The first half of the book is devoted to the purely mechanical theory of a string and its applications. The second half of the book is devoted to rod theories, including Euler’s theory of the elastica, Kirchhoff ’s theory of an elastic rod, and a range of Cosserat rod theories. A variety of classic and recent applications of these rod theories are examined. Two supplemental chapters, the first on continuum mechanics of three-dimensional continua and the second on methods from variational calculus, are included to provide relevant ...

  19. The Off-line Group Seat Reservation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Hjorth, Allan Nordlunde; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of assigning seats in a train for a group of people traveling together. We consider two variants of the problem. One is a special case of two-dimensional knapsack where we consider the train as having fixed size and the objective is to maximize the utilization...... of the seats in the train. The second is a special case of two-dimensional bin packing where all requests must be accommodated while trying to minimize the number of passenger cars needed. For both variants of the problem we present a number of bounds and develop exact algorithms. Computational results...

  20. Process monitoring and modeling of a continuous pharmaceutical from powder to tablet process Line using a mass & energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Thomas De; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    The intention to shift from batch to continuous production processes within the pharmaceutical industry enhances the need to monitor and control the process in-line and real-time to continuously guarantee the end-product quality. Mass and energy balances have been successfully applied to a drying...

  1. BALANCE CAPACITY WITH VARIABILITY CAUSED BY HUMAN FACTOR: AN APPLICATION IN A LINE WITH MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sandes Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The variation in processing times due to the human factor between the working stations of a production line can generate queues resulting in a higher cost to the productive process. The objective of this study was to apply Monte Carlo simulation to balance the capacity of a production line with stations suffering variability in processing time due to the human factor. Simulations of the current situation of the production line were performed by comparing it with a proposal to align capacity with the production restriction in order to reduce inventories process while maintaining full capacity of the line. To develop the study, the selection involves the case of a company’s production line in the metal industry that produces machinery and products for metalworking area. The results allowed pointing suggestions for the company to reduce in-process inventory, keeping then total capacity of the line.

  2. On the Finite Line Source Problem in Diffusion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Troen, Ib; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1982-01-01

    A simple formula for calculating dispersion from a continuous finite line source, placed at right angles to the mean wind direction, is derived on the basis of statistical theory. Comparison is made with the virtual source concept usually used and this is shown to be correct only in the limit where...

  3. Iteration Factors in the Line Formation Problem with Frequency Dependent Source Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanovska-Barandovska, O.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some iteration factors families introduced previously to solve the pure line transfer problem are generalized to the case when the background continuum is taken into account.The convergence properties of these factors are discussed when they are applied to the solution of the two-level atom line transfer problem in a constant and variable property media.

  4. The Method of Lines for Ternary Diffusion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Leszczyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of lines (MOL for diffusion equations with Neumann boundary conditions is considered. These equations are transformed by a discretization in space variables into systems of ordinary differential equations. The proposed ODEs satisfy the mass conservation law. The stability of solutions of these ODEs with respect to discrete L2 norms and discrete W1,∞ norms is investigated. Numerical examples confirm the parabolic behaviour of this model and very regular dynamics.

  5. Philon's line generalized: an optimization problem from geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetterling, W.W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Consider inn-dimensional Euclidean space the intersection of a convex cone and a hyperplane through a given point. The problem is to minimize the (n-1)-volume of this intersection. A geometric interpretation of the first-order optimality condition is given. The special casen=2 is known as a characte

  6. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  7. An Optimal Balancing of Multiple Assembly Line For a Batch Production Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher Productivity in organizations leads to national prosperity and better standard of living for the whole community. This has motivated several workers on productivity improvement at different levels of XXXX India Pvt Ltd, Chennai. The main objective of this project is to increase the production by changing the layout of the assembly line in making of Transmit Mixer. At present 12 machines are being manufactured in a total of 2 shifts per day. Time study is carried out to identify and avoid the idle time to increase the production rate to 24 machines per day. The organization facing the problems like production time, online inventory, delay and idle time. Here our objective is to reduce the idle time, identifying the cycle time and optimal method of production. The COMSOAL (Computer Method for Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines and RPW (Ranked Positional Weight algorithms have been used to get the optimal solution. This algorithm provides the better solution, thereby reducing unnecessary movements of the worker within the station. The overall cycle time got reduced when compared with the existing cycle time in order to meet the customer demand. Thus we are proposing this scientific approach to get the optimal solution for increased rate of production of the company without affecting the quality and cost.

  8. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  9. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: problems & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi H

    2014-11-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been 'discarded' or 'spare' fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to 'cryopreserve' their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered 'spare' or if a couple is no longer in need of the 'cryopreserved' embryos then these also can be considered as 'spare'. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about 'slightly' over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to 'discarded' embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of 'discarding' embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential 'use' of ESC derived from the 'abnormal appearing' embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  10. Study on the application of active balancing device to solve the vibration problem for the rotor with bending fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lidong; Shen Wei; Gao Jinji; Zhou Weihua

    2006-01-01

    The rotor with bending faults that occurrs on the rotating machinery usually vibrates seriously. This paper investigates to apply the active balancing device on a flexible rotor with bending faults to solve the vibration problem. Two problems are studied by finite element method firstly: Where the balance actuator is fixed on the shaft and how much the balancing capacity of the active balancing device is needed. The experiment is then carried out on the test rig, which consists of a flexible rotor with bending faults. The test results indicate that the bending rotor peak vibration response can be decreased from 550μm to 40μm below by using the active balancing device. The peak vibration response decreases approximately by 93%. The synchronous vibration due to the rotor bending faults can be controlled effectively by using active balancing device. The active balancing device is especially adapted to solve the problem caused by thermal distortion with time-variation and randomness, which is varied with working conditions, thus it has good practical value in practice.

  11. Stability of the inverse resonance problem on the whole line

    CERN Document Server

    Bledsoe, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a half-bound state, a compactly supported potential of a Schr\\"odinger operator on the line is determined up to a translation by the zeros and poles of the meropmorphically continued left (or right) reflection coefficient. The poles are the eigenvalues and resonances, while the zeros also are physically relevant. We prove that all compactly supported potentials (without half-bound states) that have reflection coefficients whose zeros and poles are $\\eps$-close in some disk centered at the origin are also close (in a suitable sense). In addition, we prove stability of small perturbations of the zero potential (which has a half-bound state) from only the eigenvalues and resonances of the perturbation.

  12. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass – Energy balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas De Beer

    2014-01-01

    used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data...... in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful...

  13. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  14. On the use of the line integral in the numerical treatment of conservative problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnano, Luigi; Iavernaro, Felice

    2016-06-01

    We sketch out the use of the line integral as a tool to devise numerical methods suitable for conservative and, in particular, Hamiltonian problems. The monograph [3] presents the fundamental theory on line integral methods and this short note aims at exploring some aspects and results emerging from their study.

  15. The long-solved problem of the best-fit straight line: application to isotopic mixing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Richard; Saleska, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    It has been almost 50 years since York published an exact and general solution for the best-fit straight line to independent points with normally distributed errors in both x and y. York's solution is highly cited in the geophysical literature but almost unknown outside of it, so that there has been no ebb in the tide of books and papers wrestling with the problem. Much of the post-1969 literature on straight-line fitting has sown confusion not merely by its content but by its very existence. The optimal least-squares fit is already known; the problem is already solved. Here we introduce the non-specialist reader to York's solution and demonstrate its application in the interesting case of the isotopic mixing line, an analytical tool widely used to determine the isotopic signature of trace gas sources for the study of biogeochemical cycles. The most commonly known linear regression methods - ordinary least-squares regression (OLS), geometric mean regression (GMR), and orthogonal distance regression (ODR) - have each been recommended as the best method for fitting isotopic mixing lines. In fact, OLS, GMR, and ODR are all special cases of York's solution that are valid only under particular measurement conditions, and those conditions do not hold in general for isotopic mixing lines. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the biases in OLS, GMR, and ODR under various conditions and show that York's general - and convenient - solution is always the least biased.

  16. SiGe BiCMOS balanced transmission line based on coplanar waveguide and split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Enrique; Borja, Alejandro L.; Boccia, Luigi; Cascon, Joaquin; Ibrahim, Safwat; Calzona, D.; Amendola, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the design of a right-/left-handed composite transmission line implementation with passband characteristics is demonstrated on 0.13 µm silicon-germanium bipolar CMOS (SiGe BiCMOS) technology. The proposed structure is formed by a shorted coplanar waveguide transmission line loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs). As it will be shown, by controlling the geometry of the SRRs as well as their electric coupling with the host line, it is possible to achieve a balanced passband response with widespread bandwidth at millimeter wave frequencies. Besides, this paper introduces a configuration that allows to significantly lower the resonant frequency of the SRRs by loading the rings with Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors. It will be illustrated how this approach allows to reduce the center band frequency of about 40% preserving the balanced behavior and without increasing the resonator size. Finally, the proposed design was experimentally validated with a prototype exhibiting an extended passband with a fractional bandwidth of 19.3% and -3.2 dB of insertion loss around the central frequency of 60 GHz. The use of these transmission lines can be foreseeing in high-capacity millimeter wave communication systems which require compact passband blocks integrated on chip.

  17. Large and small-scale structures and the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saftly, W; De Geyter, G; Camps, P; Renaud, F; Guedes, J; De Looze, I

    2015-01-01

    The interstellar dust content in galaxies can be traced in extinction at optical wavelengths, or in emission in the far-infrared. Several studies have found that radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction in edge-on spiral galaxies generally underestimate the observed FIR/submm fluxes by a factor of about three. In order to investigate this so-called dust energy balance problem, we use two Milky Way-like galaxies produced by high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We create mock optical edge-on views of these simulated galaxies (using the radiative transfer code SKIRT), and we then fit the parameters of a basic spiral galaxy model to these images (using the fitting code FitSKIRT). The basic model includes smooth axisymmetric distributions along a S\\'ersic bulge and exponential disc for the stars, and a second exponential disc for the dust. We find that the dust mass recovered by the fitted models is about three times smaller than the known dust mass of the hydrodynamical in...

  18. Problem of uniform deployment on a line segment for second-order agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proskurnikov, A. V.; Parsegov, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Consideration was given to a special problem of controlling a formation of mobile agents, that of uniform deployment of several identical agents on a segment of the straight line. For the case of agents obeying the first-order dynamic model, this problem seems to be first formulated in 1997 by I.A.

  19. A FEASIBLE DIRECTION ALGORITHM WITHOUT LINE SEARCH FOR SOLVING MAX-BISECTION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-min Xu; Cheng-xian Xu; Hong-gang Xue

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns the solution of the NP-hard max-bisection problems. NCP functions are employed to convert max-bisection problems into continuous nonlinear programming problems. Solving the resulting continuous nonlinear programming problem generates a solution that gives an upper bound on the optimal value of the max-bisection problem.From the solution, the greedy strategy is used to generate a satisfactory approximate solution of the max-bisection problem. A feasible direction method without line searches is proposed to solve the resulting continuous nonlinear programming, and the convergence of the algorithm to KKT point of the resulting problem is proved. Numerical experiments and comparisons on well-known test problems, and on randomly generated test problems show that the proposed method is robust, and very efficient.

  20. On the approximability of covering points by lines and related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Adrian; Jiang, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, {\\sc Covering Points by Lines} is the problem of finding a minimum-cardinality set $\\L$ of lines such that every point $p \\in P$ is incident to some line $\\ell \\in \\L$. As a geometric variant of {\\sc Set Cover}, {\\sc Covering Points by Lines} is still NP-hard. Moreover, it has been proved to be APX-hard, and hence does not admit any polynomial-time approximation scheme unless P $=$ NP\\@. In contrast to the small constant approximation lower bound im...

  1. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  2. Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouquet, A.; Marino, R.; Mininni, P.; Rorai, C.; Rosenberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Helicity, geostrophic balance and mixing in rotating stratified turbulence: a multi-scale problem A. Pouquet, R. Marino, P. D. Mininni, C. Rorai & D. Rosenberg, NCAR Interactions between winds and waves have important roles in planetary and oceanic boundary layers, affecting momentum, heat and CO2 transport. Within the Abyssal Southern Ocean at Mid latitude, this may result in a mixed layer which is too shallow in climate models thereby affecting the overall evolution because of poor handling of wave breaking as in Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities: gravity waves couple nonlinearly on slow time scales and undergo steepening through resonant interactions, or due to the presence of shear. In the oceans, sub-mesoscale frontogenesis and significant departure from quasi-geostrophy can be seen as turbulence intensifies. The ensuing anomalous vertical dispersion may not be simply modeled by a random walk, due to intermittent structures, wave propagation and to their interactions. Conversely, the energy and seeds required for such intermittent events to occur, say in the stable planetary boundary layer, may come from the wave field that is perturbed, or from winds and the effect of topography. Under the assumption of stationarity, weak nonlinearities, dissipation and forcing, one obtains large-scale geostrophic balance linking pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force. The role of helicity (velocity-vorticity correlations) has not received as much attention, outside the realm of astrophysics when considering the growth of large-scale magnetic fields. However, it is measured routinely in the atmosphere in order to gauge the likelihood of supercell convective storms to strengthen, and it may be a factor to consider in the formation of hurricanes. In this context, we examine the transition from a wave-dominated regime to an isotropic small-scale turbulent one in rotating flows with helical forcing. Using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) on a 3072^3 grid with Rossby and

  3. Sensitivity of glacier mass balance and equilibrium line altitude to climatic change on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ulrike; Lopez, Damian; Silva-Busso, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula which is among the fastest warming regions on Earth. Surface air temperature increases (ca. 3 K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K/100 m), and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns especially during winter glacial mass accumulation periods. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the winter time in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain, and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. The impact on winter accumulation results in even more negative mass balance estimates. Six years of glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects are used with a glacier melt model to assess changes in melt water input to the coastal waters, glacier surface mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) calculated from own glaciological observations for KGI over the time period 2010 - 2015 amounts to ELA=330±100 m. Published studies suggest rather stable condition slightly negative glacier mass balance until the mid 80's with an ELA of approx. 150 m. The calculated accumulation area ratio suggests rather dramatic changes in extension of the inland ice cap for the South Shetland Islands until an equilibrium with concurrent climate conditions is reached.

  4. Model of operating and balancing assembly line in a mass customization environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dong; Jin Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The successful implementation of mass customization lies on reengineering technology and management methods to organize the production. Especially in assembly phase, various product con figurations, due-time penalties and order-driven strategy challenge the traditional operation and man agement of assembly lines. The business features and the operation pattern of assembly line based on mass customization are analyzed. And the research emphatically studies various technologic factors to improve customer satisfaction and their corresponding implement methods in operating assembly line.In addition, the models are proposed for operating assembly line under dynamic process environment in mass customization. A genetic approach is developed to provide the optimal solution to the models.The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated with an industrial application.

  5. A dynamic programming algorithm for the buffer allocation problem in homogeneous asymptotically reliable serial production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantidis A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.

  6. Problems and countermeasures in construction of transmission line projects in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoShang Wang; QiHao Yu; YanHui You; Ze Zhang; Lei Guo; ShiJun Wang; Yong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Construction of power transmission lines is becoming an important part of permafrost engineering in China. This paper reviews the construction status and problems of transmission lines in different countries, as well as corresponding solutions that would be of practical significance for sustainable engineering practices. Russia has the longest history of transmission line construction in permafrost areas, with transmission lines (mainly 220 kV and 500 kV) spanning approximately 100,000 km. However, all countries suffer from permafrost-related tower foundation stability problems caused by freez-ing-thawing hazards such as frost heave and thaw settlement, frost lifting, and harmful cryogenic phenomena. As point-line transmission line constructions, the lines, poles and towers should be reasonably selected and installed with a comprehensive consideration of frozen soil characteristics to effectively reduce the occurrence of freezing-thawing dis-asters. Reinforced concrete pile foundations are widely used in the permafrost regions, and construction in winter is also a universal practice. Moreover, facilitating engineering measures like thermosyphons are an effective way to reduce freez-ing-thawing hazards and to maintain the stability of tower foundations.

  7. Simultaneous on-line monitoring of propofol and sevoflurane in balanced anesthesia by direct resistive heating gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Zhang, Feng Jiang; Wang, Fu Yuan; Wang, Ying Ying; Guo, Jing; Kanhar, G M; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Chen; Yan, Min; Chen, Xing

    2017-07-14

    In balanced anesthesia, sevoflurane and propofol are often used in combination to achieve a better anesthetic effect. However, methods for on-line monitoring of concentrations of the two anesthetics in patients are still rare in clinical. This study proposed a non-invasive method utilizing a fast gas chromatograph combined with a surface acoustic wave sensor (Fast GC-SAW) to simultaneously on-line monitor sevoflurane and propofol in patients' exhaled gas. By using the direct resistive heating capillary column, the single detection time of Fast GC-SAW system was significantly shortened to 90s, as well as the size reduced to (40cm×30cm×20cm). Besides, in the calibration of sevoflurane, Fast GC-SAW system showed a good linear correlation (R(2)=0.9925, P<0.01) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which ensured the reliability and accuracy of the Fast GC-SAW system. Finally, clinical experiments on patients under balanced anesthesia were conducted. The varied concentrations measured by Fast GC-SAW extraordinarily matched the clinical usages of these two anesthetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  9. New modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method for solving nonlinearly vibrating double-beam problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Saifur; Lee, Yiu-Yin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a new modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method is presented and adopted to investigate the forced nonlinear vibrations of axially loaded double beams. Although numerous nonlinear beam or linear double-beam problems have been tackled and solved, there have been few studies of this nonlinear double-beam problem. The geometric nonlinear formulations for a double-beam model are developed. The main advantage of the proposed method is that a set of decoupled nonlinear algebraic equations is generated at each solution level. This heavily reduces the computational effort compared with solving the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations generated in the classical harmonic balance method. The proposed method can generate the higher-level nonlinear solutions that are neglected by the previous modified harmonic balance method. The results from the proposed method agree reasonably well with those from the classical harmonic balance method. The effects of damping, axial force, and excitation magnitude on the nonlinear vibrational behaviour are examined.

  10. From the Nano- to the Macroscale - Bridging Scales for the Moving Contact Line Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Andreas; Sibley, David; Goddard, Benjamin; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team

    2016-11-01

    The moving contact line problem remains an unsolved fundamental problem in fluid mechanics. At the heart of the problem is its multiscale nature: a nanoscale region close to the solid boundary where the continuum hypothesis breaks down, must be resolved before effective macroscale parameters such as contact line friction and slip can be obtained. To capture nanoscale properties very close to the contact line and to establish a link to the macroscale behaviour, we employ classical density-functional theory (DFT), in combination with extended Navier-Stokes-like equations. Using simple models for viscosity and slip at the wall, we compare our computations with the Molecular Kinetic Theory, by extracting the contact line friction, depending on the imposed temperature of the fluid. A key fluid property captured by DFT is the fluid layering at the wall-fluid interface, which has a large effect on the shearing properties of a fluid. To capture this crucial property, we propose an anisotropic model for the viscosity, which also allows us to scrutinize the effect of fluid layering on contact line friction.

  11. A Spectral Element/Laguerre Coupled Method to the Elliptic Helmholtz Problem on the Half Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqu Zhuang; Chuanju Xu

    2006-01-01

    A Legendre spectral element/Laguerre coupled method is proposed to numerically solve the elliptic Helmholtz problem on the half line. Rigorous analysis is carried out to establish the convergence of the method. Several numerical examples are provided to confirm the theoretical results. The advantage of this method is demonstrated by a numerical comparison with the pure Laguerre method.

  12. Determining Energy Balance in the Flaring Chromosphere from Oxygen V Line Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, David R; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The impulsive phase of solar flares is a time of rapid energy deposition and heating in the lower solar atmosphere, leading to changes in the temperature and density structure of the region. We use an O V density diagnostic formed of the 192 to 248 line ratio, provided by Hinode EIS, to determine the density of flare footpoint plasma, at O V formation temperatures of 250,000 K, giving a constraint on the properties of the heated transition region. Hinode EIS rasters from 2 small flare events in December 2007 were used. Raster images were co-aligned to identify and establish the footpoint pixels, multiple-component Gaussian line fitting of the spectra was carried out to isolate the diagnostic pair, and the density was calculated for several footpoint areas. The assumptions of equilibrium ionization and optically thin radiation for the O V lines were found to be acceptable. Properties of the electron distribution, for one event, were deduced from earlier RHESSI hard X-ray observations and used to calculate the ...

  13. Convergence of a smoothing algorithm for symmetric cone complementarity problems with a nonmonotone line search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a smoothing algorithm for solving the monotone symmetric cone complementarity problems (SCCP for short) with a nonmonotone line search. We show that the nonmonotone algorithm is globally convergent under an assumption that the solution set of the problem concerned is nonempty. Such an assumption is weaker than those given in most existing algorithms for solving optimization problems over symmetric cones. We also prove that the solution obtained by the algorithm is a maximally complementary solution to the monotone SCCP under some assumptions.

  14. A Riemann-Hilbert approach to the inverse problem for the Stark operator on the line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its, A.; Sukhanov, V.

    2016-05-01

    The paper is concerned with the inverse scattering problem for the Stark operator on the line with a potential from the Schwartz class. In our study of the inverse problem, we use the Riemann-Hilbert formalism. This allows us to overcome the principal technical difficulties which arise in the more traditional approaches based on the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko equations, and indeed solve the problem. We also produce a complete description of the relevant scattering data (which have not been obtained in the previous works on the Stark operator) and establish the bijection between the Schwartz class potentials and the scattering data.

  15. Approaches for improving the toileting problems of hemiplegic stroke patients with poor standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yuji; Sumigawa, Koshi; Koeda, Shuhei; Shiina, Miyuki; Fukushi, Haruka; Tsuji, Takahiro; Hara, Chisaya; Tsushima, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Our objective was to evaluate the residual dynamic and static functionality in the sitting position of hemiplegic stroke patients who require help to pull their lower garments up and down during toileting. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 11 hemiplegic patients. We gathered data on the patients' motor paralysis, sensory capacity, lower extremity muscle strength, trunk control, ability to roll and sit up from a lying position, sitting balance, and ability to pull the lower garments up and down. We then compared 2 groups: those able to pull the lower garments up and down independently while standing (the "independent group"), and those who were unable to do so (the "non-independent group"). [Results] Though the non-independent group had severely and significantly reduced trunk control and abilities as a whole, there was no significant difference from the independent group in static and dynamic sitting balance. [Conclusion] We conclude that, to enable hemiplegic patients with poor standing balance to pull their lower garments up and down, it is necessary to do these maneuvers in a sitting, rather than a standing, position, or to develop garments that are easier to put on and take off.

  16. Detection on Straight Line Problem in Triangle Geometry Features for Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Arbain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometric object especially triangle geometry has been widely used in digit recognition area. The triangle geometry properties have been implemented as the triangle features which are used to construct the triangle shape. Triangle is formed based on three points of triangle corner A, B and C. However, a problem occurs when three points of triangle corner were in parallel line. Thus, an algorithm has been proposed in order to solve the straight line problem. The Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP were used to measure based on the classification accuracy. Four datasets were used: HODA, IFCHDB, MNIST and BANGLA. The comparison results classification demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  17. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  18. EQUILIBRIUM ALGORITHMS WITH NONMONOTONE LINE SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING THE TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; GAO Ziyou

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a unified framework of the nonmonotone convex combination algorithms (such as Frank-Wolfe Algorithm) for solving the traffic assignment problems. Global convergence results are established under mild conditions. The line search procedure used in our algorithm includes the nonmonotone Armijo rule, the nonmonotone Goldstein rule and the nonmonotone Wolfe rule as special cases. So, the new algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of the regular convex combination algorithm.

  19. Processing of situational information in story problem texts. An analysis from on-line measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Muñez, David; Vicente, Santiago; Verschaffel, Lieven; Rosales, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the extent to which readers process information related to the construction of a situation model when they are confronted with solving word problems. Considering that generation of inferences to match actions with particular goals is part of constructing of the situation model, we constructed "rich story problems", that is, word problems included in the context of a story, in which the characters propose goals, and then these goals are followed by actions to achieve it. In Experiments 1 and 2 the story problems were designed so that the character's goal was related to the activation of a problem schema, either explicitly (Experiment 1) or implicitly (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the problem schema activation was clearly separated from the goal information. In all three experiments, goal information availability was assessed by on-line measures. The results showed that participants processed situational information by keeping track of characters' goals. These results fit nicely with those studies that emphasize the role of situation model construction in word problem solving.

  20. The Impact of Walking Time on U-Shaped Assembly Line Worker Allocation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parames Chutima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The one-piece flow manufacturing line of single and customized products is usually organized as a U-shaped assembly layout. In this study, the characteristics of a single U-line are described and modeled. The worker allocation problem is hierarchically concerned with the task assignment into a U-line and allocate task to workers in sequence. Several products are assembled in 7-task to 297-task problems, and each problem is performed with a given cycle time. The primary purpose is to identify the impact of walking time on both symmetrical and rectangular U-shaped assembly layouts. The minor purpose is to compare the number of workers between two fixed layouts. Coincidence algorithm demonstrates clarifying solutions. To respond to two previous aims, the primary objective function of a number of workers is used. Finally, with the Pareto-optimal frontier between the deviation of operation times of workers and the walking time, its computational study is exemplified to identify good task assignment and walking path.

  1. The energy balance of wind waves and the remote sensing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of wave growth indicate an energy balance of the wave spectrum governed primarily by input from the atmosphere, nonlinear transfer to shorter and longer waves, and advection. The pronounced spectral peak and sharp low frequency cut-off characteristic of fetch-limited spectra are explained as a self-stabilizing feature of the nonlinear wave-wave interactions. The momentum transferred from the atmosphere to the wind waves accounts for a large part of the wind drag. These findings are relevant for remote microwave sensing of the sea surface by backscatter and passive radiometry methods.

  2. Measurement of the earth radiation balance as an instrument design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, H W

    1977-02-01

    The net radiation balance of the earth is important globally for synoptic scale models and long-term climatic trends. It is important at the mesoscale level because it is a strong driving force on local meteorological phenomena. Both synoptic and mesoscale measurements are possible only from earth orbiting spacecraft, and serious efforts have been made to implement them. They have not achieved sufficient accuracy, precision, and stability to be really meaningful meteorologically. Measuring a small difference between two large numbers-the input to the earth and the earth radiation to space-is quite difficult and compounded by the spectral differences between the two. The instrumental considerations to achieving improvements in net radiation balance are discussed. The ratio of input to outflow, like albedo, is a dimensionless number which is amenable to measurement without recourse to calibrated instruments. If the solar constant is indeed reasonably constant, this ratio, which is more easily measured than an absolute value of either quantity, will be acceptable. Instrument stability, both spectral and absolute, as well as calibration methods and accuracy will be discussed with specific emphasis on estimating how and to what degree they can be improved.

  3. Supra-acetabular line is better than supra-iliac line for coronal balance referencing-a study of perioperative whole spine X-rays in degenerative lumbar scoliosis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Kim, Cheung-Kue; Lee, Won-Gyu; Juh, Hyung-Suk; Kim, Ki-Tack

    2017-06-20

    The aim of spinal deformity correction is to restore the spine's functional alignment by balancing it in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Regardless of posture, the ideal coronal profile is straight, and therefore readily assessable. This study compares two radiological methods to determine which better predicts postoperative standing coronal balance. We conducted a single-center, radiographic comparative study between 2011 and 2015. A total of 199 patients with a mean age of 55.1 years were studied. Ninety patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and 109 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were treated with posterior surgery during this period. Baseline clinical and radiographic parameters (sagittal and coronal) were recorded. Comparison was performed between the new supra-acetabular line (central sacral vertical line [CSVL1]) and conventional supra-iliac line (CSVL2) perpendicular methods of coronal balance assessment. These methods were also compared with the gold standard standing C7 plumb line. Each patient underwent standardized operative procedures and had perioperative spine X-rays obtained for assessment of spinal balance. Adjusted multivariate analysis was used to determine predictors of coronal balance. Significant differences in baseline characteristics (age, gender, and radiographic parameters) were found between patients with DLS and AS. CSVL1, CSVL2, and C7 plumb line differed in all the perioperative measurements. These three radiological methods showed a mean right coronal imbalance for both diagnoses in all pre-, intra-, and postoperative radiographs. The magnitude of imbalance was the greatest for CSVL2 followed by CSVL1 and subsequently the C7 plumb line. A larger discrepancy between CSVL and C7 plumb line measurements intraoperatively than those postoperatively suggests a postural effect on these parameters, which is greater for CSVL2. Multivariate analysis identified that in DLS, the preoperative C7 plumb line was predictive of its

  4. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  5. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; LEI Dong-yang; TANG Wen-bang; XIAO Ying-hui

    2011-01-01

    The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed,including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification,the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production.In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines,four types,including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS,were proposed.A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed.The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones.The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer.In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines,the charecterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward.The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  6. Problem-based learning in an on-line biotechnology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaney, James Daniel

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical tool that uses a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. PBL encourages student development of critical thinking skills, a high professional competency, problem-solving ability, knowledge acquisition, the ability to work productively as a team member and make decisions in unfamiliar situations, and the acquisition of skills that support self-directed life-long learning, metacognition, and adaptation to change. However, little research has focused on the use of PBL in on-line "virtual" classes. We conducted two studies exploring the use of PBL in an on-line biotechnology course. In the first study, ethical, legal, social, and human issues were used as a motivation for learning about DNA testing technologies, applications, and bioethical issues. In the second study, we combined PBL pedagogy with a rich multimedia environment of streaming video interviews, physical artifacts, and extensive links to articles and databases to create a multidimensional immersive PBL environment called "Robert's World". In "Robert's World", a man is determining whether to undergo a pre-symptomatic DNA test for an untreatable, incurable, fatal genetic disease for which he has a family history. In both studies, design and implementation issues of the on-line PBL environment are discussed, as are differences between on-line PBL and face-to-face PBL. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that PBL stimulates higher-order learning in students. However, in both studies, student performance on an exam testing acquisition of lower-order factual learning was lower for PBL students than for students who learned the same material through a traditional lecture-based approach. Possible reasons for this lower level of performance are explored. Student feedback expressed engagement with the issues and material covered, with reservations about some aspects of the PBL format, such as the lack of flexibility provided in cooperative

  7. Solving the Periodic Maintenance Scheduling Problem via Genetic Algorithm to Balance Workforce Levels and Maintenance Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A.-F. Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this article we address the multi-objective Periodic Maintenance Scheduling Problem (PMSP of scheduling a set of cyclic maintenance operations for a given set of machines through a specified planning period to minimize the total variance of workforce levels measured in man-hours and maintenance costs with equal weights. Approach: The article proposed a mixed integer non-linear math programming model and a linearised model for the PMSP. Also, we proposed a Genetic Algorithm (GA for solving the problem using a new genome representation considered as a new addition to the maintenance scheduling literature. The algorithms were compared on a set of representative test problems. Results: The developed GA proves its capability and superiority to find good solutions for the PMSP and outperforms solutions found by the commercial optimization package CPLEX. The results indicated that the developed algorithms were able to identify optimal solutions for small size problems up to 5 machines and 6 planning periods.The GAs defined solutions in 22 seconds consuming less than two kilobytes with a reliability of 0.84 while the nonlinear and linear models consumes on average 705 and 37 kilobytes respectively. Conclusion: The developed GA could define solutions of average performance of 0.34 and 0.8 for the linearized algorithm compared with lower bound defined by the nonlinear math programming model. We hope to expand the developed algorithms for integrating maintenance planning and aggregate production planning problems.

  8. Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Teasdale, Thomas William; Arendt Rasmussen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)......Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)...

  9. Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Teasdale, Thomas William; Arendt Rasmussen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)......Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)...

  10. Junction-Generalized Riemann Problem for stiff hyperbolic balance laws in networks: An implicit solver and ADER schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarino, Christian; Toro, Eleuterio F.; Montecinos, Gino I.; Borsche, Raul; Kall, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we design a new implicit solver for the Junction-Generalized Riemann Problem (J-GRP), which is based on a recently proposed implicit method for solving the Generalized Riemann Problem (GRP) for systems of hyperbolic balance laws. We use the new J-GRP solver to construct an ADER scheme that is globally explicit, locally implicit and with no theoretical accuracy barrier, in both space and time. The resulting ADER scheme is able to deal with stiff source terms and can be applied to non-linear systems of hyperbolic balance laws in domains consisting on networks of one-dimensional sub-domains. In this paper we specifically apply the numerical techniques to networks of blood vessels. We report on a test problem with exact solution for a simplified network of three vessels meeting at a single junction, which is then used to carry out a systematic convergence rate study of the proposed high-order numerical methods. Schemes up to fifth order of accuracy in space and time are implemented and tested. We then show the ability of the ADER scheme to deal with stiff sources through a numerical simulation in a network of vessels. An application to a physical test problem consisting of a network of 37 compliant silicon tubes (arteries) and 21 junctions, reveals that it is imperative to use high-order methods at junctions, in order to preserve the desired high order of accuracy in the full computational domain. For example, it is demonstrated that a second-order method throughout, gives comparable results to a method that is fourth order in the interior of the domain and first order at junctions.

  11. 基于Witness的飞轮生产线生产节拍平衡研究%Research on takt time balance of flywheel production line based on witness software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秋红; 肖燕; 龚玉洁; 周康渠; 敖希琴

    2011-01-01

    The takt time balance of workshop production determines the level of production efficiency,which is the best way to solve the main problems facing with the manufacturing workshop.First the balance problems of takt time of a flywheel production line are studied.By analyzing the production status of some flywheel production line and measuring the process operating time ,the simulation model is constructed using the Witness software. Then the bottleneck processes of production line and utilization inadequate are found by simulating modelingAnd the production line is improved by using tskt time balancing method, which achieves the target and makes the bottleneck processes be eliminated with the utilization rate of machine and personnel being balanced.Through comparing the relevant parameters before and after the balance, the improvement results of production line are found to be significant and the production efficiency is improved,thus the production costs are reduced.%车间的生产节拍平衡决定了企业生产效率的高低,是解决制造业车间面临的主要问题的最佳途径,研究了某飞轮生产线生产节拍的平衡问题.对某飞轮生产线生产现状进行分析,测定工序作业时间,应用Witness软件进行仿真建模,发现瓶颈环节与利用率不足等不平衡现象,运用生产节拍平衡方法等改进生产线,达到日产目标,消除瓶颈环节,使机器与人员利用率均衡.通过比较生产节拍平衡前后的相关参数,生产线改善效果明显,生产效率得以提高,进而降低企业成本.

  12. A Two-Mode Mean-Field Optimal Switching Problem for the Full Balance Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Djehiche

    2014-01-01

    a two-mode optimal switching problem of mean-field type, which can be described by a system of Snell envelopes where the obstacles are interconnected and nonlinear. The main result of the paper is a proof of a continuous minimal solution to the system of Snell envelopes, as well as the full characterization of the optimal switching strategy.

  13. Global solutions to the electrodynamic two-body problem on a straight line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.; Hinrichs, G.

    2017-06-01

    The classical electrodynamic two-body problem has been a long standing open problem in mathematics. For motion constrained to the straight line, the interaction is similar to that of the two-body problem of classical gravitation. The additional complication is the presence of unbounded state-dependent delays in the Coulomb forces due to the finiteness of the speed of light. This circumstance renders the notion of local solutions meaningless, and therefore, straightforward ODE techniques cannot be applied. Here, we study the time-symmetric case, i.e., the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, comprising both advanced and retarded delays. We extend the technique developed in Deckert and Hinrichs (J Differ Equ 260:6900-6929, 2016), where existence of FST solutions was proven on the half line, to ensure global existence—a result that had been obtained by Bauer (Ein Existenzsatz für die Wheeler-Feynman-Elektrodynamik, Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1997). Due to the novel technique, the presented proof is shorter and more transparent but also relies on the idea to employ asymptotic data to characterize solutions.

  14. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  15. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  16. Special Problems in Pilot Protections of Transmission Lines Connecting Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As the penetration of wind power into power grids increases, higher demands are made on the stability and protection of power systems. Unlike traditional synchronous generators, wind turbines are different on the short-circuit and impedance characteristics, thus some problems exist in pilot protections of transmission lines connecting wind farms. When a single-phase fault occurs on a transmission line, the phase selector based on current-difference sudden-change may mistake the single-phase fault for a phase-to-phase fault. This paper studies the impedance characteristics of an asynchronous wind generator, and analyzes the behavior of a fault phase selector under different conditions. Then, the paper explains that inequality between positive and negative branch coefficients is the cause for the mal-operation of the fault phase selector. Finally, some simulations are done in MATLAB to validate analysis results.

  17. A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the seasonal variations of energy balance components over three different surfaces: irrigated cropland (Yingke, YK, alpine meadow (A'rou, AR, and spruce forest (Guantan, GT. The energy balance components were measured using eddy covariance (EC systems and a large aperture scintillometer (LAS in the Heihe River Basin, China, in 2008 and 2009. We also determined the source areas of the EC and LAS measurements with a footprint model for each site and discussed the differences between the sensible heat fluxes measured with EC and LAS at AR. The results show that the main EC source areas were within a radius of 250 m at all of the sites. The main source area for the LAS (with a path length of 2390 m stretched along a path line approximately 2000 m long and 700 m wide. The surface characteristics in the source areas changed with the season at each site, and there were characteristic seasonal variations in the energy balance components at all of the sites. The sensible heat flux was the main term of the energy budget during the dormant season. During the growing season, however, the latent heat flux dominated the energy budget, and an obvious "oasis effect" was observed at YK. The sensible heat fluxes measured by LAS at AR were larger than those measured by EC at the same site. This difference seems to be caused by the so-called energy imbalance phenomenon, the heterogeneity of the underlying surfaces, and the difference between the source areas of the LAS and EC measurements.

  18. The traveling salesman problem for lines and rays in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In the Euclidean TSP with neighborhoods (TSPN), we are given a collection of $n$ regions (neighborhoods) and we seek a shortest tour that visits each region. In the path variant, we seek a shortest path that visits each region. We present several linear-time approximation algorithms with improved ratios for these problems for two cases of neighborhoods that are (infinite) lines, and respectively, (half-infinite) rays. Along the way we derive a tight bound on the minimum perimeter of a rectangle enclosing an open curve of length $L$.

  19. Exploring Problems in Following the Hemodialysis Diet and Their Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intakes: The BalanceWise Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Woolf, Kathleen; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    To identify the problems experienced by hemodialysis (HD) patients in attempting to follow the HD diet and their relation to energy and nutrient intakes. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the BalanceWise Study. Participants included community-dwelling adults recruited from outpatient HD centers. After excluding participants with incomplete dietary analyses (n = 50), 140 African American and white (40/60%) men and women (52/48%) on chronic intermittent HD for at least 3 months (median 3 years) were included. Participant responses, on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "not at all a problem" to "a very important problem for me," to 34 questions pertaining to potential barriers to following the HD diet in the previous 2 months were classified as either a problem (1) or not a problem (2-5). Energy and nutrient intakes determined using the Nutrition Data System for Research® based on 3, non-consecutive, unscheduled, 2-pass 24-hour dietary recalls collected on 1 dialysis and 1 non-dialysis weekday, and 1 non-dialysis weekend day. More than half of participants reported having problems related to specific behavioral factors (e.g., feeling deprived), technical difficulties (e.g., tracking nutrients), and physical condition (e.g., appetite), but issues of time and food preparation and behavioral factors tended to be most deterministic of reported dietary intakes. Longer duration of HD was associated with lower intakes of protein, potassium, and phosphorus (P < .05). Registered dietitian nutritionists should consider issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors in their nutrition assessment of HD patients and should continually monitor HD patients for changes in protein intake that may occur over time. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping

    2011-12-01

    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  1. Pore-scale modeling of moving contact line problems in immiscible two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucala, Alec; Noble, David; Martinez, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Accurate modeling of moving contact line (MCL) problems is imperative in predicting capillary pressure vs. saturation curves, permeability, and preferential flow paths for a variety of applications, including geological carbon storage (GCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we present a model for the moving contact line using pore-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which solves the full, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations using the Galerkin finite-element method. The MCL is modeled as a surface traction force proportional to the surface tension, dependent on the static properties of the immiscible fluid/solid system. We present a variety of verification test cases for simple two- and three-dimensional geometries to validate the current model, including threshold pressure predictions in flows through pore-throats for a variety of wetting angles. Simulations involving more complex geometries are also presented to be used in future simulations for GCS and EOR problems. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. MILP for the Inventory and Routing for Replenishment Problem in the Car Assembly Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inbound logistic for feeding the workstation inside the factory represents a critical issue in the car manufacturing industry. Nowadays, this issue is even more critical than in the past since more types of car are being produced in the assembly lines. Consequently, as workstations have to install many types of components, they also need to have an inventory of different types of the component in a compact space.The replenishment is a critical issue since a lack of inventory could cause line stoppage or reworking. On the other hand, an excess of inventory could increase the holding cost or even block the replenishment paths. The decision of the replenishment routes cannot be made without taking into consideration the inventory needed by each station during the production time which will depend on the production sequence. This problem deals with medium-sized instances and it is solved using online solvers. The contribution of this paper is a MILP for the replenishment and inventory of the components in a car assembly line.

  3. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  4. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  5. Existence of solutions for a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line via critical point theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouk Briki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.

  6. Survey on Protocols addressing Head of Line Blocking Problem in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SAI KIRAN,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Head of Line blocking phenomenon is common in First in First Out (FIFO nature queues. Head of line blocking problem becomes significant in wireless ad hoc networks using directional antennas as it uses FIFO queue which consists of packets intended for different directions. A packet on the top of the queue may block the remaining packets if it finds the medium busy in its intended direction, where as the packets in the queue intended for other directions may find the medium to be idle. Very few of the MAC protocols for ad hoc networks using directional antennas have addressed this problem. In this paper we will exploit the Head of Line Blocking problem and review the protocols that have addressed the head of Line Blocking Problem.

  7. Relative and absolute reliability of the new "Step-Ex" step-execution test in elderly people with and without balance problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, Alexandra; Franzén, Erika; Olsson, Elisabeth; Ståhle, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the relative and absolute test-re-test reliability of a new step-execution test, "Step-Ex", for clinical use in elderly with and without balance problems. Test-re-test design to assess intrarater reliability. Thirty-four healthy community-dwelling elderly (65-87 years), 16 with balance problems, were tested twice two weeks apart. Step-Ex consists of two portable force platforms that register vertical ground reaction forces connected to a computer for easy detection of temporal events and phases (reaction-, preparation-, stepping- and step execution phase). Standing with one foot on each platform, the subjects were given a tactile stimulus on the heel to initiate rapid steps forward. Test-re-test agreement was good to very good: ICC(2)(.6) 0.83-0.87 (without balance problems) and 0.71-0.83 (with balance problems) with no apparent systematic differences between the tests. The SEM, i.e. the smallest detectable change that may indicate a real clinical improvement for a group of individuals was small, 4.6-8.6%. The smallest real difference, representing the smallest change that reveals clinical improvement for a single individual, was 13-24%. Step-Ex is a highly reliable instrument and can be recommended as an outcome measure evaluating the effects of balance training in elderly people with and without balance deficits. • Balance deficits are common in the elderly population. • To evaluate the effects of treatment or changes over time it is of great importance to have reliable instruments. • Step-Ex is a highly reliable instrument and can be recommended as an outcome measure evaluating the effects of treatment or changes over time in elderly people with and without balance deficits.

  8. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  9. A gradient stable scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient numerical scheme is designed for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,4]. The nonlinear version of the scheme is semi-implicit in time and is based on a convex splitting of the Cahn-Hilliard free energy (including the boundary energy) together with a projection method for the Navier-Stokes equations. We show, under certain conditions, the scheme has the total energy decaying property and is unconditionally stable. The linearized scheme is easy to implement and introduces only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the scheme. The behavior of the solution near the contact line is examined. It is verified that, when the interface intersects with the boundary, the consistent splitting scheme [21,22] for the Navier Stokes equations has the better accuracy for pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dividing line between quantum and classical trajectories in a measurement problem: Bohmian time constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Antonio B; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2013-10-11

    This Letter proposes an answer to a challenge posed by Bell on the lack of clarity in regards to the dividing line between the quantum and classical regimes in a measurement problem. To this end, a generalized logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of a quantum dissipative system under continuous measurement. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, a solution to this equation reveals a novel result: it displays a time constant that should represent the dividing line between the quantum and classical trajectories. It is shown that continuous measurements and damping not only disturb the particle but compel the system to converge in time to a Newtonian regime. While the width of the wave packet may reach a stationary regime, its quantum trajectories converge exponentially in time to classical trajectories. In particular, it is shown that damping tends to suppress further quantum effects on a time scale shorter than the relaxation time of the system. If the initial wave packet width is taken to be equal to 2.8×10(-15) m (the approximate size of an electron), the Bohmian time constant is found to have an upper limit, i.e., τ(Bmax)=10(-26) s.

  11. Numerical simulations of the moving contact line problem using a diffuse-interface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzaal, Muhammad; Sibley, David; Duncan, Andrew; Yatsyshin, Petr; Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Nold, Andreas; Savva, Nikos; Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Moving contact lines are a ubiquitous phenomenon both in nature and in many modern technologies. One prevalent way of numerically tackling the problem is with diffuse-interface (phase-field) models, where the classical sharp-interface model of continuum mechanics is relaxed to one with a finite thickness fluid-fluid interface, capturing physics from mesoscopic lengthscales. The present work is devoted to the study of the contact line between two fluids confined by two parallel plates, i.e. a dynamically moving meniscus. Our approach is based on a coupled Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model. This system of partial differential equations allows a tractable numerical solution to be computed, capturing diffusive and advective effects in a prototypical case study in a finite-element framework. Particular attention is paid to the static and dynamic contact angle of the meniscus advancing or receding between the plates. The results obtained from our approach are compared to the classical sharp-interface model to elicit the importance of considering diffusion and associated effects. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  12. Multi-Objective Analysis Applied to Mixed-Model Assembly Line Sequencing Problem through Elite Induced Evolutionary Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Pralomkarn, Theerayoth

    To meet higher customer satisfaction and shorter production lead time, assembly lines are shifting to mixed-model assembly lines. Accordingly, sequencing is becoming an increasingly important operation scheduling that directly affects on efficiency of the entire process. In this study, such sequencing problem at the mixed-model assembly line has been formulated as a bi-objective integer programming problem so that decision making through trade-off analysis can bring about significant production improvements. Then we have developed a multi-objective analysis method by hybridizing conventional and recent meta-heuristic methods. After showing its generic idea, the car mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem is concerned as a case study. Certain measures are also introduced to quantitatively evaluate the performances of the method through comparison.

  13. 求解双边装配线第二类平衡问题的一种蚁群算法∗%Ant Algorithm for Two-sided Assembly Line Balancing of Type-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊逸; 张则强; 金初云

    2016-01-01

    Two-sided assembly line problem is more difficult than one-sided assembly line problem as the task distribution procedure. In this problem, besides the precedence constraints among tasks, the operation directions constraints of tasks and the requirement of parallel work should also be taken into consideration. The mathematical model and an ant colony algorithm were constructed to solve the Two-sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem of type-2(TALBP-Ⅱ). A hybrid ant-based search rule and a heuristic task distribu-tion rule were used in order to establish a feasible solution, global pheromone trail update and the optimum solution search strategy were considered. The feasibility of this algorithm was indicated by a case of a loader final assembly line.%双边装配线在任务分配过程中,除考虑任务先后关系约束外还需兼顾任务操作方位约束及任务操作的并行性要求。针对双边装配线第二类平衡问题提出了数学模型并构建了一种蚁群算法。此算法采用蚁群综合搜索规则、启发式任务分配规则构造一个可行解,对最优解的搜索过程提出了可行的规划方案。最后,通过为某型装载机的实例提出多组较好的平衡方案,验证了此算法的有效性。

  14. [Simplification of on-line connection of analyzers and standardization problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, H; Sasaki, M; Kageoka, T; Imamura, J; Nishida, M; Ichihara, K

    1997-06-01

    On-line connection of automated analyzers to laboratory information system (LIS) reduces mistakes in inputing data for each samples. It also makes reporting faster in clinical laboratory. Moreover, connection of these instruments with sample transporting system enables analyses without touching samples directly. It, however, costs extremely high to construct such a system. It is because every automated analyzer uses different connecting protocol, so that we have to make a different program for each machine. For solving this problem, we have to make a standard for connecting protocol. It is very difficult to make a standard protocol fitting on all of the analyzers, considering its cost and other things. Furthermore, it must take a few decades to spreading the standard through the end users. ICCLS and NCCLS has been taking a central role for this problem since 1996, with a five-year plan to make an international standard. Until the standard will be laid, each clinical laboratories have to pay high costs to construct their systems, connecting different manufacturers' analyzers each other. Thus, we have developed a novel system which enables us to construct a laboratory automation system in a shorter time. For realizing this new system, we have reduced the number of connecting protocols for analyzers. Moreover, we have corrected the flow of laboratory works in order. Each programs are put together into a system as parts, or modules. This software system is now in operation in the clinical laboratory of Kochi Medical School. In this report, we describe the construction of this novel software system, and the effect obtained by using this system. Furthermore, we would show problems and things to be improved for making international standards for communication protocols between host and analyzing instruments.

  15. And that is Where the Fun Ends - General Practitioners' Conceptualisation of the Line Between Recreational and Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Egerer Michael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Problem gambling is normally identified by fixed criteria of harm adapted from those of substance abuse and by focusing on the individual gambler. However, rigid definitions neglect institutional variations of gambling practices within different legislative configurations. This study proposes analysing the line between recreational and problem gambling by focusing on gambling behaviour and looking at the corruption of the defining factors of play (Cail-lois, 1958 in three different institutional contexts. DESIGN - A stimulated focus-group method (Reception Analytical Group Interview was applied to seven groups of Finnish and French general practitioners each and three groups of German ones to study the variations of conceptualising the defining factors of play as introduced by Caillois. RESULTS - Corruption of play was distinguished by participants from all three countries as the dividing line between recreational and problem gambling, but cultural variations were found: the French and German GPs emphasised the loss of the exceptionality of gambling, whereas the Finnish GPs highlighted the invasion of the home by online gambling. Furthermore, the Finnish and German participants were more concerned about the use of gambling as an emotional regulator, while French GPs echoed the French medical model in discussing the adrenaline rush of problem gamblers. CONCLUSIONS - Caillois' defining factors of play can be used to distinguish recreational from problem gambling and to offer a more encompassing definition of problem gambling. The perception of the line between recreational and problem gambling also seems to depend on the institutional and cultural context.

  16. Balanced Scorecard Goal Four: Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving" Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    efficiency and improve internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves...Army Medical Department to implement a Balanced Scorecard , the Great Plains was faced with establishing measurable standards and goals to track its

  17. The Global Convergence of Self-Scaling BFGS Algorithm with Nonmonotone Line Search for Unconstrained Nonconvex Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xia YIN; Dong Lei DU

    2007-01-01

    The self-scaling quasi-Newton method solves an unconstrained optimization problem by scaling the Hessian approximation matrix before it is updated at each iteration to avoid the possible large eigenvalues in the Hessian approximation matrices of the objective function. It has been proved in the literature that this method has the global and superlinear convergence when the objective function is convex (or even uniformly convex). We propose to solve unconstrained nonconvex optimization problems by a self-scaling BFGS algorithm with nonmonotone linear search. Nonmonotone line search has been recognized in numerical practices as a competitive approach for solving large-scale nonlinear problems. We consider two different nonmonotone line search forms and study the global convergence of these nonmonotone self-scale BFGS algorithms. We prove that, under some weaker condition than that in the literature, both forms of the self-scaling BFGS algorithm are globally convergent for unconstrained nonconvex optimization problems.

  18. The Initial-boundary Value Problem for the Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko Equation on the Half-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@usst.edu.cn [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, College of Science (China); Fan, Engui, E-mail: faneg@fudan.edu.cn [Fudan University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Mathematics for Nonlinear Science (China)

    2016-09-15

    We analyze an initial-boundary value problem for the Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko equation on the half-line. This equation can be viewed as the short wave model for the Degasperis-Procesi (DP) equation. We show that the solution u(x,t) can be recovered from its initial and boundary values via the solution of a vector Riemann-Hilbert problem formulated in the plane of a complex spectral parameter z.

  19. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  20. CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS WITH DIRICHLET BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR PERTURBED SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON A HALF-LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dirichlet boundary value problems for perturbed second-order differential equations on a half line are investigated in this paper. The methods mainly depend on the calculus of variations to the classical functionals. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of the solutions.

  1. Numerical investigation of zeros of some dispersion relations appearing in sound attenuation problems in a circular lined duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TANASIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the zeros of some dispersion relations apperaring in sound attenuation problems in circular lined ducts, carrying a gas flow, are investigated numerically. To find the values of frequencies for which the dispersion relations vanish is not easy at all. That is beacause these relations contain the solution of an initial value problem which depends on the unknown frequency and can not be found explicitly. In order to overcome this difficulty we consider approximate dispersion relations, obtained by replacing in the shear flow the solution of the initial value problem by its Taylor’s polynomial approximate. For numerical computations typical aeronautical examples are considered.

  2. OBLIQUE DERIVATIVE PROBLEMS FOR SECOND ORDER NONLINEAR MIXED EQUATIONS WITH DEGENERATE LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Guochun

    2008-01-01

    The present article deals with oblique derivative problems for some nonlin-ear mixed equations with parabolic degeneracy, which include the Tricomi problem as a special case. First, the formulation of the problems for the equations is given; next, the representation and estimates of solutions for the above problems are obtained; finally, the existence of solutions for the problems is proved by the successive iteration and the com-pactness principle of solutions of the problems. In this article, the author uses the complex method, namely, the complex functions in the elliptic domain and the hyperbolic complex functions in hyperbolic domain are used.

  3. Simulación de operaciones y línea de balance: herramientas integradas para la toma de decisiones Simulation operations and line of balance: integrated tools for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlem Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la implementación conjunta de la simulación de operaciones y de las líneas de balance como herramientas que contribuyen a mejorarla eficiencia de la planeación de proyectos de la construcción, donde su integración ha sido escasa en el ámbito nacional e internacional. El artículo exponelos resultados de la simulación de las actividades asociadas a la etapa de estructura, armado y fundida de muros y losa, en una edificación en altura. Se modela el sistema de acuerdo con la forma como se ejecuta el proyecto por parte de los constructores y con la ayuda de las líneas de balance se generandos escenarios alternativos con el fin de comparar los tiempos y los costos promedios de terminación del proyecto. En el primer escenario se aprovechala holgura hallada en el sistema actual con relación a los tiempos de iniciación de actividades, sin cambiar la cantidad de recursos humanos y de equipo. Ensegundo escenario, se aumenta levemente la cantidad de recursos humanos y se incrementa en un 25% la cantidad de equipo de formaletería para muros y losa. A partir de los resultados, las empresas disponen de una metodología para la planeación y la selección del escenario adecuado, de acuerdo con suconveniencia.This paper presents the joint implementation of the simulation of operations and lines of balance, as tools that help to improve the efficiency in construction project planning, where the integration of these tools has been scarce in the national and international field. This paper expounds the simulation results of the activities associated with the construction works of structure, assembly and casting of walls and slab, in a multi–story building. The construction system is modeled, according to the way it is done by the company, and with the help of the lines of balance, generating two alternative scenarios in order to compare the times and the average costs of project completion. The first scenario takes advantage

  4. Optimal Scheduling of Material Handling Devices in a PCB Production Line: Problem Formulation and a Polynomial Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Che

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern automated production lines usually use one or multiple computer-controlled robots or hoists for material handling between workstations. A typical application of such lines is an automated electroplating line for processing printed circuit boards (PCBs. In these systems, cyclic production policy is widely used due to large lot size and simplicity of implementation. This paper addresses cyclic scheduling of a multihoist electroplating line with constant processing times. The objective is to minimize the cycle time, or equivalently to maximize the production throughput, for a given number of hoists. We propose a mathematical model and a polynomial algorithm for this scheduling problem. Computational results on randomly generated instances are reported.

  5. Boundary value problems on the half line in the theory of colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi P. Agarwal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present existence results for some boundary value problems defined on infinite intervals. In particular our discussion includes a problem which arises in the theory of colloids.

  6. Comparison of Ai Chi and Impairment-Based Aquatic Therapy for Older Adults With Balance Problems: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covill, Laura G; Utley, Cynthia; Hochstein, Cheryl

    2016-08-03

    Older adults with balance deficits often fear falling and limit their mobility. Poor balance is multifactorial, influenced by medication interactions, musculoskeletal and sensory system changes, and poor neuromuscular response to changes in body positions. Aquatic physical therapy (APT) is an intervention used to improve balance and decrease falls. Ai Chi is a water-based exercise program. It incorporates slow movements of progressive difficulty utilizing the upper and lower extremities and trunk coordinated with deep breathing. It is used for relaxation, strengthening, and balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Ai Chi provides better results than conventional impairment-based aquatic therapy (IBAT) for older adults with balance deficits. Thirty-two community-dwelling adults, 65 to 85 years old, were referred to 2 different community pools for APT. Fifteen participants received Ai Chi-based aquatic interventions and 17 participants received an IBAT program. Physical therapists trained in both programs completed interventions and determined discharge. Physical balance measures, which included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG), were collected pre- and posttherapy. Self-reported outcome measures, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), were collected pre- and posttherapy and 3- and 6-month postdischarge. A 2-way (group by time) mixed-model analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The covariate was the initial outcome scores. Comparison of the 2 groups revealed no difference between groups in any of the outcome measures (BBS, P = .53; TUG, P = .39; ABC, P = .63; NPRS, P = .27). Repeated-measures analysis and dependent t test were done on the entire aquatic cohort to assess improvement over time. The BBS and TUG showed significant improvement (BBS, P = .00; TUG P = .03) after APT. The ABC and NPRS did not improve significantly (ABC, P = .27; NPRS, P = .77). There

  7. The wetting problem of fluids on solid surfaces: Dynamics of lines and contact angle hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Henri

    2001-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; In 1805, Young was the first who introduced an expression for contact angle in static, but today, the motion of the contact-line formed at the intersection of two immiscible fluids and a solid is still subject to dispute. By means of the new physical concept of line viscosity, the equations of motions and boundary conditions for fluids in contact on a solid surface together with interface and contact-line are revisited. A new Young-Dupré equation for the dynam...

  8. SOLUTION OF MULTIPLE CURVED RIGID LINE AND ANTIPLANE CIRCULAR INCLUSION PROBLEM BY WEAKLY SINGULAR INTEGRAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Interaction between multiple curved rigid line and circular inclusion in antiplane loading condition was considered. Two kinds of elementary solutions corresponding to a concentrated force applying at inclusion and matrix material respectively were presented. Utilizing the elementary solutions and taking density function of traction difference along curved rigid line, a group of weakly singular integral equations with log kernels can be obtained. After the numerical solution of the integral equations, the discrete values of density functions of traction difference are obtainable. So stress singularity coefficients at rigid line tips can be calculated, and several numerical examples are given.

  9. 排序问题Pm,ai|on-line|Cmax的LPT算法%LPT Algorithm for Scheduling Problem Pm,ai|on-line|Cmax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传立; 唐恒永

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the on-line parallel processors scheduling problem where tasks arrive over time. Chen and Vestjens proved that the bound of LPT is 3/2. We generalize the result to the case where the processors have ready time.%讨论了任务实时到达的平行机在线排序问题。Chen和Vestjens证明了LPT算法的界为3/2。将这一结论推广到了处理机具有准备时间的情况。

  10. Improve the performance of orthogonal ASK/DPSK optical label switching by DC-balanced line encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Zhang, J.;

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal amplitude shift keying/differential phase-shift keying (ASK/DPSK) labeling is a promising approach to ultrahigh packet-rate routing and forwarding in the optical layer. However, the limitation on the payload extinction ratio (ER) is a detrimental effect for network scalability and tran......Orthogonal amplitude shift keying/differential phase-shift keying (ASK/DPSK) labeling is a promising approach to ultrahigh packet-rate routing and forwarding in the optical layer. However, the limitation on the payload extinction ratio (ER) is a detrimental effect for network scalability...... and transparency. This paper presents theoretical and experimental studies of ASK/DPSK labeling. It proposes that dc-balanced 8B10B coding can greatly improve ER tolerance, which in turn leads to better system performance. By using the 8B10B coding method, the paper demonstrates transmission and optical label...

  11. Study on reconfigurable assembly line sequencing problem based on NSGA-Ⅱ algorithm%基于NSGA-Ⅱ算法的可重构装配线计划排序问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄兵; 陈友玲; 鲁香珍

    2011-01-01

    为使可重构装配线计划排序的优化模型更加符合问题的实际背景和实现问题的整体优化,建立了以生产负荷均衡化、考虑流水线平衡的平准化、最小化装配线重构成本为优化目标的可重构装配线计划排序多目标优化模型.提出运用带精英策略的快速非支配排序遗传算法( NSGA-Ⅱ)求解此模型,得到更具有参考价值的Pareto最优解集,进而实现问题的整体优化.通过一个可重构装配线的多目标计划排序实验,验证了该模型和方法的正确性及有效性.%To make the optimization model of reconfigurable assembly line sequencing suit to the practical context of the problem and realize the over-all optimization, this paper provided a multiple objects optimization model of reconfigurable assembly line sequencing, which was aimed to balance workload, level scheduling considering line balancing, and minimize reconfigurable setup cost. Applied the fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm ( NSGA- II ) to solve this model, the Pareto optimal set of the problem which had more reference value was obtained and the overall optimization of the problem was accomplished. In an experiment of a reconfigurable assembly line sequencing problem demonstrates the feasibility and validity of the proposed model and method.

  12. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  13. The Problems of the Public Enterprise System in Nigeria: Capitalist Privatization or Management along Islamic Lines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu S. Mikailu

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Nigerian public enterprise system has been quite large in size and scope of operations. Because of its importance, concern has been shown over the problems which are likely to hinder the efficient operation of the system. This paper examines the system to underscore its problems, and the sort of efforts being made or proposed to solve them. It focuses on privatization, which is being touted as the panacea to all problems. The argument is made that the privatization process, within the capitalist ethos and framework, would hardly be a viable option to follow in order to address the present problems. Both the theoretical and empirical bases of this argument are discussed. On this basis, the necessity of an Islamic perspective to the problems of public enterprise is suggested.

  14. Investigation of the collision line broadening problem as applicable to the NASA Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Timothy C.; Ventrice, Carl A.

    1995-05-01

    As a final report for phase 1 of the project, the researchers are submitting to the Tennessee Tech Office of Research the following two papers (reprinted in this report): 'Collision Line Broadening Effects on Spectrometric Data from the Optical Plume Anomaly System (OPAD),' presented at the 30th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 27-29 June 1994, and 'Calculation of Collision Cross Sections for Atomic Line Broadening in the Plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME),' presented at the IEEE Southeastcon '95, 26-29 March 1995. These papers fully state the problem and the progress made up to the end of NASA Fiscal Year 1994. The NASA OPAD system was devised to predict concentrations of anomalous species in the plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) through analysis of spectrometric data. The self absorption of the radiation of these plume anomalies is highly dependent on the line shape of the atomic transition of interest. The Collision Line Broadening paper discusses the methods used to predict line shapes of atomic transitions in the environment of a rocket plume. The Voigt profile is used as the line shape factor since both Doppler and collisional line broadening are significant. Methods used to determine the collisional cross sections are discussed and the results are given and compared with experimental data. These collisional cross sections are then incorporated into the current self absorbing radiative model and the predicted spectrum is compared to actual spectral data collected from the Stennis Space Center Diagnostic Test Facility rocket engine. The second paper included in this report investigates an analytical method for determining the cross sections for collision line broadening by molecular perturbers, using effective central force interaction potentials. These cross sections are determined for several atomic species with H2, one of the principal constituents of the SSME plume environment, and compared with experimental data.

  15. A possible solution to the Lyman/Balmer line problem in hot DA white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Preval, S P; Badnell, N R; Holberg, J B; Hubeny, I

    2014-01-01

    Arguably, the best method for determining the effective temperature ($T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) and surface gravity (log $g$) of a DA white dwarf is by fitting the Hydrogen Lyman and Balmer absorption features. However, as has been shown for white dwarfs with $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$>50,000K, the calculated value from the Lyman and Balmer lines are discrepant, which worsens with increasing temperature. Many different solutions have been suggested, ranging from the input physics used to calculate the models, to interstellar reddening. We will focus on the former, and consider three variables. The first is the atomic data used, namely the number of transitions included in line blanketing treatments and the photoionization cross sections. The second is the stark broadening treatment used to synthesise the Lyman and Balmer line profiles, namely the calculations performed by Lemke (1997) and Tremblay & Bergeron (2009). Finally, the third is the atmospheric content. The model grids are calculated with a pure H composition, ...

  16. Comparisons between direct and inverse approaches in problems of recovering the true profile of a spectral line

    CERN Document Server

    Mijovic, S

    2003-01-01

    Computer-supported techniques are introduced in the evaluation of experimental data and obtaining the real profile of spectral lines. The direct and inverse approaches were used. The MINUIT program from the packets of CERN's library was used to solve direct problems. Tikhonov's regularization method was also applied to solve the same problems in an inverse manner. Model functions were introduced to check the applicability limitation of these methods and make a comparison between them as well. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches were shown. The procedures were applied to the measured profiles of He II's spectral lines in a pulsed low-pressure arc. The chosen lines are He II Paschen-alpha (468.6 nm) in the visible region and Balmer-beta (121.5 nm) in the VUV spectral region. The range of experimental errors was determined where both approaches have given reliable results. It was found that we can obtain the real profile of He II 468.6 nm and He II 121.5 nm spectral lines, using the regularizati...

  17. Problems and strategies of Refactories for Ladle Linings in Continuous Casting and Secondry Steelmaking Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYulian; LIQinghui; 等

    1998-01-01

    With the adoption of concasting and refining processes of steel ,the agravation of the service con-ditions of the ladle linings of high aumina bricks causes a dramatic drop of the ladle lining life.To cope with this situation,the resin bonded Al2O3-MgO-C bricks have been developed with success,The present paper describes the experiment and applica-tion of Al2O3-MgO-C bricks for the ladle linings. Al2O3-MgO-C bricks suppress the inherent short-comings of high alumina bricks and become a popu-larized refractory material for the ladle linings in the modern steel companies,The petrographic analy-sis revealed that the great improvement of the prop-erties nd performance of Al2O3-MgO-C bricks is due to the combination of the merits of Al2O3-MgO-C materials and carbon.

  18. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  19. [Evaluation of the balance between energy supplement and consumption in patients with serious burn: a problem worth further investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi

    2013-08-01

    The energy expenditure of burn patients can be determined accurately by indirect calorimetry measurement, or estimated approximately with energy expenditure equations. However, the energy requirement is not entirely equal to energy expenditure in the whole process of burn injury. The energy consumption induced by hyper catabolism is increased significantly, and on the other hand, the ability of nutrient absorption and anabolism decreased remarkably in the early phase of burn injury, thus leading to imbalance between energy consumption and demand. However, energy supplement as calculated according to energy consumption may induce overfeeding in the early phase of burn injury. Excessive nutrients intake can not be fully utilized to decrease hypermetabolic reaction, but it might exacerbate metabolic disorder. Therefore, the energy supplement should be lower than energy consumption during the early stage of burns. With the advance of disease course, the internal environment becomes stable gradually, ending in a balance between anabolism and catabolism. Energy supplement should be increased gradually according to energy consumption. During the convalescent period, anabolic metabolism exceeds catabolic metabolism, therefore the quantity of energy supplement should be moderately higher than that of energy consumption. Thus, the energy consumption and energy supplement may reach a balance during the whole course of treatment. The purpose of the article is to analyze and discuss how to estimate energy expenditure precisely and evaluate energy requirement correctly, in order to reach a balance between energy consumption and supplement during a long course of treatment for severe burn patients.

  20. Quantifying the change in equilibrium-line altitude during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Subtropical Andes using a mass-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, L.; Galewsky, J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying changes in equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) can be used to better understand past regional climates. We use a glacial mass-balance model in conjunction with global climate model (GCM) output data to calculate the change in ELA between modern and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka) climates in the presently hyper-arid subtropical Andes. The region is currently unglaciated, despite cold enough temperatures, as there is too little moisture to sustain glaciers. Previous studies suggest this area was glaciated during the LGM, however, little is known about the extent of the glaciation or the climate required to sustain it. The mass-balance model used in this study calculates the change in ELA using the positive degree-day (PDD) sum, the sum of daily mean air temperatures that are above zero. The PDD sum is used to calculate ablation, which is then assumed to be proportional to temperature, in order to calculate the change in ELA. Using output from several GCM simulations, we compare the change in ELA between LGM and modern climates across the different models for the subtropical Andes. These simulations suggest that the changes in climate resulted in a lowering of ELAs to the extent that parts of the subtropical Andes were glaciated during the LGM.

  1. Food survey. Part A. U. S. agriculture in the U. S. balance of trade. Part B. The world food-population problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulthrop, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Part A of the paper examines U.S. agriculture with respect to its current and future role in that U.S. trade balance. Part B is a brief look at the world food-population problem. It is appropriate to examine alternatives. One alternative is to simply import oil and pay for it with agricultural exports, security being achieved through diversification of sources of imports. This study examines and identifies the major food issues. An attempt is made to demonstrate that U.S. agricultural exports will probably continue to be a strong positive element in the trade balance for at least the next decade. However, while worldwide demand for food will grow, so will the competition for U.S. agricultural exports. The uncertainties are of significant magnitude that to count on this strategy for the long term seems unwise.

  2. 液晶显示器外壳生产线平衡分析与改善%Balance Analysis and Improvement of an LCD Shell Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯琳娜; 王海燕; 贾伟伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase the productivity, balance analysis is carried out for an existing LCD shell production line in a company at Suzhou. By using process analysis, the 5W1H inquiry technology, ECRS methods, and other principles for production process optimization, the line is redesigned. To demonstrate the improvement made, simulation is made by using Flexsim simulation software. The results indicate that there is a significant improvement on work load balance for each station, waiting time, material delivery time and distance.%针对苏州一个公司的液晶显示器外壳生产线平衡率不高的问题,通过程序分析,综合运用5W1H提问技术、ECRS原则等方法和工具,对其液晶显示器外壳生产线流程进行重新设计.结果表明,改善方案在等待时间、搬运时间和距离等方面有明显的改进.针对原流程中的瓶颈作业,通过运用Flexsim仿真软件进行分析,对比改进前和改进后各工位的作业时间、空闲时间及阻塞率等,讨论新方案的实施效果.最后对整个生产线改进效果进行预测,并对该公司液晶显示器外壳生产线改进提出实施建议.

  3. Variational formulation of the method of lines and its application to the wave propagation problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available = = to the system of ordinary differential equations (3.5) the initial problem will be formulated and could be solved by one of the available numerical methods (Runge-Kutta, Adams, etc.). Explicit form of the system (3.5) is as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2...

  4. The state line of solution of imbalances problem the wholesale electricity market of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Kolesnichenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of formation and dynamics of imbalances of the wholesale electricity market (WEM of Ukraine. The features and prospects of imbalance control in the context of reforming the wholesale electricity market are analyzed.

  5. A Musical Color Line: The Problem of Race in White Rap Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddles, Allison

    An instructor of freshman composition at Ohio University always teaches a section on music in her courses because freshmen jump at the chance to discuss a part of their youth culture that they readily identify with. The problem, however, has been how to incorporate rap music successfully into these discussions with a classroom full of white…

  6. An atypical human induced pluripotent stem cell line with a complex, stable, and balanced genomic rearrangement including a large de novo 1q uniparental disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Clara; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Luce, Eléanor; Pineau, Dominique; Dianat, Noushin; Hannoun, Zara; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy through their use as vital tools for regenerative and personalized medicine. However, the genomic integrity of hiPSCs still raises some concern and is one of the barriers limiting their use in clinical applications. Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of aneuploidies, copy number variations, or single point mutations in hiPSCs, and nonintegrative reprogramming strategies have been developed to minimize the impact of the reprogramming process on the hiPSC genome. Here, we report the characterization of an hiPSC line generated by daily transfections of modified messenger RNAs, displaying several genomic abnormalities. Karyotype analysis showed a complex genomic rearrangement, which remained stable during long-term culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the hiPSC line showing that this karyotype is balanced. Interestingly, single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of a large 1q region of uniparental disomy (UPD), demonstrating for the first time that UPD can occur in a noncompensatory context during nonintegrative reprogramming of normal fibroblasts.

  7. The Balancing Optimization of Metering Pump Production Line%计量泵生产线平衡优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时党伟

    2015-01-01

    以M公司MR泵生产线为研究对象,对多品种小批量生产方式中存在的问题,通过运用价值流程的精益生产与工序平衡分析等工具对生产线进行分析改进,运用了拉动生产方式,降低了库存量,使得这种生产方式需要响应速度快、切换快、流动快、运营速度快等。%In M company, MR pump production line for the study, Many varieties of small batch production mode, there are some issues, This paper through the use of value stream mapping and balancing process analysis tools, Analysis and improve-ment of the production line. Using the pull mode of production, reduce inventory levels, it makes this production method re-quires fast response, fast switching, fast mobility, speed and other operations.

  8. Asymptotics of linear initial boundary value problems with periodic boundary data on the half-line and finite intervals

    KAUST Repository

    Dujardin, G. M.

    2009-08-12

    This paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of linear initial boundary value problems with constant coefficients on the half-line and on finite intervals. We assume that the boundary data are periodic in time and we investigate whether the solution becomes time-periodic after sufficiently long time. Using Fokas\\' transformation method, we show that, for the linear Schrödinger equation, the linear heat equation and the linearized KdV equation on the half-line, the solutions indeed become periodic for large time. However, for the same linear Schrödinger equation on a finite interval, we show that the solution, in general, is not asymptotically periodic; actually, the asymptotic behaviour of the solution depends on the commensurability of the time period T of the boundary data with the square of the length of the interval over. © 2009 The Royal Society.

  9. SPES-2, AP600 intergral system test S01007 2 inch CL to core make-up tank pressure balance line break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchiani, M.; Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M. [SIET S.p.A. Piacenza (Italy)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica), ENEA (Enter per le numove Technlogie, l` Energia e l` Ambient), Siet (Societa Informazioni Esperienze Termoidraulich) and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behaviour of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with passive and active safety systems and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the boration capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behaviour. Cold and hot shakedown tests have been performed on the facility to check the characteristics of the plant before starting the experimental campaign. The paper first presents a description of the SPES-2 test facility then the main results of S01007 test {open_quotes}2{close_quotes} Cold Leg (CL) to Core Make-up Tank (CMT) pressure balance line break{close_quotes} are reported and compared with predictions performed using RELAP5/mod3/80 obtained by ANSALDO through agreement with U.S.N.R.C. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The SPES-2 nodalization and all the calculations here presented were performed by ANSALDO and sponsored by ENEL as a part of pre-test predictions for SPES-2.

  10. A comprehensive quadratic assignment problem for an integrated layout design of final assembly line and manufacturing feeder cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines and cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs design have been widely used in the literature. However the integration of these manufacturing concepts is neglected in an environment where parts need to be assembled after production in different shops. In this paper, a comprehensive quadratic assignment problem is developed for the assignment of machines of each part manufacturing cell, sub-assembly tasks of each sub-assembly cell as well as the assignment of different cells and final assembly tasks within the shop floor in their relevant predetermined locations. A genetic algorithm (GA as well as a memetic algorithm (MA consisting of the proposed GA and Tabu search (TS algorithm are proposed and implemented on different size numerical examples. The obtained results show the efficiency of both algorithms to reach near optimal solutions compared to the optimal solution of small-sized problems.

  11. 行为受限下Acrobot起摆平衡控制研究%Swing-up and Balance Control Problem for the Acrobot with Limited Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红太; 佟雷; 张晓华

    2012-01-01

    Acrobot is a typical underactualed mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. To the problem of limited swing angles of second link and driving torque in a real Acrobot, the swing up and balance control problem of Acrobot with limit behaviour is studied. Hie whole process is divided to swing up phase and balance phase. Firstly Based on the approximate linearization of the Acrobot around the unstable equilibrium point, a LQR balance controller is designed. To decrease the torque in the balance phase, the optimum problem of the switching gesture is studied; The swing up control is based on energy pumping method which follows a reference path. An improved reference path is proposed and the partial feedback linearization method is used to track the reference path which can guarantee that the energy is increasing while the swing angle is in the given range and can lead to a better switching gesture: easier to switch to balance control, smoother balance process and smaller driving torque. Finally the experiment results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.%Acrobot是一种典型的二自由度欠驱动机械系统,针对实际中可能存在的杆二摆角及驱动力矩受限的问题,研究了行为受限下系统的起摆与平衡控制问题.将整个过程分为起摆和平衡2个阶段,首先利用垂直向上不稳定平衡点处近似线性模型,设计了基于LQR方法的平衡控制器,并以减小平衡控制过程力矩为目标讨论了切换姿态的优化问题;起摆控制采用了基于参考路径的能量泵入法,提出了一个改进的参考路径,采用部分反馈线性化方法实现对参考路径的跟踪,可以保证摆角在一定范围内摆动的情况下系统机械能不断增加,使起摆结束时具有更优的切换姿态,从而更容易切换至平衡控制阶段,同时使得平衡控制过程更加平稳,所需力矩更小.最后给出了实物实验结果,证明了所提控制策略的有效性.

  12. Global convergence of the Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient method with an Armijo-type inexact line search for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zeng Xin; Li, Guo Yin; Qi, Li Qun

    2008-12-01

    We propose two algorithms for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems that employ Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient formula and new inexact line search techniques. We show that the new algorithms converge globally if the function to be minimized has Lipschitz continuous gradients. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed methods for particularly chosen line search conditions are very promising.

  13. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  14. 3D adaptive finite element method for a phase field model for the moving contact line problems

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive finite element method for simulating the moving contact line problems in three dimensions. The model that we used is the coupled Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition(GNBC) proposed in [18]. In our algorithm, to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use the residual type adaptive finite element algorithm. It is well known that the phase variable decays much faster away from the interface than the velocity variables. There- fore we use an adaptive strategy that will take into account of such difference. Numerical experiments show that our algorithm is both efficient and reliable. © 2013 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  15. ethod of straight lines for a Bingham problem as a model for the flow of waxy crude oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Ariel Torres

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a method of straight lines for solving a Bingham problem that models the flow of waxy crude oils. The model describes the flow of mineral oils with a high content of paraffin at temperatures below the cloud point (i.e. the crystallization temperature of paraffin and more specifically below the pour point at which the crystals aggregate themselves and the oil takes a jell-like structure. From the rheological point of view such a system can be modelled as a Bingham fluid whose parameters evolve according to the volume fractions of crystallized paraffin and the aggregation degree of crystals. We prove that the method is well defined for all times, a monotone property, qualitative behaviour of the solution, and a convergence theorem. The results are compared with numerical experiments at the end of this article.

  16. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  17. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  18. An algorithm based on granular tabu search for the problem of balancing public bikes by using multiple vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Linfati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de sistemas de bicicletas públicas ha cobrado gran importancia en países europeos y alrededor de todo el planeta; esto ha llevado a la necesidad de buscar técnicas avanzadas que ayuden a la toma de decisiones. Un sistema de bicicletas públicas consiste en un conjunto de puntos donde se pueden recoger y entregar bicicletas; un depósito central donde existe un conjunto de vehículos que toma las bicicletas sobrantes y las transportan a los puntos donde exista un déficit (es decir que la demanda supera la oferta. Una de las grandes problemáticas que se presentan en los sistemas de bicicletas públicas es el balanceo, que consiste en enviar bicicletas desde los puntos donde se produce una oferta (bicicletas que sobran hacia los puntos donde existe una demanda (bicicletas que faltan. La forma de modelar este problema es con una adaptación del problema de ruteo de vehículos con recolección y entrega de mercancías (VRPPD, permitiendo que cada ruta realice entregas parciales a los clientes y limitando el número de clientes a visitar por ruta. En este artículo se introduce un modelo de programación lineal entera mixta y una metaheurística basada en una búsqueda tabú granular para encontrar soluciones. Se usan instancias desde 15 a 500 clientes adaptadas de la literatura. Los resultados computacionales evidencian que el algoritmo propuesto encuentra soluciones en tiempos acotados de cómputo.

  19. An efficient scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem with variable density and viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient numerical method for the two phase moving contact line problem with variable density, viscosity, and slip length. The physical model is based on a phase field approach, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,5]. To overcome the difficulties due to large density and viscosity ratio, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a splitting method based on a pressure Poisson equation [11], while the Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by a convex splitting method. We show that the method is stable under certain conditions. The linearized schemes are easy to implement and introduce only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the schemes. The method allows us to simulate the interface problems with extremely small interface thickness. Three dimensional simulations are included to validate the efficiency of the method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  1. 城际公交车辆跨线调度优化研究%Cross-line Scheduling Problem for Inter-city Bus Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宝雨; 冯树民

    2016-01-01

    为提高城际公交的运营效率,对不同线路的运营车辆进行了跨线调度研究。从系统的角度分析了车辆跨线调度的可行性,构建了各发车场站的逆差函数,通过同城市的不同场站之间及同场站的不同线路之间的跨线调度,最大化削减了城际公交线路运营的车队规模,从而节约了客运企业的运营成本。对城市Y、Z之间的城际公交线路,维持线路正常运营所需的最小车队规模为38辆,而经过跨线调度优化后,仅需32辆,优化了运营车辆数目。本研究可以有效提高运营车辆的利用率,最大程度减少运营成本。%To improve the operational efficiency of inter-city bus lines, cross-line scheduling is studied for operational vehicles belonged to different lines. From the perspective of system, the feasibility of cross-line scheduling is analyzed. Deficit function is constructed for each depot to maximally cut operating fleet size on inter-city bus lines by cross-line scheduling between different depots in the same city and scheduling within the same depot for different lines. Thereby, operating costs of transport enterprise are saved. Intercity bus lines between City Y and Z are cross-line scheduled to optimize the number of operational vehicles. Results show that the minimum fleet size is 38 vehicles keeping the lines operating normally, and only 32 vehicles are required after scheduling optimization. It can effectively improve the utilization of operational vehicles and minimize operating costs.

  2. Comparing the Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Relaxation Schemes in the Solution of the EHL Line Contact Problem Using a Multigrid solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janakiraman, Shravan; Klit, Peder

    The solution to the EHL line contact problem has been computed by building a multigrid solver. There are two types of relaxation schemes used in the solver, a Gauss -Seidel scheme and a combination of the Gauss- Seidel scheme and the Distributive Jacobi scheme. The differences in the convergence...

  3. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori recurrence after first- and second-line eradication therapy in Korea: the problem of recrudescence or reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the result of either recrudescence or reinfection. Annual recurrence rates per patient-year of follow-up have been reported to vary across countries. The aim of this study was to analyze recurrence rates of H. pylori after first-line and second-line eradication therapies in Korea. From 2007 to 2010, 2691 patients with H. pylori infection received first-line therapy and 573 patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy received second-line therapy. H. pylori infection and the success of eradication were assessed by endoscopic biopsy and rapid urease test or (13) C-urea breath test. All patients were advised to undergo (13) C-urea breath test or esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy or rapid urease test 6 months after eradication, with annual follow-up thereafter. The eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 79.9% (1283/1605) and that of the second-line therapy was 90.4% (394/436) by per protocol analysis. Annual recurrence rates sharply declined after 2-year follow-up. Annual recurrence rates within and after 2-year follow-up were 9.3 and 2.0% after first-line therapy and those of second-line therapy were 4.5 and 2.9%, respectively. Annual recurrence rates of H. pylori showed a sharp decline after 2-year follow-up after eradication in Korean adults, which is not higher than that of Western countries. Enough time interval after treatment (i.e., 2 years) is necessary to confirm eradication, and it would not be easy to distinguish between recurrence and recrudescence before 2 years without identifying H. pylori strains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 电动三轮车装配流水线的平衡分析与改进%The Balance Analysis and Redesign of Electro-tricycle Assembly Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴小兵; 李欧阳; 吕少平; 谭林林

    2014-01-01

    Based on the balancing principle and improvement method of the production line, taking the electro-tricycle assembly line as the research object, this paper applies the method of work study to analyze process flow, determines operation time of every station, finds out bottle-neck stations, and analyzes and redesigns the assembly line by the 5W1H check-list and the principles of ECRS(Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify). In comparison with the former line,the production line redesigned greatly saved space and human, reducing six stations and 11 workers,while the balance rate increased 27.6%.%在生产线平衡原理及改善方法的基础上,以电动三轮车装配流水线为研究对象,运用工作研究的方法分析工艺流程,测定流水线各工位的作业时间,找出瓶颈工位;运用“5W1H”提问技术和ECRS(取消、合并、重排、简化)原则对流水线进行分析与改进。通过对比分析,改进后该流水线大大节省了空间和人力,工位减少6个,工人减少11个,与此同时,平衡率提高27.6%。

  6. Phase balancing optimization for radial feeder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxiang

    In the power distribution systems, unbalanced feeder causes deteriorating power quality and increases investment and operating costs. There are two approaches to balance a feeder system. One approach is feeder reconfiguration, the other is phase swapping. Feeder reconfiguration is an on-line operation of sectionalizing switches. However, feeder reconfiguration is difficult to find the phase balancing solution for a unbalanced feeder system. On the other hand, phase swapping is a direct and effective approach for phase balancing. Phase swapping is an off-line operation of re-tapping loads/laterals to the phase lines during maintenance and restoration periods. Unfortunately, phase balancing problem has not received its deserved importance. Deregulation in power industry has arisen phase balancing issue because it can improve power quality, improve service reliability, and reduce total costs. Thus, phase balancing can enhance utility competitive capability. This research provides utilities the optimization tools to maximize the benefits of phase balancing and minimize the costs. This dissertation proposed several mathematical formulations, including Mixed-integer programming (MIP), Dynamic programming (DP), Simulated annealing (SA), and Fuzzy logic (FL), to perform phase swapping to balance phase in a radial feeder. Due to the discrete nature of phase swapping, a MIP model is proposed to find the optimal phase swapping scheme for small-sized feeder. Candidate sets and monitored branches are then introduced to solve the large-scale feeder systems. Possibilistic integer programming (PIP) is proposed to incorporate load uncertainties in phase swapping problems. The tests show that the load uncertainties may change the optimal phase swapping. DP computation is significant reduced by introducing the tighter upper/lower bounds. The upper bound can be quickly obtained by assignment algorithm. Even though SA is a time-consuming heuristic method, it can provide better solution

  7. Metodologia para o balanceamento de linhas de montagem multi-modelo em ambientes de customização em massa Method for balancing mixed model assembly lines in mass customized production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Petry Gerhardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A implementação da customização na produção requer flexibilidade no processo produtivo. Esta pode ser adquirida através da adoção de linhas de montagem capazes de alternar diferentes modelos de um mesmo produto: as linhas de montagem multi-modelo. Neste tipo de sistema produtivo, a distribuição de tarefas entre as estações de trabalho tende a ser mais complexa, e os algoritmos de balanceamento de linhas uni-modelo tornam-se inadequados. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia para balanceamento em linhas de montagem multi-modelo, a partir de procedimentos disponíveis na literatura e de proposições originais. Também propõe uma classificação dos mais recentes algoritmos desenvolvidos para o balanceamento de linhas de montagem multi-modelo em relação às suas principais características. A metodologia proposta tem sua aplicação ilustrada através de um estudo de caso na indústria de eletrodomésticos.Product customization requires flexibility from production systems, which is attainable by adopting assembly line configurations able to alternate different models of a same product, i.e., mixed model assembly lines. In these production arrangements, the assignment of tasks for work centers grows in complexity and single model balancing algorithms tend to perform poorly. This article presents a method to balance mixed model assembly lines based on algorithms available in the literature and in original proposals. A classification of balancing algorithms for the mixed model case is also presented, along with their most relevant features. The proposed method is applied to a case study from the home appliances industry.

  8. Global and regional aspects for genesis of catastrophic floods - the problems of forecasting and estimates for mass and water balance (surface and groundwater contribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Abrakhin, Sergei

    2017-04-01

    1. The principal goal of present talk is, to discuss the existing uncertainty and discrepancy between water balance estimation for the area under heavy rain flood, on the one hand from the theoretical approach and reasonable data base due to rainfall going from atmosphere and, on the other hand the real practicle surface water flow parameters measured by some methods and/or fixed by some eye-witness (cf. [1]). The vital item for our discussion is that the last characteristics sometimes may be noticeably grater than the first ones. Our estimations show the grater water mass discharge observation during the events than it could be expected from the rainfall process estimation only [2]. The fact gives us the founding to take into account the groundwater possible contribution to the event. 2. We carried out such analysis, at least, for two catastrophic water events in 2015, i.e. (1) torrential rain and catastrophic floods in Lousiana (USA), June 16-20; (2) Assam flood (India), Aug. 22 - Sept. 8. 3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace discussed e.g. in [3] but in respect when rise of the water table above the land surface occurs coincided with intense rainfall and being as a relatively rare phenomenon. In our hypothesis the principal part of possible groundwater exit to surface is connected with a crack-net system state in earth-crust (including deep layers) as a water transportation system, first, being in variated pressure field for groundwater basin and, second, modified by different reasons ( both suddenly (the Krimsk-city flash flood event, July 2012, Russia) and/or smoothly (the Amur river flood event, Aug.-Sept. 2013, Russia) ). Such reconstruction of 3D crack-net under external reasons (resulting even in local variation of pressures in any crack-section) is a principal item for presented approach. 4. We believe that in some cases the interconnection of floods and preceding earthquakes may occur. The problem discuss by us for certain events ( e.g. in addition to

  9. A finite element method for the numerical solution of the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system for moving contact line problems

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a semi-implicit finite element method is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition for the moving contact line problems. In our method, the system is solved in a decoupled way. For the Cahn-Hilliard equations, a convex splitting scheme is used along with a P1-P1 finite element discretization. The scheme is unconditionally stable. A linearized semi-implicit P2-P0 mixed finite element method is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. With our method, the generalized Navier boundary condition is extended to handle the moving contact line problems with complex boundary in a very natural way. The efficiency and capacity of the present method are well demonstrated with several numerical examples. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

  10. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  11. The line blot assay: problems with titrating first and second antibodies for Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Silva-Miranda, M; Wek-Rodriguez, K; Arce-Paredes, P

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technique designed to assess the optimal dilution of primary and secondary antibodies, to be used in Western blot, dot blot, the multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and immunohistochemistry assays. The method that we call "line blot" is not an alternative but a practical, complementary tool for the above techniques that assures definitive results are obtained from single assays, so there is no need to repeat the assay. As with most immunoenzymatic assays, the line blot assay is very sensitive, allowing the detection of absolute amounts of antigen as low as 2.5 ng in the 0.5 cm-long segment line (see Results), depending on the strength of the secondary, enzyme-labelled antibody.

  12. [Striking the work-life balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Solutions for finding a satisfactory balance between home life and work lie in the organisation of work and the work environment. Line managers in particular have a key role to play in helping their staff maintain this balance.

  13. The Existing Problems and Improvement of UV Ovens in the Mobile Phone Coating Lines%手机外壳涂装生产线UV炉存在问题及改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满仓

    2012-01-01

    In the mobile phone plastic shell coating lines, UV ovens played a key role in product quality. But there existed some problems of the UV ovens in the practical production, such as the power of the UV light was not stable, the energy adjustment wasted too much time, the property of the UV tube was unreliable, it was difficult to keep the air pressure balance of the UV ovens and affected the whole coating line' air pressure balance. Those problems always caused bad products and quality fallibility, the cost is high and also influenced the yield and the production capacity even may induce potential hazard. Here the causes of those problems were analyzed; the improvement and solution were carried out that the existed problems can be solved well and ensure the equipments safety, hence the production quality enhanced and low cost.%在手机塑胶外壳涂装生产中UV固化炉对产品品质起着相当关键性作用。但是诸多厂家制作的UV炉在实际固化生产中存在一些问题:UV光功率不稳、能量调整费时费力、灯管工作不可靠、冷却风量调整不便、影响整个生产线风压平衡等诸多问题,经常造成产品固化不良、产品质量稳定性差、生产成本偏高,严重影响产品良率和产能,而且存在安全隐患。本文对UV炉在存在问题的原因进行了分析,提出解决和改善措施,能很好地解决目前存在的问题,实现设备安全、稳定、高品质、低成本生产。

  14. Development of posture self-balance mechanism for suspension arm power transmission line inspection robot%吊臂式巡线机器人悬吊姿态自平衡机构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生元; 任立敏; 焦宏章; 李建永; 吕相艳

    2011-01-01

    The research on the posture instability phenomena occurred when the widely applied suspension arm inspection robot is crossing over the cable attachments was carried out, the respective pitching instability self-balance mechanism and side sway instability self-balance mechanism was presented from the point view of mechanism, and the analysis of their operating principles was also conducted. Above self-balance mechanism has been proven to be practical and feasible by theoretical-analysis and experimental testing, laying a solid foundation for the application popularization of power line inspection robot.%文中针对目前应用较为广泛的吊臂式巡线机器人在跨越线缆附件时所出现的姿态失稳现象进行了研究,从机构学的角度研制了相应的俯仰失稳自平衡机构、侧倾失稳自平衡机构,并分析了其工作原理.通过理论分析和实验验证,证明了上述自平衡机构的实用性和可行性,为电力巡线机器人的应用推广奠定了坚实的基础.

  15. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young…

  16. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young…

  17. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  18. Some notes on the effects of inflation on business balance sheets, and on the problem of the appreciation of business assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VISCO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inflation on firms’ balance sheets in recent years have been the subject of numerous studies. These have highlighted the distortions caused by the rises in prices and have suggested ways to eliminate or mitigate them, such as the use of indexing methods, modified systems of accounting and specific and periodic legislative interventions. The present work aims to clarify the scope of the effects of inflation on the most significant items of firms’ balance sheets. Moreover, it seeks to analyse the logic, consequences and limitations of the appreciation mechanisms for business assets adopted in Italy in the past and recently proposed again.

  19. Archimedes and the Hydrostatic Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Meneghetti Lanza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to discuss how Archimedes would have solved the problem of Hieron king's crown, addressing the solution mentioned by Galileo, proposing a discussion on the subject and seeking a resolution not only watertight . It is also proposed to show an educational alternative, which is a practical activity carried out with students of the Polytechnic School and regular, looking for a conceptual and historical linkage of science. Describes the critical line of Galileo, translated quotes of authors, lists a series of opposition elements to the story told in textbooks and present a proposal for qualitative analysis with concept maps, in search subsumers and evaluation of results after application of an activity using the hydrostatic balance. .

  20. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young children,…

  1. Towards a more accurate microscopic description of the moving contact line problem - incorporating nonlocal effects through a statistical mechanics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Ben; Sibley, David; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    Multiscale effects play a predominant role in wetting phenomena such as the moving contact line. An accurate description is of paramount interest for a wide range of industrial applications, yet it is a matter of ongoing research, due to the difficulty of incorporating different physical effects in one model. Important small-scale phenomena are corrections to the attractive fluid-fluid and wall-fluid forces in inhomogeneous density distributions, which often previously have been accounted for by the disjoining pressure in an ad-hoc manner. We systematically derive a novel model for the description of a single-component liquid-vapor multiphase system which inherently incorporates these nonlocal effects. This derivation, which is inspired by statistical mechanics in the framework of colloidal density functional theory, is critically discussed with respect to its assumptions and restrictions. The model is then employed numerically to study a moving contact line of a liquid fluid displacing its vapor phase. We show how nonlocal physical effects are inherently incorporated by the model and describe how classical macroscopic results for the contact line motion are retrieved. We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant No. 247031 and Imperial College through a DTG International Studentship.

  2. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  3. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  4. 基于ECRS原则与工序重组的电机装配线产线平衡改善%Balance Improvement of Motor Assembly Line Based on ECRS Principle and Process Reorganization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华炳; 王龙; 涂学明; 余锋

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Motor assembly line operation process and balance,by analyzing the mechanical process,the bottleneck and excess capacity station is analyzed and improved by using Human-computer interaction operation and eM-plant simulation application and ECRS Principle. With system view and hierarchical idea,assembly line is analyzed,from macroscopical to microcosmk,advanced stage by stage, Andalso ,it imports the AGV system to optimize the logistic flow and the layout,then,a viable improvement method is proposed. Finally, the line is redesigned by operation merging and dividing so that the balance rate increases by 36.95% and cycle time reduces from 28 to 10.5 second and the per capita production capacity is doubled.%针对某电机装配流水线的作业流程与平衡状况,在分析机械工艺基础上,采用人机联合作业分析方法和ECRS原则,结合作业要素重组,应用eM-plant仿真软件,对制约流水线生产能力的瓶颈工位和能力过剩工位进行分析与改进,结合系统观与层次化思想,从宏观到微观、逐步推进、分层次地对装配流水线进行分析研究;同时引入AGV系统对物流路径和布局进行优化,设计出新的流水线方案,实现人均产能翻番、瓶颈时间由28s减少到10.5s、线平衡率提高36.95%.

  5. On advanced variational formulation of the method of lines and its application to the wave propagation problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available of elastic wave over the bar and . If we add initial conditions and to the system of ordinary differential equations (3.5) the initial problem will be formulated and could be solved by one of the available numerical methods (Runge-Kutta, Adams, etc...

  6. The Substantialiazation of Explanation of Criminal Law─The base Line of Legality is the Balance of Crime and Punishment%刑法解释的实质化--罪刑均衡是罪刑法定的阵地与底线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭自力; 陈文昊

    2016-01-01

    形式解释论囿于“语义应有射程”原则,忽视分则体系性,导致罪刑不均,在实践问题解决上捉襟见肘。近年以来,实质化的刑法观对刑法解释论的冲击势不可挡,“开放犯罪构成”“刑法功利主义”“风险社会”等理论的出现预示着传统解释论的涅槃与转型。罪刑法定必须满足罪刑均衡的具体标准,二者高度统一。文义解释必须符合体系解释的具体要求,二者一体两面。应当将罪刑均衡作为实质解释论坚守的阵地与底线,并以罪刑均衡原则反思形式解释论的合理性。%Explanation in form stands on the principle of“the range of words”and neglects the system,which breaks the rule of balance of crime and punishment and has troubles in the solving of problems. In late years,substantial criminal law has a great impact on the explanation of criminal law. The emergence of“open components”,“utilitarian criminal law”and“risk society”marks the rebirth of explanation theory of criminal law. The rule of legality must meet the rule of balance of crime and punishment and the two of them are unified. The explanation of words must meet the standard of balance of the system. The base line of legality is the balance of crime and punishment,and explanation in form stands should be reconsidered from the angle of balance of crime and punishment.

  7. Semi On-line Scheduling Problem for Maximizing the Minimum Machine Completion Time on m Identical Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗润梓; 孙世杰

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a semi on-line version on m identical machines M1 , M2, …, Mm ( m ≥ 3 ) was considered, where the processing time of the largest job is known in advance. Our goal is to maximize the minimum machine load, an NPLS algorithm was presented and its worst-case ratio was proved to be equal to m - 1 which is the best possible value. It is concluded that if the total processing time of jobs is also known to be greater than (2 m - 1 )Pmax where pmax is the largest job's processing time, then the worstcase ratio is 2 - 1/m.

  8. New aspects of absorption line formation in intervening turbulent clouds; 3, The inverse problem in the study of H+D profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F

    1997-01-01

    A new method, based on a Reverse Monte Carlo technique and aimed at the inverse problem in the analysis of interstellar (intergalactic) absorption lines is presented. We consider the process of line formation in media with a stochastic velocity field accounting for the effects of a finite correlation length (mesoturbulence). This approach generalizes the standard microturbulent approximation, which is commonly used to model the formation of absorption spectra in turbulent media. The method allows to estimate from an observed spectrum both, the physical parameters of the absorbing gas, and an appropriate structure of the velocity distribution parallel to the line of sight. The procedure is applied to a template H+D Ly-alpha profile which reproduces the Burles and Tytler [BT] spectrum of the quasar Q 1009+2956 with the DI Ly-alpha line seen at the redshift z = 2.504. The results obtained favor a low D/H ratio in this particular absorption system, although the inferred upper limit for the hydrogen isotopic ratio...

  9. 输电线路运检一体化管理中存在的问题%Problems in Integrated Management of Transmission Line Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高颖

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of China's society, China's power grid is the scale of the development of intelligent, transmission line operating efficiency is also increasing.However, in the operation of the power grid, the input of a large number of intelligent equipment makes the maintenance of transmission lines gradually complex, which seriously threatens the safe operation of power network. On the implementation of integrated management of operation and maintenance of transmission line, the mode of operation, maintenance and maintenance of power grid is becoming a problem to be solved.This thesis mainly discusses the problems in the integrated management of transmission line, and puts forward some management measures.%本论文着重探讨输电线路运检一体化管理中存在的问题,并有针对性地提出管理措施。通过分析输电线路运行与检修管理中存在的工作人员的专业技术水平有限,运行人员与检修人员工作配合度不高,运行人员和检修人员的利益分配没有明确区分等问题,提出运用智能化管理平台构建输电线路运检一体化管理系统,建立输电线路使用设备信息档案库,以加强输电线路实施运检一体化管理。

  10. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  11. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  12. An iterative method in a probabilistic approach to the spectral inverse problem: Differential emission measure from line spectra and broadband data

    CERN Document Server

    Goryaev, F F; Urnov, A M; Oparin, S N; Hochedez, J -F; Reale, F; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014280

    2010-01-01

    Inverse problems are of great importance in astrophysics for deriving information about the physical characteristics of hot optically thin plasma sources from their EUV and X-ray spectra. We describe and test an iterative method developed within the framework of a probabilistic approach to the spectral inverse problem for determining the thermal structures of the emitting plasma. We also demonstrate applications of this method to both high resolution line spectra and broadband imaging data. Our so-called Bayesian iterative method (BIM) is an iterative procedure based on Bayes' theorem and is used to reconstruct differential emission measure (DEM) distributions. To demonstrate the abilities of the BIM, we performed various numerical tests and model simulations establishing its robustness and usefulness. We then applied the BIM to observable data for several active regions (AR) previously analyzed with other DEM diagnostic techniques: both SUMER/SOHO (Landi and Feldman, 2008) and SPIRIT/CORONAS-F (Shestov et al...

  13. Debris-covered glacier anomaly? Morphological factors controlling changes in the mass balance, surface area, terminus position, and snow line altitude of Himalayan glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sunako, Sojiro; Sakai, Akiko; Fujita, Koji

    2017-08-01

    What are the main morphological factors that control the heterogeneous responses of debris-covered glaciers to climate change in the southern central Himalaya? A debate is open whether thinning rates on debris-covered glaciers are comparable to those of debris-free ones. Previous studies have adopted a deterministic approach, which is indispensable, but is also limiting in that only a few glaciers can be monitored. In this context, we propose a statistical analysis based on a wider glacier population as a complement to these deterministic studies. We analysed 28 glaciers situated on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the central southern Himalaya during the period 1992-2008. This study combined data compiled by three distinct studies for a common period and population of glaciers for use in a robust statistical analysis. Generally, surface gradient was the main morphological factor controlling the features and responses of the glaciers to climate change. In particular, the key points that emerged are as follows. 1) Reduced downstream surface gradient is responsible for increased glacier thinning. 2) The development of supraglacial ponds is a further controlling factor of glacier thinning: where supraglacial ponds develop, the glaciers register further surface lowering. 3) Debris coverage and thickness index were not found to be significantly responsible for the development of supraglacial ponds, changes in elevation, or shifts in snow line altitude.

  14. Modeling operational behavior of a disassembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we present a dynamic kanban (pull) system specifically developed for disassembly lines. This type of kanban system is much more complex than the traditional kanban system used in assembly lines. For instance, unlike the assembly line where the external demand occurs only at the last station, the demands in the disassembly case also occur at any of the intermittent stations. The reason is that as a product moves on the disassembly line, various parts are disassembled at every station and accumulated at that station. Therefore, there are as many demand sources as there are number of parts. We consider a case example involving the end-of-life products. Based on the precedence relationships and other criteria such as hazardous properties of the parts, we balance the disassembly line. The results of the disassembly line-balancing problem (DLBP) are used as input to the proposed dynamic kanban system for disassembly line (DKSDL). We compare the performance of the DKSDL to the modified kanban system for disassembly line (MKSDL), which was previously introduced by the authors. We show, via simulation, that the DKSDL is far superior to MKSDL considered.

  15. Current problems in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer: focus on the role of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Montemurro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both from a clinical and a biological point of view. Despite being still incurable, the expanding therapeutic repertoire has determined a progressive increase in median survival. We describe the clinical course of a 67-year-old woman with a locally advanced, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Single-agent docetaxel at the dose of 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles determined a pathological complete remission in the breast and a near complete remission of liver metastases. After more than 4 years from diagnosis, the patient is alive and without signs of tumour progression. Based on this clinical case, we discuss management issues like the choice of the initial treatment, the use of monochemotherapy vs polychemotherapy, the worth of surgery of the primary tumour in patients with stage IV disease, and the issue of maintenance endocrine therapy. Furthermore, we reviewed the pivotal role of docetaxel in the management of advanced breast cancer. Whether monochemotherapy or polychemotherapy is felt to be an adequate choice in the clinical practice, docetaxel qualifies as one of the most active and manageable agents. Single agent activity ranging from 20-48% in terms of response rate has been reported in several clinical trials in patients treated in various clinical settings. Docetaxel-based combinations with other cytotoxic agents have become established in the first line treatment both in patients with anthracycline-resistant and anthracycline-sensitive metastatic breast cancer. Finally, docetaxel has been shown to be an optimal companion drug for biologically targeted agents like trastuzumab or bevacizumab, resulting in further treatment options.

  16. 橡胶电缆连续硫化生产线水汽平衡系统设计探讨%Discussion on Design of Water-steam Balance System of Continue Vulcanization Rubber Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙竹; 宋海峰

    2014-01-01

    简述了橡胶电缆的硫化过程及半悬链式橡胶电缆硫化生产线硫化管道及冷却管道长度的选择,介绍了橡胶硫化包覆过程中水汽平衡系统的组成及工作原理,围绕蒸汽压力控制、冷却水外循环、内循环三个方面对水汽平衡系统进行了设计探讨。%This paper briefly describes the vulcanization process of rubber line and the length selection of the vulcanization and cool-ing tubes of the hanging chain vulcanization rubber line,introduces the configuration and operating prinoiple of water-steam balance system during the sheathing process of rubber vulcanization and discusses the design of this system from three aspects, such as steam pressure control,cooling water external and internal circulation.

  17. Bi-level Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Three-dimensional Container Loading Problem with Balancing Constrains%带平衡约束三维装箱问题的双层混合遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向; 雷定猷

    2015-01-01

    Based on a framed-layout concept, a bi-level hybrid genetic algorithm (BHGA) is presented for the three-dimensional container loading problem (3DCLP) with balancing constraints. Firstly, the concept of core block and its generation tactics are proposed according to the freight characters. Then a construction process adapt to the balance loading is introduced combined with the concepts of extreme-point and anchor-distance. Based on the initial frame and the co-evolution of internal and external searches of BHGA, the optimal placement for the freights can be determined. Lastly, the approach is tested on standard benchmark test data and is compared with the existed researches involving balance constrains. The results demonstrate that it is effective in improving the space use rate and balance level of the center gravity.%针对带重心平衡约束的三维装箱问题,基于框架式布局思想,设计双层混合遗传算法进行求解。根据装载物的特性定义核心货物元素及进行核心堆的构造,再结合极点、锚距等概念提出适合货物平衡装载的布局过程;在典型布局形成初始框架基础上,通过双层混合遗传算法的内、外层搜索分工与协作,获得货物最优装载方案。基于标准算例的实验及对比分析,证明所提出方法在提高装载率及实现重心平衡方面取得了较好效果。

  18. Research on Problems and Improvement of Double Declining Balance Method on Agricultural Machinery Depreciation%农机双倍余额递减法折旧存在问题及改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕娇; 乔金友; 王福林; 陈海涛

    2015-01-01

    Double declining balance method is often used on agricultural machinery as an accelerated depreciation model . Two problems of double declining balance methods were discussed and improved in this paper .The calculating method of turning point of the dynamic double declining balance model was improved , which avoids the phenomenon of depreciation inversion .The dynamic improved double declining balance model was put forward , which considering time value of fund , and it was more accord with the economic criterion .At last , changing tendencies of depreciation of different models were analyzed comparatively combined with the John Deere 7830 tractor, which proved the improved method is more correct and scientific .%双倍余额递减法是农业机械折旧中经常采用的一种加速折旧方法。分析发现现用双倍余额递减模型存在两方面问题,并针对这两个问题进行改进研究。对原动态双倍余额递减模型转折点的计算公式进行改进,避免了折旧期内折旧额倒置现象;提出了动态改进双倍余额递减模型,考虑占用资金的时间价值,采用改进的模型计算折旧额更符合经济规律。最后,以农业生产中常用的约翰迪尔7830拖拉机为例,采用各种折旧模型计算该拖拉机各年折旧额的变化规律,证明了改进方法的正确性和科学性。

  19. Balancing device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, W.D.; Herder, J.L.; Wisse B.M.; Barents, R.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a balancing device for a mass, comprising an arm that is adjustable about a pivoting point and with which the mass is coupled, and an adjustable spring system that is coupled with the arm, which spring system comprises at least one spring, wherein the spring system comprises

  20. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  1. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  2. Discussion on Several Teaching Problems of Balance Sheet Liability Method%资产负债表债务法教学难点问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈益云

    2014-01-01

    相比应付税款法和利润表债务法,资产负债表债务法无论是从会计理念和会计处理方法还是计税差异等方面都发生了根本变化,再加上该业务的复杂性及其同时涉及税法和所得税准则等多项会计准则,所以学生在学习过程中面临着诸多疑问和困惑,本文对这些疑问和困惑进行了梳理和探讨。%Compared with the tax payable method and income statement debt method, the balance sheet debt method is a new method with some fundamental change of the accounting concepts and accounting treatment and tax differences.It combines with the com-plexity of the business and relates to the tax and income tax criterion and a number of accounting standards.So students face many ques-tions and confusions in their learning.Our discussion on these questions and confusions will be of much help for students’ understanding.

  3. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  4. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jawahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E. Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.

  5. Balancing priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Johansen, Andreas Kaas; Lauridsen, Frederik Vahr Bjarnø

    2016-01-01

    a heterogeneous ensemble of care providers. In this paper, we present findings from a field study of coordinative work in distributed elder care in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the coordinative challenges of distributed elder care, and to inform design of new care......, that are needed by the healthcare system, but also the work involved in balancing priorities....

  6. Pitfalls in Using the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard has quickly become a leading management tool. But business performance measurement is notoriously difficult, so any system, including the balanced scorecard, is likely to have unanticipated and often dysfunctional consequences. This article briefly reviews the main...... attractions of the balanced scorecard and then shows how these apparent advantages might lead to problems....

  7. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    time of the weighing and at the centre of gravity of the mass. The paper by Liard and his co-authors at NRC describes how they have made this essential measurement. The accuracy of the watt balance may also depend on the alignment of the apparatus. Two papers deal with this important issue. The first, by Sanchez and his co-authors at NRC, shows that their balance is insensitive to a range of alignments and concentrates on the essential alignments that contribute directly to the overall uncertainty of the apparatus. Thomas and his co-authors at LNE describe their technique for reducing uncertainties in their watt balance by aligning its coil in the field of the magnet to minimize both horizontal forces and torques about horizontal axes. The search for discrepancies between the results from watt balances has encouraged researchers to consider possible error mechanisms arising from the secondary electrical interactions between the coil of a watt balance and other parts of the apparatus. Researchers from INRIM have two such papers: one considering magnetic interactions and the other considering electrostatic interactions. It is essential that such investigations are carried out: both to prove that the problems are understood and for the guidance of those building the next generation of watt and joule balances. The next four papers describe aspects of the construction of watt balances. The BIPM watt balance group describe the principles behind their simultaneous measurement scheme for a watt balance. The balance that they are constructing can also be used in the conventional two-phase mode and their paper describes the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of operation. In a watt balance there are some advantages to precise vertical movement of the coil. The METAS group describe the two mechanisms that they have tested to achieve such motion and give the reasons for the choice of mechanism for use in the balance that they are constructing. The KRISS watt

  8. Balanced line bundles on Fano varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    A conjecture of Batyrev and Manin relates arithmetic properties of varieties with ample anticanonical class to geometric invariants. We analyze the geometry underlying these invariants using the Minimal Model Program and then apply our results to primitive Fano threefolds....

  9. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  10. 某抗拔桩采用自平衡法试验时出现的问题及处理%The Problem and Its Treatment During Some Lifting Pile Test Using Self-balanced Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳凯; 谭学民; 林泽耿

    2011-01-01

    Lifting capacity test of a pile using self balanced method can't be accomplished because of concrete defect of lower pile under the load cell. To solve the problem, the measurement was made to strength the pile using high-pressure whirl-spray grouting tec%某工程桩采用自平衡法进行抗拔承载力检测,因荷载箱下部加强层混凝土浇捣不密实,无法提供试验所需的反力,试验无法进行,后通过对缺陷部位进行高压旋喷灌浆加固,加固后再次进行试验,试验顺利完成。

  11. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  12. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved....

  13. Enhanced active dynamic balancing of the planar robots using a three-rotating-bar balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of full compensation against the resultant shaking forces and moments for arbitrary robots using a single active dynamic balancing mechanism is first addressed. And the application principle and general balancing conditions of the active dynamic balancing mechanism are presented. With the purpose of providing detailed description of these problems, a compact planar 3-degree-of-freedom active dynamic balancing mechanism is proposed. The active balancer is composed of three independent rotating bars with their respective actuators. The rotations of the three bars could change their center of gravity positions and then generate balancing forces for the unbalanced robots. Moreover, the changing of the angular acceleration of the bars can also generate a dynamic torque to balance the shaking moment. In order to present more detail of the balancing theory, the structure and kinematic and dynamic analysis of the proposed balancing mechanism are given. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed three-rotating-bar balancer.

  14. 基于现金流均衡目标的多模式项目调度问题研究%Multi-mode Project Scheduling Problems with Cash Flow Balanced Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正文; 刘人境; 徐渝

    2011-01-01

    A contractor needs to spend capital on project-related resources before receiving payment from customers for services delivered at each milestone. However, contractors have varying capital availabilities when implementing different projects. Thus,balancing cash inflows and outflows throughout the project life cycle is critical to project success for contractors.This paper studies multi-mode project scheduling problems with the goal of balancing cash inflows and outflows. We use the event-based method to represent a contractor's project schedule in the activity-on-node mode, and distribute project expenses to their beginning and ending activities. The objective of this exercise is to minimize the gap of a contractor's cumulative capital flows given the constraint of a fixed project deadline.We define two groups of decision variables in order to determine the modes of performing activities and the actual delivery date of events. A0-1 programming model is established to address cash flow problems. A simulated annealing heuristic algorithm with two nested loops is developed to solve cash flow problems. These two nested loops include inner and outer loops. The inner loop searches for a desirable vector of an event's completion time under a given activity's performing mode. The outer loop seeks the desirable vector of an event's completion time established by the inner loop. The simulation results show desirable solutions for cash problems in inner and outer loops. A contracted superhighway construction project is used as a case study to illustrate the use of our proposed simulated algorithm. This project is able to develop a satisfactory schedule. We compare the developed schedule with the actual schedule regarding key cash flow parameters, including project deadline, payment proportion, advance payment proportion, deposit rate of security payment, and objective function values.A contractor can maximize its cumulative capital gap by reducing the procrastination of

  15. Bucket Brigades to Increase Productivity in a Luxury Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo De Carlo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues in manual assembly lines is to achieve the best balance of workloads. There are many analytic approaches to solve this problem, but they are often neglected, since they are time-consuming and require high level engineering skills. Fashion bags packaging lines must comply with a number of different products with low production volumes, while the organization of the line is often under the mere responsibility of the foreman, who balances workloads in an empirical way. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the arrangement of bucket brigades (BBs for an assembly line of luxury handbags. To do this, it was decided to perform a testing activity in a company producing fashion handbags in order to compare the self-made design with the BBs and with a simple assembly line balancing problem algorithm. The originality of this research lies in the fact that there are no studies in the literature on BBs applied to the packaging of highly variable small batches. The results were excellent, showing the advantages of BBs in terms of flexibility, the reduction of work in the process and the ability to handle small anomalies.

  16. Balancing Act

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While China and Pakistan have strengthened economic cooperation in recent years, problems such as a trade imbalance still loom large Thanks to continuing joint efforts by the two governments and peoples, the relationship between China and Pakistan has stood up to the arduous tests of time and changes in the international situation. In the 55 years since the two neighboring countries established

  17. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  18. Astronaut Scott Carpenter tests balance mechanism performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter's balance mechanism performance is tested by his walking on a narrow board in his bare feet. He is performing this test at the School of Aviation Medicine, Pensicola, Florida (04570); Carpenter walks a straight line by putting one foot directly in front of the other to test his balance (04571).

  19. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Moore, G.

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories''. These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  20. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1997-01-01

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories.'' These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  1. Pitfalls in Using the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard has quickly become a leading management tool. But business performance measurement is notoriously difficult, so any system, including the balanced scorecard, is likely to have unanticipated and often dysfunctional consequences. This article briefly reviews the main attracti......The balanced scorecard has quickly become a leading management tool. But business performance measurement is notoriously difficult, so any system, including the balanced scorecard, is likely to have unanticipated and often dysfunctional consequences. This article briefly reviews the main...... attractions of the balanced scorecard and then shows how these apparent advantages might lead to problems....

  2. Sequencing Problem for a Mixed-model Assembly Line Considering Switching Constraints%考虑转换约束的汽车混流装配线投产排序研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏; 董明

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a sequencing problem of a mixed-model assembly line when it has auxiliary workers to help completing overload work,considering the walking time of workers reach the next car. The scope of optimization is expanded forward from the assembly shop to the paint shop,and it gives the upper bounds of continuous spraying cars in the same color. Based on this background, considering keeping the constant rate of part usage and balancing workload of sub-assembly workers, a mathematical programming model was built, with the objective of minimizing the painting-switching cost and labor cost. Finally, CPLEX was used to solve the model,and the relationship between the Takt Time and the total cost, length of workstation and the total cost were given.%讨论了有生产线线边替补人员协助完成超载工作量的情况下,汽车混流装配线投产排序的问题,并且考虑工作人员行走占用的时间.通过对某整车厂进行实地调研,将汽车装配生产中的优化问题从以往文献中只考虑的总装车间向前延伸到涂装车间,给出连续喷涂某种颜色的车辆数的上界s.在此基础上,并考虑总装线线边物料消耗速率波动均衡和子装配工负荷均衡的约束条件,建立涂装切换成本和总装车间人工成本最小化的数学模型.最后,用CPLEX对模型进行优化求解,并分析得出生产节拍和工作站长度等参数与总成本之间的变化关系.

  3. Balance disorders in the elderly: epidemiology and functional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Harrison W; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2012-08-01

    To quantify the prevalence and determine the impact of dizziness and balance disorders in the elderly. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. The balance problems survey module of the 2008 National Health Interview Survey was examined, and cases of reported dizziness or balance problems in persons ≥65 years old were identified. The prevalence of balance disorders and associated symptoms and their impacts on self-reported functional limitations were determined. The related impact on daily activities for elderly persons with balance problems was quantified. Sex-based differences in balance problems were determined. Among 37.3 ± 0.9 million elderly persons (mean age, 74.4 ± 0.1 years; 56.9% ± 0.9% female), 7.0 ± 0.2 million persons (19.6% ± 0.7%) reported a problem with dizziness or balance in the preceding 12 months. Balance problems included difficulty with unsteadiness (68.0%), walking on uneven surfaces (54.8%), vertigo (30.1%), and faintness (29.6%). Prescription medication triggered the balance problem in 18.7%. Among the 50.0% of elderly persons with balance problems who sought care, 85.6%, 30.3%, 23.9%, and 16.8% saw a general practitioner, internist, neurologist, or otolaryngologist, respectively. Of this group, 27.4% reported that balance problems specifically prevented them from participating in activities including exercise (61.2%), social events (45.8%), and driving (47.1%). Females were more likely to experience balance problems than males (21.0% vs. 17.7%, P = .025). Approximately one in five elderly persons experiences annual problems with dizziness or balance. Given the significant prevalence and negative effect of balance problems on daily activities in the elderly, balance disorders merit special attention, particularly in the face of an aging population. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seeking Services: Questions to Ask d Employment Disclosure Decisions Career Options Accommodations d Resources for Specific Populations Pediatric ... MS Navigator Program Patient Resources Contact Us d Careers in MS ... MS Symptoms Walking (Gait) Difficulties Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Walking (Gait) ...

  5. Balanced Atmospheric Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastermann, Gottfried; Reinhardt, Maria; Klein, Rupert; Reich, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere's multi-scale structure poses several major challenges in numerical weather prediction. One of these arises in the context of data assimilation. The large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere are balanced in the sense that acoustic or rapid internal wave oscillations generally come with negligibly small amplitudes. If triggered artificially, however, through inappropriate initialization or by data assimilation, such oscillations can have a detrimental effect on forecast quality as they interact with the moist aerothermodynamics of the atmosphere. In the setting of sequential Bayesian data assimilation, we therefore investigate two different strategies to reduce these artificial oscillations induced by the analysis step. On the one hand, we develop a new modification for a local ensemble transform Kalman filter, which penalizes imbalances via a minimization problem. On the other hand, we modify the first steps of the subsequent forecast to push the ensemble members back to the slow evolution. We therefore propose the use of certain asymptotically consistent integrators that can blend between the balanced and the unbalanced evolution model seamlessly. In our work, we furthermore present numerical results and performance of the proposed methods for two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models, where we can identify the different scales clearly. The first one is a Lorenz 96 model coupled with a wave equation. In this case the balance relation is linear and the imbalances are caused only by the localization of the filter. The second one is the elastic double pendulum where the balance relation itself is already highly nonlinear. In both cases the methods perform very well and could significantly reduce the imbalances and therefore increase the forecast quality of the slow variables.

  6. 10kV 配电线路改造过程中需解决的问题%Problems Need to be Solved in the Process of 10kV Distribution Line Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官宝金

    2015-01-01

    This paper elaborated the necessity of strengthening the 10kV distribution line transformation, and analyzed the problems need to be resolved in process of 10kV distribution line transformation. In the transformation process of distribution lines, as workers of distribution lines construction, they should closely combine with practical engineering and ensure the stability and security of power system operation.%阐述了加强10kV 配电线路改造的必要性,并分析10kV 配电线路改造过程中需要解决的问题。在配电线路改造过程中,作为配电线路施工人员,应紧密结合工程实际,确保电力系统运行的稳定性和安全性。

  7. "K"-Balance Partitioning: An Exact Method with Applications to Generalized Structural Balance and Other Psychological Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael; Steinley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Structural balance theory (SBT) has maintained a venerable status in the psychological literature for more than 5 decades. One important problem pertaining to SBT is the approximation of structural or generalized balance via the partitioning of the vertices of a signed graph into "K" clusters. This "K"-balance partitioning problem also has more…

  8. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  9. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  10. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC BALANCE STRATEGY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON BALANCE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Mairaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance emerges from the interaction of multiple systems that are organized to meet functional task goals and that are constrained by environmental context, but is often compromised with advancing age. At least 30% of older people experience decline in physical activity after entry into residential care. Participation in activity is more difficult for older people because of fear, lack of motivation, depression and poor understanding of the long term benefits of physical activity. Thus our purpose was to investigate effect of specific balance strategy training programme as compared to general balance training in improving balance in institutionalized elderly population. Methods: 26 institutionalized elderly subjects participated in the study. Participants in group A were given specific balance strategy training programme and those in group B were given general balance training. Intervention was for 40 min per day, thrice a week for 4 weeks. Balance was assessed using Berg balance scale and Timed up and go test. Result: Both the interventions showed marked improvement in balance when assessed on Berg balance and Timed up and go test. The group having specific balance strategy training programme proved to be significantly better than general balance training programme. Conclusion: Specific balance strategy training programme being more effective than general regimens should be incorporated in addressing balance related problems of institutionalized elderly population.

  11. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...

  12. Load balancing by redundant decomposition and maping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, J.F.; Schoneveld, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for load balancing parallel processes on parallel systems is proposed. The problem of load balancing is considered to be an NP-hard optimization task. Taking static parallel finite element applications as a case study, the benefits and losses that follow from applying

  13. Load balancing by redundant decomposition and maping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, J.F.; Schoneveld, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for load balancing parallel processes on parallel systems is proposed. The problem of load balancing is considered to be an NP-hard optimization task. Taking static parallel finite element applications as a case study, the benefits and losses that follow from applying

  14. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  15. 关于低压电力线通信的多径干扰问题以及OFDM技术理论分析%Multipath Interference Problem of Low Voltage Power Line Communication and OFDM Technology Theory Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊; 张翼洲

    2015-01-01

    电力线载波通信技术利用电力线作为传输媒介,通信安全可靠,投资成本低,在电力系统中得到了广泛应用。本文主要分析电力线上存在的多径干扰问题,并进行建模仿真。并介绍OFDM技术的基本原理。%The power line carrier communication technology uses power line as the transmission medium, which is safe and reliable with low investment cost, so it has been widely applied in the power system. This paper mainly analyzes the multipath interference problem existing in power line, and simulation modeling is carried out. And the basic principle of OFDM technology is introduced in this article.

  16. Problems in On-line Correction and Production of Instrument Control System%仪表控制系统联校与投运中必须注意的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永刚

    2001-01-01

    本文阐述了在仪表控制系统联校与投运过程中必须注意的准备工作、安全及精度等问题。%Some problems that must be paid attention to during on-line correction and production of instrument control system, such as preparation, safety and precision, are described in this paper.

  17. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  18. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  19. Problem and current lines in investigations on the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and its control in the U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellina, O I

    1981-01-01

    The present epidemiological situation of the three nosoforms of leismaniasis (i.e. anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, zoonotic cutaneous leishmainiasis and visceral leishmaniasis) in the U.S.S.R. is exposed. The current lines in inveestigation of their epidemiology are then presented, with special reference to the methods used and the results obtained for their control.

  20. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely with the in......In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  1. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  2. 特高压线路运行维护的问题分析%Problem Analysis of Uhv Line Operation Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明凯

    2015-01-01

    对特高压输电线路运行维护特点进行分析,同时在此基础上对国内现阶段特高压线路的运行维护有关技术研究现状进行深入研究,制定相应的运行维护方案,有效提升国内电力系统特高压输电线路运行的可靠性与安全性,推动电力企业的进一步发展。%The paper analyzes the characteristics of uhv transmission line operation maintenance,at the same time,based on it,it deeply studies the operation of domestic uhv line current maintenance of the current related technology,and formu-lates corresponding operation maintenance plan,which effectively promotes the domestic power system the reliability and se-curity of the uhv transmission line operation and the further development of electric power enterprises.

  3. Drops, contact lines, and electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannetje, 't D.J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the behaviour of drops and contact lines under the influence of electric fields, and how these can answer fundamental and industrial questions. Our focus is on studying the varying balance of the electric field, hysteresis forces and inertia as the speed of a contact line chan

  4. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  5. Visual Reasoning Tools in Action: Double Number Lines, Area Models, and Other Diagrams Power Up Students' Ability to Solve and Make Sense of Various Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tad

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) identifies the strategic use of appropriate tools as one of the mathematical practices and emphasizes the use of pictures and diagrams as reasoning tools. Starting with the early elementary grades, CCSSM discusses students' solving of problems "by drawing." In later…

  6. USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  7. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  8. Mathematical Infinity and Medium Logic (Ⅰ)——Logical-mathematical Interpretation of Leibniz's Secant and Tangent Lines Problem in Medium Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wu-jia; GONG Ning-sheng; DU Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of potential infinity (poi) and actual infinity,Ref [4] has confirmed that poi and aci are in ‘unmediated opposition' (P,-P) whether in ZFC or not; it has further been proved that the manners in which a variable infinitely approaches its limit also satisfy the law of intermediate exclusion.With these results as theoretical bases,this paper attempts to provide an accurate and strict logical-mathematical interpretation of the incompatibility of Leibniz's secant and tangent lines in the medium logic system from the perspective of logical mathematics.

  9. 传统逐点比较法直线插补方法的改进%The improvement for the exist problems of interpolation with point-to-point comparison method of straight lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席港港; 赵庆志; 王军; 田晓文

    2012-01-01

    逐点比较法直线插补方法在开环数控系统中被广泛采用,但其存在插补误差大、直线光滑性差等缺点.针对以上问题,提出了改进的逐点比较法直线插补算法,避免了无穷大导数计算、多分支判断编程复杂等缺陷,提高了逐点比较法的直线插补精度.%Point-to-point comparison method of straight lines is widely used in open loop control system,but it exists some weaknesses such as high interpolation error and poor smoothness of straight line.For above problems,an improved point-to-point comparison method of straight lines is given which can avoid shortages of counting the infinity of derivative and complex programming of many branches,and also improve the interpolation precision of point-to-point comparison method of straight lines.

  10. Learning to Understand the Balance Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; And Others

    Protocols were obtained from 22 subjects as they discovered the conditions under which equilibrium is obtained on a balance beam by predicting and observing the outcomes of a series of problems. The interviews revealed that subjects used a variety of heuristics to make predictions once they had isolated the two relevant features of the problem,…

  11. Determination of Combining Ability Between Several Silkworm Sexlinked Balanced Lethal Lines and Sex-limited Dapple Female Parents%几个家蚕性连锁平衡致死系与限性斑纹母本的配合力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖鹏飞; 朱水芬; 白兴荣; 黄平; 冉瑞法; 黎勇谋; 杨继芬; 董占鹏

    2012-01-01

    The combining ability of sex-linked balanced lethal lines was tested and analyzed by means of incomplete di-allel cross design using the sex-limited dapple strains Y7, JS and MS as female parents and the sex-linked balanced lethal lines sd2, px2, YH4, YH8, YH12 and YH18 as male parents. The results indicated that the combining ability among different sex-linked balanced lethal lines was different, and the combining ability between different traits of the same sex-linked balanced lethal lines also had certain difference. Among them, the cocoon yield per 10 000 larvae and the cocoon shell weight per 10 000 larvae of the sex-linked balanced lethal line YH18 had the highest effect value in general combining ability, which was as high as 2.83 and 3.07 respectively. The cocoon yield per 10 000 larvae of male silkworm hybrid combination Y7 xYH18 had the highest effect value (4.32) of special combining ability. The cocoon shell weight per 10 000 larvae of male silkworm hybrid combination Y7 xYH8 showed the highest effect value (5. 08) of special combining ability. And the total effect values of combining ability either in cocoon yield per 10 000 or cocoon shell weight per 10 000 of MC×sd2 were the highest (9. 92 and 8.96 respectively). Based on selection criteria of combining ability effect values,MC ×sd2, a male silkworm hybrid combination, was found to have the expected high levels in cocoon yield and cocoon shell weight. Data of rearing practice in laboratory showed that this hybrid combination had excellent comprehensive traits and good cocoon and silk productivity.%以限性斑纹品系Y7、JS、MC为母本,性连锁平衡致死系sd2、px2、YH4、YH8、YH12和YH18为父本,采用不完全双列杂交法测试分析家蚕性连锁平衡致死系的配合力.结果表明,不同家蚕性连锁平衡致死系的配合力不同,同一家蚕性连锁平衡致死系不同性状间的配合力也存在一定的差异.其中:性连锁平衡致死系YH18的万蚕产茧量

  12. On the Educational Starting Line Problem Based on Children’s Psychology%刍议起跑线教育问题--基于儿童心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏

    2015-01-01

    一句“不要让孩子输在起跑线上”牵动着无数家长的心,导致中国社会起跑线教育现象愈演愈烈,起跑线教育中的儿童无不身心俱疲。对这一教育现象应从理论因素、教育环境、学习评价及社会文化四个方面进行分析。在此基础上,将社会现实与儿童的心理发展特点相结合,思考起跑线教育的应然转向,使得早期教育能真正做到尊重儿童天性,关注学生成长。%The famous word “Do not let your children lose on the starting line”touch enormous parents’hearts,inducing a drastic so-cial phenomenon about the starting line of Education in China,and at the same time,children are all exhausted.Therefore,it is of great importance to analyze this situation from four aspects,including the theoretical factors,education environment,learning evalua-tion and social culture.Based on the analysis,it is indicated that we should combine the social reality with the characteristics of chil-dren’s psychological development,and think of the right changes of starting line of Education,so as to make our early education truly respect children’s nature and pay attention to students’growth.

  13. PARALLEL COMPUTING FOR SLIDE LINES PROBLEMS OF 2D ELASTIC PLASTIC HYDRODYNAMICS CODE ON SHARED MEMORY ENVIRONMENT%共享存储环境下二维弹塑性流体动力学程序滑移线的并行计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左风丽; 莫则尧; 张宝琳

    2002-01-01

    Based on shared memory environment,this paper propose a new classification regroup mapping performance optimization method for parallel computing two-dimensional elastic-plastic hydrodynamics code (EPHDC-2D).Firstly,all slide lines being computed are classified into different species by slide line unit,and the different species of slide lines are independently executed.Then,to support load balance,classification groups reassembled are mapped on multiple processors according to the number of processors given or the size of divided classifications.Numberical experiments have shown that the algorithm can deeply improve the performance over the other schedule strategies.

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... straight line rate (without adjustment for salvage) is 5 percent, and the declining balance rate at twice the normal straight line rate is 10 percent. The annual depreciation allowances for 1954, 1955, and...)(2) shall not exceed twice the appropriate straight line rate computed without adjustment for...

  15. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...... relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  16. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  17. Self-care, balance and the IB learner profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal evidence suggests that educators tend to expend themselves for their students with little thought for themselves, often leading to excessive stress, work-related illness, burnout, and attrition. The following discussion adapted from Self-Care for Teachers (Allen, 2013 reviews the international research on this topic and proposes an alternative approach. The research not only confirms this persistent pattern of excessive stress, overwork, and illness but also confirms educators’ typical inattention to their own needs. Conventional approaches to the problem of excessive stress, overwork and its attendant maladies focus on the external: management strategies such as induction and mentoring programs, salary incentives, or more recently, teacher help lines and wellness programs. The author advocates a more balanced approach, looking inward as well as outward for solutions to this perplexing problem. Although balance is often conceived as a static ideal of symmetry and proportion, it may be best understood–especially in an educational context– as the practical dynamic process of “moving artfully between extremes”, a definition which might equally apply to classroom management, curriculum design, assessment strategies, professional development, prevalent attitudes, and work-life rhythm.

  18. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  19. [Mobility and balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Kressig, Reto W

    2008-08-01

    Quality of life is strongly associated with the mobility of elderly people. Falls often cause restricted mobility, a decline in activities of daily living and an increased risk of institutionalisation. Frailty, commonly associated with aging, is a biologic syndrome of decreased resistance to stressors, resulting from declines across multiple physiological systems. Changes in mobility and gait constitute part of the frailty syndrome. Since more than one third of persons over the age of 65 fall each year, prevention of falls is very important. Already while taking the patients' history special emphasis should be laid on matters associated with an increased risk of falling, such as the use of more than four medications. To assess mobility several brief tests exist (i.e. Timed up & go [17], Walking while Talking [20]) which immediately yield information regarding mobility and falling risk. Patients with poor performance on such tests or those with a history of several falls should undergo a spatio-temporal gait analysis in order to determine a possible cause as well as suitable interventions. Additionally, the objective measurement of temporo-spatial gait parameters under dual task conditions may detect deficits in cognitive function. Several interventions have been shown to have favourable effects on gait stability and the occurrence of falls. Proprioceptive problems can be partially compensated for by wearing special shoes. Also, different movement exercises such as Tai Chi Chuan, Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics and social dancing are associated with better balance and gait safety, and a reduction of falls.

  20. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei; Li Yan

    2014-09-01

    The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the () line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is > 10 eV. The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is 6 × 104 kW at SOL.

  1. APPLICATION OF A PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR POINT ALGORITHM USING EXACT SECOND ORDER INFORMATION WITH A NOVEL NON-MONOTONE LINE SEARCH METHOD TO GENERALLY CONSTRAINED MINIMAX OPTIMISATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INTAN S. AHMAD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the application of a primal-dual interior point method to minimax optimisation problems. The algorithm differs significantly from previous approaches as it involves a novel non-monotone line search procedure, which is based on the use of standard penalty methods as the merit function used for line search. The crucial novel concept is the discretisation of the penalty parameter used over a finite range of orders of magnitude and the provision of a memory list for each such order. An implementation within a logarithmic barrier algorithm for bounds handling is presented with capabilities for large scale application. Case studies presented demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology, which relies on the reformulation of minimax models into standard nonlinear optimisation models. Some previously reported case studies from the open literature have been solved, and with significantly better optimal solutions identified. We believe that the nature of the non-monotone line search scheme allows the search procedure to escape from local minima, hence the encouraging results obtained.

  2. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals......' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes involved in both...

  3. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  4. Subgroup Balancing Propensity Score

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, JING; Zhang, Junni L; Li, Fan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the estimation of subgroup treatment effects with observational data. Existing propensity score matching and weighting methods are mostly developed for estimating overall treatment effect. Although the true propensity score should balance covariates for the subgroup populations, the estimated propensity score may not balance covariates for the subgroup samples. We propose the subgroup balancing propensity score (SBPS) method, which selects, for each subgroup, to use either the ...

  5. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from Phellinus linteus and Phellinus igniarius on the IL-6/IL-10 cytokine balance of the mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW 264.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2015-08-01

    Phellinus linteus and igniarius (L.) Quel. have been used in traditional Asian medicine for over two centuries against a variety of diseases. Polysaccharides from their fruiting bodies show strong immunomodulatory activity. In this study we characterized the structure and composition of polysaccharides from Phellinus linteus and Phellinus igniarius by HPLC, GC-MS and NMR (1-H, 13-C, COSY, NOESY and TOCSY). The polysaccharides from P. linteus and P. igniarius mainly contained glucose with minor proportions of mannose, galactose, xylose, arabinose and rhamnose. Methylation analyses showed that the glycosidic linkages were mostly 1 → 3, 1 → 6 or 1 → 3,6. The two-dimensional COSY, NOESY and TOCSY confirmed that these polysaccharides have a main chain of →3)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ with →6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ side chain. In vitro assays by RT-PCR and ELISA showed that (1 → 3; 1 → 6)-β-D-polysaccharides from P. linteus and P. igniarius decreased TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting an immuno-suppressive activity. Furthermore, these polysaccharides stimulated a high IL-10 response and induced strong suppression of transcription of IL-6. The results suggest that polysaccharides from P. linteus and P. igniarius could possibly find applications in restoring the IL-6/IL-10 balance, the disturbance of which is thought to be related to chronic inflammatory disease, obesity, diabetes type 2, and to mania and depression.

  6. Balance training improves postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongjin; Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disabilities often present with problems of balance and mobility. Balance training is an important component of physical activity interventions, with growing evidence that it can be beneficial for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training on postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 14-19 years were randomly assigned either to a balance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 16). Subjects in the balance training group underwent balance training for 40 min per day, two times a week, for 8 weeks. All subjects were assessed with posture sway and the one-leg stance test for postural balance; the timed up-and-go test and 10-m walk test for gait; and sit to stand test for functional strength. Postural balance and functional strength showed significant improvements in the balance training group (p strength showed no significant improvements in the control group. Further, postural balance and functional strength significantly improved in the balance training group compared with those in the control group. Balance training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities might be beneficial for improving postural balance and functional strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  8. Research and Application of Balanced Scorecard in China and Existing Problems%平衡记分卡在我国的研究应用及存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承子; 陈淑珍

    2008-01-01

    文章介绍了平衡记分卡(Balanced Scorecard简称BSC)的基本框架和步骤,论述了平衡记分卡与战略管理的关系,分析了平衡记分卡在我国企业应用中存在的问题,并在此基础上提出了用平衡记分卡进行企业战略管理的建议和方法.

  9. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Press Releases NOF in the News Osteoporosis in the News Press/Media Kit NOF Events Blog Advocacy NOF Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Fractures/Fall Prevention › Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance ...

  10. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  11. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  12. A smartphone inertial balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  13. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  14. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  15. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  16. KESEIMBANGAN LINTASAN TIPE U- LINE ASSEMBLY PADA PERAKITAN POMPA AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikto Pratikto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many companies strive for minimizing imbalance work station as well as number of work stations. Besides, the work station’s precedence and space curb also have to be considered. So far, there exist many solutions on those quests. Two of those solutions are the straight line and the U-type line balancing. In this paper, we compare the straight line balancing to U-type line balancing using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP, particularly, for solving the assembly line of water pumps production. Additionally, we employed LINGO to solve the MIP model. The result shows that the U-type line gives a better solution than the straight line balancing in term of number of work station. Moreover, it also shows that U-type line balancing is more efficient than the straight line balancing, significantly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Saat ini, secara umum banyak perusahaan dihadapkan pada masalah meminimalkan beban kerja yang tidak seimbang dan jumlah stasiun kerja dengan batasan proses serta lokasi yang ada. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan di atas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan keseimbangan lintasan straight line dan tipe U-line menggunakan model mixed integer programming pada suatu perakitan pompa air. Model mixed integer programming diselesaikan dengan menggunakan LINGO. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tipe U-line memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan straight line berdasarkan jumlah work station dan lebih efisien secara signifikan. Kata kunci: keseimbangan lintasan, keseimbangan lintasan tipe U-line, mixed integer programming

  17. A world in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  18. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.T.; Toonen, B.R.

    1994-06-01

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we de scribe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community Climate Model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  19. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I. T.; Toonen, B. R.

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we describe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community climate model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  20. 输电线路运行中存在的主要问题与维护管理措施%The Main Problems that Exist in Transmission Lines Running and Maintenance of Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴德

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of the power system, the transmission line is to ensure the safety of the power system, the basis and prerequisite for stable operation. However, in the course of its operation, is vulnerable to natural factors and human factors, and thus lead to a lot of security issues. This paper analyzes the process of transmission line problems in operation, and to explore appropriate maintenance and management measures.%作为电力系统的重要组成部分,输电线路是保证电力系统安全、稳定运行的基础和前提。但是,其在运行过程中,很容易受到自然因素和人为因素的影响,进而引发许多安全问题。分析输电线路运行过程中存在的问题,并探讨相应的维护、管理措施。

  1. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  2. Design of Meander-Line Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Based on Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Travassos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimization problem formulations to design meander-line antennas for passive UHF radio frequency identification tags based on given specifications of input impedance, frequency range, and geometric constraints. In this application, there is a need for directive transponders to select properly the target tag, which in turn must be ideally isotropic. The design of an effective meander-line antenna for RFID purposes requires balancing geometrical characteristics with the microchip impedance. Therefore, there is an issue of optimization in determining the antenna parameters for best performance. The antenna is analyzed by a method of moments. Some results using a deterministic optimization algorithm are shown.

  3. Study on Reactance Relays for Single Phase to Earth Fault on EHV Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two questions about zero-sequence-reactance relay to overcome the disadvantages of high fault resistance for single phase to earth fault of high voltage transmission lines are discussed in this paper. The first question is about the phase difference between the measured zero-sequence current and voltage at fault position for un-balanced transmission lines. The second question is about the “in-phase” problem in reactance relays (or fault component reactance relays. This paper analyzes the two questions theoretically and the reactance relay is improved by a new discriminative principle. The capability against the fault resistance is largely enhanced by the improved schemes.    

  4. Measure Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  5. Comparison between Financial Ratios Analysis and Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalad M.S. Alrafadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial ratios have long been used as a tool to evaluate the overall financial performance of a company. However, in early 1990s, a new method called Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to evaluate the overall controlling of a company. Problem statement: To the best of my knowledge at present there are no letrature review comparing between Financial ratios and Balanced Scorecard. Approach: This study is a conceptual paper comparing between the financial ratios analysis and balanced scorecard method. The objective of this paper is to compare between the benefits and problems of using financial ratios analysis and Balanced Scorecard method in evaluating the overall control of the company. Results: As a result, we found that the Balanced Scorecard is more efficient than financial ratios analysis. Conclusion/Recommendations: Both the balanced scorecard and financial ratios analysis are important tools for evaluating performance. So, we cannot ignore either of them.

  6. On the Nonuniqueness of Balanced Nonlinear Realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, W. Steven; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The notion of balanced realizations for nonlinear state space model reduction problems was first introduced by Scherpen in 1993. Analogous to'the linear case, the so called singular value functions of a system describe the relative importance of each state component from an input-output point of vie

  7. Cell Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardo, Simao; Rodrigues, Antonio; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell load imbalances in wireless networks degrade performance. Macro and small cell collocated deployments (heterogeneous scenario) constitutes a new problem for load balancing. This paper proposes a novel admission control algorithm for an optimal solution to the assignment of traffic flows...

  8. Teaching the Balanced Scorecard through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Carlos; Lopes, Ana Isabel; Mata, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Kaplan and Norton introduced the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) which is based on a systems perspective of the business strategy and performance measurement. Many organizations around the world are using the BSC to define, implement and manage strategy. Nevertheless there exist studies that identify problems and limitations associated with the…

  9. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Controlling the sustainability of production processes and ethical employment of the work force in suppliers' production facilities far away from the home country has resulted in new challenges for managers. They now have to consider how important it is for customers, investors and employees to see...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...

  10. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W;

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self-reports...... of energy balance.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 23 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.199.......Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...

  11. 2013 social balance sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrette Heuse

    2014-01-01

    The transposition into national law of Directive 2013/34/EU on the annual financial statements of companies, expected by no later than July 2015, could alter the statistical obligations on small firms in connection with the filing of their annual accounts. In any case, the social balance sheet can no longer form an integral part of their accounts. Nevertheless, it contains original information whose usefulness is highlighted, on the basis of the social balance sheets for 2012, by examining th...

  12. Balance Function Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  13. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  14. Measuring Pictorial Balance Perception at First Glance using Japanese Calligraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Gershoni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available According to art theory, pictorial balance acts to unify picture elements into a cohesive composition. For asymmetrical compositions, balancing elements is thought to be similar to balancing mechanical weights in a framework of symmetry axes. Assessment of preference for balance (APB, based on the symmetry-axes framework suggested in Arnheim R, 1974 Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, successfully matched subject balance ratings of images of geometrical shapes over unlimited viewing time. We now examine pictorial balance perception of Japanese calligraphy during first fixation, isolated from later cognitive processes, comparing APB measures with results from balance-rating and comparison tasks. Results show high between-task correlation, but low correlation with APB. We repeated the rating task, expanding the image set to include five rotations of each image, comparing balance perception of artist and novice participant groups. Rotation has no effect on APB balance computation but dramatically affects balance rating, especially for art experts. We analyze the variety of rotation effects and suggest that, rather than depending on element size and position relative to symmetry axes, first fixation balance processing derives from global processes such as grouping of lines and shapes, object recognition, preference for horizontal and vertical elements, closure, and completion, enhanced by vertical symmetry.

  15. Measuring pictorial balance perception at first glance using Japanese calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Sharon; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    According to art theory, pictorial balance acts to unify picture elements into a cohesive composition. For asymmetrical compositions, balancing elements is thought to be similar to balancing mechanical weights in a framework of symmetry axes. Assessment of preference for balance (APB), based on the symmetry-axes framework suggested in Arnheim R, 1974 Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), successfully matched subject balance ratings of images of geometrical shapes over unlimited viewing time. We now examine pictorial balance perception of Japanese calligraphy during first fixation, isolated from later cognitive processes, comparing APB measures with results from balance-rating and comparison tasks. Results show high between-task correlation, but low correlation with APB. We repeated the rating task, expanding the image set to include five rotations of each image, comparing balance perception of artist and novice participant groups. Rotation has no effect on APB balance computation but dramatically affects balance rating, especially for art experts. We analyze the variety of rotation effects and suggest that, rather than depending on element size and position relative to symmetry axes, first fixation balance processing derives from global processes such as grouping of lines and shapes, object recognition, preference for horizontal and vertical elements, closure, and completion, enhanced by vertical symmetry.

  16. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  17. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  18. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance......, agility, endurance, and sensor-motoric reaction. A population of 12 elderly (average age: 79) with balancing problems (DGI average score: 18.7) was randomly assigned to control group or tiles training group, and tested before and after intervention. The tiles training group had statistical significant...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...

  19. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimum Design of Balanced Surface Acoustic Wave Filters Using Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Tagawa, Kiyoharu

    2009-01-01

    As an example of evolutionary computation technique in the real-world application, we presented an optimum design method for balanced SAW filters. First of all, in order to evaluate the performances of balanced SAW filters based on the computer simulation, we derived the network model of balanced SAW filters from the equivalent circuit model of them according to the balanced network theory. Then we formulated the structural design of balanced SAW filters as an optimization problem for improvi...

  1. 基于学习算法的离散型制造业生产能力平衡技术%Learning based algorithm to production capacity balancing problem in discrete manufacture industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连志刚; 高叶军; 焦斌

    2013-01-01

    Production plan and management are difficulties for discrete manufacturing. The paper analyzed the mode of production plan and assignment of discrete manufacturing, and set up the model of production task balanced distribution, and used a new learning algorithm to optimization it. The 0-1 code was used in learning algorithm, and the instance test verified, the task assigned model was practical, the approach was scientific and the learning algorithm was feasible and effective.%生产计划与调度是离散型制造业生产管理的技术难点.论文分析了离散型制造业生产计划下达的问题,建立了生产任务均衡分配模型,并用一种新的学习算法对其进行优化.该算法采用了一种新的0-1编码,并通过生产实例验证了该任务分配模型的科学性及实用性、优化算法的可行性及有效性.

  2. Climate studies with a multi-layer energy balance model. I - Model description and sensitivity to the solar constant. II - The role of feedback mechanisms in the CO2 problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

    1982-01-01

    A nine-layer zonally averaged, steady-state model, based upon thermal energy balance, is developed for use in climate sensitivity studies and includes an accurate treatment of radiative transfer, parameterized meridional and vertical energy transport, and thermodynamic interaction between the surface and the atmosphere. A high degree of nonlinearity is exhibited by the model in a study of sensitivity to changes in the solar constant. The change in the hemispheric mean surface temperature is +3.1 C in response to a 2% increase in the solar constant and -4.3 C in response to a 2% decrease in the solar constant. The sensitivity varies with latitude, and the response of atmospheric temperature varies with height. In addition, the model is used to study the sensitivity of climate to a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 content. It is found that the tropospheric temperature lapse rate decreases at low latitudes but increases at high latitudes in response to a doubled CO2 content. Averaged over the Northern Hemisphere, the change is +2.3 C in the surface temperature and +0.47 C in the earth's brightness temperature. The effects of some feedback mechanisms on the climate sensitivity to a doubled CO2 content show that the sensitivity of surface temperature approximately doubles at all latitudes due to the change in water vapor content.

  3. K-balance partitioning: an exact method with applications to generalized structural balance and other psychological contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael; Steinley, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Structural balance theory (SBT) has maintained a venerable status in the psychological literature for more than 5 decades. One important problem pertaining to SBT is the approximation of structural or generalized balance via the partitioning of the vertices of a signed graph into K clusters. This K-balance partitioning problem also has more general psychological applications associated with the analysis of similarity/dissimilarity relationships among stimuli. Accordingly, K-balance partitioning can be gainfully used in a wide variety of SBT applications, such as attraction and child development, evaluation of group membership, marketing and consumer issues, and other psychological contexts not necessarily related to SBT. We present a branch-and-bound algorithm for the K-balance partitioning problem. This new algorithm is applied to 2 synthetic numerical examples as well as to several real-world data sets from the behavioral sciences literature.

  4. Determinants of the Current Account Balance in Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebil Olalekan Oshota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between the current account balance of the balance of payment and its determinants for the periods 1978 to 2008 in Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’ Ivoire. The analysis was based on the saving-investment theory and also in line with the intertemporal approach. Using a linear Vector Autoregressive (VAR approach, our results show that all the variables, except the relative income (RELY, real effective exchange rate (REER and domestic investment (INV for Nigeria, Ghana and Cote’d’Ivoire respectively are important in explaining the long run relationship. However, there was no evidence of short run relationship between the variables and the current account balance in all the three countries. The presence of long run co-movements between the current account balance and its determinants found in this study implies the effectiveness of targeting one of the variables in influencing the long run behaviour of the other variables. The current account imbalance observed in our selected countries was unavoidable and reflected the complexity of the economic problems the countries faced during these years.

  5. Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Grid-Interactive Distributed Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhende, C. N.; Kalam, A.; Malla, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Having an inter-tie between low/medium voltage grid and distributed generation (DG), both exposes to power quality (PQ) problems created by each other. This paper addresses various PQ problems arise due to integration of DG with grid. The major PQ problems are due to unbalanced and non-linear load connected at DG, unbalanced voltage variations on transmission line and unbalanced grid voltages which severely affect the performance of the system. To mitigate the above mentioned PQ problems, a novel integrated control of distribution static shunt compensator (DSTATCOM) is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM control helps in reducing the unbalance factor of PCC voltage. It also eliminates harmonics from line currents and makes them balanced. Moreover, DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power required by the load locally and hence, grid need not to supply the reactive power. To show the efficacy of the proposed controller, several operating conditions are considered and verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  6. 大学生底线伦理当代图谱及异化之社会学追因%Study on the Bottom Line of Ethics about College Students on Practice and Problems from Sociological Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马传浩

    2014-01-01

    Empirical study shows that the bottom line ethics of contemporary college students is generally good,but there are also problems .Firstly, some students lack honesty morality , nearly half of surveyed students can not flatly refuse to cheat on exams .Secondly , on the social morality consciousness superfi cial,apathy, knowledge and practice disjointed , which causes the university student can not universal practice the bottom line ethics .Finally ,many students love self centred ,lack of respect and responsibility . The content of moral education is not scientific ,the negative effect which the transformation of society ,the lack of system construction , which are the negative factors affecting the practice of ethics of college student .%实证研究表明,当代大学生底线伦理践行情况总体良好,但也存在着问题:部分大学生诚信道德缺失,近一半接受调查学生不能断然拒绝考试作弊;对社会公德认识肤浅,情感淡漠,知行脱节,导致大学生不能普遍践行底线伦理;许多学生恋爱中以自我为中心,对对方缺乏尊重和责任意识。德育内容设置不科学,转型社会中滋生的消极影响,制度建设的欠缺,这些都是影响大学生践行底线伦理的负面因素。

  7. Study on production group and assignment problem of mixed-model product line based on GA%基于遗传算法的混流生产线产品分组指派问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰月政; 鲁建厦; 孔令革

    2011-01-01

    The diversification of market demand for products makes the mixed-mode of production to be more widely adopted in the discrete manufacturing industry. The research of related issues about mixed-mode of production is not only a theoretical concern but also key technologies in the practical application. This paper deals with an equipment limited mixed-model product line assignment problem. The multi-objective mathematical optimization model is established, which takes into account both minimizing the adjustment cost of equipment and maximizing the same degree of product parts. The genetic algorithm, which has the advantage of simplicity,generality, less possibility of falling into local optimization, is applied to solve the production group and assignment problem of mixed-model production line. Finally, an example is given to prove the feasibility of the theoretical model and the effectiveness of the solving method.%市场对产品需求的多样化使得混流生产方式在离散制造行业更多的被采用,混流生产方式相关问题的研究不但是一个理论上的难题,也是实际生产应用中的关键技术.因此分析了有设备限制的混流生产线产品分组指派问题,对该问题构建了设备调整费用最小化与产品零部件相同度最大化的多目标数学模型.同时遗传算法是近年来在智能计算领域应用最为广泛的算法,具有简单、通用,不易陷入局部最优,全局寻优能力强等优点,针对构建的混流生产线产品分组指派问题模型,给出了利用遗传算法求解该模型的方法.最后,通过实例证明了理论模型的实用性以及求解方法的有效性.

  8. 质子自递反应常数(ks)是酸碱平衡的重要参数%On the constant of autoprolysis reaction (Ks ) as the important parameter in the acid-base balance problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞华; 张志斐; 潘海宇

    2001-01-01

    论述了ks在酸碱平衡中的重要作用。具体讨论了ks与 Ka、Kb的关系;ks决定了酸碱滴定反应完全度,为实现混合酸碱的连续滴定和极弱酸碱的滴定寻找出区分效应范围较大的非水溶剂;将kw与〔H+〕、〔OH-〕关系引入PB E 中,导出酸碱水溶液〔H+〕、酸碱滴定曲线方程、终点误差和缓冲容量计算式。提出了溶剂的pks只决定溶剂对酸碱的区分和拉平范围,但不决定溶剂的酸碱性的观点。%The article discussed the improtance of Ks in the acid-base balance.The article discussed the relationship between Ks and Ka 、K b in detail;Ks decided the complete level of acid-base titration.In order to ac hieve mixing acid-base continous titration and the weakest acid-base titration , the paper studied the non-aqueous solvent that has wider range of differntiatin g effect.The connection of Kw And 〔H+〕、〔OH〕 was put in to PBE and then the formule 〔H+〕and equilibrium of acid-base titration curve and end-point error and buffer capacity were obtained in the acid-base solution.T h e article also mentioned the idea that pKs of solvent did not decide the propert y acid-base of acid-base but the range of differentiate effect and leveling ef fect to acid-base.

  9. Striking a new balance between agricultural production and biodiversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FIRBANK, L G

    2005-01-01

    .... As a result, there is a window of opportunity to reconsider the balance between agricultural production and biodiversity management on British farmland, to seek to redress the problems for bio...

  10. Computerized calculation of material balances in carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakov, A.M.

    1980-09-01

    Charge formulations and carbonisation schedules are described by empirical formulae used to calculate the yield of coking products. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the material balance, and associated computer program. The program can be written in conventional languages, e.g. Fortran, Algol etc. The information obtained can be used for on-line assessment of the effects of charge composition and properties on the coke and by-products yields, as well as the effects of the carbonisation conditions.

  11. Medical Devices Assess, Treat Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    You may have heard the phrase as difficult as walking and chewing gum as a joking way of referring to something that is not difficult at all. Just walking, however, is not all that simple physiologically speaking. Even standing upright is an undertaking requiring the complex cooperation of multiple motor and sensory systems including vision, the inner ear, somatosensation (sensation from the skin), and proprioception (the sense of the body s parts in relation to each other). The compromised performance of any of these elements can lead to a balance disorder, which in some form affects nearly half of Americans at least once in their lifetimes, from the elderly, to those with neurological or vestibular (inner ear) dysfunction, to athletes with musculoskeletal injuries, to astronauts returning from space. Readjusting to Earth s gravity has a significant impact on an astronaut s ability to balance, a result of the brain switching to a different "model" for interpreting sensory input in normal gravity versus weightlessness. While acclimating, astronauts can experience headaches, motion sickness, and problems with perception. To help ease the transition and study the effects of weightlessness on the body, NASA has conducted many investigations into post-flight balance control, realizing this research can help treat patients with balance disorders on Earth as well. In the 1960s, the NASA-sponsored Man Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) studied the effects of prolonged space flight on astronauts. The lab s work intrigued MIT doctoral candidate Lewis Nashner, who began conducting NASA-funded research on human movement and balance under the supervision of Dr. Larry Young in the MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In 1982, Nashner s work resulted in a noninvasive clinical technique for assessing the cooperative systems that allow the body to balance, commonly referred to as computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). CDP employs a

  12. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebouba, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

  13. Quantum Counterfeit Coin Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Iwama, Kazuo; Raymond, Rudy; Teruyama, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    The counterfeit coin problem requires us to find all false coins from a given bunch of coins using a balance scale. We assume that the balance scale gives us only ``balanced'' or ``tilted'' information and that we know the number k of false coins in advance. The balance scale can be modeled by a certain type of oracle and its query complexity is a measure for the cost of weighing algorithms (the number of weighings). In this paper, we study the quantum query complexity for this problem. Let Q(k,N) be the quantum query complexity of finding all k false coins from the N given coins. We show that for any k and N such that k < N/2, Q(k,N)=O(k^{1/4}), contrasting with the classical query complexity, \\Omega(k\\log(N/k)), that depends on N. So our quantum algorithm achieves a quartic speed-up for this problem. We do not have a matching lower bound, but we show some evidence that the upper bound is tight: any algorithm, including our algorithm, that satisfies certain properties needs \\Omega(k^{1/4}) queries.

  14. Fleksibilitet og balance

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fleksibilitet og balance Dette projekt undersøger, hvordan arbejdstidsmæssig fleksibilitet påvirker medarbejderens individuelle balance mellem arbejde og privatliv, og om en ændring af dennes mindset kan forbedre balancen. Centralt i projektet er en afdækning af fordele og ulemper ved den arbejdstidsmæssige fleksibilitet. I forlængelse heraf er det interessant, hvordan disse fordele og ulemper påvirker balancen mellem arbejde og privatliv. Ydermere er det interessant om den enkelte medarb...

  15. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  16. Rotary and Magnus balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  17. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  18. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  19. Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  20. Research on Distance Judgement Method from Point to Line to Generate a Line%Research on Distance Judgement Method from Point to Line to Generate a Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Di; WANG Jian-xin; LIJta-feng; TIAN Ye

    2011-01-01

    Regarding the problem that the traditional straight-line generating has a low accuracy, we study straightline generating with the distance of point to line. We explore generating a line to approximate the ideal line and the issue is to pick out the pixel point of approximating the ideal line. The paper plays a significant scientific role in elucidating linear optimization norm and it lays a foundation for showing a straight line. The algorithm is valuable for computer graphics.

  1. The Impact of Trade Balance in the Current Account of Kosovo’s Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Merovci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The trade deficit and specifically the current account deficit are the main challenges that Kosovo‘s economy is facing. According to the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOP, the trade balance of goods is the largest component, expressed in absolute and relative terms and consequently it determines the behavior of the current account balance. Trade deficit to GDP ratio is very high - more than 50 percent. Regarding this, financing the constant deficit of the current account is becoming a real problem, because in the long run it is impossible for a country to spend more than its income without becoming a debtor to the rest of the world. Given the unchanged structure of the current account of the Balance of Payments, we conclude that, an improvement of the trade balance is a precondition to the improvement of the current account balance. This can be done through longterm and sustainable substitution of imports with domestic production and also with effective export promotion. Increasing foreign direct investment and export promotion can be considered, in the longer term, the main way to improve Kosovo's Trade Balance.

  2. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...... in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...

  3. Balancing people, plants, and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    Two of the biggest challenges facing the US power industry today are retaining an experienced, capable workforce and operating and maintaining a reliable, diversified fleet of generating plants. Success in the marketplace requires a proper balancing of staff and new technology, something few gencos do well. Following this introductory paper in this issue are several technical articles representing a small sample of the steps that gencos nationwide are taking to prolong plant life. Unlike the false promise of Ponce de Leon's fountain of youth in Florida, the promise of longer life for aging plants is real wherever experienced engineers and technicians are on the job. The article looks at problems across America, from the East Coast to the West Coast. It is supported by diagrams projecting US new capacity and plant type additions up to 2014. 5 figs.

  4. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...

  5. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expecte...

  6. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  7. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  8. QUANTIFIED COST-BALANCED ROUTING SCHEME FOR OVERLAY MULTICAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jun; Ruan Qiuqi

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis issue of the routing metrics tradeoff problem, and presents a Quantified Cost-Balanced overlay multicast routing scheme (QCost-Balanced) to the metric tradeoff problem between overlay path delay and access bandwidth at Multicast Server Nodes (MSN) for real-time applications over Internet. Besides implementing a dynamic priority to MSNs by weighing the size of its service clients for better efficiency, QCost-Balanced tradeoffs these two metrics by a unified tradeoff metric based on quantitative analysis. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the scheme achieves a better tradeoff gain in both two metrics, and effective performance in metric quantitative control.

  9. Analysis of a Pendulum Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The ball-balancer, or cart-ball system, demonstrates some basic concepts in control being nonlinear, multivariable, and non-minimum phase. It is basically an inverted pendulum problem, which is a much used benchmark problem. The objective here is to provide an analysis of the system, which can...

  10. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  11. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  12. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  13. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Zane BERGE; TAKIYA, Seema

    2005-01-01

    Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance Seema TAKIYAJennifer ARCHBOLDZane BERGEBaltimore, USA Learning interventions should be aligned with the human learning system. To be effective, they have to support human learning, not work against it. Thalheimer, 2004 ABSTRACT With more companies allowing flextime, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies sell to employees the flexibility of being ab...

  14. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  15. Tuscany (Italy) 1990 regional energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarrini, M.; Santoprete, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Economia Aziendale)

    This paper first discusses the overall problems involved in the preparation of functional and reliable regional energy balance sheets. It then presents and analyzes the 1990 energy balance sheet prepared for the Tuscany Region of Italy. The problems cited basically deal with the availability, compatibility and accuracy of regional energy data. Trends in Tuscany's energy consumption are compared with national figures in order to give some useful indications as to future energy strategies to be taken into consideration by the regional administration. In fact, this Region reflects the main national energy policy weakness - over-dependency on foreign supplied petroleum. It is thus recommended that locally available geothermal energy sources be further developed.

  16. Life Balancing -- A Better Way to Balance Large Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. Dyche; Zane, Regan; Plett, Gregory; Maksimovic, Dragan; Smith, Kandler; Trimboli, M. Scott

    2017-03-28

    A new cell balancing technology was developed under a Department of Energy contract which merges the DC/DC converter function into cell balancing. Instead of conventional passive cell balancing technology which bypasses current through a resistor, or active cell balancing which moves current from one cell to another, with significant cost and additional inefficiencies, this concept takes variable amount of current from each cell or small group of cells and converts it to current for the low voltage system.

  17. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  18. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...... strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union, vis-à-vis other major powers, including the United States....

  19. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  20. Getting the Balance Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the next five years China will balance economic growth and improving the living standards of its people by Liu Wei IT was widely reported that the chaos in some Middle East and North African countries were results of the inadequate efforts in improving people’s livelihood, a fundamental aspect of social stability. In early March,China held its annual sessions of the National People’s

  1. Scheduling algorithms for saving energy and balancing load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Antonios

    2012-08-03

    -processor result the competitive factor increases by an additive constant of 1. With respect to load balancing, we consider offline load balancing on identical machines, with the objective of minimizing the current load, for temporary unit-weight jobs. The problem can be seen as coloring n intervals with k colors, such that for each point on the line, the maximal difference between the number of intervals of any two colors is minimal. We prove that a coloring with maximal difference at most one is always possible, and develop a fast polynomial-time algorithm for generating such a coloring. Regarding the online version of the problem, we show that the maximal difference in the size of color classes can become arbitrary high for any online algorithm. Lastly, we prove that two generalizations of the problem are NP-hard. In the first we generalize from intervals to d-dimensional boxes while in the second we consider multiple-intervals, i.e., specific subsets of disjoint intervals must receive the same color.

  2. Implementace metody Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na hodnocení výkonnosti společnosti pomocí metody Balanced Scorecard. Teoretická část práce popisuje východiska měření výkonnosti, metody Balanced Scorecard a postup při její implementaci. Analytická část vychází z teoretických poznatků z první části a hodnotí situaci společnosti finanční analýzou poměrových ukazatelů, strategickou analýzou a následným sestavením návrhu implementace metody Balanced Scorecard v konkrétní společnosti. Thesis is focused on evaluati...

  3. A Review of Balance and Gait Capacities in Relation to Falls in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in mobility are common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). As balance and gait capacities are key aspects of mobility, the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also expected to be high in this population. The objective of this study was to critically review the available literature on balance and gait characteristics…

  4. Community flux balance analysis for microbial consortia at balanced growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir A Khandelwal

    Full Text Available A central focus in studies of microbial communities is the elucidation of the relationships between genotype, phenotype, and dynamic community structure. Here, we present a new computational method called community flux balance analysis (cFBA to study the metabolic behavior of microbial communities. cFBA integrates the comprehensive metabolic capacities of individual microorganisms in terms of (genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism, and the metabolic interactions between species in the community and abiotic processes. In addition, cFBA considers constraints deriving from reaction stoichiometry, reaction thermodynamics, and the ecosystem. cFBA predicts for communities at balanced growth the maximal community growth rate, the required rates of metabolic reactions within and between microbes and the relative species abundances. In order to predict species abundances and metabolic activities at the optimal community growth rate, a nonlinear optimization problem needs to be solved. We outline the methodology of cFBA and illustrate the approach with two examples of microbial communities. These examples illustrate two useful applications of cFBA. Firstly, cFBA can be used to study how specific biochemical limitations in reaction capacities cause different types of metabolic limitations that microbial consortia can encounter. In silico variations of those maximal capacities allow for a global view of the consortium responses to various metabolic and environmental constraints. Secondly, cFBA is very useful for comparing the performance of different metabolic cross-feeding strategies to either find one that agrees with experimental data or one that is most efficient for the community of microorganisms.

  5. Combined Load Diagram for a Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    Combined Load Diagrams for Direct-Read, Force, and Moment Balances are discussed in great detail in the paper. The diagrams, if compared with a corresponding combined load plot of a balance calibration data set, may be used to visualize and interpret basic relationships between the applied balance calibration loads and the load components at the forward and aft gage of a strain-age balance. Lines of constant total force and moment are identified in the diagrams. In addition, the lines of pure force and pure moment are highlighted. Finally, lines of constant moment arm are depicted. It is also demonstrated that each quadrant of a Combined Load Diagram has specific regions where the applied total calibration force is at, between, or outside of the balance gage locations. Data from the manual calibration of a Force Balance is used to illustrate the application of a Combined Load Diagram to a realistic data set.

  6. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe...

  7. Emergency Service Restoration and Load Balancing in Distribution Networks Using Feeder Loadings Balance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Yule [Anyang University, Anyang (Korea); Jung, Ho Sung; Shin, Myong Chul [Natural Sciences Campus, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to obtain an approximate optimal solution for the service restoration and load balancing of large scale radial distribution system in a real-time operation environment. Since the problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, it is difficult to solve a large-scale combinatorial optimization problem accurately within the reasonable computation time. Therefore, in order to find an approximate optimal solution quickly, the authors proposed an algorithm which combines optimization called cyclic best-first search with heuristic based feeder loadings balance index for computational efficiency and robust performance. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, numerical calculations are carried out the KEPCO's 108 bus distribution system. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    structurally determined (in)sensitivity to life and nature reaches a critical mass, it provokes new ideals of balancing society’s logics on the one hand with considerations of life and nature on the other, as in the triple bottom line concept (Luhmann 1989). Third, the increasing diversity and speciali......). An intersubjective and a social systemic public relations paradigm. Journal of Com-munications Management, 2(1), 24–39. Holmström, S. (2002). Public relations reconstructed as part of society’s evolutionary learning processes. In D. Vercic, B. van Ruler, I. Jensen, D. Moss, & J. White (Eds.), The status of public......Focus of this chapter is society’s megatrends as they transform the frames for organisational legitimacy in a way which implies that decision-making paradoxically should balance as mutual preconditions what was formerly seen as opposites. Society’s turbulence strikes in organisations. As society...

  9. Assessment of Visual Reliance in Balance Control: An Inexpensive Extension of the Static Posturography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Púčik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability of humans to maintain balance in an upright stance and during movement activities is one of the most natural skills affecting everyday life. This ability progressively deteriorates with increasing age, and balance impairment, often aggravated by age-related diseases, can result in falls that adversely impact the quality of life. Falls represent serious problems of health concern associated with aging. Many investigators, involved in different science disciplines such as medicine, engineering, psychology, and sport, have been attracted by a research of the human upright stance. In a clinical practice, stabilometry based on the force plate is the most widely available procedure used to evaluate the balance. In this paper, we have proposed a low-cost extension of the conventional stabilometry by the multimedia technology that allows identifying potentially disturbing effects of visual sensory information. Due to the proposed extension, a stabilometric assessment in terms of line integral of center of pressure (COP during moving scene stimuli shows higher discrimination power between young healthy and elderly subjects with supposed stronger visual reliance.

  10. Energy balance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jonathan

    2003-05-01

    The current epidemic of human obesity implies that whilst energy balance appears to be regulated, the extent of this regulatory process is being overwhelmed in large numbers of the population by environmental changes. Clearly, the shift towards positive energy balance reflects both alterations in energy intake and decreases in physical activity. Increased energy intake and, in particular, the rising proportion of energy from fat is linked with obesity. However, on a population level reduced levels of activity probably play the predominant role. It is apparent that individual susceptibility to weight gain varies enormously. The factors underlying this susceptibility are an area of intense research interest. Variations in BMR from that predicted appear to be linked to the propensity to gain weight. The genes responsible for this variation may include uncoupling proteins-2 and -3, with a number of studies showing a link with obesity. However, in vivo studies of these proteins have not yet demonstrated a physiological role for them that would explain the link with obesity. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis may also protect from weight gain, but the regulation of this type of thermogenesis is unclear, although the sympathetic nervous system may be important. A profusion of hormones, cytokines and neurotransmitters is involved in regulating energy intake, but whilst mutations in leptin and the melanocortin-3 receptor are responsible for rare monogenic forms of obesity, their wider role in common polygenic obesity is not known. Much current work is directed at examining the interplay between genetic background and environmental factors, in particular diet, that both lead to positive energy balance and seem to make it so hard for many obese subjects to lose weight.

  11. Balance horizontal de líneas de ensamble para modelos mixtos

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally assembly lines have been used to produce high volumes of a single model. To take advantage of these lines in flexible manufacturing environments, we can implement mixed model lines which allow ma­nufacturing different products of a family in the same line, however, its balancing requires different techniques that traditional. In this research, a literature review was made to analyze the factors affecting the mixed model lines in MTO environments and based on this we developed a ...

  12. Efficiently Building On-line Tools for Distributed Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Rackl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development is getting more and more complex, especially within distributed middleware-based environments. A major drawback during the overall software development process is the lack of on-line tools, i.e. tools applied as soon as there is a running prototype of an application. The MIMO MIddleware MOnitor provides a solution to this problem by implementing a framework for an efficient development of on-line tools. This paper presents a methodology for developing on-line tools with MIMO. As an example scenario, we choose a distributed medical image reconstruction application, which represents a test case with high performance requirements. Our distributed, CORBA-based application is instrumented for being observed with MIMO and related tools. Additionally, load balancing mechanisms are integrated for further performance improvements. As a result, we obtain an integrated tool environment for observing and steering the image reconstruction application. By using our rapid tool development process, the integration of on-line tools shows to be very convenient and enables an efficient tool deployment.

  13. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...... of financial and non-financial measures. The overall idea of BSC is to make the strategy operational, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992; 1996; 2007) and to use the strategy for simulation. Our results indicate that a company may gain great learning insight from such simulation studies. The whole article...

  14. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  15. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  16. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  17. Simulation and reconstruction of parameters of streamflow and glacier mass balance in the Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was aimed at numerical modeling of spatial-temporal variability of the river Terek seasonal (April to September streamflow characteristics and long-term fluctuations of components of annual glacier mass balances in this basin and on the adjacent territories. Mass balance of glaciers Djankuat and Garabashi was calculated. Simulation was performed by means of stochastic modeling and discrete data presenting fields of main meteorological parameters (precipitation, air temperature and humidity having effect on the streamflow. Realization of this approach is complicated by the fact that spatial representativeness of hydrological and meteorological sites are not corresponding one to another. Data on the runoff is clearly related to the total drainage area closed by a gauging station. And for this data we study a relationship with meteorological parameters which are measured at a non-regular observational network whose spatial representativeness is unknown. These stations are generally located beyond the area under investigation (Fig. 2. Similar problem exists when we analyze a relationship between components of the mass balance of individual glaciers (Djankuat and Garabashi and the above climate characteristics measured at some stations located on the whole Caucasus territory. The same takes place when long-term indices of width and density of tree annual rings obtained in upper reaches of the river Kuban’ are used for analysis of variations of the runoff and the glacier mass balance in the river Terek basin located at a distance of 100-150 km from the Kuban’ dendrologic sites.To solve the problem we used a wide number of factors which directly (various information about the climate or indirectly (indices of the climate dryness, wood ring characteristics characterize conditions of formation of annual and seasonal river runoff and components of glacier mass balance in the North Caucasus. Use of all obtained information made possible the

  18. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  19. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  20. GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED CONCEPT DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE NETWORK LOAD BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiconstraints optimal network load balancing is an NP-hard problem and it is an important part of traffic engineering. In this research we balance the network load using classical method (brute force approach and dynamic programming is used but result shows the limitation of this method but at a certain level we recognized that the optimization of balanced network load with increased number of nodes and demands is intractable using the classical method because the solution set increases exponentially. In such case the optimization techniques like evolutionary techniques can employ for optimizing network load balance. In this paper we analyzed proposed classical algorithm and evolutionary based genetic approach is devise as well as proposed in this paper for optimizing the balance network load.

  1. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  2. Balance Trees Reveal Microbial Niche Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James T; Sanders, Jon; Quinn, Robert A; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Song, Se Jin; Metcalf, Jessica L; Hyde, Embriette R; Lladser, Manuel; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Knight, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled novel insights into microbial niche differentiation, from analyzing environmental samples to understanding human diseases and informing dietary studies. However, identifying the microbial taxa that differentiate these samples can be challenging. These issues stem from the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data (or, more generally, taxon or functional gene data); the changes in the relative abundance of one taxon influence the apparent abundances of the others. Here we acknowledge that inferring properties of individual bacteria is a difficult problem and instead introduce the concept of balances to infer meaningful properties of subcommunities, rather than properties of individual species. We show that balances can yield insights about niche differentiation across multiple microbial environments, including soil environments and lung sputum. These techniques have the potential to reshape how we carry out future ecological analyses aimed at revealing differences in relative taxonomic abundances across different samples. IMPORTANCE By explicitly accounting for the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data through the concept of balances, balance trees yield novel biological insights into niche differentiation. The software to perform this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/biocore/gneiss. Author Video: An author video summary of this article is available.

  3. A safety analysis of warhead balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.

    1998-12-01

    Reentry vehicles (RVs) carrying warheads from ballistic missiles must be carefully balanced with the warhead in situ to prevent wobble as the RVs enter the earth`s atmosphere to prevent inaccuracy or loss of the warhead. This balancing is performed on a dynamic balancing machine that rotates the RV at significant angular velocities. Seizure of the spindle shaft of the machine could result in rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly, which could over-stress and shear bolts or other structures that attach the RV to the balancing machine. This could result in undesired motions of the RV and impact of the RV on equipment or structures in the work area. This potential safety problem has long been recognized in a general way, but no systematic investigation of the possible accident sequences had been performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated set of systems analysis techniques that worked well in developing a set of accident sequences that describe the motions of the RV following a spindle-shaft seizure event.

  4. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-07

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology.

  5. Balance Trees Reveal Microbial Niche Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James T.; Sanders, Jon; Quinn, Robert A.; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Hyde, Embriette R.; Lladser, Manuel; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled novel insights into microbial niche differentiation, from analyzing environmental samples to understanding human diseases and informing dietary studies. However, identifying the microbial taxa that differentiate these samples can be challenging. These issues stem from the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data (or, more generally, taxon or functional gene data); the changes in the relative abundance of one taxon influence the apparent abundances of the others. Here we acknowledge that inferring properties of individual bacteria is a difficult problem and instead introduce the concept of balances to infer meaningful properties of subcommunities, rather than properties of individual species. We show that balances can yield insights about niche differentiation across multiple microbial environments, including soil environments and lung sputum. These techniques have the potential to reshape how we carry out future ecological analyses aimed at revealing differences in relative taxonomic abundances across different samples. IMPORTANCE By explicitly accounting for the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data through the concept of balances, balance trees yield novel biological insights into niche differentiation. The software to perform this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/biocore/gneiss. Author Video: An author video summary of this article is available. PMID:28144630

  6. Problems of Family Farms in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huamei; LIN; Houjun; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In the Communiqué of the Third Plenary Session of the 18 th Central Committee of the CPC,it proposed the tasks of accelerating the building of a new type of agricultural operation system,endowing farmers with more property rights,promoting equal exchanges of factors of production and balanced allocation of public resources between urban and rural areas,and improving the institutions and mechanisms for promoting the sound development of urbanization. However,as new agricultural operating entities,family farms have problems of land circulation,lack of scientific and technological talents,and backward infrastructure. In line with these problems,this study put forward recommendations and countermeasures,in the hope of promoting increase in farmers’ income,increasing agricultural intensification and large-scale level,and realizing agricultural modernization.

  7. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  8. Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... about half of older people have two or more subtypes of dizziness.1 The ... either the head or the head and the environment are moving. Postural control must ... spite of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and high infant, child and adult mortality, the .... presbyastasis) increases risk of falls and injury in patients over 65 ...

  9. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  10. Line Transport in Turbulent Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    The spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field is examined. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. A new approach proposed for solving this problem is based on the invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity, and the line width on the mean correlation length and the average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulence occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length . Ambartsumian's principle of invariance is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.

  11. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  12. Ghent developmental balance test: a new tool to evaluate balance performance in toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Baetens, Tina; Peersman, Wim; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-06-01

    Balance is a fundamental component of movement. Early identification of balance problems is important to plan early intervention. The Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT) is a new assessment tool designed to monitor balance from the initiation of independent walking to 5 years of age. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric characteristics of the GDBT. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 144 children were tested twice on the GDBT by the same examiner, and to evaluate interrater reliability, videotaped GDBT sessions of 22 children were rated by 3 different raters. To evaluate the known-group validity of GDBT scores, z scores on the GDBT were compared between a clinical group (n = 20) and a matched control group (n = 20). Concurrent validity of GDBT scores with the subscale standardized scores of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (M-ABC-2), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2), and the balance subscale of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-Second Edition (BOT-2) was evaluated in a combined group of the 20 children from the clinical group and 74 children who were developing typically. Test-retest and interrater reliability were excellent for the GDBT total scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .99 and .98, standard error of measurement values of 0.21 and 0.78, and small minimal detectable differences of 0.58 and 2.08, respectively. The GDBT was able to distinguish between the clinical group and the control group (t(38) = 5.456, Pbalance subscales of the M-ABC-2, PDMS-2, and BOT-2 were moderate to high, whereas correlations with subscales measuring constructs other than balance were low. The GDBT is a reliable and valid clinical assessment tool for the evaluation of balance in toddlers and preschool-aged children.

  13. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  14. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Stampe, Ian

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners...... the 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...

  15. Quasirandom Load Balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Tobias; Sauerwald, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple distributed algorithm for balancing indivisible tokens on graphs. The algorithm is completely deterministic, though it tries to imitate (and enhance) a random algorithm by keeping the accumulated rounding errors as small as possible. Our new algorithm surprisingly closely approximates the idealized process (where the tokens are divisible) on important network topologies. On d-dimensional torus graphs with n nodes it deviates from the idealized process only by an additive constant. In contrast to that, the randomized rounding approach of Friedrich and Sauerwald (2009) can deviate up to Omega(polylog(n)) and the deterministic algorithm of Rabani, Sinclair and Wanka (1998) has a deviation of Omega(n^{1/d}). This makes our quasirandom algorithm the first known algorithm for this setting which is optimal both in time and achieved smoothness. We further show that also on the hypercube our algorithm has a smaller deviation from the idealized process than the previous algorithms.

  16. Walking the HMO balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  17. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating" has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin...... selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  18. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  19. LEACH Algorithm Based on Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advantages of LEACH Algorithm and the existing improved model which takes the famous hierarchy clustering routing protocol LEACH Algorithm as researching object. Then the paper indicates the problem that in the algorithm capacity factor of cluster head node is not taken into account leading the structure of clusters to be not so reasonable. This research discusses an energy-uniform cluster and cluster head selecting mechanism in which “Pseudo cluster head” concept is introduced in order to coordinate with “Load Monitor” Mechanism and “Load Leisure” Mechanism to maintain load balancing of cluster head character and stability of network topology. On the basis of LEACH Protocol improving algorithm of LEACH-C, CEFL and DCHS. NS2 simulation instrument is applied to do simulation analysis on the improved algorithm. Simulation result shows that LEACH-P Protocol effectively increase energy utilization efficiency, lengthens network lifetime and balances network load.  

  20. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, Seema; Archbold, Jennifer; Berge, Zane

    2005-01-01

    With more companies allowing "flextime", more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies "sell" to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many…

  1. Research on the efficiency of coherent balanced detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyang; Ai, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Chen, Yang; Ji, Fengzhu; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2016-10-01

    In the spatial coherent optical communication, after long distance transmission, the receiver needs to detect and extract the weak signal, and the balanced detection technology is the key technology in the coherent detection. Using balanced detection technology, not only can further improve the receiving sensitivity of coherent optical detection, but also can suppress the common mode intensity noise, so as to improve the output signal to noise ratio of the system. But the problems are (1) due to external causes (polarization control, input optical power loss error, atmospheric turbulence caused by decay, and so on),at both ends of the balanced detector's input signal can not keep consistent (2) two arms of balanced detector electronic devices (including photodiode and amplifier electronic components) are difficult to achieve perfectly matched. The paper is based on the principle of coherent optical detection, firstly, the advantage of balanced detection compared to single detection is detailed analysis, it is shown that balanced detector used in coherent optical communication system and with the improvement of communication rate, this advantage will more obvious. The theoretical and experimental results have verified several important factors that affect the efficiency of coherent balanced detection, namely, the consistency of the detection response, the atmospheric turbulence and the tracking jitter. It is of reference significant to study the balance detection technology in the spatial coherent optical communication.

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  4. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  5. Assessing and documenting fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnington, Sarah; Ingleby, Sarah; Hanumapura, Prasanna; Waring, Deryn

    2016-12-07

    Concerns about inadequate patient hydration and suboptimal monitoring of fluid balance have been documented in recent reports. The Fluid Balance Improvement Project at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to identify risk factors influencing hydration and to implement a revised process to manage these risks, resulting in the development of a hydration pathway. This new approach to monitoring patient hydration, together with staff education and support, has resulted in improved compliance with fluid balance monitoring standards, as well as significant improvements in identifying patients at risk of dehydration, and an increase in patients with acute kidney injury commencing appropriate fluid balance monitoring.

  6. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  7. Balanced crystalloids for septic shock resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; de Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Timely fluid administration is crucial to maintain tissue perfusion in septic shock patients. However, the question concerning which fluid should be used for septic shock resuscitation remains a matter of debate. A growing body of evidence suggests that the type, amount and timing of fluid administration during the course of sepsis may affect patient outcomes. Crystalloids have been recommended as the first-line fluids for septic shock resuscitation. Nevertheless, given the inconclusive nature of the available literature, no definitive recommendations about the most appropriate crystalloid solution can be made. Resuscitation of septic and non-septic critically ill patients with unbalanced crystalloids, mainly 0.9% saline, has been associated with a higher incidence of acid-base balance and electrolyte disorders and might be associated with a higher incidence of acute kidney injury. This can result in greater demand for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. Balanced crystalloids have been proposed as an alternative to unbalanced solutions in order to mitigate their detrimental effects. Nevertheless, the safety and effectiveness of balanced crystalloids for septic shock resuscitation need to be further addressed in a well-designed, multicenter, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial. PMID:28099643

  8. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuti, D. T.; Raju, M.; Ihme, M.

    2017-05-01

    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures pcr and temperatures Tcr only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure pr* to replace the previously used reduced pressure pr=p /pcr . We show that pr* is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using pr*, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within corresponding states principle

  9. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, R. G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal hydrostatic atmosphere at 20,000 K. The atmosphere is treated as optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1, 3-1, 3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is nontrivial and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused the failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods or new implementations of old methods may be tested.

  10. Balancing media environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    are perceived and pursued. Consequently, we can distinguish between perceived and hidden affordances (Norman 1999), as well as affordances that are desirable and undesirable in certain contexts. Thus, this paper promotes the affordance theory as a tool for analyzing which didactic potentials and problems...

  11. Juneau Icefield Mass Balance Program 1946–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pelto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mass balance records of the Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier observed by the Juneau Icefield Research Program are the longest continuous glacier mass balance data sets in North America. On Taku Glacier annual mass balance averaged +0.40 m a−1 from 1946–1985 and −0.08 m a−1 from 1986–2011. The recent mass balance decline has resulted in the cessation of the long term thickening of the glacier. Mean annual mass balance on Lemon Creek Glacier has declined from −0.30 m a−1 for the 1953–1985 period to −0.60 m a−1 during the 1986–2011 period. The overall mass balance change is −26.6 m water equivalent, a 29 m of ice thinning over the 55 yr. Probing transects above the transient snow line (TSL indicate a consistent balance gradient from year to year. Observations of the rate of summer TSL rise on Lemon Creek and Taku Glacier indicate a comparatively consistent rate of 3.8 to 4.1 m d−1. The relationship between TSL on Lemon Creek and Taku Glacier to other Juneau Icefield glaciers, Norris, Mendenhall, Herbert, and Eagle, is strong with correlations exceeding 0.82 in all cases. doi:10.5065/D6NZ85N3

  12. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance.

  13. Force balance along Isunnguata Sermia, west Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Meierbachtol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice flows when gravity acts on gradients in surface elevation, producing driving stresses. In the Isunnguata Sermia and Russel Glacier catchments of western Greenland, a 50% decline in driving stress along a flow line is juxtaposed with increasing surface flow speed. Here, these circumstances are investigated using modern observational data sources and an analysis of the balance of forces. Stress gradients in the ice mass and basal drag which resist the local driving stress are computed in order to investigate the underlying processes influencing the velocity and stress regimes. Our results show that the largest resistive stress gradients along the flowline result from increasing surface velocity. However, the longitudinal coupling stresses fail to exceed 15 kPa, or 20% of the local driving stress. Consequently, computed basal drag declines in proportion to the driving stress. In the absence of significant resistive stress gradients, other mechanisms are therefore necessary to explain the observed velocity increase despite declining driving stress. In the study area, the observed velocity - driving stress feature occurs at the long-term mean position of the equilibrium line of surface mass balance. We hypothesize that this position approximates the inland limit where surface meltwater penetrates the bed, and that the increased surface velocity reflects enhanced basal motion associated with seasonal meltwater perturbations.

  14. The interval ordering problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Christoph; Spieksma, Frits C R; Nobibon, Fabrice Talla; Woeginger, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the determination of the structure of the backbone of a protein. We present polynomial-time algorithms for several natural special cases of the problem that cover the situation where the interval boundaries are agreeably ordered and the situation where the interval set is laminar. Also the bottleneck variant of the problem is shown to be solvable in polynomial time. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-hard, and that the existence of a constant-factor-approximation algorithm is unlikely.

  15. 区域学前教育均衡发展:概念释义、问题归因与实现路径%The Balanced Development of Regional Preschool Education:the Interpretation of Concept,the Attribution of Problems and the Ways of Realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦峰

    2015-01-01

    The balanced development of regional preschool education is not egalitarianism,but a dynamic and relative process. The core is the fair development of preschool children. In our country, the causes of unbalanced development of regional preschool education are mainly caused by natural environment, financial investment, teacher team, interest class, social structure and independent development. To realize the balanced development of China’s regional preschool education, in the respect of macro strategy,the way must be changed from“metachysis”mode into the“hemopoiesis”mode. In the respect of concrete method,Chinese government must increase the financial investment in backward areas,narrow the re-gional gap between teachers,strengthen the supervision of the quality of preschool education,popularize the compulsory e-ducation in kindergartens,try to solve the deep level problems in economy and society,and fully tap the capability of in-dependent development of backward areas.%区域学前教育均衡发展是动态的、相对的发展,不是搞平均主义,其核心是学前儿童的公平发展。我国区域学前教育非均衡发展的原因主要由自然环境、财政投入、师资队伍、利益阶层、社会结构、自主发展等六个方面造成。实现我国区域学前教育的均衡发展,在宏观策略上,必须由单纯的“输血”模式向“造血”模式转变;在具体方法上,必须加强对落后地区的资助,缩小区域师资队伍之间的差距,强化对学前教育质量的监管,推广免费的幼儿园义务教育,努力解决深层的经济和社会问题,充分挖掘落后地区的自主发展能力。

  16. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  17. Striking a balance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Mailand, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Often neglected in flexicurity studies is the question of how collective bargaining contributes to the development of flexicurity, despite the continued resilience of this form of regulation in many European countries. The article compares sector-level bargaining and flexicurity in the printing...... and electrical contracting industries of Denmark, Spain and the UK to assess this link. In line with prior research, the article finds that Danish agreements contribute significantly to flexicurity. Somewhat against conventional expectations, however, are findings in the UK and Spain. In the UK, agreements...

  18. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  19. Slackline Training (Balancing Over Narrow Nylon Ribbons) and Balance Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors. Five biomedical and psychological databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) were screened using the following search terms with Boolean conjunctions: (slacklin* OR slack-lin* OR tight rop* OR tightrop* OR Slackline-based OR line-based OR slackrop* OR slack-rop* OR floppy wir* OR rop* balanc* OR ropedanc* OR rope-danc*) STUDY SELECTION: Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that applied slackline training as an exercise intervention compared with an inactive control condition focusing on static and dynamic balance performance (perturbed and non-perturbed single leg stance) in healthy children, adults and seniors were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale] were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) calculated as weighted Hedges' g served as main outcomes in order to compare slackline training versus inactive control on slackline standing as well as dynamic and static balance performance parameters. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects, inverse-variance model. Eight trials (mean PEDro score 6.5 ± 0.9) with 204 healthy participants were included. Of the included subjects, 35 % were children or adolescents, 39 % were adults and 26 % were seniors

  20. A Plantar-pressure Based Tongue-placed Tactile Biofeedback System for Balance Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Fleury, Anthony; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining an upright stance represents a complex task, which is achieved by integrating sensory information from the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems. When one of these sensory inputs becomes unavailable and/or inaccurate and/or unreliable, postural control generally is degraded. One way to solve this problem is to supplement and/or substitute limited/altered/missing sensory information by providing additional sensory information to the central nervous system via an alternative sensory modality. Along these lines, we developed an original biofeedback system [1] whose underlying principle consists in supplying the user with supplementary sensory information related to foot sole pressure distribution through a tongue-placed output device (Tongue Display Unit, "TDU" [2]). The purpose of the present experiment was to assess its effectiveness in improving balance in young healthy adults.

  1. Health care practice patterns for balance disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel S; Lin, Harrison W; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2013-10-01

    Characterize health care practice patterns for balance disorders in the elderly. Cross-sectional analysis of national health care survey. Balance disorder cases in patients aged ≥65 years were extracted from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Records were analyzed for health professionals seen, diagnostic testing ordered, diagnoses given, and treatments offered. Relationships between diagnostic success, imaging studies, and specialty providers seen were compared. Among 7.02 ± 0.22 million elderly persons reporting a balance problem, 50.0% (3.44 ± 0.16 million) saw a health professional, and 35.8% saw ≥3 providers; 59.6% of elderly patients reported a diagnosed cause for the balance problem. The most common causes were medication side effects (11.3%), inner ear infection (11.0%), heart disease (8.6%), and loose ear crystals (7.9%). Imaging studies had been obtained in 56.7% (2.00 ± 0.11 million cases). Among 24.3% of patients receiving some form of treatment, 61.7% had been taking prescription medication, most commonly diuretic agents (36.5%), anxiolytic agents (25.1%), and meclizine (21.4%). Seeing an otolaryngologist or neurologist was associated with a higher but similar rate of diagnostic imaging studies (70.1%, P = .029 and 78.5%, P balance disorder (61.5% with imaging vs. 56.9% without, P = .265). Despite a high prevalence of balance problems in the elderly, a significant proportion do not come to a clear diagnosis. There is a noteworthy rate of prescription medication utilization in this population. Given an increasingly aging population, attention needs to be given to balance problems in the elderly to optimize diagnosis and health care utilization. 2b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Bounded real and positive real balanced truncation using Sigma-normalised coprime factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we will extend the method of balanced truncation using normalised right coprime factors of the system transfer matrix by Meyer (1990) [3] to balanced truncation with preservation of half line dissipativity. Special cases are preservation of positive realness and bounded realness. We

  3. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  4. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  5. Generalized Line Spectral Estimation via Convex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Heckel, Reinhard; Soltanolkotabi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Line spectral estimation is the problem of recovering the frequencies and amplitudes of a mixture of a few sinusoids from equispaced samples. However, in a variety of signal processing problems arising in imaging, radar, and localization we do not have access directly to such equispaced samples. Rather we only observe a severely undersampled version of these observations through linear measurements. This paper is about such generalized line spectral estimation problems. We reformulate these p...

  6. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as getting out of a chair or climbing stairs. You may also have trouble with your balance, and your chance of falling increases. Pain that leads to less mobility can result in weight gain, weakness, and decreased heart function. But just ...

  7. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of cu

  8. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of

  9. Balancing for unstable nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A previously obtained method of balancing for stable nonlinear systems is extended to unstable nonlinear systems. The similarity invariants obtained by the concept of LQG balancing for an unstable linear system can also be obtained by considering a past and future energy function of the system. By c

  10. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  11. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  12. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of cu

  13. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hsieh; S.C. Parker; M.C. van Praag

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on t

  14. Pressure-Balance Consistency in Magnetospheric Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永登; 陈出新

    2003-01-01

    There have been many magnetic field models for geophysical and astrophysical bodies.These theoretical or empirical models represent the reality very well in some cases,but in other cases they may be far from reality.We argue that these models will become more reasonable if they are modified by some coordinate transformations.In order to demonstrate the transformation,we use this method to resolve the "pressure-balance inconsistency"problem that occurs when plasma transports from the outer plasma sheet of the Earth into the inner plasma sheet.

  15. Balanced {C_4, C_5}-Quatrefoil Systems

    OpenAIRE

    USHIO, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    In graph theory, the decomposition problems of graphs are very important topics. Various types of decompositions of many graphs can be seen in the literature of gaph theory. We give the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a balanced {C_4, C_5}-quatrefoil decomposition of K_n for each of (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_4)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, and (C_5, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil. These decompositions...

  16. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  17. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  18. Social Balance Theory: Revisiting Heider’s Balance Theory for many agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on Heider’s social balance theory to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance structure. Seve...

  19. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  20. Work-life balance: history, costs, and budgeting for balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L

    2014-06-01

    The concept and difficulties of work-life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work-life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out.