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Sample records for linc energy combine

  1. LINCS: Livermore's network architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Octopus, a local computing network that has been evolving at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for over fifteen years, is currently undergoing a major revision. The primary purpose of the revision is to consolidate and redefine the variety of conventions and formats, which have grown up over the years, into a single standard family of protocols, the Livermore Interactive Network Communication Standard (LINCS). This standard treats the entire network as a single distributed operating system such that access to a computing resource is obtained in a single way, whether that resource is local (on the same computer as the accessing process) or remote (on another computer). LINCS encompasses not only communication but also such issues as the relationship of customer to server processes and the structure, naming, and protection of resources. The discussion includes: an overview of the Livermore user community and computing hardware, the functions and structure of each of the seven layers of LINCS protocol, the reasons why we have designed our own protocols and why we are dissatisfied by the directions that current protocol standards are taking

  2. APST interfaces in LINCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  3. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  4. Identification of Circulating Long Noncoding RNA Linc00152 as a Novel Biomarker for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been reported to play vital roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Recently, long noncoding RNA Linc00152 has been reported to play important roles in various cancers. In this study, our aim was to investigate its expression pattern and clinical significance and further evaluate its diagnostic value for NSCLC. Methods. The levels of Linc00152 were detected in NSCLC tissues and plasma samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were depicted to evaluate the diagnostic value. Results. We found that Linc00152 levels were upregulated in both NSCLC tissues and plasma samples. Plasma Linc00152 levels were significantly lower in postoperative samples than in preoperative samples. Besides, high Linc00152 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (r=0.293, P=0.005 and tumor stage (r=0.324, P=0.011. The ROC curves indicated that plasma Linc00152 has high diagnostic accuracy for NSCLC, and the area under curve (AUC for NSCLC versus healthy was 0.816 (95% CI: 0.757–0.875. Moreover, we found that the combination of Linc00152 and CEA could provide a more powerful diagnosis efficiency than Linc00152 or CEA alone (AUC = 0.881, 95% CI: 0.836–0.926. Conclusions. Plasma Linc00152 could serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring NSCLC.

  5. Linc00210 drives Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation and liver tumor progression through CTNNBIP1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Qin, Fujun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Jizhen; Ding, Yuechao; Yang, Zihe; Shang, Yiman; Wang, Li; Zhang, Qinxian; Gao, Quanli

    2018-03-14

    interacts with CTNNBIP1 and blocks the combination between CTNNBIP1 and β-catenin, driving the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Linc00210-CTNNBIP1-Wnt/β-catenin axis can be targeted for liver TIC elimination.

  6. Sexual Identity and the LINC Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Instructors in the federally funded program of Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) are responsible for teaching both the English language and citizenship values to adult immigrants. The recent legalization of same-sex marriage implies that a gay and lesbian presence is an acknowledged fact of Canadian life, with gay rights now…

  7. Structural requirements for the assembly of LINC complexes and their function in cellular mechanical stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart-Hutchinson, P.J.; Hale, Christopher M.; Wirtz, Denis; Hodzic, Didier

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary-conserved interactions between KASH and SUN domain-containing proteins within the perinuclear space establish physical connections, called LINC complexes, between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that the KASH domains of Nesprins 1, 2 and 3 interact promiscuously with luminal domains of Sun1 and Sun2. These constructs disrupt endogenous LINC complexes as indicated by the displacement of endogenous Nesprins from the nuclear envelope. We also provide evidence that KASH domains most probably fit a pocket provided by SUN domains and that post-translational modifications are dispensable for that interaction. We demonstrate that the disruption of endogenous LINC complexes affect cellular mechanical stiffness to an extent that compares to the loss of mechanical stiffness previously reported in embryonic fibroblasts derived from mouse lacking A-type lamins, a mouse model of muscular dystrophies and cardiomyopathies. These findings support a model whereby physical connections between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton are mediated by interactions between diverse combinations of Sun proteins and Nesprins through their respective evolutionary-conserved domains. Furthermore, they emphasize, for the first time, the relevance of LINC complexes in cellular mechanical stiffness suggesting a possible involvement of their disruption in various laminopathies, a group of human diseases linked to mutations of A-type lamins

  8. National Institute for Literacy. Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS")

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each month, the Literacy Information and Communication System ("LINCS") will feature one of the three LINCS Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management, and Workforce Competitiveness--and introduce research-based resources that practitioners can use in their adult and family literacy programs and classrooms. This edition features the…

  9. LINC-NIRVANA piston control elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Mario; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Bertram, Thomas; Rost, Steffen; Borelli, Jose Luis; Herbst, Thomas M.; Kuerster, Martin; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer

    2010-07-01

    We review the status of hardware developments related to the Linc-Nirvana optical path difference (OPD) control. The status of our telescope vibration measurements is given. We present the design concept of a feed-forward loop to damp the impact of telescope mirror vibrations on the OPD seen by Linc-Nirvana. At the focus of the article is a description of the actuator of the OPD control loop. The weight and vibration optimized construction of this actuator (aka piston mirror) and its mount has a complex dynamical behavior, which prevents classical PI feedback control from delivering fast and precise motion of the mirror surface. Therefore, an H-; optimized control strategy will be applied, custom designed for the piston mirror. The effort of realizing a custom controller on a DSP to drive the piezo is balanced by the outlook of achieving more than 5x faster servo bandwidths. The laboratory set-up to identify the system, and verify the closed loop control performance is presented. Our goal is to achieve 30 Hz closed-loop control bandwidth at a precision of 30 nm.

  10. Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Eckart, A.; Weigelt, G.

    2010-07-01

    We present an update on the construction and integration of LINC-NIRVANA, a Fizeau-mode imaging interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is a unique platform for interferometry, since its two, co-mounted 8.4 meter primary mirrors present an orientation-independent entrance pupil. This allows Fizeau-mode beam combination, providing 23-meter spatial resolution and 12-meter effective collecting area for panoramic imagery LINC-NIRVANA will sit at one of the shared, bent focal stations, receiving light from both mirrors of the LBT. The instrument uses visible wavelength radiation for wavefront control, and the near-infrared bands for science and fringe tracking. LINC-NIRVANA employs a number of innovative technologies, including multi-conjugated adaptive optics, state-of-the-art materials, low vibration mechanical coolers, active and passive control, and sophisticated software for data analysis. The instrument is in its final construction and integration phase. This paper reports on overall progress, including insights gained on large instrument assembly, software integration, science planning, and vibration control. A number of additional contributions to this conference focus on individual subsystems and integration-related issues.

  11. Combining Renewable Energy With Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    There are various possibilities for incorporating biomass into coal-fuelled processes and a number of these are already being deployed commercially. Others are the focus of ongoing research and development. Biomass materials can vary widely, although the present report concentrates mainly on the use of woody biomass in the form of forest residues. Potentially, large amounts are available in some parts of the world. However, not all forested regions are very productive, and the degree of commercial exploitation varies considerably between individual countries. The level of wastage associated with timber production and associated downstream processing is frequently high and considerable quantities of potentially useful materials are often discarded. Overall, forest residues are a largely underexploited resource. Combining the use of biomass with coal can be beneficial, particularly from an environmental standpoint, although any such process may have its limitations or drawbacks. Each coal type and biomass feedstock has different characteristics although by combining the two, it may be possible to capitalise on the advantages of each, and minimise their individual disadvantages. An effective way is via cogasification, and useful operating experience has been achieved in a number of large-scale coal-fuelled gasification and IGCC plants. Cogasification can be the starting point for producing a range of products that include synthetic natural gas, chemicals, fertilisers and liquid transport fuels. It also has the potential to form the basis of systems that combine coal and biomass use with other renewable energy technologies to create clean, efficient energy-production systems. Thus, various hybrid energy concepts, some based on coal/biomass cogasification, have been proposed or are in the process of being developed or trialled. Some propose to add yet another element of renewable energy to the system, generally by incorporating electricity generated by intermittent

  12. Optical integration and verification of LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ventas, J.; Baumeister, H.; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, P.; Briegel, F.; Greggio, D.; Kittmann, F.; Marafatto, L.; Mohr, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Schray, H.

    2014-07-01

    The LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) located in Mount Graham near Tucson/Arizona at an altitude of about 3200m, is an innovative project being undertaken by institutions from Europe and USA. The structure of the telescope incorporates two 8.4-meter telescopes on a 14.4 center-to-center common mount. This configuration provides the equivalent collecting area of a 12m single-dish telescope. LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument to combine the light from both LBT primary mirrors in an imaging Fizeau interferometer. Many requirements must be fulfilled in order to get a good interferometric combination of the beams, being among the most important plane wavefronts, parallel input beams, homotheticity and zero optical path difference (OPD) required for interferometry. The philosophy is to have an internally aligned instrument first, and then align the telescope to match the instrument. The sum of different subsystems leads to a quite ambitious system, which requires a well-defined strategy for alignment and testing. In this paper I introduce and describe the followed strategy, as well as the different solutions, procedures and tools used during integration. Results are presented at every step.

  13. SNP rs2071095 in LincRNA H19 is associated with breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Zhao, Yanrui; Chu, Xinlei; He, Na; Zheng, Hong; Han, Jiali; Song, Fengju; Chen, Kexin

    2018-05-08

    An increasing number of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) appear to play critical roles in cancer development and progression. To assess the association between SNPs that reside in regions of lincRNAs and breast cancer risk, we performed a large case-control study in China. We carried out a two-stage case-control study including 2881 breast cancer cases and 3220 controls. In stage I, we genotyped 17 independent (r 2  < 0.5) SNPs located in 6 tumor-related lincRNAs by using the TaqMan platform. In stage II, SNPs potentially associated with breast cancer risk were replicated in an independent population. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure H19 levels in tissues from 228 breast cancer patients with different genotypes. We identified 2 SNPs significantly associated with breast cancer risk in stage I (P < 0.05), but not significantly replicated in stage II. We combined the data from stage I and stage II, and found that, compared with the rs2071095 CC genotype, AA and CA + AA genotypes were associated with significantly decreased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99; adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, respectively). Stratified analyses showed that rs2071095 was associated with breast cancer risk in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients (P = 0.002), but not in ER-negative ones (P = 0.332). Expression levels of H19 in breast cancer cases with AA genotype were significantly lower than those with CC genotype. We identified that rs2071095 may contribute to the susceptibility of breast cancer in Chinese women via affecting H19 expression. The mechanisms underlying the association remain to be investigated.

  14. Final integration and alignment of LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ventas, Javier; Bizenberger, Peter; Bertram, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Kalyan K.; Kittmann, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Marafatto, Luca; Mohr, Lars; Herbst, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The LBT (Large Binocular Telescope), located at about 3200m on Mount Graham (Tucson, Arizona) is an innovative project undertaken by institutions from Europe and USA. LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument which provides MCAO (Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics) and interferometry, combining the light from the two 8.4m telescopes coherently. This configuration offers 23m-baseline optical resolution and the sensitivity of a 12m mirror, with a 2 arc-minute diffraction limited field of view. The integration, alignment and testing of such a big instrument requires a well-organized choreography and AIV planning which has been developed in a hierarchical way. The instrument is divided in largely independent systems, and all of them consist of various subsystems. Every subsystem integration ends with a verification test and an acceptance procedure. When a certain number of systems are finished and accepted, the instrument AIV phase starts. This hierarchical approach allows testing at early stages with simple setups. The philosophy is to have internally aligned subsystems to be integrated in the instrument optical path, and extrapolate to finally align the instrument to the Gregorian bent foci of the telescope. The alignment plan was successfully executed in Heidelberg at MPIA facilities, and now the instrument is being re-integrated at the LBT over a series of 11 campaigns along the year 2016. After its commissioning, the instrument will offer MCAO sensing with the LBT telescope. The interferometric mode will be implemented in a future update of the instrument. This paper focuses on the alignment done in the clean room at the LBT facilities for the collimator, camera, and High-layer Wavefront Sensor (HWS) during March and April 2016. It also summarizes the previous work done in preparation for shipping and arrival of the instrument to the telescope. Results are presented for every step, and a final section outlines the future work to be done in next runs until its final commissioning.

  15. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  16. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  17. A deep learning method for lincRNA detection using auto-encoder algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Yu, Zeng; Pan, Yi

    2017-12-06

    RNA sequencing technique (RNA-seq) enables scientists to develop novel data-driven methods for discovering more unidentified lincRNAs. Meantime, knowledge-based technologies are experiencing a potential revolution ignited by the new deep learning methods. By scanning the newly found data set from RNA-seq, scientists have found that: (1) the expression of lincRNAs appears to be regulated, that is, the relevance exists along the DNA sequences; (2) lincRNAs contain some conversed patterns/motifs tethered together by non-conserved regions. The two evidences give the reasoning for adopting knowledge-based deep learning methods in lincRNA detection. Similar to coding region transcription, non-coding regions are split at transcriptional sites. However, regulatory RNAs rather than message RNAs are generated. That is, the transcribed RNAs participate the biological process as regulatory units instead of generating proteins. Identifying these transcriptional regions from non-coding regions is the first step towards lincRNA recognition. The auto-encoder method achieves 100% and 92.4% prediction accuracy on transcription sites over the putative data sets. The experimental results also show the excellent performance of predictive deep neural network on the lincRNA data sets compared with support vector machine and traditional neural network. In addition, it is validated through the newly discovered lincRNA data set and one unreported transcription site is found by feeding the whole annotated sequences through the deep learning machine, which indicates that deep learning method has the extensive ability for lincRNA prediction. The transcriptional sequences of lincRNAs are collected from the annotated human DNA genome data. Subsequently, a two-layer deep neural network is developed for the lincRNA detection, which adopts the auto-encoder algorithm and utilizes different encoding schemes to obtain the best performance over intergenic DNA sequence data. Driven by those newly

  18. Energy uses in combination processes applying irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of energy in the food system are significant and have increased as a result of the growth in population worldwide. This, in turn, demands an increased harvest per area of land, and thus intensive agriculture. The energy used in the food system is not only a drain on limited resources but also has an adverse impact on the environment. It is therefore important to devise methods that reduce energy in all undertakings. The energy used in food irradiation is relatively low compared with other methods and relative to the amount of energy used in producing food. for this reason, food irradiation is an environmentally friendly method and the costs of processing and preserving food do not depend greatly on the fluctuating costs of renewable energy sources such as oil. Irradiation in 60 Co facilities uses a very small amount of energy, about 0.032-0.0465 MJ/kg for radicidation doses of 3 kGy. Irradiation in 5 MV DC electron accelerator facilities uses about twice as much energy; 10 MV travelling wave accelerator facilities use about five times as much and 5 MV X ray facilities about 25 times as much as 60 Co facilities. In practice, X ray facilities are employed only for low dose applications such as sprout inhibition, inactivation of trichina in pork products and disinfestation of fruits, therefore the energy used in low. Frequently, irradiation can be used in combination with other low energy methods such as the sun drying of spices, condiments, vegetables and fish. The overall method of preservation is then particularly environmentally friendly and results in microbiologically safe and wholesome food. (author)

  19. Identifying the Role of the International Consortium ``MIT/ LINC'' in Supporting the Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young; Moser, Franziska Zellweger

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this research effort is to provide insights on what core needs and difficulties exist toward the implementation of ICT in higher education in emerging countries and how a consortium like LINC can best support these efforts. An exploratory research design combining a survey, on-site interviews, participant observation and document analysis were employed to answer the research questions. Main challenges in establishing technology- based learning environments were identified in the area of pedagogies, finances, technological infrastructure, cultural change, organization, and management. LINC, as an non-political organization embedded in an academic environment, can take an important role in facilitating the dialogue among participants through various platforms, take an active role in promoting joint programs and assist with efforts to "localize" tools and practice.

  20. Nuclear envelopathies: a complex LINC between nuclear envelope and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Alexandre; Bauer, Delphine; Ratti, Francesca; Millat, Gilles; Méjat, Alexandre

    2017-08-30

    Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. The core of this complex, called LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) is composed of KASH and SUN homology domain proteins. SUN proteins are INM proteins which interact with lamins by their N-terminal domain and with the KASH domain of nesprins located in the ONM by their C-terminal domain.Although most of these proteins are ubiquitously expressed, their mutations have been associated with a large number of clinically unrelated pathologies affecting specific tissues. Moreover, variants in SUN proteins have been found to modulate the severity of diseases induced by mutations in other LINC components or interactors. For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging.The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms.

  1. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA linc-ITGB1 suppresses migration, invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating ZEB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W-W; Wang, K; Liao, G-J

    2017-11-01

    This research focuses on the influence of linc-ITGB1 on the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and further explores its underlying mechanism. A total of 70 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were chosen for our study. RT-qPCR was used for detecting the expression level of linc-ITGB1 in their cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression level of linc-ITGB1 was also detected in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, whether linc-ITGB1 could affect the migrated and invaded ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. We further explored the potential mechanism by RT-qPCR and Western blot assay. Linc-ITGB1 expression level in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues was remarkably higher than that in adjacent tissues. Moreover, migrated and invaded ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was inhibited through knockdown of linc-ITGB1. Further study revealed that silenced linc-ITGB1 inhibited the expression of ZEB1 and then suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was important during the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the inhibition of cell invasion by silenced linc-ITGB1 could be rescued through overexpression of ZEB1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. The results indicate that linc-ITGB1, a novel oncogene in tumorigenesis, could promote the metastasis and EMT via ZEB1, which may offer a possible therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Linc-POU3F3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichun; Li, Yannan; Wang, Dan; Meng, Qingdong

    2018-06-12

    Linc-POU3F3 showed an up-regulated tendency and functioned as tumor promoter in glioma, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer. There was no report about the expression pattern and clinical value of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the purpose of our study is to explore the clinical significance and biological role of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results suggested that levels of linc-POU3F3 were dramatically increased in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines compared with paired normal hepatic tissues and normal hepatic cell line, respectively. Levels of linc-POU3F3 were positively correlated with clinical stage, tumor size, vascular invasion and metastasis. Moreover, high-expression of linc-POU3F3 was an independent prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that linc-POU3F3 expression significantly promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, linc-POU3F3 expression was negatively correlated with POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and negatively regulated POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In conclusion, our study supports the first evidence that linc-POU3F3 plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma, and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The NIH Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) Program | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By generating and making public data that indicates how cells respond to various genetic and environmental stressors, the LINCS project will help us gain a more detailed understanding of cell pathways and aid efforts to develop therapies that might restore perturbed pathways and networks to their normal states. The LINCS website is a source of information for the research community and general public about the LINCS project. This website along with the LINCS Data Portal contains details about the assays, cell types, and perturbagens that are currently part of the library, as well as links to participating sites, data releases from the sites, and software that can be used for analyzing the data.

  4. Linc00472 suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis through elevating PDCD4 expression by sponging miR-196a in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yafei; Yang, Shengnan; Han, Yanping; Sun, Jingjing; Xv, Lijuan; Wu, Lina; Wang, Yongfeng; Ming, Liang

    2018-06-21

    Long intergenic non-coding RNA Linc00472 has been considered as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the function and mechanism of Linc00472 in colorectal cancer has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that Linc00472 was down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues and cells. Elevated Linc00472 expression suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, Linc00472 acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-196a to release programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). Furthermore, miR-196a overexpression or PDCD4 knockdown reversed Linc00472-mediated proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in colorectal cancer cells. Ectopic Linc00472 expression hindered tumor growth in vivo . Our study demonstrated that Linc00472 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis through up-regulating PDCD4 by decoying miR-196a, which may be an effective therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

  5. L1000CDS2: LINCS L1000 characteristic direction signatures search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiaonan; Reid, St Patrick; Clark, Neil R; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Readhead, Ben; Tritsch, Sarah R; Hodos, Rachel; Hafner, Marc; Niepel, Mario; Sorger, Peter K; Dudley, Joel T; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The library of integrated network-based cellular signatures (LINCS) L1000 data set currently comprises of over a million gene expression profiles of chemically perturbed human cell lines. Through unique several intrinsic and extrinsic benchmarking schemes, we demonstrate that processing the L1000 data with the characteristic direction (CD) method significantly improves signal to noise compared with the MODZ method currently used to compute L1000 signatures. The CD processed L1000 signatures are served through a state-of-the-art web-based search engine application called L1000CDS 2 . The L1000CDS 2 search engine provides prioritization of thousands of small-molecule signatures, and their pairwise combinations, predicted to either mimic or reverse an input gene expression signature using two methods. The L1000CDS 2 search engine also predicts drug targets for all the small molecules profiled by the L1000 assay that we processed. Targets are predicted by computing the cosine similarity between the L1000 small-molecule signatures and a large collection of signatures extracted from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) for single-gene perturbations in mammalian cells. We applied L1000CDS 2 to prioritize small molecules that are predicted to reverse expression in 670 disease signatures also extracted from GEO, and prioritized small molecules that can mimic expression of 22 endogenous ligand signatures profiled by the L1000 assay. As a case study, to further demonstrate the utility of L1000CDS 2 , we collected expression signatures from human cells infected with Ebola virus at 30, 60 and 120 min. Querying these signatures with L1000CDS 2 we identified kenpaullone, a GSK3B/CDK2 inhibitor that we show, in subsequent experiments, has a dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ebola infection in vitro without causing cellular toxicity in human cell lines. In summary, the L1000CDS 2 tool can be applied in many biological and biomedical settings, while improving the extraction of

  6. Keeping the LINC: the importance of nucleocytoskeletal coupling in intracellular force transmission and cellular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Maria L; Lammerding, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Providing a stable physical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton is essential for a wide range of cellular functions and it could also participate in mechanosensing by transmitting intra- and extra-cellular mechanical stimuli via the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. Nesprins and SUN proteins, located at the nuclear envelope, form the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton; underlying nuclear lamins contribute to anchoring LINC complex components at the nuclear envelope. Disruption of the LINC complex or loss of lamins can result in disturbed perinuclear actin and intermediate filament networks and causes severe functional defects, including impaired nuclear positioning, cell polarization and cell motility. Recent studies have identified the LINC complex as the major force-transmitting element at the nuclear envelope and suggest that many of the aforementioned defects can be attributed to disturbed force transmission between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Thus mutations in nesprins, SUN proteins or lamins, which have been linked to muscular dystrophies and cardiomyopathies, may weaken or completely eliminate LINC complex function at the nuclear envelope and result in impaired intracellular force transmission, thereby disrupting critical cellular functions.

  7. Go offshore -Combining food and energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Stuiver, Marian; Guanche, Raul

    European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The development includes energy facilities, e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, and also development and implementation of marine aquaculture This change of infrastructure makes ...

  8. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  9. Data Portal for the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program: integrated access to diverse large-scale cellular perturbation response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleti, Amar; Terryn, Raymond; Stathias, Vasileios; Chung, Caty; Cooper, Daniel J; Turner, John P; Vidović, Dušica; Forlin, Michele; Kelley, Tanya T; D’Urso, Alessandro; Allen, Bryce K; Torre, Denis; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Wang, Lily; Jenkins, Sherry L; Mader, Christopher; Niu, Wen; Fazel, Mehdi; Mahi, Naim; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Clark, Nicholas; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Meller, Jarek; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Reichard, John; Medvedovic, Mario; Ma’ayan, Avi; Pillai, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program is a national consortium funded by the NIH to generate a diverse and extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation-response signatures, along with novel data analytics tools to improve our understanding of human diseases at the systems level. In contrast to other large-scale data generation efforts, LINCS Data and Signature Generation Centers (DSGCs) employ a wide range of assay technologies cataloging diverse cellular responses. Integration of, and unified access to LINCS data has therefore been particularly challenging. The Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center (DCIC) has developed data standards specifications, data processing pipelines, and a suite of end-user software tools to integrate and annotate LINCS-generated data, to make LINCS signatures searchable and usable for different types of users. Here, we describe the LINCS Data Portal (LDP) (http://lincsportal.ccs.miami.edu/), a unified web interface to access datasets generated by the LINCS DSGCs, and its underlying database, LINCS Data Registry (LDR). LINCS data served on the LDP contains extensive metadata and curated annotations. We highlight the features of the LDP user interface that is designed to enable search, browsing, exploration, download and analysis of LINCS data and related curated content. PMID:29140462

  10. LincRNA-p21 Impacts Prognosis in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients through Angiogenesis Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joan J; Navarro, Alfons; Viñolas, Nuria; Marrades, Ramon M; Moises, Jorge; Cordeiro, Anna; Saco, Adela; Muñoz, Carmen; Fuster, Dolors; Molins, Laureano; Ramirez, Josep; Monzo, Mariano

    2016-12-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 (lincRNA-p21) is a long noncoding RNA transcriptionally activated by tumor protein p53 (TP53) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A). It is involved in the regulation of TP53-dependent apoptosis and the Warburg effect. We have investigated the role of lincRNA-p21 in NSCLC. LincRNA-p21 expression was assessed in tumor and normal tissue from 128 patients with NSCLC and correlated with time to relapse and cancer-specific survival (CSS). H23, H1299, and HCC-44 cell lines were cultured in hypoxic conditions after silencing of lincRNA-p21. The TaqMan human angiogenesis array was used to explore angiogenesis-related gene expression. Levels of the protein vascular endothelial growth factor A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cell supernatants. Angiogenic capability was measured by human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assay. Microvascular density in tumor samples was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. LincRNA-p21 was down-regulated in tumor tissue, but no association was observed with TP53 mutational status. High lincRNA-p21 levels were associated with poor CSS in all patients (p = 0.032). When patients were classified according to histological subtypes, the impact of lincRNA-p21 was confined to patients with adenocarcinoma in both time to relapse (p = 0.006) and CSS (p < 0.001). To explain the poor outcome of patients with high lincRNA-p21 expression, we studied the role of lincRNA-p21 in angiogenesis in vitro and observed a global downregulation in the expression of angiogenesis-related genes when lincRNA-p21 was inhibited. Moreover, supernatants from lincRNA-p21-inhibited cells were significantly less angiogenic and had lower levels of secreted vascular endothelial growth factor A than controls did. Finally, tumor samples with high lincRNA-p21 levels had higher microvascular density. Our findings suggest that lincRNA-p21 affects outcome in patients with NSCLC adenocarcinoma through

  11. Genome-wide identification and functional prediction of novel and fungi-responsive lincRNAs in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Hu, Weiguo; Hao, Jilei; Lv, Shikai; Wang, Changyou; Tong, Wei; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Yanzhen; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-03-15

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) are important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Increasingly evidences suggest that long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) are developmentally regulated and play important roles in development and stress responses of plants. However, identification of lincRNAs in wheat is still limited comparing with functional gene expression. The transcriptome of the hexaploid wheat line N9134 inoculated with the Chinese Pst race CYR31 and Bgt race E09 at 1, 2, and 3 days post-inoculation was recapitulated to detect the lincRNAs. Here, 283 differential expressed lincRNAs were identified from 58218 putative lincRNAs, which account for 31.2% of transcriptome. Of which, 254 DE-LincRNAs responded to the Bgt stress, and 52 lincRNAs in Pst. Among them, 1328 SnRNP motifs (sm sites) were detected and showed RRU4-11RR sm site element and consensus RRU1-9VU1-7RR SnRNP motifs, where the total number of uridine was more than 3 but less than 11. Additionally, 101 DE-lincRNAs were predicted as targets of miRNA by psRNATarget, while 5 target mimics were identified using target mimicry search in TAPIR. Taken together, our findings indicate that the lincRNA of wheat responded to Bgt and Pst stress and played important roles in splicesome and inter-regulating with miRNA. The sm site of wheat showed a more complex construction than that in mammal and model plant. The mass sequence data generated in this study provide a cue for future functional and molecular research on wheat-fungus interactions.

  12. cis-Acting Complex-Trait-Associated lincRNA Expression Correlates with Modulation of Chromosomal Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yihong Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs are the largest class of transcripts in the human genome. Although many have recently been linked to complex human traits, the underlying mechanisms for most of these transcripts remain undetermined. We investigated the regulatory roles of a high-confidence and reproducible set of 69 trait-relevant lincRNAs (TR-lincRNAs in human lymphoblastoid cells whose biological relevance is supported by their evolutionary conservation during recent human history and genetic interactions with other trait-associated loci. Their enrichment in enhancer-like chromatin signatures, interactions with nearby trait-relevant protein-coding loci, and preferential location at topologically associated domain (TAD boundaries provide evidence that TR-lincRNAs likely regulate proximal trait-relevant gene expression in cis by modulating local chromosomal architecture. This is consistent with the positive and significant correlation found between TR-lincRNA abundance and intra-TAD DNA-DNA contacts. Our results provide insights into the molecular mode of action by which TR-lincRNAs contribute to complex human traits. : Tan et al. identify and characterize 69 human complex trait/disease-associated lincRNAs in LCLs. They show that these loci are often associated with cis-regulation of gene expression and tend to be localized at TAD boundaries, suggesting that these lincRNAs may influence chromosomal architecture. Keywords: intergenic long noncoding RNA, lincRNA, GWAS, expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL, complex trait and disease, enhancer, cis-regulation, topologically associated domains, TAD

  13. Sun-mediated mechanical LINC between nucleus and cytoskeleton regulates βcatenin nuclear access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Gunes; Bas, Guniz; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Birks, Scott; Olcum, Melis; McGrath, Cody; Styner, Maya; Rubin, Janet

    2018-06-06

    βcatenin acts as a primary intracellular signal transducer for mechanical and Wnt signaling pathways to control cell function and fate. Regulation of βcatenin in the cytoplasm has been well studied but βcatenin nuclear trafficking and function remains unclear. In a previous study we showed that, in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), mechanical blockade of adipogenesis relied on inhibition of βcatenin destruction complex element GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) to increase nuclear βcatenin as well as the function of Linker of Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton (LINC) complexes, suggesting that these two mechanisms may be linked. Here we show that shortly after inactivation of GSK3β due to either low intensity vibration (LIV), substrate strain or pharmacologic inhibition, βcatenin associates with the nucleoskeleton, defined as the insoluble nuclear fraction that provides structure to the integrated nuclear envelope, nuclear lamina and chromatin. Co-depleting LINC elements Sun-1 and Sun-2 interfered with both nucleoskeletal association and nuclear entry of βcatenin, resulting in decreased nuclear βcatenin levels. Our findings reveal that the insoluble structural nucleoskeleton actively participates in βcatenin dynamics. As the cytoskeleton transmits applied mechanical force to the nuclear surface to influence the nucleoskeleton and its LINC mediated interaction, our results suggest a pathway by which LINC mediated connectivity may play a role in signaling pathways that depend on nuclear access of βcatenin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination of aquifer thermal energy storage and enhanced bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; Gaans, van Pauline; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Interest in the combination concept of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and enhanced bioremediation has recently risen due to the demand for both renewable energy technology and sustainable groundwater management in urban areas. However, the impact of enhanced bioremediation on ATES is not

  15. Quantifying the Benefits of Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenburg, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    For many locations the offshore wind resource and the wave energy resource are collocated, which suggests a natural synergy if both technologies are combined into one offshore marine renewable energy plant. Initial meteorological assessments of the western coast of the United States suggest only a weak correlation in power levels of wind and wave energy at any given hour associated with the large ocean basin wave dynamics and storm systems of the North Pacific. This finding indicates that combining the two power sources could reduce the variability in electric power output from a combined wind and wave offshore plant. A combined plant is modeled with offshore wind turbines and Pelamis wave energy converters with wind and wave data from meteorological buoys operated by the US National Buoy Data Center off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. This study will present results of quantifying the benefits of combining wind and wave energy for the electrical power system to facilitate increased renewable energy penetration to support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and air and water pollution associated with conventional fossil fuel power plants.

  16. LINC00673 rs11655237 C>T confers neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuorong; Chang, Yitian; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Ruizhong; Zhu, Jinhong; Yang, Tianyou; Xia, Huimin; Zou, Yan; He, Jing

    2018-02-28

    Neuroblastoma, which accounts for approximately 10% of all pediatric cancer-related deaths, has become a therapeutic challenge and global burden attributed to poor outcomes and mortality rates of its high-risk form. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified the LINC00673 rs11655237 C>T polymorphism to be associated with the susceptibility of several malignant tumors. However, the association between this polymorphism and neuroblastoma susceptibility is not clear. We genotyped LINC00673 rs11655237 C>T in 393 neuroblastoma patients in comparison with 812 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We found a significant association between the LINC00673 rs11655237 C>T polymorphism and neuroblastoma risk (TT compared with CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR) =1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.06-3.06, P =0.029; TT/CT compared with CC: adjusted OR =1.31, 95% CI =1.02-1.67, P =0.033; and T compared with C: adjusted OR =1.29, 95% CI =1.06-1.58, P =0.013). Furthermore, stratified analysis indicated that the rs11655237 T allele carriers were associated with increased neuroblastoma risk for patients with tumor originating from the adrenal gland (adjusted OR =1.51, 95% CI =1.06-2.14, P =0.021) and International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage IV disease (adjusted OR =1.60, 95% CI =1.12-2.30, P =0.011). In conclusion, we verified that the LINC00673 rs11655237 C>T polymorphism might be associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility. Prospective studies with a large sample size and different ethnicities are needed to validate our findings. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Hadronic energy reconstruction in the CALICE combined calorimeter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israeli, Yasmine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Future linear electron-positron colliders, ILC and CLIC, aim for precision measurements and discoveries beyond and complementary to the program of the LHC. For this purpose, detectors with the capability for sophisticated reconstruction of final states with energy resolutions substantially beyond the current state of the art are being designed. The CALICE collaboration develops highly granular calorimeters for future colliders, among them silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeters and hadronic calorimeters with scintillators read out by SiPMs. Such a combined system was tested with hadrons at CERN as well as at Fermilab. In this contribution, we report on the energy reconstruction in the combined setup, which requires different intercalibration factors to account for the varying longitudinal sampling of sub-detectors. Software compensation methods are applied to improve the energy resolution and to compensate for the different energy deposit of hadronic and electromagnetic showers.

  18. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  19. LncRNA LINC01116 competes with miR-145 for the regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H-B; Chen, Q; Ding, S-Q

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological role and clinical significance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) LINC01116 in breast cancer. In the public database Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the breast cancer data set GSE54002 was screened for differentially expressed lncRNA LINC01116 in breast cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues. Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of LINC01116 in 64 breast cancer tissues and 30 normal breast tissues. Level of LINC01116 and clinicopathological parameters of breast cancer were statistically analyzed. The effect of LINC01116 in breast cancer cells was investigated after knockdown of LINC01116. Luciferase reporter gene was further used to investigate the mechanism of endogenous RNA (ceRNA). Results of GSE54002 showed that the expression of LINC01116 in breast cancer tissues was significantly increased. In clinical samples, the level of LINC01116 in patients with breast cancer was significantly increased, which was correlated with the overall survival, tumor size and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients, but not correlated with the age, sex and lymph node metastasis (p>0.05). LINC01116 can act as an endogenous sponge and bind directly to miR-145, resulting in the up-regulation of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), a target gene of miR-145. LncRNA LINC01116 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a new prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. Our study establishes a new link between LINC01116, miR-145 and ESR1.

  20. Energy Drink Cocktails: A Dangerous Combination for Athletes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks (EDs) on college campuses and in communities has become a considerable public health concern. Among college students, intercollegiate athletes have been identified as being particularly at-risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resultant health and behavioral consequences. The main purpose of this…

  1. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  2. Combining interviewing and modeling for end-user energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblatt, David L.; Hartmann, Christoph; Duerrenberger, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools

  3. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Visser, A.; Buabeng, K.M.L.; Poutsma, A.; van der Schors, R.C.; Oudejans, C.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively

  4. Incorporating Language Structure in a Communicative Task: An Analysis of the Language Component of a Communicative Task in the LINC Home Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze a task included in the LINC Home Study (LHS) program. LHS is a federally funded distance education program offered to newcomers to Canada who are unable to attend regular LINC classes. A task, in which a language structure (a gerund) is chosen and analyzed, was selected from one instructional module of LHS…

  5. COMBINED SYSTEMS OF ENERGY GENERATION – A CHARACTERISATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gilewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents issues concerning technical solutions of combined systems of energy generation which can be used primarily in low-level power plants, installed in various types of public utility sites. A detailed description is given of selected ways of powering combined energy generation systems, presenting conceptual outlines of their operation and information on their advantages, disadvantages and applications. The following systems are introduced: gas-steam, back-pressure steam turbine, extraction-condensing steam turbine, gas turbine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine, fuel cells and internal combustion piston engine. Moreover, the study addresses economic aspects of energy generation in combined systems, discussing different methodologies of cost calculation, including the one used by the European Union. The article also gives a detailed review of piston engine combined-system aggregates available in the Polish market. Type series of associated systems designed for low-power appliances are shown, produced by Polish and foreign companies such as Viessmann, Centrum Elektroniki Stosowanej CES, H. Cegielski – Poznań, KWE Technika Energetyczna, TEDOM Poland or the EPS System.

  6. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  7. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E. Bruce [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, Tim [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Mardiat, Ed [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nation's best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission providing top quality medical care and instruction without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power

  8. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  9. Combining climate and energy policies: synergies or antagonism? Modeling interactions with energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar; Bibas, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the already present Climate and Energy package, the European Union (EU) plans to include a binding target to reduce energy consumption. We analyze the rationales the EU invokes to justify such an overlapping and develop a minimal common framework to study interactions arising from the combination of instruments reducing emissions, promoting renewable energy (RE) production and reducing energy demand through energy efficiency (EE) investments. We find that although all instruments tend to reduce GHG emissions and although a price on carbon tends also to give the right incentives for RE and EE, the combination of more than one instrument leads to significant antagonisms regarding major objectives of the policy package. The model allows to show in a single framework and to quantify the antagonistic effects of the joint promotion of RE and EE. We also show and quantify the effects of this joint promotion on ETS permit price, on wholesale market price and on energy production levels. (authors)

  10. Combined generation of electric and heating energy in future development of Yugoslav energy sector until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajic, Nenad; Zivanovic, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Development of the district heating system in the FR Yugoslavia, beside the combined generation of electric and heating energy presents a necessity for energy, economic and ecological reasons. Although the structure of energy reserves is rather unfavourable considering that the lignite is being predominantly used, available reserves of energy raw material are able to ensure the long-term development of Yugoslav energy sector, and to offer real possibilities for considerable substitution of foreign good quality fuels, especially in district heating systems. Their further development will depend, among other things: on the implementation of new technological solutions for the exploitation of local energy resources; need of reconstruction, revitalisation and transformation of old condensing thermal power plants into the cogeneration plants; installation of remote controlled transmission of heating energy as well as on development of heating plants and smaller co-generation plants based on local energy resources. (Authors)

  11. Energy Demand Forecasting: Combining Cointegration Analysis and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbing Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is vital for the sustainable development of China. Accurate forecasts of annual energy demand are essential to schedule energy supply and provide valuable suggestions for developing related industries. In the existing literature on energy use prediction, the artificial intelligence-based (AI-based model has received considerable attention. However, few econometric and statistical evidences exist that can prove the reliability of the current AI-based model, an area that still needs to be addressed. In this study, a new energy demand forecasting framework is presented at first. On the basis of historical annual data of electricity usage over the period of 1985–2015, the coefficients of linear and quadratic forms of the AI-based model are optimized by combining an adaptive genetic algorithm and a cointegration analysis shown as an example. Prediction results of the proposed model indicate that the annual growth rate of electricity demand in China will slow down. However, China will continue to demand about 13 trillion kilowatt hours in 2030 because of population growth, economic growth, and urbanization. In addition, the model has greater accuracy and reliability compared with other single optimization methods.

  12. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  13. Long Non-coding RNA LINC00339 Stimulates Glioma Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation by Regulating the miR-539-5p/TWIST1/MMPs Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioma is recognized as a highly angiogenic malignant brain tumor. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM greatly restricts the therapeutic effect of anti-angiogenic tumor therapy for glioma patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of VM formation in glioma remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that LINC00339 was upregulated in glioma tissue as well as in glioma cell lines. The expression of LINC00339 in glioma tissues was positively correlated with glioma VM formation. Knockdown of LINC00339 inhibited glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, meanwhile downregulating the expression of VM-related molecular MMP-2 and MMP-14. Furthermore, knockdown of LINC00339 significantly increased the expression of miR-539-5p. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay revealed that LINC00339 regulated the above effects via binding to miR-539-5p. Besides, overexpression of miR-539-5p resulted in decreased expression of TWIST1, a transcription factor known to play an oncogenic role in glioma and identified as a direct target of miR-539-5p. TWIST1 upregulated the promoter activities of MMP-2 and MMP-14. The in vivo study showed that nude mice carrying tumors with knockdown of LINC00339 and overexpression of miR-539-5p exhibited the smallest tumor volume through inhibiting VM formation. In conclusion, LINC00339 may be used as a novel therapeutic target for VM formation in glioma.

  14. The miR-223 host non-coding transcript linc-223 induces IRF4 expression in acute myeloid leukemia by acting as a competing endogenous RNA

    KAUST Repository

    Mangiavacchi, Arianna

    2016-08-10

    Alterations in genetic programs required for terminal myeloid differentiation and aberrant proliferation characterize acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Here, we identify the host transcript of miR-223, linc-223, as a novel functional long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in AML. We show that from the primary nuclear transcript, the alternative production of miR-223 and linc-223 is finely regulated during monocytic differentiation. Moreover, linc-223 expression inhibits cell cycle progression and promotes monocytic differentiation of AML cells. We also demonstrate that endogenous linc-223 localizes in the cytoplasm and acts as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-125-5p, an oncogenic microRNA in leukemia. In particular, we show that linc-223 directly binds to miR-125-5p and that its knockdown increases the repressing activity of miR-125-5p resulting in the downregulation of its target interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), which it was previously shown to inhibit the oncogenic activity of miR-125-5p in vivo. Furthermore, data from primary AML samples show significant downregulation of linc-223 in different AML subtypes. Therein, these findings indicate that the newly identified lncRNA linc-223 may have an important role in myeloid differentiation and leukemogenesis, at least in part, by cross-talking with IRF4 mRNA.

  15. Asset management. Combining knowledge and information for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wingerden, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years information flows have diversified and information management has become increasingly important because of a change in organisation structure. Nowadays, state-of-the-art technology makes it possible to combine data and knowledge. This should result in cost minimization and revenue maximization. Gastec (Dutch centre for Gas technology) and KEMA (Research and Development, Engineering and Consultant for the Electric Power Industry) carried out a definition study into the opportunities of integrated network management in the energy sector. First calculations show that such a system may lead to cost reductions of up to 25%

  16. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  17. LincRNA-p21 inhibits invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma through miR-9/E-cadherin cascade signaling pathway molecular mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gangqiang Ding, Zhen Peng, Jia Shang, Yi Kang, Huibin Ning, Chongshan Mao Department of Infectious Diseases, People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China Abstract: In the previous study, it was found that long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 (lincRNA-p21 was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and lincRNA-p21 overexpression inhibited tumor invasion through inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition. However, the underlying mechanism was not fully elaborated. In this study, lincRNA-p21 expression was measured in 12 paired HCC and nontumor adjacent normal tissues by ­quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of lincRNA-p21 on HCC cells were studied using lentivirus expressing lincRNA-p21 vector in vitro. The association between lincRNA-p21 level and miR-9 level was tested with the Spearman rank correlation. The effects of miR-9 on HCC cells were studied by using miR-9 inhibitor in vitro. Luciferase assay was used to validate the target of miR-9. The results showed that lincRNA-p21 was downregulated in human HCC tissues and cell lines. LincRNA-p21 overexpression significantly inhibited HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Besides, lincRNA-p21 negatively regulated miR-9 expression level, and miR-9 was upregulated in human HCC tissues and cells. MiR-9 knockdown inhibited HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Finally, the luciferase assay results showed that E-cadherin was a direct target of miR-9. The expression level of E-cadherin was found to be regulated by lincRNA-p21 and miR-9. Altogether, the results suggested that lincRNA-p21 inhibits migration and invasion of HCC cells through regulating miR-9-mediated E-cadherin cascade signaling pathway. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, lincRNA-p21, miR-9, E-cadherin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition

  18. Linc00511 acts as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate VEGFA expression through sponging hsa-miR-29b-3p in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yimin; Li, Zhihua; Zheng, Shangyou; Wang, Zairui; Li, Wenzhu; Bi, Zhuofei; Li, Liting; Jiang, Yanhui; Luo, Yuming; Lin, Qing; Fu, Zhiqiang; Rufu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in pathological processes, yet their potential roles in PDAC are poorly understood. Here, we identify a fundamental role for a novel lincRNA, linc00511, in the progression of PDAC. Linc00511 levels in PDAC tissue specimens and cell lines were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were used as controls. The function of linc00511 in PDAC cell lines was determined by RNA interference approach in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize linc00511 expression in PDAC cells. Insights of the mechanism of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were obtained from bioinformatic analysis, luciferase assays and RIP assays. The association between the linc00511/hsa-miR29b-3p axis and VEGFA was verified by Western blotting assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of VEGFA in PDAC samples. The aberrant up-regulation of linc00511 was detected in PDAC cell lines and patient specimens compared with controls. An increase in linc00511 expression indicates the adverse clinical pathological characteristics and poor prognosis. Functionally, linc00511 depletion in PDAC cells decreased proliferation, migration, invasion and endothelial tube formation. Mechanistically, linc00511 could up-regulate VEGFA via its competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) activity on hsa-miR-29b-3p. In summary, our results define an important axis controlling proliferation, invasion and tumour angiogenesis in PDAC. Linc00511 is a novel lncRNA that plays a significant regulatory role in the pathogenesis and progression of PDAC. Thus, Linc00511 represents a new prognostic biomarker to predict clinical outcome of PDAC patients after surgery and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by

  19. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  20. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  1. Combined heat and power in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paepe, Michel; Mertens, David

    2007-01-01

    The decision whether or not to install cogeneration units mainly depends on individual economic considerations combined with ecological awareness. In countries with rather unfavourable economic conditions for cogeneration, government support or similar systems are considered to stimulate new investments. Although the economic feasibility of a cogeneration unit still strongly depends on site specific parameters, some general trends can be found. This paper clarifies which are the most important aspects in an economic evaluation of a cogeneration plant considering the context of a liberalised energy market. Also, a methodology for calculating the economic feasibility is set up. Firstly, the methodology is used to make a general analysis of the economic feasibility of cogeneration in Flanders, Belgium, taking into account the specific Flemish support systems. Different cogeneration technologies, including microturbines as a relatively new technology, are considered, as well as a broad range of sizes. Using average data makes it possible to compare those different sizes and technologies and to draw some general conclusions for the Flemish situation. After this case study, simulations are performed to quantify the impact of the variation of some crucial parameters on the economic feasibility of cogeneration. Ranking those parameters by their economic impact shows the high importance of the reliability of the installation and the power prices. The impact of changing energy prices is also examined, concluding that (gas fired) cogeneration should not fear the rise of gas prices. Where quantitative conclusions of this sensitivity analysis are based on specific inputs for Flanders, qualitative conclusions are still applicable to all similar countries

  2. 2.45 GHz Class E Power Amplifier for a Transmitter Combining LINC and EER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dirix

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10 W class-E RF power amplifier (PA is designed and fabricated using a Cree GaN HEMT. The proposed PA uses an innovative input circuit to optimize band with. At 2.45 GHz the PA achieves a PAE of 60 % at an outputpower of 40 dBm. The resulting amplifier is simulated and constructed using a transmissionline topology. Two of these amplifiers are fabricated on a single board for outphasing application. Their suitability for outphasing application and supply modulation is investigated. 

  3. The miR-223 host non-coding transcript linc-223 induces IRF4 expression in acute myeloid leukemia by acting as a competing endogenous RNA

    KAUST Repository

    Mangiavacchi, Arianna; Sorci, Melissa; Masciarelli, Silvia; Larivera, Simone; Legnini, Ivano; Iosue, Ilaria; Bozzoni, Irene; Fazi, Francesco; Fatica, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in genetic programs required for terminal myeloid differentiation and aberrant proliferation characterize acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Here, we identify the host transcript of miR-223, linc-223, as a novel functional long non

  4. Combined power generation and desalination using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Andrews, J. [RMIT Univ., Bundoora, Victoria (Australia). School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Australia is facing a severe fresh water shortage in addition to the decline of forests in western Victoria. Grass lands have been degraded by the salting, which is due to the withdrawing of underground water for farms and hence causing the deposition of salt. At the same time, with the development of the industry and increasing demand, more fresh water and power are needed, with limited resources. Finding a sustainable method to satisfy the demand for fresh water and energy is important. Combined power generation with desalination using solar energy (CPD) is a prospective way to solve the problems of fresh water shortage, the energy crisis and farm land degradation in Northern Victoria. This paper recorded the process of calculating the performance of the nozzle applying a homogenous equilibrium model and tested the prototype of CPD using a stationary nozzle system. Data were theoretically analyzed and presented. Based on the experimental figures, the next stage for the practical CPD was proposed and the preliminary design was finished. The principle concept of the theory was that when the hot salt water heated by the solar pond was passed through the rotary nozzles due the difference of pressures between atmosphere and the vacuumed chamber, it would vaporize and then condense into the fresh water, and the mixture rushing out the nozzles at high velocity would exert an antiforce to the nozzles to make them rotate. In addition, when the nozzles rotate, the pressure would increase, so the velocity would increase further and could produce more power. It was concluded that using CPD to prevent the deterioration of saline water to farm land in Australia is a promising technology. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Overexpression of long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC00312 inhibits the invasion and migration of thyroid cancer cells by down-regulating microRNA-197-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Huang, Wen; Yan, Dan-Qing; Luo, Qing; Min, Xiang

    2017-08-31

    The study evaluated the ability of long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC00312 (LINC00312) to influence the proliferation, invasion, and migration of thyroid cancer (TC) cells by regulating miRNA-197-3p. TC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 211 TC patients. K1 (papillary TC), SW579 (squamous TC), and 8505C (anaplastic TC) cell lines were assigned into a blank, negative control (NC), LINC00312 overexpression, miR-197-3p inhibitors, and LINC00312 overexpression + miR-197-3p mimics group. The expression of LINC00312, miR-197-3p , and p120 were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cell proliferation was assessed via CCK8 assay, cell invasion through the scratch test, and cell migration via Transwell assay. In comparison with adjacent normal tissues, the expression of LINC00312 is down-regulated and the expression of miR-197-3p is up-regulated in TC tissues. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that P120 is a target of miR-197-3p The expression of LINC00312 and p120 was higher in the LINC00312 overexpression group than in the blank and NV groups. However, the expression of miR-197-3p was lower in the LINC00312 overexpression group than in the blank and NC groups. The miR-197-3p inhibitors group had a higher expression of miR-197-3p , but a lower expression of p120 than the blank and NC groups. The LINC00312 overexpression and miR-197-3p inhibitor groups had reduced cell proliferation, invasion and migration than the blank and NC groups. These results indicate that a LINC00312 overexpression inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of TC cells and that this can be achieved by down-regulating miR-197-3p . © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-09-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an average length of 1011 bp from A. cerana and 1514 lincRNAs with an average length of 790 bp in A. mellifera. Comparative analysis revealed that 5 % of the total lincRNAs derived from both species are unique in each species. Our comparative digital gene expression analysis revealed a high degree of tissue-specific expression among the seven major tissues of honey bee, different from mRNA expression patterns. A total of 863 (57 %) and 464 (18 %) lincRNAs showed tissue-dependent expression in A. mellifera and A. cerana, respectively, most preferentially in ovary and fat body tissues. Importantly, we identified 11 lincRNAs that are specifically regulated upon viral infection in honey bees, and 10 of them appear to play roles during infection with various viruses. This study provides the first comprehensive set of lincRNAs for honey bees and opens the door to discover lincRNAs associated with biological and hormone signaling pathways as well as various diseases of honey bee.

  7. Combining Energy Conversion and Storage: A Solar Powered Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Remya; Kumar, P. Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A plasmonic TiO_2/CdS/Au fibers photoanode is fabricated for the first time. • The efficiency of the plasmonic cell is greater by 1.35 times than the non-plasmonic one. • A solar powered supercapacitor is developed with plasmonic photoanode and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. • The solar cell current charges the supercapacitor. • A specific capacitance of 150 F g"−"1 is achieved under sunlight without any external bias. - Abstract: A solar powered supercapacitor wherein a plasmonic quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) sources the photocurrent for charging/discharging a conjoined supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is demonstrated. Gold or Au fibers are integrated into a titanium dioxide/cadmium sulfide (TiO_2/CdS) electrode to yield a TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode. The plasmonic effect of Au fibers is reflected in the higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE = 55%) and an improved overall power conversion efficiency (3.45%) produced by the TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode relative to the non-plasmonic TiO_2/CdS photoanode. A Janus type bi-functional electrode composed of MWCNTs on either face separated by glass is prepared and it is coupled with the TiO_2/CdS/Au electrode and another MWCNT electrode to yield the tandem solar powered supercapacitor. By channelling the photocurrent produced by the QDSC part, under 0.1 sun illumination, the capacitance of the symmetric supercapacitor, without the application of any external bias is 150 F g"−"1 which compares well with reported values of electrically powered MWCNT supercapacitors. Our innovative design for a photo-supercapacitor offers a new paradigm for combining low cost photovoltaics with energy storage to yield a technologically useful device that needs nothing else other than solar energy to run.

  8. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with a district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdanavicius, Audrius; Jenkins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CAES and CAES with thermal storage systems were investigated. • The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage was analysed. • CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source. • CAES-TS could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply. - Abstract: The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system was investigated using exergy and exergoeconomic analysis. Two Compressed Air Energy Storage systems were analysed: Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with Thermal Storage (CAES-TS) connected to a district heating network. The maximum output of the CAES was 100 MWe and the output of the CAES-TS was 100 MWe and 105 MWth. The study shows that 308 GW h/year of electricity and 466 GW h/year of fuel are used to generate 375 GW h/year of electricity. During the compression of air 289 GW h/year of heat is generated, which is wasted in the CAES and used for district heating in the CAES-TS system. Energy efficiency of the CAES system was around 48% and the efficiency of CAES-TS was 86%. Exergoeconomic analysis shows that the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES was 13.89 ¢/kW h, and the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES-TS was 11.20 ¢/kW h. The exergy cost of heat was 22.24 ¢/kW h in the CAES-TS system. The study shows that CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source and could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply

  9. Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Device Combined with Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is a type of material that enables mechanical energy and electrical energy to be interchangeable, which can be divided into positive piezoelectric effect and inverse piezoelectric effect. The positive piezoelectric effect is that the electric dipole moment of material generates changes when the piezoelectric material is subjected to pressure, resulting in electrical energy. Conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect is the process of electrical energy converted into mechanical energy.

  10. Large-scale wind energy application. Transporting wind energy over long distances using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy or biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Geuzendam, C.; Gilijamse, W.; Westra, C.A.; Curvers, A.P.W.M.; Beurskens, H.J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The main objective of the study on the title subject is to assess the long-term prospects for large-scale application of wind energy, in combination with hydro energy in Norway and in combination with biomass energy in Scotland. These countries have high wind resource areas, however they are located far away from load centres. The development of new transmission technologies as High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, in combination with highly suitable places for wind energy in Norway and Scotland, forms the driving force behind this study. The following two cases are being considered: (1) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Norway from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with hydro energy. Hydro energy already makes a large contribution to the energy supply of Norway. Wind farms can contribute to the electricity production and save hydro energy generated electricity and make the export of electricity profitable; and (2) a large-scale wind farm (1,000 MW) in Scotland from which electricity is transmitted to The Netherlands by using an HVDC transmission line, in combination with biomass energy. Scotland has a large potential for biomass production such as energy crops and forestry. Poplars and willows cultivated on set-aside land can be gasified and fed into modern combined-cycle plants to generate electricity. In Scotland the usable potential of wind energy may be limited in the short and medium term by the capacity of the grid. New connections can overcome this constraint and allow wind energy to be treated as a European Union resource rather than as a national resource. Thus, the concept of this study is to look at the possibilities of making a 1,000 MW link from The Netherlands to Norway or to Scotland, in order to supply electricity at competitive costs generated with renewable energy sources. 16 figs., 24 tabs., 80 refs

  11. Energy Demand Forecasting: Combining Cointegration Analysis and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Junbing; Tang, Yuee; Chen, Shuxing

    2018-01-01

    Energy is vital for the sustainable development of China. Accurate forecasts of annual energy demand are essential to schedule energy supply and provide valuable suggestions for developing related industries. In the existing literature on energy use prediction, the artificial intelligence-based (AI-based) model has received considerable attention. However, few econometric and statistical evidences exist that can prove the reliability of the current AI-based model, an area that still needs to ...

  12. Regulatory RNA at the root of animals: dynamic expression of developmental lincRNAs in the calcisponge Sycon ciliatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråte, Jon; Adamski, Marcin; Neumann, Ralf S; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Adamska, Maja

    2015-12-22

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles during animal development, and it has been hypothesized that an RNA-based gene regulation was important for the evolution of developmental complexity in animals. However, most studies of lncRNA gene regulation have been performed using model animal species, and very little is known about this type of gene regulation in non-bilaterians. We have therefore analysed RNA-Seq data derived from a comprehensive set of embryogenesis stages in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum and identified hundreds of developmentally expressed intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs) in this species. In situ hybridization of selected lincRNAs revealed dynamic spatial and temporal expression during embryonic development. More than 600 lincRNAs constitute integral parts of differentially expressed gene modules, which also contain known developmental regulatory genes, e.g. transcription factors and signalling molecules. This study provides insights into the non-coding gene repertoire of one of the earliest evolved animal lineages, and suggests that RNA-based gene regulation was probably present in the last common ancestor of animals. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Small Distributed Energy Russia: Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafev Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues and current trends of research in the field of decentralized energy supply for the period up to 2030 were considered. The analysis of the cogeneration market in Russia was done. The questions of gasification and hydrogen technologies as applied to the market of cogeneration plants were elucidated. Promising technologies for autonomous decentralized energy supply and the evaluation of their applicability to small energy were presented.

  14. Combination of aquifer thermal energy storage and enhanced bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; Gaans, van Pauline; Smit, Martijn; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    To meet the demand for sustainable energy, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is widely used in the subsurface in urban areas. However, contamination of groundwater, especially with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), is often being encountered. This is commonly seen as an

  15. COMBINATION OF DENSITY AND ENERGY MODULATION IN MICROBUNCHING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Microbunching instability (MBI) has been one of the most challenging issues in the transport of high-brightness electron beams for modern recirculating or energy recovery linac machines. Recently we have developed and implemented a Vlasov solver [1] to calculate the microbunching gain for an arbitrary beamline lattice, based on the extension of existing theoretical formulation [2-4] for the microbunching amplification from an initial density perturbation to the final density modulation. For more thorough analyses, in addition to the case of (initial) density to (final) density amplification, we extend in this paper the previous formulation to more general cases, including energy to density, density to energy and energy to energy amplifications for a recirculation machine. Such semi-analytical formulae are then incorporated into our Vlasov solver, and qualitative agreement is obtained when the semi-analytical Vlasov results are compared with particle tracking simulation using ELEGANT [5].

  16. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  17. Combining high-scale inflation with low-energy SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2011-12-15

    We propose a general scenario for moduli stabilization where low-energy supersymmetry can be accommodated with a high scale of inflation. The key ingredient is that the stabilization of the modulus field during and after inflation is not associated with a single, common scale, but relies on two different mechanisms. We illustrate this general scenario in a simple example, where during inflation the modulus is stabilized with a large mass by a Kaehler potential coupling to the field which provides the inflationary vacuum energy via its F-term. After inflation, the modulus is stabilized, for instance, by a KKLT superpotential. (orig.)

  18. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration : An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  19. Energy audit: thermal power, combined cycle, and cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbi, Yash Pal

    2012-07-01

    The availability of fossil fuels required for power plants is reducing and their costs increasing rapidly. This gives rise to increase in the cost of generation of electricity. But electricity regulators have to control the price of electricity so that consumers are not stressed with high costs. In addition, environmental considerations are forcing power plants to reduce CO2 emissions. Under these circumstances, power plants are constantly under pressure to improve the efficiency of operating plants, and to reduce fuel consumption. In order to progress in this direction, it is important that power plants regularly audit their energy use in terms of the operating plant heat rate and auxiliary power consumption. The author attempts to refresh the fundamentals of the science and engineering of thermal power plants, establish its link with the real power plant performance data through case studies, and further develop techno-economics of the energy efficiency improvement measures. This book will rekindle interest in energy audits and analysis of the data for designing and implementation of energy conservation measures on a continuous basis.

  20. MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 influence the proliferation and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells via the HIF-1α and p53 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weitao; Dong, Kuiran; Li, Kai; Dong, Rui; Zheng, Shan

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression and functional roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in neuroblastoma tissue. LncRNA microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and para-tumor tissues. In total, in tumor tissues, 3,098 and 1,704 lncRNAs were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. HCN3 and linc01105 exhibited the higher expression (P INSS) stage were -0.48, -0.58 and -0.55, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tissues. The lncRNAs HCN3, linc01105, and MEG3 may be important in biological behaviors of neuroblastoma through mechanisms involving p53 pathway members such as HIF-1α, Noxa, and Bid. The expressions of MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 are all negatively correlated with the INSS stage.

  1. Energy Efficient MANET Routing Using a Combination of Span and BECA/AFECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some novel approaches for energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. Two known energy preserving techniques, Span and BECA/AFECA, are combined with a well-known re-active routing protocol, AODV, to create a new energy efficient routing protocol. Furthermore, the proto......This paper presents some novel approaches for energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. Two known energy preserving techniques, Span and BECA/AFECA, are combined with a well-known re-active routing protocol, AODV, to create a new energy efficient routing protocol. Furthermore...

  2. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sizing Combined Heat and Power Units and Domestic Building Energy Cost Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmin Yu; Yuanzhu Meng; Gangui Yan; Gang Mu; Dezhi Li; Simon Le Blond

    2017-01-01

    Many combined heat and power (CHP) units have been installed in domestic buildings to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. However, inappropriate sizing of a CHP may actually increase energy costs and reduce energy efficiency. Moreover, the high manufacturing cost of batteries makes batteries less affordable. Therefore, this paper will attempt to size the capacity of CHP and optimise daily energy costs for a domestic building with only CHP installed. In this paper, electricity ...

  4. Techniques for combining isotopic images obtained at different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Di Paola, R.; Bazin, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The technique described should be considered as a first step towards the classification of scintigraphic data where the energy is included. As in all such studies the interpretation of the resulting images is not necessarily at first evident, and certain experience needs to be established. This applies in particular to the images obtained with the higher factors. It is possible that the use of this technique may resolve, without requiring a priori information, the problem previously encountered using the other 'subtraction' type techniques [fr

  5. Combining energy, comfort and health data for behavioural change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Barthelmes, Verena M.; Kingma, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and gaining insights on occupant behaviour requires a multidisciplinary approach and involvement of various scientific expertise. By bringing together the necessary scientific expertise a step forward can be made in understanding how the occupants behave, how they can be motivated......, and how to stimulate them to change their behaviour based on targeted feedback and guidance. Finally, users could be provided of confidence of choosing the right thing and making the right decisions concerning energy, comfort and health. This paper presents a research project funded on the framework...

  6. Combined e-beam lithography using different energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátký, Stanislav; Kolařík, Vladimír; Horáček, Miroslav; Meluzín, Petr; Král, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 177, JUN (2017), s. 30-34 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : grayscale e-beam lithography * mix and match process * absorbed energy density * resist sensitivity * micro-optical elements Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  7. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  8. Energy Efficiency for Biodiesel Production by Combining Two Orifices in Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlinda, Mahlinda; Djafar, Fitriana

    2014-01-01

    Research of energy efficiency for biodiesel production process by combining two orifices on  hydrodynamic cavitation reactor had been carried out. The aim of this reseach was to studied effect of the number of orifices toward increasing temperature without using external energy source to produce biodiesel that generated by cavitation effects on orifices. The results of preliminary research showed by combining two orifices arranged in series can produce the highest thermal energy reached 48oC....

  9. The RWE combine - notes on its reorganization and Energy-Department-to-RWE-Energie-AG re-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    As the holding in charge of the combine, RWE AG soon will be managing legally self-sufficient controlling companies at its own responsibility. While the Energy Department (electric power, gas, heat, water) will be re-formed to become RWE Energie AG, the newly established RWE Entsorgung AG will be responsible for waste disposal and waste management. (DG) [de

  10. arXiv Energy Reconstruction of Hadrons in highly granular combined ECAL and HCAL systems

    CERN Document Server

    Israeli, Yasmine

    2018-05-03

    This paper discusses the hadronic energy reconstruction of two combined electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter systems using physics prototypes of the CALICE collaboration: the silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (Si-W ECAL) and the scintillator-SiPM based analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL); and the scintillator-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) and the AHCAL. These systems were operated in hadron beams at CERN and FNAL, permitting the study of the performance in combined ECAL and HCAL systems. Two techniques for the energy reconstruction are used, a standard reconstruction based on calibrated sub-detector energy sums, and one based on a software compensation algorithm making use of the local energy density information provided by the high granularity of the detectors. The software compensation-based algorithm improves the hadronic energy resolution by up to 30% compared to the standard reconstruction. The combined system data show comparable energy resolutions to the one achieved for da...

  11. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  12. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  13. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  14. Gravitational energy from a combination of a tetrad expression and Einstein's pseudotensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Lau Loi

    2008-01-01

    The energy-momentum for a gravitating system can be considered using the tetrad teleparallel gauge current in orthonormal frames, instead of the more commonly used Einstein pseudotensor, which makes use of holonomic frames. The tetrad expression itself gives a better result for gravitational energy than Einstein's in that it gives a positive gravitational energy in the small sphere approximation. Inspired by an idea of Deser, we propose an alternative quasilocal gravitational energy expression in the small sphere limit which also enjoys the positive energy property by combining the tetrad expression and the Einstein pseudotensor, such that the connection coefficient has a form appropriate to a suitable intermediate between orthonormal and holonomic frames

  15. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  16. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  17. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  18. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abat, E; Arik, E; Abdallah, J M; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Banfi, D; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K

    2011-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.

  19. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abat, E; Arik, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR - 80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Abdallah, J M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, ES - 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) Spain (Spain); Addy, T N [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adragna, P [Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, DE 55099 (Germany); Ahmad, A [Insitute of Physics, Academia Sinica, TW - Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Akesson, T P A [Lunds universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysiska institutionen, Box 118, SE - 221 00, Lund (Sweden); Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexa, C [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Bucharest -IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Andreazza, A; Banfi, D [INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT - 20133 Milano (Italy); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Department of Physics, Panepistimiopouli Zografou, GR 15771 Athens (Greece); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, AU - Parkvill, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Baker, O K, E-mail: kjg@particle.kth.se [Yale University, Department of Physics , PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT06520-8121 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.

  20. Energy price spread as a driving force for combined generation investments: A view on Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavvadias, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Combined generation of heat, cooling and power has a large potential to increase its share in distributed generation of energy. Such investments are driven by energy savings which result to operational profits. These profits are very sensitive to the prices of the competitive energy products: electricity and gas. In this work a theoretical indicator is developed between energy prices, the technical characteristics of cogeneration and conventional generation equipment and the investment viability. Through this indicator, the operational profitability of cogeneration equipment is mapped and discussed. Empirical rules are extracted which can give a clear view of the sensitivity of energy prices on energy efficiency investments. The European cogeneration status quo is analyzed in terms of energy prices and market share. The developed indicator is also used, to analyze market related barriers and highlight the importance of energy pricing policy as a tool to minimize the risk exposure of energy efficiency investments. - Highlights: • Energy price spread of competitive fuels affects combined generation profitability. • Its uncertainty is the most important barrier for new investments. • The minimum energy price spread had been generalized and mathematically justified. • Can be used as a tax-based mechanism to hedge the risk of fuel price fluctuations. • For a typical installation, power has to be at least 2 times more expensive than gas.

  1. A Combined Energy Management Algorithm for Wind Turbine/Battery Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi; Eyimaya, Süleyman Emre

    2018-03-01

    From an energy management standpoint, natural phenomena such as solar irradiation and wind speed are uncontrolled variables, so the correlation between the energy generated by renewable energy sources and energy demand cannot always be predicted. For this reason, energy storage systems are used to provide more efficient renewable energy systems. In these systems, energy management systems are used to control the energy storage system and establish a balance between the generated power and the power demand. In addition, especially in wind turbines, rapidly varying wind speeds cause wind power fluctuations, which threaten the power system stability, especially at high power levels. Energy storage systems are also used to mitigate the power fluctuations and sustain the power system's stability. In these systems, another controller which controls the energy storage system power to mitigate power fluctuations is required. These two controllers are different from each other. In this study, a combined energy management algorithm is proposed which can perform both as an energy control system and a power fluctuation mitigation system. The proposed controller is tested with wind energy conversion system modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the proposed controller acts as an energy management system while, at the same time, mitigating power fluctuations.

  2. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  3. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions

  4. A combination of selected mapping and clipping to increase energy efficiency of OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Moo; Rim, You Seung

    2017-01-01

    We propose an energy efficient combination design for OFDM systems based on selected mapping (SLM) and clipping peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction techniques, and show the related energy efficiency (EE) performance analysis. The combination of two different PAPR reduction techniques can provide a significant benefit in increasing EE, because it can take advantages of both techniques. For the combination, we choose the clipping and SLM techniques, since the former technique is quite simple and effective, and the latter technique does not cause any signal distortion. We provide the structure and the systematic operating method, and show the various analyzes to derive the EE gain based on the combined technique. Our analysis show that the combined technique increases the EE by 69% compared to no PAPR reduction, and by 19.34% compared to only using SLM technique. PMID:29023591

  5. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Hamad, Tarek A.; Thomas, Mathew; Bapat, Sushrut; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world are trying to use alternative fuels and renewable energy to reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas contains methane is considered a potential source of clean renewable energy. This paper discusses the design of a combined heat, hydrogen and power system, which generated by methane with use of Fuelcell, for the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology located in Rolla, Missouri, USA. An energy flow and resource availability study was performed to identify sustainable type and source of feedstock needed to run the Fuelcell at its maximum capacity. FuelCell Energy's DFC1500 unit (a molten carbonate Fuelcell) was selected as the Fuelcell for the tri-generation (heat, hydrogen and electric power) system. This tri-generation system provides electric power to the campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, backup power and other applications on the campus. In conclusion, the combined heat, hydrogen and power system reduces fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. -- Highlights: • Combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) using a molten carbonate fuel cell. • Energy saving and alternative fuel of the products are determined. • Energy saving is increased when CHHP technology is implemented. • CHHP system reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption

  6. MiR-146b-5p overexpression attenuates stemness and radioresistance of glioma stem cells by targeting HuR/lincRNA-p21/β-catenin pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Yu, Hongquan; Shen, Yueming; Liu, Yingying; Yang, Zhanshan; Sun, Ting

    2016-01-01

    A stem-like subpopulation existed in GBM cells, called glioma stem cells (GSCs), might contribute to cancer invasion, angiogenesis, immune evasion, and therapeutic resistance, providing a rationale to eliminate GSCs population and their supporting niche for successful GBM treatment. LincRNA-p21, a novel regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage response, is found to be downregulated in several types of tumor. However, little is known about the role of lincRNA-p21 in stemness and radioresistance of GSCs and its regulating mechanisms. In this study, we found that lincRNA-p21 negatively regulated the expression and activity of β-catenin in GSCs. Downregulation of lincRNA-p21 in GSCs was resulted from upregulation of Hu antigen R (HuR) expression caused by miR-146b-5p downregulation. MiR-146b-5p overexpression increased apoptosis and radiosensitivity, decreased cell viability, neurosphere formation capacity and stem cell marker expression, and induced differentiation in GSCs. Moreover, knock-down lincRNA-p21 or HuR and β-catenin overexpression could rescue the phenotypic changes resulted from miR-146b-5p overexpression in GSCs. These findings suggest that targeting the miR-146b-5p/HuR/lincRNA-p21/β-catenin signaling pathway may be valuable therapeutic strategies against glioma. PMID:27166258

  7. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  8. Combined Pyroelectric, Piezoelectric and Shape Memory Effects for Thermal Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, D; Gusarov, B; Cugat, O; Delamare, J; Gimeno, L; Gusarova, E; Viala, B

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an enhanced method for thermal energy harvesting exploiting combined pyroelectric, piezoelectric and shape memory (SME) effects, and presents its experimental validation. A material which is pyroelectric is also piezoelectric. If it is combined with a material with SME, which generates large strain and stress in a rather narrow temperature range, the resulting composite material would generate voltage from temperature variations using two different energy conversion principles at once: (1) pyroelectric effect, (2) piezoelectric effect driven by SME. A Macro Fiber Composite piezoelectric was shown here to exhibit significant pyroelectric effect (∼4 V/°C). When combining it with a SME Ti-Ni-Cu alloy into a laminated structure, this effect increased by 50%. This increase may be an order of magnitude higher for an optimized system. Such composites open an opportunity to harvest thermal energy from natural sources, since this method can increase the rather low efficiency of current pyroelectric materials especially for small temperature variations

  9. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO 2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  10. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesicki, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.kesicki.09@ucl.ac.uk [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Anandarajah, Gabrial [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    In order to reduce energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO{sub 2} emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: > A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. > The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. > Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. > Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. > Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  11. Energy matching and optimization analysis of waste to energy CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with exergy and energy level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Penghui; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, YenWah; Dong, Pengwei

    2015-01-01

    CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system as a poly-generation technology has received an increasing attention in field of small scale power systems for applications ranging from residence to utilities. It will also play an important role in waste to energy application for megacities. However, how to evaluate and manage energy utilization of CCHP scientifically remains unclear. In this paper, energy level and exergy analysis are implemented on energy conversion processes to reveal the variation of energy amount and quality in the operation of CCHP system. Moreover, based on the energy level analysis, the methodology of energy matching and optimization for the CCHP system is proposed. By this method, the operational parameters of CCHP system can be deduced to obtain an efficient performance and proper energy utilization. It will be beneficial to understand and operate the CCHP system, and to provide a guiding principle of the energy conversion and management for the CCHP system. - Highlights: • Energy level is implemented to reveal the energy variation of CCHP system. • A mathematical energy level analysis model of CCHP system is proposed. • By energy level analysis between supply and demand, optimal zone is obtained. • This study will be useful for energy matching and optimization of CCHP system

  12. The combined resonance tunneling and semi-resonance level in low energy D-D reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Jin Dezhe; Chang Lee

    1993-01-01

    When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined resonance tunneling is the resonance in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined resonance tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea. (author)

  13. Hadron Energy Reconstruction for ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Using Non-Parametrical Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A

    2000-01-01

    Hadron energy reconstruction for the ATLAS barrel prototype combined calorimeter in the framework of the non-parametrical method is discussed. The non-parametrical method utilizes only the known e/h ratios and the electron calibration constants and does not require the determination of any parameters by a minimization technique. Thus, this technique lends itself to fast energy reconstruction in a first level trigger. The reconstructed mean values of the hadron energies are within \\pm1% of the true values and the fractional energy resolution is [(58\\pm 3)%{\\sqrt{GeV}}/\\sqrt{E}+(2.5\\pm0.3)%]\\bigoplus(1.7\\pm0.2) GeV/E. The value of the e/h ratio obtained for the electromagnetic compartment of the combined calorimeter is 1.74\\pm0.04. Results of a study of the longitudinal hadronic shower development are also presented.

  14. The e/h method of energy reconstruction for combined calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.; Vinogradov, V.B.

    1999-01-01

    The new simple method of the energy reconstruction for a combined calorimeter, which we called the e/h method, is suggested. It uses only the known e/h ratios and the electron calibration constants and does not require the determination of any parameters by a minimization technique. The method has been tested on the basis of the 1996 test beam data of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter and demonstrated the correctness of the reconstruction of the mean values of energies. The obtained fractional energy resolution is [(58 ± 3)%/√E + (2.5 ± 0.3)%] O+ (1.7 ± 0.2) GeV/E. This algorithm can be used for the fast energy reconstruction in the first level trigger

  15. Energy Efficient Scheduling of Real Time Signal Processing Applications through Combined DVFS and DPM

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues , Erwan; Pelcat , Maxime; Menard , Daniel; Mercat , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a framework to design energy efficient signal processing systems. The energy efficiency is provided by combining Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) and Dynamic Power Management (DPM). The framework is based on Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) modeling of signal processing applications. A transformation to a single rate form is performed to expose the application parallelism. An automated scheduling is then performed, minimizing the constraint of...

  16. Management Methods by Development of Objects of Energy Supply Taking into Account the Combined Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methods of choice of optimal administrative decisions are examined on the development of objects energy supplies of housing and communal services. That would take into account nascent risks related to investment-building activity of energy supplying enterprises. It is shown that the basic condition of housing and utilities on an energy supply is the building of objects with a subsequent production, distribution and realization of electric energy, that allows at their reproduction to provide quality and reliability of energy supply to the consumers. Also the questions of decline of risks and exposure of factors, influencing on the processes of management development of objects of energy supply in the field of housing and utilities, estimation of organizationally-economic reliability and combined risks, estimation of possibility of the use of innovative energy technologies, alternative sources of energy supply, are investigated in the article. It is fixed, that risk indexes must be appraised not only on the investment stage of building object, but also on his operating stage (after commissioning on the basis of account of the great number of risks characterizing the combined risk.

  17. Energy reconstruction of hadrons in highly granular combined ECAL and HCAL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the hadronic energy reconstruction of two combined electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter systems using physics prototypes of the CALICE collaboration: the silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (Si-W ECAL) and the scintillator-SiPM based analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL); and the scintillator-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) and the AHCAL. These systems were operated in hadron beams at CERN and FNAL, permitting the study of the performance in combined ECAL and HCAL systems. Two techniques for the energy reconstruction are used, a standard reconstruction based on calibrated sub-detector energy sums, and one based on a software compensation algorithm making use of the local energy density information provided by the high granularity of the detectors. The software compensation-based algorithm improves the hadronic energy resolution by up to 30% compared to the standard reconstruction. The combined system data show comparable energy resolutions to the one achieved for data with showers starting only in the AHCAL and therefore demonstrate the success of the inter-calibration of the different sub-systems, despite of their different geometries and different readout technologies.

  18. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  19. Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Micro Energy Grid Based on Leader-Follower Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a general model and solution algorithm for the energy management of combined cooling, heating, and power micro energy grid (MEG under the game theory framework. An innovative dynamic leader-follower game strategy is proposed in this paper to balance the interactions between MEG and user. We show that such game between MEG and user has a unique Nash equilibrium (NE, and in order to quantify the user’s expenditure and dissatisfaction, we model them and adopt the fuzzy bi-objective algorithm. For more details in the proposed game model, the MEG leads the game by deciding energy sales prices and optimizing the power, cooling and heating outputs according to the user’s load plan to maximize its own profit. With the prices being released by MEG, user’s adjustment of energy consumption follows and is again fed to MEG. In practice, we initialize simulations with daily loads of a typical community. As the numerical results demonstrate, MEG is proficient in consumption capacity of renewable energy and energy optimization. It also shows that the user achieves his economic optimum with experience of energy usage taken into account.

  20. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  1. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  2. Marine renewables: Exploring the opportunity for combining wind and wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Riefolo, Luigia; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Resource diversity is considered the key to manage the intrinsic variability of renewable energy sources and to lower their system integration costs. The expected development of Marine Renewable Energy Installations is likely to result in further transformation of coastal sea areas, already heavily impacted. In this perspective, the combination of different renewables and their potential impact on the environment must be evaluated in the context of the existing pressures. In this study the opportunity of co-locating offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters and their environmental sustainability is evaluated through a quantitative Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) approach. [it

  3. Combining energy and power based safety metrics in controller design for domestic robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadele, T.S.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    This paper presents a general passivity based interaction controller design approach that utilizes a combined energy and power based safety norms to assert safety of domestic robots. Since these robots are expected to co-habit the same environment with a human user, analysing and ensuring their

  4. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  5. Measurements on a solar greenhouse combining cooling and electrical energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Tuijl; Piet Sonneveld; H. Janssen; J. van Campen; G. Bot; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  6. Performance results of a solar greenhouse combining electrical and thermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Campen, J.B.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  7. Combining offshore wind energy and large-scale mussel farming: background & technical, ecological and economic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Rockmann, C.; Scholl, M.M.; Bartelings, H.; Burg, van den S.W.K.; Jak, R.G.; Jansen, H.M.; Klijnstra, J.; Leopold, M.F.; Poelman, M.; Smith, S.R.; Stavenuiter, J.; Veenstra, F.A.; Veltman, C.; Westra, C.

    2014-01-01

    This Blauwdruk project report presents background and technical, ecological and economic considerations of the potential combination of offshore wind energy production and large-scale mussel farming in offshore areas in the North Sea. The main objective of the Blauwdruk project was to study the

  8. The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition of breeding female birds can influence egg quality and is therefore extremely important for the development of the embryo and the successful hatching of a high quality chick. We investigated the effect of combining different levels of dietary energy and protein, with accompanied amino acid levels, in the diets of ...

  9. Combination of low energy and mechanical cooling technologies for buildings in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses options for incorporating low energy cooling technologies combined with standard mechanical cooling in buildings in central Europe. Case studies, design recommendations and role of computer simulation of building and system in the design process are presented. Applicability of

  10. Reduction in energy consumption of electrochemical pesticide degradation through combination with membrane filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge for large-scale use of electrochemical oxidation (EO) is high energy consumption, and for EO to become accepted as a standard technique, the amount of energy consumed in the process must be reduced. In this study, it was investigated how the energy consumption of EO could...... be lowered by combining the process with membrane filtration, in a setup where EO was applied to the membrane retentate stream. Use of two types of membranes, a nanofiltration (NF) and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, was investigated, and to provide realistic estimates on the energy consumption...... of the treatment, natural groundwater spiked with the pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) was used as matrix in the experiments. To understand the effect of the membranes on the energy consumption, their effect on the EO degradation efficiency was also determined. The results showed that membranes...

  11. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  12. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  13. Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy Systems with Combined Heat and Power Generation, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Considering Battery Lifetime Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy systems (IESs are considered a trending solution for the energy crisis and environmental problems. However, the diversity of energy sources and the complexity of the IES have brought challenges to the economic operation of IESs. Aiming at achieving optimal scheduling of components, an IES operation optimization model including photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation system (CHP and battery energy storage is developed in this paper. The goal of the optimization model is to minimize the operation cost under the system constraints. For the optimization process, an optimization principle is conducted, which achieves maximized utilization of photovoltaic by adjusting the controllable units such as energy storage and gas turbine, as well as taking into account the battery lifetime loss. In addition, an integrated energy system project is taken as a research case to validate the effectiveness of the model via the improved differential evolution algorithm (IDEA. The comparison between IDEA and a traditional differential evolution algorithm shows that IDEA could find the optimal solution faster, owing to the double variation differential strategy. The simulation results in three different battery states which show that the battery lifetime loss is an inevitable factor in the optimization model, and the optimized operation cost in 2016 drastically decreased compared with actual operation data.

  14. Sizing Combined Heat and Power Units and Domestic Building Energy Cost Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many combined heat and power (CHP units have been installed in domestic buildings to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. However, inappropriate sizing of a CHP may actually increase energy costs and reduce energy efficiency. Moreover, the high manufacturing cost of batteries makes batteries less affordable. Therefore, this paper will attempt to size the capacity of CHP and optimise daily energy costs for a domestic building with only CHP installed. In this paper, electricity and heat loads are firstly used as sizing criteria in finding the best capacities of different types of CHP with the help of the maximum rectangle (MR method. Subsequently, the genetic algorithm (GA will be used to optimise the daily energy costs of the different cases. Then, heat and electricity loads are jointly considered for sizing different types of CHP and for optimising the daily energy costs through the GA method. The optimisation results show that the GA sizing method gives a higher average daily energy cost saving, which is 13% reduction compared to a building without installing CHP. However, to achieve this, there will be about 3% energy efficiency reduction and 7% input power to rated power ratio reduction compared to using the MR method and heat demand in sizing CHP.

  15. Basis of combined Pinch Technology and exergy analysis and its application to energy industry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez T, M.A.; Rangel D, H.

    1994-01-01

    The energy industry scheme in Mexico has an enormous potential to do re adaptations with the intention of increase the efficiency in the use of energy. One of the most modern engineering tools to make such re adaptations consist in a suitable combination of analysis of exergy and Pinch technology. In this work, the basis of this new technology are presented, besides the potential areas of application in the Mexican energy industry are also considered. So then, it is shown that a combined analysis of exergy and Pinch technology (ACETP) is useful to analyze, in a conceptual and easy to understand way, systems that involve heat and power. The potential areas of application of ACETP are, cryogenic processes, power generation systems and cogeneration systems. (Author)

  16. Flexibility of a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuytten, Thomas; Claessens, Bert; Paredis, Kristof; Van Bael, Johan; Six, Daan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A generic model for flexibility assessment of thermal systems is proposed. ► The model is applied to a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage. ► A centrally located storage offers more flexibility compared to individual units. ► Increasing the flexibility requires both a more powerful CHP and a larger buffer. - Abstract: The trend towards an increased importance of distributed (renewable) energy resources characterized by intermittent operation redefines the energy landscape. The stochastic nature of the energy systems on the supply side requires increased flexibility at the demand side. We present a model that determines the theoretical maximum of flexibility of a combined heat and power system coupled to a thermal energy storage solution that can be either centralized or decentralized. Conventional central heating, to meet the heat demand at peak moments, is also available. The implications of both storage concepts are evaluated in a reference district. The amount of flexibility created in the district heating system is determined by the approach of the system through delayed or forced operation mode. It is found that the distinction between the implementation of the thermal energy storage as a central unit or as a collection of local units, has a dramatic effect on the amount of available flexibility

  17. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  18. Expression of the Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) Gene and the Cell Cycle in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong-Yue; Lin, Peng; Pang, Yu-Yan; Chen, Gang; He, Yun; Dang, Yi-Wu; Yang, Hong

    2018-05-05

    BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) gene and the cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using database analysis including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of LINC00665 were compared between human tissue samples of HCC and adjacent normal liver, clinicopathological correlations were made using TCGA and the GEO, and qPCR was performed to validate the findings. Other public databases were searched for other genes associated with LINC00665 expression, including The Atlas of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer (TANRIC), the Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RESULTS Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with gender, tumor grade, stage, and tumor cell type. Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47795%; CI: 1.046-2.086). Bioinformatics analysis identified 469 related genes and further analysis supported a hypothesis that LINC00665 regulates pathways in the cell cycle to facilitate the development and progression of HCC through ten identified core genes: CDK1, BUB1B, BUB1, PLK1, CCNB2, CCNB1, CDC20, ESPL1, MAD2L1, and CCNA2. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of the lncRNA, LINC00665 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle pathways in HCC through ten identified hub genes.

  19. A combined cycle utilizing LNG and low-temperature solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Wen-Ji; Zhao, Liang-Ju; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Mo-Geng

    2013-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined cycle, in which low-temperature solar energy and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be effectively utilized together. Comparative analysis based on a same net work output between the proposed combined cycle and separated solar ORC and LNG vapor system has been done. The results show that, for the combined cycle, a decrease of nearly 82.2% on the area of solar collector is obtained and the area of heat exchanger decreases by 31.7%. Moreover, exergy efficiency is higher than both two separated systems. This work has also dealt with the thermodynamic analyses for the proposed cycle. The results show that R143a followed by propane and propene emerges as most suitable fluid. Moreover, with a regenerator added in the cycle, performance improvement is obtained for the reduction on area of solar collector and increase on system efficiency and exergy efficiency. -- Highlights: • A combined cycle utilizing low-temperature solar energy and LNG together is proposed. • Five objection functions are used to decide the best working fluids. • Cycle with a regenerator has good performance

  20. Application of PCM energy storage in combination with night ventilation for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Reza; Chen, John J.J.; Young, Brent R.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Night ventilation were tested in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards. • The Price-based method were experimentally used to perform peak load shifting. • Importance of the application of a smart control were experimentally investigated. • A cost and energy saving up to 93% and 92% per day respectively were achieved. - Abstract: In recent years, as a result of the continuous increase in energy demand, the use of energy storage has become increasingly important. To address this problem, the application of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has received attention because of their high energy storage density and their ease of incorporation in building envelopes. Despite large experimental works conducted on the application phase change materials in buildings, there is very little work done on this application in combination with night ventilation. In this study, the application of night ventilation in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards for cooling purposes was experimentally investigated. Two identical test huts equipped with “smart” control systems were used for testing the concept. One hut was constructed using impregnated gypsum boards, while the other hut was finished with ordinary gypsum board. Initially an air conditioning (AC) unit, without night ventilation, was used in both huts to charge the PCM during low peak period, showing very little savings in electricity. However, when night ventilation was used to charge the PCM instead, a weekly electricity saving of 73% was achieved.

  1. A hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system combined with pit thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Ćosić, B.; Bačelić Medić, Z.; Duić, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system with PTES is developed. • Influence of premium feed-in tariffs on trigeneration systems is assessed. • Influence of total system efficiency on biomass trigeneration system with PTES is assessed. • Influence of energy savings on project economy is assessed. - Abstract: This paper provides a solution for managing excess heat production in trigeneration and thus, increases the power plant yearly efficiency. An optimization model for combining biomass trigeneration energy system and pit thermal energy storage has been developed. Furthermore, double piping district heating and cooling network in the residential area without industry consumers was assumed, thus allowing simultaneous flow of the heating and cooling energy. As a consequence, the model is easy to adopt in different regions. Degree-hour method was used for calculation of hourly heating and cooling energy demand. The system covers all the yearly heating and cooling energy needs, while it is assumed that all the electricity can be transferred to the grid due to its renewable origin. The system was modeled in Matlab© on hourly basis and hybrid optimization model was used to maximize the net present value (NPV), which was the objective function of the optimization. Economic figures become favorable if the economy-of-scale of both power plant and pit thermal energy storage can be utilized. The results show that the pit thermal energy storage was an excellent option for storing energy and shaving peaks in energy demand. Finally, possible switch from feed-in tariffs to feed-in premiums was assessed and possible subsidy savings have been calculated. The savings are potentially large and can be used for supporting other renewable energy projects

  2. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  3. Thermo-dynamic analysis and simulation of a combined air and hydro energy storage (CAHES) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage is essential for the stability of a grid, especially for those with large proportion of intermittent renewable energy sources. The efficiency of a conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology is limited by compression heat loss and changing working conditions. In this manuscript, a combined air and hydro energy storage (CAHES) system is proposed, which realizes a higher exergy efficiency compared with conventional CAES systems by reducing compression heat losses and addressing issues of changing working conditions through thermal compensation from solar radiation. The configuration and two operating modes of the proposed CAHES system are firstly introduced, followed by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation under different operating modes to analyze system performances. Impacts of external and internal factors on the system performances are analyzed. The practical feasibility of the system is also investigated. Results show that the exergy efficiency of the system reaches approximately 50%, whilst the charging electricity ratio reaches over 80%. - Highlights: • A combined air and hydro energy storage system is proposed. • High exergy efficiency is achieved and consumption of fossil fuel is eliminated. • The system performance is affected by compression ratio and solar radiation.

  4. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  5. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  6. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in the

  7. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  8. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  9. Comparative numerical and experimental study of two combined wind and wave energy concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a successful and rapid development of offshore wind industry and increased research activities on wave energy conversion in recent years, there is an interest in investigating the technological and economic feasibility of combining offshore wind turbines (WTs with wave energy converters (WECs. In the EU FP7 MARINA Platform project, three floating combined concepts, namely the spar torus combination (STC, the semi-submersible flap combination (SFC and the oscillating water column (OWC array with a wind turbine, were selected and studied in detail by numerical and experimental methods. This paper summarizes the numerical modeling and analysis of the two concepts: STC and SFC, the model tests at a 1:50 scale under simultaneous wave and wind excitation, as well as the comparison between the numerical and experimental results. Both operational and survival wind and wave conditions were considered. The numerical analysis was based on a time-domain global model using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum theory (for SFC or simplified thrust force model (for STC for aerodynamics. Different techniques for model testing of combined wind and wave concepts were discussed with focus on modeling of wind turbines by disk or redesigned small-scale rotor and modeling of power take-off (PTO system for wave energy conversion by pneumatic damper or hydraulic rotary damper. In order to reduce the uncertainty due to scaling, the numerical analysis was performed at model scale and both the numerical and experimental results were then up-scaled to full scale for comparison. The comparison shows that the current numerical model can well predict the responses (motions, PTO forces, power production of the combined concepts for most of the cases. However, the linear hydrodynamic model is not adequate for the STC concept in extreme wave conditions with the torus fixed to the spar at the mean water level for which the wave slamming on the

  10. Global Scenarios of Air Pollution until 2030: Combining Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Access Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Klimont, Z.; Riahi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. This has led to the implementation of a number of air quality policies worldwide, with total air pollution control costs in 2005 estimated at US$195 billion. More than 80% of the world's population is still found to be exposed to PM2.5 concentrations exceeding WHO air quality guidelines and health impacts resulting from these exposures estimated at around 2-5% of the global disease burden. Key questions to answer are 1) How will pollutant emissions evolve in the future given developments in the energy system and how will energy and environmental policies influence such emission trends. 2) What implications will this have for resulting exposures and related health outcomes. In order to answer these questions, varying levels of stringency of air quality legislation are analyzed in combination with policies on universal access to clean cooking fuels and limiting global temperature change to 2°C in 2100. Bottom-up methodologies using energy emissions modeling are used to derive sector-based pollutant emission trajectories until 2030. Emissions are spatially downscaled and used in combination with a global transport chemistry model to derive ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Health impacts of these exposures are further estimated consistent with WHO data and methodology. The results indicate that currently planned air quality legislation combined with rising energy demand will be insufficient in controlling future emissions growth in developing countries. In order to achieve significant reductions in pollutant emissions of the order of more than 50% from 2005 levels and reduce exposures to levels consistent with WHO standards, it will be necessary to increase the stringency of such legislations and combine them with policies on energy access and climate change. Combined policies also result in reductions in air pollution control costs as compared to those associated

  11. [LincRNA-ROR functions as a ceRNA to regulate Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog expression by sponging miR-145 and its effect on biologic characteristics of colonic cancer stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z Y; Sun, X C

    2018-04-08

    Objective: To investigate the impact of lincRNA-ROR, a ceRNA by binding miR-145 on the expression of the downstream genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, and related biological characteristics of colon cancer stem cells, and to elucidate the clinical significance of this molecular regulatory network. Methods: Fifty-two cases of colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent tissue were collected at Nanyang City Central Hospital and Nanyang Second Hospital, Henan Province, from 2014 to 2016. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of lincRNA-ROR and miR-145 in colorectal cancer tissue and isolated colon cancer cells. The correlation between the expression of lincRNA-ROR, miR-145 and the clinicopathologic features of colon cancer was performed. CD44(-)CD133(-) and CD44(+) CD133(+) cells were isolated from SW1116 by using flow cytometry. The expression of CD44, CD133, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, lincRNA-ROR and miR-145 in cells were detected by qPCR. The relationship between lincRNA-ROR, miR-145, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog was analyzed by bioinformatics, dual luciferase reporter assay, qPCR and Western blot. The effects of silencing lincRNA-ROR on the proliferation and chemosensitivity of colon cancer stem cells were detected by MTT, colony formation. Results: LincRNA-ROR was frequently up-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-145 down-regulation in the colon cancer specimens( P cells were successfully isolated from SW1116 by flow cytometry. The levels of CD44, CD133, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, lincRNA-ROR in CD44(+) CD133(+) cells were significantly increased, while miR-145 was decreased compared with CD44(-)CD133(-)cells( P cells were significantly reduced upon cell adherence, while miR-145 was significantly increased( P cancer stem cells proliferation and increased the sensitivity to chemotherapy. Conclusions: Linc-ROR functions as a key ceRNA to prevent core TFs, e. g., Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, from miR-145-mediated suppression in colon cancer stem cells

  12. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP) systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated) electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat), different techno...

  13. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED UNITS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shtepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of the shortcomings of the existing water purification systems is conducted. In order to ensure environmental safety and energy savings it is proposed to use the combined units, including physical, chemical, physical-and-chemical and biological methods. The attention is driven to the fact that the most effective way to maintain current water purification is an adaptive control system. The shortcomings of the management of water treatment units were revealed and it was proposed to produce their synthesis based on the mathematical apparatus of artificial intelligence systems. Taking into account the requirements of the environmental safety and the need in the energy savings, the energy efficiency criteria of combined system functioning has been developed. At an industrial plant (slaughterhouse wastewater treatment the compliance of the production conditions of the criterion has been undertaken that confirmed the criterion relevance and usefulness as applied to the synthesis of energy-efficient control systems. A synthetic control system combined the water treatment plants. Having based on the preliminary research and analysis of the current work in the subject area the architecture of a control system of combined water treatment units that use intelligent technology was developed. The key functional of the unit – information-analytical subsystem of the formation control actions including: multilayer perceptrons self-organization Kohonen network, fuzzy cognitive map. The basic difference between the developed design and its analogues is the ability to adjust the settings of equipment adaptively on the basis of processing sensor data, information on the price of consumables, volley discharges of pollutants, a sudden change in the flow and other force majeure. Adjustment of the parameters of the control system is carried out with the use of experimental and analytical data stored in the knowledge base of technological

  14. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yue [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Hu, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ou Congjie [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Jincan [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-06-15

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions.

  15. Combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in dewatered sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Harsoyo, S.; Suwirma, S.

    1987-01-01

    Combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in dewatered sludge. A combined treatment of solar energy and gamma irradiation has been done to eliminate the pathogenic microbes contaminating dewatered sludge. Samples were collected during dry season, i.e. from June to September 1985. To reduce the water content from 70% to 20%, solar energy from sun rays was used, i.e. from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. for 4 days. Total bacterial count coliform bacteria Escherichia coli, Fecal Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas sp were found to be 7.4x10 8 per g, 4.1x10 3 per g, 4.5x10 2 per g, 3.1x10 5 per g, 3.6x10 4 per g, and 5.4x10 3 per g of samples respectively. The combined treatment could reduce the irradiation dose needed to eliminate the pathogenic microbes of samples investigated from 6 to 2 kGy. (author). 5 figs, 11 refs

  16. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Hu, Weiqiang; Ou Congjie; Chen Jincan

    2009-01-01

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  17. Exergy costing for energy saving in combined heating and cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian T.; Willatzen, Morten; Andersen, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the basis for cost apportioning of simultaneous heating and cooling. • Two thermoeconomic methods based on energy and exergy costing is demonstrated. • The unit cost of heating and cooling for a heat pump system is found and compared. • Energy costing may obstruct efficient use of energy. • Exergy costing provides the most rational cost apportioning for energy saving. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a price model that motivates energy saving for a combined district heating and cooling system. A novel analysis using two thermoeconomic methods for apportioning the costs to heating and cooling provided simultaneously by an ammonia heat pump is demonstrated. In the first method, referred to as energy costing, a conventional thermoeconomic analysis is used. Here the ammonia heat pump is subject to a thermodynamic analysis with mass and energy balance equations. In the second method referred to as exergy costing, an exergy based economic analysis is used, where exergy balance equations are used in conjunction with mass and energy balance equations. In both costing methods the thermodynamic analysis is followed by an economic analysis which includes investment and operating costs. For both methods the unit costs of heating and cooling are found and compared. The analysis shows that the two methods yield significantly different results. Rather surprisingly, it is demonstrated that the exergy costing method results in about three times higher unit cost for heating than for cooling as opposed to equal unit costs when using the energy method. Further the exergy-based cost for heating changes considerably with the heating temperature while that of cooling is much less affected

  18. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  19. Research on hybrid transmission mode for HVDC with optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hongfu

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy in Northwest China, curtailment phenomena is becoming more and more serve owing to lack of adjustment ability and enough transmission capacity. Based on the existing HVDC projects, exploring the hybrid transmission mode associated with thermal power and renewable power will be necessary and important. This paper has proposed a method on optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination for HVDC lines, based on multi-scheme comparison. Having established the mathematic model for electric power balance in time series mode, ten different schemes have been picked for figuring out the suitable one by test simulation. By the proposed related discriminated principle, including generation device utilization hours, renewable energy electricity proportion and curtailment level, the recommendation scheme has been found. The result has also validated the efficiency of the method.

  20. Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used – e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature...... from solid to liquid form (Fig. 1). Keeping the temperature as low as possible is an efficient way to reduce the heat loss from the storage. Furthermore, the PCM storage might be smaller than the equivalent water storage as more energy can be stored per volume. If the PCM further has the possibility...... systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going...

  1. Combined effects of energy development and disease on greater sage-grouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Taylor

    Full Text Available Species of conservation concern are increasingly threatened by multiple, anthropogenic stressors which are outside their evolutionary experience. Greater sage-grouse are highly susceptible to the impacts of two such stressors: oil and gas (energy development and West Nile virus (WNv. However, the combined effects of these stressors and their potential interactions have not been quantified. We used lek (breeding ground counts across a landscape encompassing extensive local and regional variation in the intensity of energy development to quantify the effects of energy development on lek counts, in years with widespread WNv outbreaks and in years without widespread outbreaks. We then predicted the effects of well density and WNv outbreak years on sage-grouse in northeast Wyoming. Absent an outbreak year, drilling an undeveloped landscape to a high permitting level (3.1 wells/km² resulted in a 61% reduction in the total number of males counted in northeast Wyoming (total count. This was similar in magnitude to the 55% total count reduction that resulted from an outbreak year alone. However, energy-associated reductions in the total count resulted from a decrease in the mean count at active leks, whereas outbreak-associated reductions resulted from a near doubling of the lek inactivity rate (proportion of leks with a last count = 0. Lek inactivity quadrupled when 3.1 wells/km² was combined with an outbreak year, compared to no energy development and no outbreak. Conservation measures should maintain sagebrush landscapes large and intact enough so that leks are not chronically reduced in size due to energy development, and therefore vulnerable to becoming inactive due to additional stressors.

  2. A Thermorisk framework for the analysis of energy systems by combining risk and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, G.; Colombo, E.; Zio, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An exergy based analysis for improving efficiency and safety of energy systems is presented. • The relation between thermodynamic parameters and the safety characteristics is identified. • Possible modifications in the process are indicated to improve the safety of the system. - Abstract: The impact of energy production, transformation and use on the environmental resources encourage to understand the mechanisms of resource degradation and to develop proper analyses to reduce the impact of the energy systems on the environment. At the technical level, most attempts for reducing the environmental impact of energy systems focus on the improvement of process efficiency. One way toward an integrated approach is that of adopting exergy analysis for assessing efficiency and test improving design and operation solutions. The paper presents an exergy based analysis for improving efficiency and safety of energy systems, named Thermorisk analysis. The purpose of the Thermorisk analysis is to supply information to control, and eventually reduce, the risk of the systems (i.e. risk of accidents) by acting on the thermodynamic parameters and safety characteristics in the same frame. The proper combination of exergy and risk analysis allows monitoring the effects of efficiency improvement on the safety of the systems analyzed. A case study is presented, showing the potential of the analysis to identify the relation between the exergy efficiency and the risk of the system analyzed, and the contribution of inefficiencies on the safety of the process. Possible modifications in the process are indicated to improve the safety of the system.

  3. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardan, Nawzad; Klahr, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ► This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ► A case study representing a new

  4. Sampling free energy surfaces as slices by combining umbrella sampling and metadynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-06-15

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high-dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self-guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes. MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad, and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large. To alleviate this problem, we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling (US) technique with MTD to sample orthogonal collective variables (CVs) in a simultaneous way. Within this scheme, we construct the equilibrium distribution of CVs from biased distributions obtained from independent MTD simulations with umbrella potentials. Reweighting is carried out by a procedure that combines US reweighting and Tiwary-Parrinello MTD reweighting within the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). The approach is ideal for a controlled sampling of a CV in a MTD simulation, making it computationally efficient in sampling flat, broad, and unbound free energy surfaces. This technique also allows for a distributed sampling of a high-dimensional free energy surface, further increasing the computational efficiency in sampling. We demonstrate the application of this technique in sampling high-dimensional surface for various chemical reactions using ab initio and QM/MM hybrid molecular dynamics simulations. Further, to carry out MTD bias reweighting for computing forward reaction barriers in ab initio or QM/MM simulations, we propose a computationally affordable approach that does not require recrossing trajectories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Micro combined heat and power operating on renewable energy for residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The building sector consumes more than 43% of the total national energy consumption in France leading to more than 25% of CO 2 emissions associated to this energy consumption. A large number of options exist to limit CO 2 emissions and to improve the performance of buildings. One of these options is developed in this thesis, the use of renewable energies (solar and biomass) in combined production of heat and power. Conventional systems of combined heat and power production are briefly analyzed. The major part of this work has been focused on the development of a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle operating on renewable energies intermittent and non-intermittent (solar and wood). The working fluids have been analyzed to allow reaching high thermodynamic performance. The different promising technologies, for each components of the system are identified, depending on the working fluid. A special test bench has been designed and realized to test and characterize an oil-free vapor scroll expander suitable for our application. The different components have been sized using computerized tools developed for the modeling of the Organic Rankine cycle. A dynamic simulation tool has been developed to simulate the annual performance of the micro-CHP system operating under different climate conditions and thermal loads. Results show that the micro-CHP system could save more than 40% of the primary energy consumption and up to 60% of CO 2 emissions. The Levelized electricity cost has been calculated using economic analysis; results show that the electricity cost (50 c-euros/kWhel) is still high compared to other technologies. (author)

  6. Forecasting Energy CO2 Emissions Using a Quantum Harmony Search Algorithm-Based DMSFE Combination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Gu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available he accurate forecasting of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel energy consumption is a key requirement for making energy policy and environmental strategy. In this paper, a novel quantum harmony search (QHS algorithm-based discounted mean square forecast error (DMSFE combination model is proposed. In the DMSFE combination forecasting model, almost all investigations assign the discounting factor (β arbitrarily since β varies between 0 and 1 and adopt one value for all individual models and forecasting periods. The original method doesn’t consider the influences of the individual model and the forecasting period. This work contributes by changing β from one value to a matrix taking the different model and the forecasting period into consideration and presenting a way of searching for the optimal β values by using the QHS algorithm through optimizing the mean absolute percent error (MAPE objective function. The QHS algorithm-based optimization DMSFE combination forecasting model is established and tested by forecasting CO2 emission of the World top‒5 CO2 emitters. The evaluation indexes such as MAPE, root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE are employed to test the performance of the presented approach. The empirical analyses confirm the validity of the presented method and the forecasting accuracy can be increased in a certain degree.

  7. The effective use of gas turbines and combined cycle technology in heat and electrical energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, B.; Stark, E.

    1999-01-01

    The modernization of the energy industry in many countries is a real challenge for both, the policy makers as well as for the power industry. Especially, the efficient satisfaction of the heat and electrical demand of big cities will remain an interesting task for supply companies and hence for today engineers and economists, because the availability of natural gas from Russia and from other deposits owning countries for the decades to come, cogeneration by using modern gas turbines and combined cycle technologies is a key and corner stone of supply, not the least for its very low emission and small environmental loading. It is the intention of this paper, to demonstrate under resource to: 1) the high potential of natural gas-based cogeneration; 2) the high efficiency of gas turbines and combined cycle plants; 3) their flexibility to cover different demands; 4) the operational experience with gas turbines and combined cycle cogeneration plants; 5) the very good environmental behavior of gas turbines. Actually, the highest utilization of primary energy resources is afforded with natural gas and described technology. Future gradual rise of gas prices can bring about a shift from the present main application in high efficiency load plants to mid range load operation of cogeneration plants. (Author)

  8. Energy and environmental evaluation of combined cooling heating and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The paper addresses issues involving problems of implementing combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system to industrial facility with well-defined demand profiles of cooling, heating and electricity. The application of CCHP system in this particular industrial facility is being evaluated by comparison with the reference system that consists of three conventional methods of energy supply: (a) electricity from external grid, (b) heat from gas-fired boilers and (c) cooling from vapour compression chillers run by electricity from the grid. The CCHP system scenario is based on the combined heat and power (CHP) plant with gas turbine-compressor arrangement and water/lithium bromide absorption chiller of a single-effect type. Those two scenarios are analysed in terms of annual primary energy usage as well as emissions of CO2. The results of the analysis show an extent of primary energy savings of the CCHP system in comparison with the reference system. Furthermore, the environmental impact of the CCHP usage, in the form of greenhouse gases emission reductions, compares quite favourably with the reference conventional option.

  9. Energy Efficiency for Biodiesel Production by Combining Two Orifices in Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlinda Mahlinda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of energy efficiency for biodiesel production process by combining two orifices on  hydrodynamic cavitation reactor had been carried out. The aim of this reseach was to studied effect of the number of orifices toward increasing temperature without using external energy source to produce biodiesel that generated by cavitation effects on orifices. The results of preliminary research showed by combining two orifices arranged in series can produce the highest thermal energy reached 48oC. Result of biodiesel production showed that yield of the highest biodiesel was 96.34% using molar ratio a methanol:oil with comparison 6:1, KOH as catalyst (1% for 50 minutes processing time. For biodiesel quality testing showed all selected parameter met the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 04-7182:2006. Identification of biodiesel compound using GCMS showed the biodiesel compounds consisted of methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, acid linoleid, methyl stearate, palmitic acid and oleic acid with the total contents 98.39%.

  10. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Combined Cycle for Producing Electricity and Desalinated Water Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combined cogeneration system for producing electrical power and pure water is proposed and analyzed from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. The system uses geothermal energy as a heat source and consists of a Kalina cycle, a LiBr/H2O heat transformer and a water purification system. A parametric study is carried out in order to investigate the effects on system performance of the turbine inlet pressure and the evaporator exit temperature. For the proposed system, the first and second law efficiencies are found to be in the ranges of 16%–18.2% and 61.9%–69.1%, respectively. For a geothermal water stream with a mass flow rate of 89 kg/s and a temperature of 124 °C, the maximum production rate for pure water is found to be 0.367 kg/s.

  11. Thermal performance of milk chilling units in remote villages working with the combination of biomass, biogas and solar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, M.; Sekhar, S. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The milk processing and preservation is a fast growing business in developing countries and it is facing problems due to high energy cost and environmental concerns in using conventional energy sources. The energy tapped from renewable energy sources through the technological innovations would be one of the best options to implement the milk preservation strategies at village level. In rural areas, bioenergy is one of the most versatile energy-generating options. Because of the diversity in feed stock and conversion technologies, suitable study is needed to implement renewable energy base technologies to provide a continuous flow of energy services. In this paper, the use of locally available renewable energy sources, in various combinations, to operate a milk chilling plant at village level has been analysed using the Matlab software. The effect of variations in the combination of renewable energy sources on the overall system COP has been studied. The study predicts that the best possible overall system COPs in hilly, rubber cultivation, paddy and seashore regions are 0.26, 0.25, 0.235 and 0.24 respectively. Moreover, suitable combinations identified in the aforementioned regions are Biomass/Gobar gas (0.7:0.3), Biomass/Biogas/Gobar gas (0.7:0.1:0.2), Biogas/Biomass/Gobar gas (0.6:0.15:0.25) and Biomass/Gobar gas/Biogas/Solar (0.5:0.25:0.125:0.125) respectively. - Highlights: • Hybrid energy based milk cooling system for remote regions. • Performance studies on cooling systems with the combination of renewable energy sources is carried out. • Renewable energy sources available in remote villages to meet the short term milk preservation needs. • Identification of suitable combinations of renewable energy sources to give maximum thermodynamic performance. • Identification of appropriate combinations of renewable energy sources to meet the milk cooling needs in remote regions.

  12. Efficient free energy calculations by combining two complementary tempering sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liangxu; Shen, Lin; Chen, Zhe-Ning; Yang, Mingjun

    2017-01-14

    Although energy barriers can be efficiently crossed in the reaction coordinate (RC) guided sampling, this type of method suffers from identification of the correct RCs or requirements of high dimensionality of the defined RCs for a given system. If only the approximate RCs with significant barriers are used in the simulations, hidden energy barriers with small to medium height would exist in other degrees of freedom (DOFs) relevant to the target process and consequently cause the problem of insufficient sampling. To address the sampling in this so-called hidden barrier situation, here we propose an effective approach to combine temperature accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD), an efficient RC-guided sampling method, with the integrated tempering sampling (ITS), a generalized ensemble sampling method. In this combined ITS-TAMD method, the sampling along the major RCs with high energy barriers is guided by TAMD and the sampling of the rest of the DOFs with lower but not negligible barriers is enhanced by ITS. The performance of ITS-TAMD to three systems in the processes with hidden barriers has been examined. In comparison to the standalone TAMD or ITS approach, the present hybrid method shows three main improvements. (1) Sampling efficiency can be improved at least five times even if in the presence of hidden energy barriers. (2) The canonical distribution can be more accurately recovered, from which the thermodynamic properties along other collective variables can be computed correctly. (3) The robustness of the selection of major RCs suggests that the dimensionality of necessary RCs can be reduced. Our work shows more potential applications of the ITS-TAMD method as the efficient and powerful tool for the investigation of a broad range of interesting cases.

  13. Analysis of potential energy, economic and environmental savings in residential buildings: Solar collectors combined with microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, I.; Prieto, M.M.; Fernández, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Centralization of energy systems for a group of buildings improves profitability. ► Thermal solar systems are economically interesting even in low radiation locations. ► Regulations currently in force determine the feasibility of high efficiency energy systems. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of a combined solar-cogeneration installation for providing energy services in a set of four residential buildings. Different configurations as regards the number of collectors and their orientation, the number of buildings grouped together, the type of microturbines used in the cogeneration system and their daily and annual operating period are studied from the legal, economic and environmental perspectives. The installation that fulfils the minimum requirements of the solar system coverage and the cogeneration system efficiency currently in force, and simultaneously leads to the highest energy, economic and environmental savings is the one that integrates both technologies and centralises the installation for the four buildings together. A payback period lower than 8 years is obtained that makes this investment recommendable, but it is also concluded that maintaining the existing subsidies for these technologies and lowering the costs of the equipment, are essential factors to ensure the feasibility of this type of installations

  14. A grey neural network and input-output combined forecasting model. Primary energy consumption forecasts in Spanish economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiuli; Moreno, Blanca; García, Ana Salomé

    2016-01-01

    A combined forecast of Grey forecasting method and neural network back propagation model, which is called Grey Neural Network and Input-Output Combined Forecasting Model (GNF-IO model), is proposed. A real case of energy consumption forecast is used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The GNF-IO model predicts coal, crude oil, natural gas, renewable and nuclear primary energy consumption volumes by Spain's 36 sub-sectors from 2010 to 2015 according to three different GDP growth scenarios (optimistic, baseline and pessimistic). Model test shows that the proposed model has higher simulation and forecasting accuracy on energy consumption than Grey models separately and other combination methods. The forecasts indicate that the primary energies as coal, crude oil and natural gas will represent on average the 83.6% percent of the total of primary energy consumption, raising concerns about security of supply and energy cost and adding risk for some industrial production processes. Thus, Spanish industry must speed up its transition to an energy-efficiency economy, achieving a cost reduction and increase in the level of self-supply. - Highlights: • Forecasting System Using Grey Models combined with Input-Output Models is proposed. • Primary energy consumption in Spain is used to validate the model. • The grey-based combined model has good forecasting performance. • Natural gas will represent the majority of the total of primary energy consumption. • Concerns about security of supply, energy cost and industry competitiveness are raised.

  15. Short-lived long non-coding RNAs as surrogate indicators for chemical exposure and LINC00152 and MALAT1 modulate their neighboring genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Tani

    Full Text Available Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs. Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, the detailed mechanisms of action of most lncRNAs remain unclear. We previously reported that a novel class of lncRNAs with a short half-life (t1/2 < 4 h in HeLa cells, termed short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs, are closely associated with physiological and pathological functions. In this study, we focused on 26 SLiTs and nuclear-enriched abundant lncRNA, MALAT1(t1/2 of 7.6 h in HeLa cells in neural stem cells (NSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and identified four SLiTs (TUG1, GAS5, FAM222-AS1, and SNHG15 that were affected by the following typical chemical stresses (oxidative stress, heavy metal stress and protein synthesis stress. We also found the expression levels of LINC00152 (t1/2 of 2.1 h in NSCs, MALAT1 (t1/2 of 1.8 h in NSCs, and their neighboring genes were elevated proportionally to the chemical doses. Moreover, we confirmed that the overexpression of LINC00152 or MALAT1 upregulated the expressions of their neighboring genes even in the absence of chemical stress. These results reveal that LINC00152 and MALAT1 modulate their neighboring genes, and thus provide a deeper understanding of the functions of lncRNAs.

  16. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat, different technologies are available for the final power conversion step. This includes steam cycles with steam turbines or engines and different working fluids (water, organic fluids, but also combustion based systems like gas turbines or gas engines. Further promising technologies include fuel cells with high electric efficiency. When integrating such CHP systems in buildings, there are different strategies, especially concerning electric power generation. While some concepts are focusing on base load production, others are regulated either by thermal or by electric power demand. The paper will give a systematic overview on the combination of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and combined heat and power production technologies. The mentioned building integration strategies will be discussed, leading to conclusions for further research and development in that field.

  17. Combined simulation of energy and thermal management for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrmann, Bjoern; Jeck, Peter [Institut fuer Kraftfahrzeuge Aachen (Germany); Simon, Carsten [fortiss GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Ungermann, Jochen [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The project eperformance, which is funded by the BMBF, is conducted by project partners from RWTH Aachen, Audi, Bosch Engineering and fortiss GmbH, in order to demonstrate the concept of an electric vehicle on the basis of a holistic development approach. To support this, several simulation platforms come into use, i.e. CFD Simulation for cooling concepts, electromagnetic simulations for electric machine design, physical simulation of cooling circuits as well as vehicle mechanics and controller design. To develop an energy efficient vehicle management, some of these simulation domains have to be combined, to simulate interdependencies between for example usage of high-voltage batteries, their thermal response and the impact for controller strategies. Within the project it was decided to use the Tool TISC (TLK Inter Software Connector) to combine as well a physical model, based on Modelica/Dymola to simulate thermal behaviours of components with a longitudinal vehicle model and a controller model, both based in MATLAB/Simulink. Advantages of such a coupled simulation are the re-usability of existing models in both tools with their tool-specific benefits as well as the possibility to cluster the models on different computers. The article will explain how the combined simulation is set up and parameterized, and will show two use cases: the thermal management of the two independent battery systems of the demonstrator vehicle and the torque distribution on the three electric machines in the vehicle, depending on the drive situation and the thermal state of the machines. (orig)

  18. Enhanced aeroelastic energy harvesting by exploiting combined nonlinearities: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, V C; De M Anicézio, M; De Marqui Jr, C; Erturk, A

    2011-01-01

    Converting aeroelastic vibrations into electricity for low power generation has received growing attention over the past few years. In addition to potential applications for aerospace structures, the goal is to develop alternative and scalable configurations for wind energy harvesting to use in wireless electronic systems. This paper presents modeling and experiments of aeroelastic energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction with a focus on exploiting combined nonlinearities. An airfoil with plunge and pitch degrees of freedom (DOF) is investigated. Piezoelectric coupling is introduced to the plunge DOF while nonlinearities are introduced through the pitch DOF. A state-space model is presented and employed for the simulations of the piezoaeroelastic generator. A two-state approximation to Theodorsen aerodynamics is used in order to determine the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Three case studies are presented. First the interaction between piezoelectric power generation and linear aeroelastic behavior of a typical section is investigated for a set of resistive loads. Model predictions are compared to experimental data obtained from the wind tunnel tests at the flutter boundary. In the second case study, free play nonlinearity is added to the pitch DOF and it is shown that nonlinear limit-cycle oscillations can be obtained not only above but also below the linear flutter speed. The experimental results are successfully predicted by the model simulations. Finally, the combination of cubic hardening stiffness and free play nonlinearities is considered in the pitch DOF. The nonlinear piezoaeroelastic response is investigated for different values of the nonlinear-to-linear stiffness ratio. The free play nonlinearity reduces the cut-in speed while the hardening stiffness helps in obtaining persistent oscillations of acceptable amplitude over a wider range of airflow speeds. Such nonlinearities can be introduced to aeroelastic energy harvesters (exploiting

  19. Combined Production and Conversion of Energy in an Urban Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems (CELSIUS project, the Genoa demonstrator involves the insertion of a turbo expander (TE to substitute the standard throttling process in a natural gas expansion station. In this way, the currently wasted mechanical energy will be recovered, while an internal combustion combined heat and power (CHP unit will be used to meet the heating requirements of the gas before the expansion and to serve a small district heating network (DHN. Both TE and CHP are capable of delivering electric power (EP up to 1 MW. In order to match the EP production vs demand is highly desirable to use the EP extra capacity for local EP final users, such as a nearby public school and a gas refueling station (RS. For limiting the school’s consumption of fossil fuel, it is possible to use the EP surplus generated by the demonstrator to feed a heat pump in parallel to the heating conventional system. With regard to the RS, the compressors are currently driven by electric motors, with a high-energy consumption. The integrated system gives the possibility of exploiting the surplus of electricity production and of recovering heat, which would be otherwise wasted, from the intercooling of compressed gas, thus powering the DHN through a preheating system. The result expected from this strategy is a relevant energy and emissions saving due to an integrated use of the electricity generated by the Genoese demonstrator for feeding the nearby school and RS.

  20. Generic Combined Heat and Power (CHP Model for the Concept Phase of Energy Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Gopisetty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro gas turbines (MGTs are regarded as combined heat and power (CHP units which offer high fuel utilization and low emissions. They are applied in decentralized energy generation. To facilitate the planning process of energy systems, namely in the context of the increasing application of optimization techniques, there is a need for easy-to-parametrize component models with sufficient accuracy which allow a fast computation. In this paper, a model is proposed where the non-linear part load characteristics of the MGT are linearized by means of physical insight of the working principles of turbomachinery. Further, it is shown that the model can be parametrized by the data usually available in spec sheets. With this model a uniform description of MGTs from several manufacturers covering an electrical power range from 30 k W to 333 k W can be obtained. The MGT model was implemented by means of Modelica/Dymola. The resulting MGT system model, comprising further heat exchangers and hydraulic components, was validated using the experimental data of a 65 k W MGT from a trigeneration energy system.

  1. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  2. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  3. New combined plant with integrated solar thermal energy; Neue Kombi-Anlage mit integrierter Solarwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R.; Dobrowolski, R.; Gresch, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    1998-06-01

    In California there are already 350 MW{sub e} worth of solar thermal energy plants in operation on a more or less commercial basis. In these installations thermal oil in parabolic gutters is heated from 300 C to 400 C. The thermal oil passes its thermal energy on to a water vapour circuit via a heat exchanger. The water vapour circuit can also be heated with natural gas, for instance at night when solar energy is not available. However, as yet no existing plant fulfils all three of the following requirements: its construction should entail the lowest possible investment costs and it should be able to run without solar energy and without an expensive storage system; it should have the greatest possible efficiency, especially at times when solar energy is not available (e.g. at night); at the same time, the solar thermal energy should be harvested at the lowest possible temperature so as to make expensive concentrating equipment superfluous. These seemingly contradictory demands are now met by a new concept involving a combined gas and steam plant whose operation is based on the injection of water into the compressed air rather than on a high excess of air. This water is evaporated by solar thermal energy at temperatures below 170 C according to its partial pressure. [Deutsch] Es gibt bereits ueber 350 MWe solarthermische Anlagen in Kalifornien, die mehr oder weniger kommerziell betrieben werden. Bei diesen Anlagen wird Thermaloel von 300 C auf 400 C in Parabolrinnen erhitzt. In einem Waermetauscher gibt das Thermaloel die Waerme an einen Wasserdampfkreislauf ab, der auch mit Erdgas beheizt werden kann, wenn wie z.B. nachts keine Solarwaerme verfuegbar ist. In einem weiteren Schritt wurde vorgeschlagen, das Wasser direkt zu verdampfen. Keine dieser Anlagen genuegt jedoch gleichzeitig den folgenden drei Anforderungen: Die Anlage sollte mit moeglichst niedrigen Investitionskosten gebaut und auch ohne Solarwaerme bzw. ohne aufwendigen Speicher betrieben werden koennen

  4. Economic analysis of a combined production of hydrogen-energy from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langè, Stefano; Pellegrini, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This work relates to an economic analysis and a comparison between different process solutions for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy by means of a zero emission biomass integrated supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and combined cycle power plant. The case study will be located in Malaysia. Energy will be produced in agreement with the Small Renewable Energy Power Plant (SREP) Program, promoted by the Government of Malaysia. Hydrogen is obtained by supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a technology of interest for the processing of biomass with high moisture content. The economic analysis has been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the process solutions and to compare their convenience. The feedstock is 35 Mg h −1 of empty fruit bunches (EFB), a biomass obtained in the Palm Oil Industry. The location of the site is Teluk Intak District in the State of Perak (Malaysia). The study is performed with Aspen Plus ® V7.2. The aim of this work is to investigate the economic convenience of supercritical water gasification technology applied to a potential industrial case study in order to state the possibilities and the trade-off for the production of hydrogen and the co-production of hydrogen and energy from biomass, using an innovative technology (SCWG) instead of a typical unit for syngas and energy production. The processes have been developed to reach zero emissions and zero wastes. CO 2 and solid residuals are recycled inside palm oil lifecycle. -- Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of empty fruit bunches has been used for hydrogen production. • Malaysia Small Renewable Energy Power Plant Program is aiming to reduce by 40% its greenhouse gases emissions by 2020. • An economic analysis has been performed to assess the sustainability of hydrogen and energy production from palm oil biomass. • Carbon dioxide and solid residuals are recycled back into biomass

  5. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tolis, Athanasios I.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  6. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  7. Analysis of meiosis in SUN1 deficient mice reveals a distinct role of SUN2 in mammalian meiotic LINC complex formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Link

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, composed of SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84 and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology domain proteins. They are crucial for nuclear positioning and nuclear shape determination, and also mediate nuclear envelope (NE attachment of meiotic telomeres, essential for driving homolog synapsis and recombination. In mice, SUN1 and SUN2 are the only SUN domain proteins expressed during meiosis, sharing their localization with meiosis-specific KASH5. Recent studies have shown that loss of SUN1 severely interferes with meiotic processes. Absence of SUN1 provokes defective telomere attachment and causes infertility. Here, we report that meiotic telomere attachment is not entirely lost in mice deficient for SUN1, but numerous telomeres are still attached to the NE through SUN2/KASH5-LINC complexes. In Sun1(-/- meiocytes attached telomeres retained the capacity to form bouquet-like clusters. Furthermore, we could detect significant numbers of late meiotic recombination events in Sun1(-/- mice. Together, this indicates that even in the absence of SUN1 telomere attachment and their movement within the nuclear envelope per se can be functional.

  8. Adaptive Curtailment Plan with Energy Storage for AC/DC Combined Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For developing a large-scale combined system with a number of distributed resources, an appropriate compensation strategy based on the system components and changeable condition must be configured to handle the characteristics of the internal systems. Since renewable sources generate various fluctuations, the compensation plans for the storage device connected along with the sources should be supported by a precise expectation method. A cooperative strategy involving the sharing of the DC section with environmentally sensitive generators, like photovoltaic system (PVs or waves, demands appropriate ESS compensation solutions, owing to its complexity. An active power-control algorithm with voltage-expectation based on the DC power flow is introduced in this paper and is applied in the designed case studies performed on the electromagnetic transient simulation. DC based multi-generation system is composed by applying tidal generator and super capacitor. To utilize wind energy, an offshore wind–wave generation system was utilized in the verification process.

  9. Energy-exergy analysis of compressor pressure ratio effects on thermodynamic performance of ammonia water combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Soheil; Chen, Wen; Zargar, T.; Lin, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy exergy analysis is conducted to find the effects of RP. • EES software is utilized to perform the detailed energy-exergy analyses. • Effects investigated through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy, yields, etc. • Detailed results are reported showing the performance of gas and combined cycle. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of compressor pressure ratio (RP) on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia-water combined cycle through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy temperature, yields, and flow velocity. The energy-exergy analysis is conducted on the ammonia water combined cycle and the Rankine cycle, respectively. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is utilized to perform the detailed analyses. Values and ratios regarding heat drop and exergy loss are presented in separate tables for different equipments. The results obtained by the energy-exergy analysis indicate that by increasing the pressure ratio compressor, exergy destruction of high-pressure compressors, intercooler, gas turbine and the special produced work of gas turbine cycle constantly increase and the exergy destruction of recuperator, in contrast, decreases continuously. In addition, the least amount of input fuel into the combined cycle is observed when the pressure ratio is no less than 7.5. Subsequently, the efficiency of the cycle in gas turbine and combined cycle is reduced because the fuel input into the combined cycle is increased.

  10. Online optimal control of variable refrigerant flow and variable air volume combined air conditioning system for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Jin, Xinqiao; Du, Zhimin; Fang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and variable air volume (VAV) combined air conditioning system can solve the problem of the VRF system in outdoor air ventilation while taking advantage of its high part load energy efficiency. Energy performance of the combined air conditioning system can also be optimized by joint control of both the VRF and the VAV parts. A model-based online optimal control strategy for the combined air conditioning system is presented. Simplified adaptive models of major components of the combined air conditioning system are firstly developed for predicting system performances. And a cost function in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort is constructed. Genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal control sets. The optimal control strategy is tested and evaluated through two case studies based on the simulation platform. Results show that the optimal strategy can effectively reduce energy consumption of the combined air conditioning system while maintaining acceptable thermal comfort. - Highlights: • A VRF and VAV combined system is proposed. • A model-based online optimal control strategy is proposed for the combined system. • The strategy can reduce energy consumption without sacrificing thermal comfort. • Novel simplified adaptive models are firstly developed for the VRF system

  11. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  12. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1998-01-01

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  13. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  14. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services...

  16. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission ) a...

  17. The multiplicative effect of combining alcohol with energy drinks on adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Canale, Natale; Potente, Roberta; Scalese, Marco; Griffiths, Mark D; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2018-07-01

    There has been increased concern about the negative effects of adolescents consuming a combination of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). To date, few studies have focused on AmED use and gambling. The present study analyzed the multiplicative effect of AmED consumption, compared to alcohol alone, on the likelihood of at-risk or problem gambling during adolescence. Data from the ESPAD®Italia 2015 study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students (ages 15 to 19years) were used to examine the association between self-reported AmED use (≥6 times,≥10 times, and ≥20 times during the last month) and self-reported gambling severity. Multivariate models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate the association between alcohol use, AmED use, and gambling among a representative sample of adolescents who reported gambling in the last year and completed a gambling severity scale (n=4495). Among the 19% students classed as at-risk and problem gamblers, 43.9% were classed as AmED consumers, while 23.6% were classed as alcohol consumers (i.e. did not mix alcohol with energy drinks). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, AmED consumers were three times more likely to be at-risk and problem gamblers (OR=3.05) compared to non-consuming adolescents, while the effect became less pronounced with considering those who consumed alcohol without the addition of energy drinks (OR=1.37). The present study clearly established that consuming AmED might pose a significantly greater risk of experiencing gambling-related problems among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined cosmological tests of a bivalent tachyonic dark energy scalar field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.

    2014-01-01

    A recently investigated tachyonic scalar field dark energy dominated universe exhibits a bivalent future: depending on initial parameters can run either into a de Sitter exponential expansion or into a traversable future soft singularity followed by a contraction phase. We also include in the model (i) a tiny amount of radiation, (ii) baryonic matter (Ω b h 2  = 0.022161, where the Hubble constant is fixed as h = 0.706) and (iii) cold dark matter (CDM). Out of a variety of six types of evolutions arising in a more subtle classification, we identify two in which in the past the scalar field effectively degenerates into a dust (its pressure drops to an insignificantly low negative value). These are the evolutions of type IIb converging to de Sitter and type III hitting the future soft singularity. We confront these background evolutions with various cosmological tests, including the supernova type Ia Union 2.1 data, baryon acoustic oscillation distance ratios, Hubble parameter-redshift relation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) acoustic scale. We determine a subset of the evolutions of both types which at 1σ confidence level are consistent with all of these cosmological tests. At perturbative level we derive the CMB temperature power spectrum to find the best agreement with the Planck data for Ω CDM  = 0.22. The fit is as good as for the ΛCDM model at high multipoles, but the power remains slightly overestimated at low multipoles, for both types of evolutions. The rest of the CDM is effectively generated by the tachyonic field, which in this sense acts as a combined dark energy and dark matter model

  19. Ion temperature profiles from the plasma center to the edge of ASDEX combining high and low energy CX-diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.; Heinrich, O.; Schneider, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Neuhauser, J.; Stroth, U.; Reiter, D.

    1992-01-01

    The charge exchange (CX) neutral energy distribution from ASDEX measured with the conventional neutral particle analyzers (NPA) at energies >500 eV are combined with the low energy CX spectra from the low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). In the region of overlap their shapes fit each other very well. With the 3D EIRENE code the neutral gas was simulated and ion temperature (T i ) profiles from the center to the edge are obtained. The T i values at the separatrix and the edge based on the LENA data are considerably lower than those suggested earlier from the NPA data. This is attributed to the different energy ranges - high energies for the NPA, low energies for LENA - that are used for the T i evaluation. (orig.)

  20. Generating Two-Dimensional Repertoire of siRNA Linc-ROR and siRNA mRNA ARF6 from the lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway that involved in the progression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Nurdiansyah, Rizki

    2018-01-01

    The research for finding the cure for breast cancer is currently entering the interesting phase of the transcriptomics based method. With the application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), molecular information on breast cancer could be gathered. Thus, both in silico and wet lab research has determined that the role of lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway could not be ignored as one of the cardinal starting points for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). As the most hazardous type of breast cancer, TNBC should be treated with the most advanced approach that available in the scientific community. Bioinformatics approach has found the possible siRNA-based drug candidates for TNBC. It was found that siRNA that interfere with lincRNA-ROR and mRNA ARF6 could be a feasible opportunity as the drug candidate for TNBC. However, this claim should be validated with more thorough thermodynamics and kinetics computational approach as the comprehensive way to comprehend their molecular repertoire. In this respect, the claim was validated using various tools such as the RNAfold server to determine the 2D structure, Barriers server to comprehend the RNA folding kinetics, RNAeval server to validate the siRNA-target interaction. It was found that the thermodynamics and kinetics repertoire of the siRNA are indeed rational and feasible. In this end, our computation approach has proven that our designed siRNA could interact with lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway.

  1. Effective energy management by combining gas turbine cycles and forward osmosis desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Shin, Serin; Kim, Eung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative gas turbine system and FO integrated system was proposed. • The feasibility of the integrated system was analyzed thermodynamically. • GOR of the FO–gas turbine system is 17% higher than those of MED and MSF. • Waste heat utilization of the suggested system is 85.7%. • Water production capacity of the suggested system is 3.5 times higher than the MSF–gas turbine system. - Abstract: In the recent years, attempts to improve the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycles have been made. In order to enhance the energy management of the gas turbine cycle, a new integration concept has been proposed; integration of gas turbine cycle and forward osmosis desalination process. The combination of the gas turbine cycle and the forward osmosis (FO) desalination process basically implies the coupling of the waste heat from the gas turbine cycle to the draw solute recovery system in the FO process which is the most energy consuming part of the whole FO process. By doing this, a strong system that is capable of producing water and electricity with very little waste heat can be achieved. The feasibility of this newly proposed system was analyzed using UNISIM program and the OLI property package. For the analysis, the thermolytic draw solutes which has been suggested by other research groups have been selected and studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on the integration system in order to understand and identify the key parameters of the integrated system. And the integrated system was further evaluated by comparing the gain output ratio (GOR) values with the conventional desalination technologies such as multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect distillation (MED). The suggested integrated system was calculated to have a GOR of 14.8, while the MSF and MED when integrated to the gas turbine cycle showed GOR value of 12. It should also be noted that the energy utilization of the suggested integrated system is significantly higher by 27

  2. Combined diversity and improved energy detection in cooperative spectrum sensing with faded reporting channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nallagonda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS where each cognitive radio (CR employs an improved energy detector (IED with multiple antennas and uses selection combining (SC for detecting the primary user (PU in noisy and faded sensing (S channels. We derive an expression for the probability of false alarm and expressions for probability of missed detection in non-faded (AWGN and Rayleigh faded sensing environments in terms of cumulative distribution function (CDF. Each CR transmits its decision about PU via noisy and faded reporting (R channel to fusion center (FC. In this paper we assume that S-channels are noisy and Rayleigh faded while several cases of fading are considered for R-channels such as: (i Hoyt (or Nakagami-q, (ii Rayleigh, (iii Rician (or Nakagami-n, and (iv Weibull. A Binary Symmetric channel (BSC with a fixed error probability (r in the R-channel is also considered. The impact of fading in R-channel, S-channel and several network parameters such as IED parameter, normalized detection threshold, number of CRs, and number of antennas on missed detection and total error probability is assessed. The effects of Hoyt, Rician, and Weibull fading parameters on overall performance of IED-CSS are also highlighted.

  3. A Design of Mechanical Frequency Converter Linear and Non-linear Spring Combination for Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K; Badel, A; Formosa, F

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the improvement of energy harvesting from wideband vibration with random change by using a combination of linear and nonlinear spring system is investigated. The system consists of curved beam spring for non-linear buckling, which supports the linear mass-spring resonator. Applying shock acceleration generates a snap through action to the buckling spring. From the FEM analysis, we showed that the snap through acceleration from the buckling action has no relationship with the applied shock amplitude and duration. We use this uniform acceleration as an impulse shock source for the linear resonator. It is easy to obtain the maximum shock response from the uniform snap through acceleration by using a shock response spectrum (SRS) analysis method. At first we investigated the relationship between the snap-through behaviour and an initial curved deflection. Then a time response result for non-linear springs with snap through and minimum force that makes a buckling behaviour were obtained by FEM analysis. By obtaining the optimum SRS frequency for linear resonator, we decided its resonant frequency with the MATLAB simulator

  4. The basis for a Platform Bio-Energy. Combining forces for the Dutch bio-energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.

    1998-02-01

    It appears that there is a need for a community of interests in the field of bio-energy to solve numerous problems and to answer many questions with respect to the development of businesses that are active in the field of bio-energy. The title study was carried out in the third and fourth quarter of 1997 by means of surveys and depth interviews among representatives of bio-energy businesses, interest groups and research institutes. The majority of the respondents supports the foundation of the Platform Bio-Energy and suggests many different activities

  5. Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heat and Power in Different Demand Type Buildings Considering Seasonal Demand Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal energy management strategy for a cooperative multi-microgrid system with combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP is proposed and has been verified for a test case of building microgrids (BMGs. Three different demand types of buildings are considered and the BMGs are assumed to be equipped with their own combined heat and power (CHP generators. In addition, the BMGs are also connected to an external energy network (EEN, which contains a large CHP, an adsorption chiller (ADC, a thermal storage tank, and an electric heat pump (EHP. By trading the excess electricity and heat energy with the utility grid and EEN, each BMG can fulfill its energy demands. Seasonal energy demand variations have been evaluated by selecting a representative day for the two extreme seasons (summer and winter of the year, among the real profiles of year-round data on electricity, heating, and cooling usage of all the three selected buildings. Especially, the thermal energy management aspect is emphasized where, bi-lateral heat trading between the energy supplier and the consumers, so-called energy prosumer concept, has been realized. An optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming has been developed for minimizing the daily operation cost of the EEN while fulfilling the energy demands of the BMGs. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Combining a building simulation with energy systems analysis to assess the benefits of natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    a thermal air flow simulation program - Into the energy systems analysis model. Descriptions of the energy systems in two geographical locations, i.e. Mexico and Denmark, are set up as inputs. Then, the assessment is done by calculating the energy impacts as well as environmental benefits in the energy...

  7. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  8. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation...

  9. Application of an energy management system in combination with FMCS to high energy consuming IT industries of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin-Ku; Teng, Min-Cheng; Fan, Kuo-Shun; Yang, Kuan-Hsiung; Horng, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A new FMCS architecture with an energy management system was developed. → The new coupling system was demonstrated feasible during in situ experiments. → A survey found that HVAC is the most energy intensive system in IT industries. → A 9.6% chiller efficiency increase and total 23.2% annual energy saving were reached. - Abstract: A commissioning unit with an energy management system (EMS) was developed to be used together with facility monitoring and control systems (FMCS). This paper describes the testing of the new coupling system, in which a detailed management program is embedded for real time control decision making. First, a survey was conducted to evaluate the current power consumption of the facility systems, and found that HVAC is the most energy intensive system. Then a case study was performed, while the plant was in operation, to demonstrate the feasibility of the new coupling system, and a 9.6% chiller efficiency increase and total 23.2% annual energy saving for the chillers were reached, by optimizing the part load ratio condition of chillers and pumps. The results from in situ experiments show that applying this energy management system to the IT industry is feasible. A better custom-made FMCS with EMS, and full scale testing to greatly increase the overall energy efficiency, is recommended.

  10. Gas fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost-a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Leong, K.C.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.; Tso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established

  11. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  12. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  13. Optimizing decentralized renewable energy production by combining potentials and integrated environmental impact analysis. A case study in the Hannover region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Siewert, Almut [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, the integration of decentralized renewable energy production in regional planning processes plays a crucial role. In particular, regions face a major challenge in order to set up renewable decentralized energy systems and incorporate them into the electricity grid. This paper presents a methodological concept and preliminary tests of applications in order to create an optimization model for an improved renewable energy development and planning practice: firstly, the energy potentials of micro renewable resources are estimated, and secondly the outcomes are combined with an estimation of resulting environmental impacts. Including these data into the spatial analysis, different scenarios can be developed in order to support decision making in landscape planning on the basis of environmental and landscape criteria as well as energy issues, including technical aspects and costs. The case study area is the Hannover region. First results show good energy potentials, which will be in a next step evaluated and combined with environmental impacts in order to improve energy efficiency by integrated renewable, decentralized power plants and energy mix. (orig.)

  14. The macroeconomic effects of ambitious energy efficiency policy in Germany – Combining bottom-up energy modelling with a non-equilibrium macroeconomic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, Johannes; Kockat, Judit; Schade, Wolfgang; Braungardt, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    Energy efficiency is one of the fastest and most cost-effective contributions to a sustainable, secure and affordable energy system. Furthermore, the so-called “non-energy benefits”, “co-benefits” or “multiple benefits” of energy efficiency are receiving increased interest from policy makers and the scientific community. Among the various non-energy benefits of energy efficiency initiatives, the macroeconomic benefits play an important role. Our study presents a detailed analysis of the long-term macroeconomic effects of German energy efficiency policy including the industry and service sectors as well as residential energy demand. We quantify the macroeconomic effects of an ambitious energy efficiency scenario by combining bottom-up models with an extended dynamic input-output model. We study sectoral shifts within the economy regarding value added and employment compared to the baseline scenario. We provide an in-depth analysis of the effects of energy efficiency policy on consumers, individual industry sectors, and the economy as a whole. We find significant positive macroeconomic effects resulting from energy efficiency initiatives, with growth effects for both GDP and employment ranging between 0.88% and 3.38%. Differences in sectoral gains lead to a shift in the economy. Our methodological approach provides a comprehensive framework for analyzing the macroeconomic benefits of energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Integration of detailed sectoral models for energy demand with macroeconomic model. • Detailed assessment of effects of ambitious energy efficiency targets for Germany. • Positive macroeconomic effects can support policymaking and reduce uncertainty.

  15. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, S.; Khoriauli, G.; C. Driouchi; J. D. Peso; L. Santi; Soloviev, I.; Arik, E.; Bernabeu, J; M. V. Castillo; Atkinson, T; Tegenfeldt, F.; Weidberg, A.R.; Røhne, O.; F. Anghinolfi; S. Chouridou

    2016-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Gea...

  16. Algorithm of hadron energy reconstruction for combined calorimeters in the DELPHI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotra, Yu.N.; Tsyganov, E.N.; Zimin, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithm of hadron energy reconstruction from responses of electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters is described. The investigations have been carried out using the full-scale prototype of the hadron calorimeter cylindrical part modules. The supposed algorithm allows one to improve energy resolution by 5-7% with conserving the linearly of reconstructed hadron energy. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Energy expenditure estimation in beta-blocker-medicated cardiac patients by combining heart rate and body movement data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, Jos J.; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Stut, Wim; Peek, Niels; Kemps, Hareld Mc; Bonomi, Alberto G.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure provides an opportunity to monitor physical activity during cardiac rehabilitation. However, the available assessment methods, based on the combination of heart rate (HR) and body movement data, are not applicable for patients using beta-blocker medication.

  18. Combination of a gas heat pump with geothermal energy and solar heat utilisation; Kombination einer Gaswaermepumpe mit Geothermie und Solarwaermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Andreas [Robur GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A home for handicapped persons in Berlin was modernised. This included the installation of a gas-fuelled absorption heat pump combined with geothermal heat supply and solar heating. CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption were reduced considerably by this concept. (orig.)

  19. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  20. 76 FR 79228 - Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-018 and 52-019; NRC-2008-0170] Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Army Corps...

  1. 78 FR 77508 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Combined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-018 and 52-019; NRC-2008-0170] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Combined Licenses Application Review AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final environmental impact statement; availability...

  2. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-029-COL, 52-030-COL] In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in this case. Mr. Dehmel has not previously performed any...

  3. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  4. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Coal-fired combined plants and power stations with high-temperature reactors for the energy supply of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.; Simon, M.

    1989-01-01

    Dwindling resources as well as threatening climatic changes caused by CO 2 seem to make it necessary to increase the energy conversion processes which promise a relief with regard to both problematic situations. Promising are the development of the combined gas and steam turbine process for the electricity generation from coal, as well as that of the high-temperature reactor, which enables besides the generation of electric energy the provision of heat at a high temperature range, too. The combination of these two components in a partly modified form allows, moreover, the provision of a number of gaseous energy carriers. The authors present these two components in detail, describe their development stage, as well as their existing development potential. (orig.) [de

  6. Multi-objective optimization and exergoeconomic analysis of a combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Erren; Wang, Huanran; Wang, Ligang; Xi, Guang; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tri-generation based compressed air energy storage system. • Trade-off between efficiency and cost to highlight the best compromise solution. • Components with largest irreversibility and potential improvements highlighted. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage technologies can improve the supply capacity and stability of the electricity grid, particularly when fluctuating renewable energies are massively connected. While incorporating the combined cooling, heating and power systems into compressed air energy storage could achieve stable operation as well as efficient energy utilization. In this paper, a novel combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system is proposed. The system combines a gas engine, supplemental heat exchangers and an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. The design trade-off between the thermodynamic and economic objectives, i.e., the overall exergy efficiency and the total specific cost of product, is investigated by an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm for the proposed combined system. It is found that, with an increase in the exergy efficiency, the total product unit cost is less affected in the beginning, while rises substantially afterwards. The best trade-off solution is selected with an overall exergy efficiency of 53.04% and a total product unit cost of 20.54 cent/kWh, respectively. The variation of decision variables with the exergy efficiency indicates that the compressor, turbine and heat exchanger preheating the inlet air of turbine are the key equipment to cost-effectively pursuit a higher exergy efficiency. It is also revealed by an exergoeconomic analysis that, for the best trade-off solution, the investment costs of the compressor and the two heat exchangers recovering compression heat and heating up compressed air for expansion should be reduced (particularly the latter), while the thermodynamic performance of the gas engine need to be improved

  7. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Anna [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Hedman, Bruce [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Garland, Patti [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bautista, Paul [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future—as an: environmental solution, significantly reducing CO2 emissions through greater energy efficiency; competitive business solution, increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; local energy solution, deployable throughout the United States; and infrastructure modernization solution, relieving grid congestion and improving energy security.

  8. Creating Public Awareness of Renewable Energy by Combining a Photovoltaic System and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted; Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing. The situa......Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing....... The situation is quite clear to the experts in the field, but further awareness in the public must be created. Therefore this paper addresses a method of creating this awareness: installations that stimulate conversations of renewable energy. A solar tree was developed and built to serve young people with an AC....... The mechanical requirements and the developed solution is shown, before providing intensive insight into the electrical configuration, consisting of a battery, photovoltaic cells and a DC-AC converter. Furthermore a low complexity charge controller is presented. The resulting solar tree is capable of attracting...

  9. Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray combination performance in NUEX flow loop; Desempenho no flowloop do NUEX da medicao multifasica Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, Claudio; Taranto, Cleber; Costa, Alcemir [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinguet, Bruno; Heluey, Vitor; Bessa, Fabiano; Loicq, Olivier [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination, Vx* technology, arrived in Brazil in 2000. PETROBRAS, Brazilian Oil Company, has been putting big efforts in its production business and also has demonstrated a large interest in having a multiphase meter approved by ANP for back allocation purposes. The oil industry was looking for ways to improve the back allocation process using an approved on line multiphase flow measurement device, thus replacing punctual test done today by a permanent monitoring device. Considering this scenario, a partnership project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger was created in Brazil. The main objective of this project, which was held in NUEX flow loop, was to demonstrate to INMETRO (Brazilian Metrology Institute) that the Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination meter is able to be used for back allocation purpose. PETROBRAS and Schlumberger elaborated a complete methodology in the NUEX flow loop to demonstrate the results and benefits of the Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination meter. The test was witnessed by INMETRO and had a very good performance at the end. The results were within what was expected by Schlumberger, PETROBRAS and INMETRO. These results has been very useful to PETROBRAS in order to start using the Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray technology for well allocation purposes. (author)

  10. Approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoshun; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Limin; Huang, Linni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimal carbon-energy combined-flow (OCECF) model is firstly established. • A novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning is designed. • The proposed algorithm has a high convergence stability and reliability. • The proposed algorithm can be applied for OCECF in a large-scale power grid. - Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems. The carbon emissions, fuel cost, active power loss, voltage deviation and carbon emission loss are chosen as the optimization objectives, which are simultaneously optimized by five different Q-value matrices. The dynamic optimal weight of each objective is calculated online from the entire Q-value matrices such that the greedy action policy can be obtained. Case studies are carried out to evaluate the optimization performance for carbon-energy combined-flow in an IEEE 118-bus system and the regional power grid of southern China.

  11. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: ibon.galarraga@bc3research.org; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: mikel.gonzalez@bc3research.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: anil.markandya@bc3research.org

    2011-12-15

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  12. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA, as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  13. Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Hongbo; Zhou Weisheng; Gao Weijun; Wu Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO 2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO 2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed. Highlights: ► An investor focused analytical model is developed to aid the investment of a DER system. ► The combination of ESCO and CDM enhances the incentive to introduce energy conservation measures. ► Electricity buy-back is effective in boosting the DER system adoption under the proposed framework. ► The increased energy cost savings allocated to the investor promotes the DER system adoption. ► The rational allocation of CER credits is of vital importance to the success of the project.

  14. Calibrating a combined energy systems analysis and controller design method with empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Gavin Bruce; Counsell, John; Allison, John; Brindley, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The drive towards low carbon constructions has seen buildings increasingly utilise many different energy systems simultaneously to control the human comfort of the indoor environment; such as ventilation with heat recovery, various heating solutions and applications of renewable energy. This paper describes a dynamic modelling and simulation method (IDEAS – Inverse Dynamics based Energy Assessment and Simulation) for analysing the energy utilisation of a building and its complex servicing systems. The IDEAS case study presented in this paper is based upon small perturbation theory and can be used for the analysis of the performance of complex energy systems and also for the design of smart control systems. This paper presents a process of how any dynamic model can be calibrated against a more empirical based data model, in this case the UK Government's SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure). The research targets of this work are building simulation experts for analysing the energy use of a building and also control engineers to assist in the design of smart control systems for dwellings. The calibration process presented is transferable and has applications for simulation experts to assist in calibrating any dynamic building simulation method with an empirical based method. - Highlights: • Presentation of an energy systems analysis method for assessing the energy utilisation of buildings and their complex servicing systems. • An inverse dynamics based controller design method is detailed. • Method of how a dynamic model can be calibrated with an empirical based model

  15. Combining policies for renewable energy : Is the whole less than the sum of its parts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Preonas, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Since the energy crisis in the 1970s and later the growing concern for climate change in the 1990s, policymakers at all levels of government and around the world have been enthusiastically supporting a wide range of incentive mechanisms for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E).

  16. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  17. Application of solar concentrators for combined production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    New specific concept is application of solar dish concentrators in a process which allows solar energy to be used for splitting water in hydrogen and oxygen, with electrical energy as a byproduct. This is performed in two stages: The first stage uses highly concentrated solar energy to split CO 2 Into CO and O 2 . The second stage uses water-gas shifts reaction to cause the CO to react with water and produced hydrogen and CO 2 , Carbon dioxide is then recycled back into the system, and the waste heat is used to produce electricity in a steam turbine, Efficiency of the process is 45% , totaling 20% in chemical energy (H 2 ), and 25% electricity. This solar system is 80% more efficient than other solar technologies which make energy much cheaper. The environmentally friendly and low cost hydrogen can become a prime mover of fuel cell development especially in automotive application. (Author)

  18. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  19. Techno-economic optimization of a scaled-up solar concentrator combined with CSPonD thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Richard; Grange, Benjamin; Diago, Miguel; Topel, Monika; Armstrong, Peter; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    A molten salt direct absorption receiver, CSPonD, used to simultaneously collect and store thermal energy is being tested by Masdar Institute and MIT in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Whilst a research-scale prototype has been combined with a beam-down tower in Abu Dhabi, the original design coupled the receiver with a hillside heliostat field. With respect to a conventional power-tower setup, a hillside solar field presents the advantages of eliminating tower costs, heat tracing equipment, and high-pressure pumps. This analysis considers the industrial viability of the CSPonD concept by modeling a 10 MWe up-scaled version of a molten salt direct absorption receiver combined with a hillside heliostat field. Five different slope angles are initially simulated to determine the optimum choice using a combination of lowest LCOE and highest IRR, and sensitivity analyses are carried out based on thermal energy storage duration, power output, and feed-in tariff price. Finally, multi-objective optimization is undertaken to determine a Pareto front representing optimum cases. The study indicates that a 40° slope and a combination of 14 h thermal energy storage with a 40-50 MWe power output provide the best techno-economic results. By selecting one simulated result and using a feed-in tariff of 0.25 /kWh, a competitive IRR of 15.01 % can be achieved.

  20. Programmable combinational logic trigger system for high energy particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    A fast logic system designed to select predetermined combinations of three hits in three detectors is described. Central to this system is a random access memory IC that was especially designed for this application

  1. Parametric Analysis and Experimental Verification of a Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Combining Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering coil inductance and the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, this paper developed an approximate distributed-parameter model of a hybrid energy harvester (HEH. The analytical solutions were compared with numerical solutions. The effects of load resistances, electromechanical coupling factors, mechanical damping ratio, coil parameters and size scale on performance were investigated. A meso-scale HEH prototype was fabricated, tested and compared with a stand-alone piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and a stand-alone electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH. The peak output power is 2.93% and 142.18% higher than that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. Moreover, its bandwidth is 108%- and 122.7%-times that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical values. It is indicated that the linearized electromagnetic coupling coefficient is more suitable for low-level excitation acceleration. Hybrid energy harvesting contributes to widening the frequency bandwidth and improving energy conversion efficiency. However, only when the piezoelectric coupling effect is weak or medium can the HEH generate more power than the single-mechanism energy harvester. Hybrid energy harvesting can improve output power even at the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scale. This study presents a more effective model for the performance evaluation and structure optimization of the HEH.

  2. Expansion in Number of Parameters - Simulation of Energy and Indoor Climate in Combination with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otovic, Aleksander; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Negendahl, Kristoffer

    The Technical University of Denmark has been carrying out research in the energy balance of buildings in relation to indoor climate for decades. The last two decades have seen a major role played by research in the field of Integrated Energy Design (IED) focusing on the earliest design phases. Th......-esteemed architectural offices in Scandinavia. The development of the real-time LCA-indoor climate- energy balance tool was funded by Nordic Built.......The Technical University of Denmark has been carrying out research in the energy balance of buildings in relation to indoor climate for decades. The last two decades have seen a major role played by research in the field of Integrated Energy Design (IED) focusing on the earliest design phases...... and engineering consultancies in Scandinavia have invested in software and interdisciplinary design teams to carry out Integrated Energy Design (IED). Legislation has been altered and simulations of indoor climate and energy balance are now required to obtain building permits. IED has been rolled out extensively...

  3. Exergy costing for energy saving in combined heating and cooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian T.; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    . In the first method, referred to as energy costing, a conventional thermoeconomic analysis is used. Here the ammonia heat pump is subject to a thermodynamic analysis with mass and energy balance equations. In the second method referred to as exergy costing, an exergy based economic analysis is used, where...... exergy balance equations are used in conjunction with mass and energy balance equations. In both costing methods the thermodynamic analysis is followed by an economic analysis which includes investment and operating costs. For both methods the unit costs of heating and cooling are found and compared...

  4. Energy expenditure estimation in beta-blocker-medicated cardiac patients by combining heart rate and body movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Jos J; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Stut, Wim; Peek, Niels; Kemps, Hareld Mc; Bonomi, Alberto G

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure provides an opportunity to monitor physical activity during cardiac rehabilitation. However, the available assessment methods, based on the combination of heart rate (HR) and body movement data, are not applicable for patients using beta-blocker medication. Therefore, we developed an energy expenditure prediction model for beta-blocker-medicated cardiac rehabilitation patients. Sixteen male cardiac rehabilitation patients (age: 55.8 ± 7.3 years, weight: 93.1 ± 11.8 kg) underwent a physical activity protocol with 11 low- to moderate-intensity common daily life activities. Energy expenditure was assessed using a portable indirect calorimeter. HR and body movement data were recorded during the protocol using unobtrusive wearable devices. In addition, patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise test and resting metabolic rate assessment. Energy expenditure estimation models were developed using multivariate regression analyses based on HR and body movement data and/or patient characteristics. In addition, a HR-flex model was developed. The model combining HR and body movement data and patient characteristics showed the highest correlation and lowest error (r 2  = 0.84, root mean squared error = 0.834 kcal/minute) with total energy expenditure. The method based on individual calibration data (HR-flex) showed lower accuracy (i 2  = 0.83, root mean squared error = 0.992 kcal/minute). Our results show that combining HR and body movement data improves the accuracy of energy expenditure prediction models in cardiac patients, similar to methods that have been developed for healthy subjects. The proposed methodology does not require individual calibration and is based on the data that are available in clinical practice. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  5. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  6. Simple and Efficient System for Combined Solar Energy Harvesting and Reversible Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Mu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Wenbo; Mi, Zetian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-06-24

    Solar energy harvesting and hydrogen economy are the two most important green energy endeavors for the future. However, a critical hurdle to the latter is how to safely and densely store and transfer hydrogen. Herein, we developed a reversible hydrogen storage system based on low-cost liquid organic cyclic hydrocarbons at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A facile switch of hydrogen addition (>97% conversion) and release (>99% conversion) with superior capacity of 7.1 H2 wt % can be quickly achieved over a rationally optimized platinum catalyst with high electron density, simply regulated by dark/light conditions. Furthermore, the photodriven dehydrogenation of cyclic alkanes gave an excellent apparent quantum efficiency of 6.0% under visible light illumination (420-600 nm) without any other energy input, which provides an alternative route to artificial photosynthesis for directly harvesting and storing solar energy in the form of chemical fuel.

  7. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Kim, Youngdeuk; Rachman, Rinaldi; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great

  8. Optimal combination of energy crops under different policy scenarios; The case of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafeiriou, Eleni; Petridis, Konstantinos; Karelakis, Christos; Arabatzis, Garyfallos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops production is considered as environmentally benign and socially acceptable, offering ecological benefits over fossil fuels through their contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and acidifying emissions. Energy crops are subjected to persistent policy support by the EU, despite their limited or even marginally negative impact on the greenhouse effect. The present study endeavors to optimize the agricultural income generated by energy crops in a remote and disadvantageous region, with the assistance of linear programming. The optimization concerns the income created from soybean, sunflower (proxy for energy crop), and corn. Different policy scenarios imposed restrictions on the value of the subsidies as a proxy for EU policy tools, the value of inputs (costs of capital and labor) and different irrigation conditions. The results indicate that the area and the imports per energy crop remain unchanged, independently of the policy scenario enacted. Furthermore, corn cultivation contributes the most to iFncome maximization, whereas the implemented CAP policy plays an incremental role in uptaking an energy crop. A key implication is that alternative forms of motivation should be provided to the farmers beyond the financial ones in order the extensive use of energy crops to be achieved. - Highlights: •A stochastic and a deterministic LP model is formulated. •The role of CAP is vital in generated income. •Imports and cultivated areas are subsidy neutral. •The regime of free market results in lower income acquired from the potential crop mix. •Non – financial motivation is a key determinant of the farmers’ attitude towards energy crops.

  9. Combining gait optimization with passive system to increase the energy efficiency of a humanoid robot walking movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, José; Costa, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    There are several approaches to create the Humanoid robot gait planning. This problem presents a large number of unknown parameters that should be found to make the humanoid robot to walk. Optimization in simulation models can be used to find the gait based on several criteria such as energy minimization, acceleration, step length among the others. The energy consumption can also be reduced with elastic elements coupled to each joint. The presented paper addresses an optimization method, the Stretched Simulated Annealing, that runs in an accurate and stable simulation model to find the optimal gait combined with elastic elements. Final results demonstrate that optimization is a valid gait planning technique

  10. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special...... external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  11. Combining gait optimization with passive system to increase the energy efficiency of a humanoid robot walking movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ana I. [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); ALGORITMI,University of Minho (Portugal); Lima, José [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal); Costa, Paulo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal)

    2015-03-10

    There are several approaches to create the Humanoid robot gait planning. This problem presents a large number of unknown parameters that should be found to make the humanoid robot to walk. Optimization in simulation models can be used to find the gait based on several criteria such as energy minimization, acceleration, step length among the others. The energy consumption can also be reduced with elastic elements coupled to each joint. The presented paper addresses an optimization method, the Stretched Simulated Annealing, that runs in an accurate and stable simulation model to find the optimal gait combined with elastic elements. Final results demonstrate that optimization is a valid gait planning technique.

  12. Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Chenghui Zhang; Bo Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power(CCHP) with storage systems.Initially,the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season,the heating season and the transition season was formulated.The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency,minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy.Furthermore,the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm.Ultimately,the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method.A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method.The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method.The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency,environmental protection and economic benefits.

  13. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  14. A combined cosmic ray muon spectrometer and high energy air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies in excess of 10 20 eV, and individual sources have been conclusively identified as intense emitters of gamma rays at energies up to 10 16 eV. There is clearly a great deal of exciting astrophysics to be learned from such studies, but it has been suggested that there may be particle physics to be learned from the cosmic beam as well. Based in particular on the reports of surprisingly high fluxes of underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 modulated by the known orbital period, there have been several suggestions recently invoking stable supersymmetric particles produced at Cygnus X-3, enhanced muon production from high energy photons, quark matter, and ''cygnets.'' Although the underground muon results have been questioned, it may still be worthwhile to consider the possibility of new physics beyond the standard model with energy scale (G/sub F/)/sup -1/2/ ≥ 0.25 TeV. For example, there have been recent discussions on the experimental signatures to be observed from new high energy photon couplings to matter, exchanges between constituent quarks and leptons, and stable gluinos and photinos mixed in with the cosmic gamma ray flux. We describe here a possible detector to search for such effects. We utilize the possibility that point sources like Cygnus X-3 can be used to provide a directional time-modulated ''tagged'' high energy photon beam

  15. Free energy and scalings for polymer translocation through a nanopore: A molecular dynamics simulation study combined with milestoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Gui; Zhao, Li; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations combined with milestoning method are used to study the stochastic process of polymer chain translocation though a nanopore. We find that the scalings for polymer translocation process (the chain is initialized with the first monomer in the nanopore) and for polymer escape process (the chain is initialized with the middle monomer in the nanopore) are different. The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier, while the polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference. -- Highlights: ► We study polymer translocating through a nanopore by CGMD combined with milestoning. ► We find that the scalings for polymer translocation and for polymer escape are different. ► The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier. ► The polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference.

  16. The energy roof - Photovoltaics and solar collectors combined; PV und Kollektoren schoen kombiniert. Das Energiedach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this Interview with Giorgio Hefti, CEO of the Swiss Tritec group, the company's aims and the products offered are discussed. These include mains-connected and island-operated photovoltaic (PV) systems. The history of the company is briefly discussed, as is co-operation with local installers and the company's function as a general contractor for large installations. These include, amongst others, the PV-installation on the 'Stade de Suisse' football stadium in Berne. PV systems for single-family homes and their costs are examined. Also, mounting systems for combining PV and solar collectors (combined power and heat generation) are discussed, as are combinations of PV and heat-pumps. Hybrid PV-solar-collectors and their disadvantages are discussed as is the future of the Tritec group, which has grown continuously over the years and is active in several European countries.

  17. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining the modified Skyrme-like model and the local density approximation to determine the symmetry energy of nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Ren, Zhongzhou; Xu, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Combining the modified Skyrme-like model and the local density approximation model, the slope parameter L of symmetry energy is extracted from the properties of finite nuclei with an improved iterative method. The calculations of the iterative method are performed within the framework of the spherical symmetry. By choosing 200 neutron rich nuclei on 25 isotopic chains as candidates, the slope parameter is constrained to be 50 MeV nuclear matter can be obtained together.

  19. Optimal design and operating strategies for a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess designing and scheduling a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system consisting of biomass gasifier, internal combustion engine, heat recovery set, heat-only boiler, producer gas storage and thermal energy......, utility tariff structure and technical and finical performance of the system components. Engine partial load performance was taken into consideration. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate how the optimal BCHP configuration changes with varying demands and utility tariff rates....

  20. Generating power at high efficiency combined cycle technology for sustainable energy production

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, E

    2008-01-01

    Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features - including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification com

  1. Holistic energy system modeling combining multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Sebastian; Budzinski, Maik

    2017-12-01

    Making the global energy system more sustainable has emerged as a major societal concern and policy objective. This transition comes with various challenges and opportunities for a sustainable evolution affecting most of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We therefore propose broadening the current metrics for sustainability in the energy system modeling field by using industrial ecology techniques to account for a conclusive set of indicators. This is pursued by including a life cycle based sustainability assessment into an energy system model considering all relevant products and processes of the global supply chain. We identify three pronounced features: (i) the low-hanging fruit of impact mitigation requiring manageable economic effort; (ii) embodied emissions of renewables cause increasing spatial redistribution of impact from direct emissions, the place of burning fuel, to indirect emissions, the location of the energy infrastructure production; (iii) certain impact categories, in which more overall sustainable systems perform worse than the cost minimal system, require a closer look. In essence, this study makes the case for future energy system modeling to include the increasingly important global supply chain and broaden the metrics of sustainability further than cost and climate change relevant emissions.

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of a Combined Floating Wave and Wind Energy Conversion Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Bellew, Sarah Bellew

    This report presents results from the PSO project 2011-1-10668 entitled Poseidon 2. The project is a continuation of the previous PSO project entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines. Floating Power Plant has developed the technology...... for a novel, floating, wave- and wind-energy hybrid device. To test the technology they have scaled the design to P37, a 37 m wide test platform that has been undergoing offshore testing for four complete test phases (totaling more than 2 years). The test platform provides electricity to the grid from both...... wind and wave energy, however its purpose is purely for research and development. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the test periods has been used for evaluating...

  3. A holistic method to assess building energy efficiency combining D-S theory and the evidential reasoning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Runming; Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of building energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures for reducing building energy consumption. This paper proposes a holistic method (HMEEB) for assessing and certifying energy efficiency of buildings based on the D-S (Dempster-Shafer) theory of evidence and the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach. HMEEB has three main features: (i) it provides both a method to assess and certify building energy efficiency, and exists as an analytical tool to identify improvement opportunities; (ii) it combines a wealth of information on building energy efficiency assessment, including identification of indicators and a weighting mechanism; and (iii) it provides a method to identify and deal with inherent uncertainties within the assessment procedure. This paper demonstrates the robustness, flexibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, using two examples to assess the energy efficiency of two residential buildings, both located in the ‘Hot Summer and Cold Winter’ zone in China. The proposed certification method provides detailed recommendations for policymakers in the context of carbon emission reduction targets and promoting energy efficiency in the built environment. The method is transferable to other countries and regions, using an indicator weighting system to modify local climatic, economic and social factors. - Highlights: ► Assessing energy efficiency of buildings holistically; ► Applying the D-S (Dempster-Shafer) theory of evidence and the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach; ► Involving large information and uncertainties in the energy efficiency decision-making process. ► rigorous measures for policymakers to meet carbon emission reduction targets.

  4. Study of the ATLAS MDT spectrometer using high energy CERN combined test beam data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adorisio, C.; et al., [Unknown; Barisonzi, M.; Bobbink, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Brouwer, G.; Groenstege, H.; Hart, R.; Konig, A.; Linde, F.; van der Graaf, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Vreeswijk, M.; Werneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a combined system test was performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS with a setup reproducing the geometry of sectors of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, formed by three stations of Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT). The full ATLAS analysis chain was used to obtain the results presented in this

  5. Using the combination CsI(Tl) + photodiode for identification and energy measurement of light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinet, D.; Chambon, B.; Cheynis, B.; Demeyer, A.; Drain, D.; Hu, X.C.; Pastor, C.; Vagneron, L.; Zaid, K.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Viano, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of discriminating light charged particles in charge and mass using the CsI(Tl) + photodiode combination is demonstrated. Experiment layout and results for a test using a beam of 30 MeV/nucleon α particles impinging on self-supporting gold and aluminium targets are shown

  6. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  7. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  9. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...... as the turbines non-linear yaw and teeter motion behavior. The main focus on the comparison will be on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions such as increasing wind speed, wave height and wind...

  10. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  11. Dual energy CT inspection of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite combined with metal components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jakůbek, J.; Kumpová, Ivana; Pichotka, M.

    6, Part B, November (2016), s. 47-55 ISSN 2214-6571 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07210S Keywords : dual energy computed tomography * carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite * metal artefact suppression Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214657116300107

  12. Accurate Intermolecular Interaction Energies from a Combination of MP2 and TDDFT Response Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitoňák, Michal; Hesselmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 168-178 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0428/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dispersion energy * TDDFT * noncovalent interactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.138, year: 2010

  13. Residential versus Communal Combination of Photovoltaic and Battery in Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marczinkowski, Hannah Mareike; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    and involving the consumers. The importance of minimizing flows to and from the grid as a result from fluctuating energy sources is addressed in both approaches. While residential batteries improve the individual household electricity supply, a communal battery would further regulate other inputs and demands....

  14. Whole eggs enhance antioxidant activity when combined with energy dense, cooked breakfast foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute metabolic changes following the consumption of energy dense foods high in saturated fat (SFA) and glycemic load (GL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Eggs provide highly digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds tha...

  15. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through combined harvesting and pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, P G; Egelund, H; Larsen, U; Pedersen, J; Trénel, P; Angelidaki, I

    2017-08-01

    An important challenge that has to be addressed to achieve sustainable anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates is the development of energy and cost efficient pretreatment methods. Technologies orientated to simultaneously harvest and mechanically pretreat the biomass at the field could meet these criteria as they can potentially reduce the energy losses. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of two full-scale harvesting machines to enhance the biogas production and subsequently, improve energy balance. The performances of Disc-mower and Excoriator were assessed on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting technology. More specifically, Excoriator, which cuts and subsequently applies shearing forces on harvested biomass, enhanced the methane production up to 10% and the overall energy budget was improved proportionally to the driving speed increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical energy profiles of the combined ankle-foot system in normal gait: insights for prosthetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Over the last half-century, the field of prosthetic engineering has continuously evolved with much attention being dedicated to restoring the mechanical energy properties of ankle joint musculatures during gait. However, the contributions of 'distal foot structures' (e.g., foot muscles, plantar soft tissue) have been overlooked. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total mechanical energy profiles (e.g., power, work, and work-ratio) of the natural ankle-foot system (NAFS) by combining the contributions of the ankle joint and all distal foot structures during stance in level-ground steady state walking across various speeds (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 statures/s). The results from eleven healthy subjects walking barefoot indicated ankle joint and distal foot structures generally performed opposing roles: the ankle joint performed net positive work that systematically increased its energy generation with faster walking speeds, while the distal foot performed net negative work that systematically increased its energy absorption with faster walking speeds. Accounting for these simultaneous effects, the combined ankle-foot system exhibited increased work-ratios with faster walking. Most notably, the work-ratio was not significantly greater than 1.0 during the normal walking speed of 0.8 statures/s. Therefore, a prosthetic design that strategically exploits passive-dynamic properties (e.g., elastic energy storage and return) has the potential to replicate the mechanical energy profiles of the NAFS during level-ground steady-state walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.

    1993-03-01

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO 2 -emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO 2 -advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO 2 -characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO 2 -advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass based energy combines with motor fuel production; Biobraenslebaserade energikombinat med tillverkning av drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    In the report the state of development of production processes for various motor fuels, such as FT diesel, methanol , DME and ethanol, from biomass is reviewed. Biomass and black liquor gasification processes as well as processes for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass are discussed. The processes are complicated and still not very well tried in their whole context. The gas cleaning steps, which are necessary to reach acceptable catalyst lifetimes in the motor fuel production processes based on gasification, have been tested in the oil industry and to some extent in coal gasification plants, but not with syngas from biomass or black liquor gasification. For black liquor gasification particularly, also material selection and material lifetime issues remain to be solved. For ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass process development is needed, to increase the yield in the pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation steps. The energy yields of the processes are dependent on the degree of complexity of the processes, as well as on the integration and balancing of energy demanding steps and steps with energy surplus. This is especially valid for the processes based on gasification, due to high temperatures in the gasifier and some of the catalytic steps, but also for the ethanol process, which benefit from optimal steam integration in the evaporation and distillation steps. Also steam integration with cogeneration plants, or for black liquor gasification with pulp mills, improves the overall energy balance. In addition, the energy yield when motor fuels are produced by gasification is dependent on the usage of the off-gas. The efficiency is improved when the off-gas is burned in a boiler or gas turbine, than when it is flared. In the report examples are given of processes with and without integration.

  20. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  1. Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of a renewable energy sourced hybrid heating system combined with latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Aydın, Devrim; Kıncay, Olcay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. • Analyses were done by using real data obtained from a prototype structure. • Exergy efficiency of system components investigated during discharging period are close to each other as 32%. • The average input energy and exergy rates to the LHS were 0.770 and 0.027 kW. • Overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of LHS calculated as 72% and 28.4%. - Abstract: In this study an experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. Latent heat storage stores energy, gained by solar collectors and supplies medium temperature heat to heat pump both day time also night time while solar energy is unavailable. In addition to this an accumulation tank exists in the system as sensible heat storage. It provides supply–demand balance with storing excess high temperature heat. Analyses were done according to thermodynamic’s first and second laws by using real data obtained from a prototype structure, built as part of a project. Results show that high percent of heat loses took place in heat pump with 1.83 kW where accumulator-wall heating cycle followed it with 0.42 kW. Contrarily highest break-down of exergy loses occur accumulator-wall heating cycle with 0.28 kW. Averagely 2.42 kW exergy destruction took place in whole system during the experiment. Solar collectors and heat pump are the promising components in terms of exergy destruction with 1.15 kW and 1.09 kW respectively. Exergy efficiency of system components, investigated during discharging period are in a close approximately of 32%. However, efficiency of solar collectors and charging of latent heat storage are 2.3% and 7% which are relatively low. Average overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of latent heat storage calculated as 72% and 28.4% respectively. Discharging energy efficiency of latent heat storage is the highest through all system components. Also heat

  2. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  3. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.M.; Addy, T.N.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2010), P06001/1-P06001/28 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * calorimeter methods * calorimeters * detector modelling and simulations * pattern recognition * cluster finding * calibration and fitting methods Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2010

  4. Energy management of DC microgrid based on photovoltaic combined with diesel generator and supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Changjie; Wu, Hongwei; Locment, Fabrice; Sechilariu, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy is based on hybridization of electrical sources. • Supercapacitor is used to complement a diesel generator during starting up. • Supercapacitor is used to supplement the limited electrochemical storage power. • DC microgrid dynamic and static performances are improved. • Experimental results evaluate the feasibility of the designed control strategy. - Abstract: Microgrid is promoted as an economical and efficient energy system in which different renewable sources and storage are interconnected to meet the load power demand at any time. It can operate in on-grid and off-grid mode. Since the electrical contribution of each renewable energy source is dependent on the variation of its resource and the load power demand changes time to time, it is possible that the microgrid cannot generate enough electricity at some time. Thus, especially in off-grid mode, a diesel generator is needed as another backup power. However, due to the slow dynamic behavior of the diesel generator start-up stage, the power quality is lowered down because of the shortage of power. Therefore, during the period of the diesel generator starting up, a supercapacitor is suggested to compensate the power balance because of its fast response and high power density. In addition, the supercapacitor can be also used to overcome the electrochemical storage limits like its state of charge and maximum current. This paper proposes a method for power balance control of a hybrid multisource DC microgrid system aiming to meet the load power demand with reliability and stabilizing the DC bus voltage. In order to realize this function, an experimental platform has been set up and the energy management strategy has been implemented into the control process. The experimental results show that the designed control strategy improves the DC microgrid dynamic and static performances under such operating conditions.

  5. Combining high frequency data with non-linear models for forecasting energy market volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Křehlík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 222-242 ISSN 0957-4174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : artificial neural networks * realized volatility * multiple-step-ahead forecasts * energy markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.928, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/barunik-0456185.pdf

  6. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail: gh-du@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  7. CHP: Combined Heat and Power: a vision of energy efficiency; Cogeracao: uma visao de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Osvaldo A.S.N. de; Abreu, Melissa E. de; Marcal, Roberto L.; Ferreira, Ademilson D.; Ferreira, Patricia E.; Monterio, Glauber J.R.; Silva, Ademir B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The installation of a cogeneration plant has been the subject of discussions on alternatives in the Brazilian energy matrix. Considered viable solution in the not too distant past, 2001, when Brazil was undergoing a process of the economic slowdown, lack of investments in the energy sector, unemployment and reaching the peak of the crisis with the rationing of electricity. The principle of the cogeneration system is designed primarily to meet electrical demand, so there is no surplus production of energy and do not need to buy with the concessionaire, except in cases of the system stops on account of maintenance. However, there is a recovery of waste heat produced in thermodynamic processes for generation of electricity within a model that 'conventional' would be wasted. In this case, the exploitation can be given in the form of steam, hot water and/or cold, for secondary application, or can not be linked to a process. Based on the results of the fieldwork, aims to show that, despite the limitations inherent in the process of cogeneration, is justified economically the installation of this system in relation to the growth of procedures developed in CENPES and its resident effective. (author)

  8. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10"−"2 s"−"1.

  9. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  10. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine. Case study of Tashkent thermal power plant, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, Zarif; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Higashi, Osamu; Alikulov, Khusniddin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) has a steam turbine and a gas turbine. • Fossil fuel savings and reduction of the CCGT of was evaluated. • The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. • Energy efficiency of the combined cycle was 58.28%. • An annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum can be achieved. - Abstract: The power generation of Tashkent Thermal Power Plant (TPP) is based on conventional power units. Moreover, the facility suffers from limited efficiency in electricity generation. The plant was constructed during the Soviet era. Furthermore, the power plant is being used for inter-hour power generation regulation. As a result, the efficiency can be reduced by increasing specific fuel consumption. This research focuses on the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) for the Tashkent TPP. Specifically, the objective is an evaluation of fossil fuel savings and reduction of CO_2 and NO_x emissions with the using CCGT technology at conventional power plant. The proposed combined cycle power plant (CCPP) includes an existing steam turbine (ST) with 160 MW capacity, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and gas turbine (GT) technology with 300 MW capacity. The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. As a result, the efficiency of the combined cycle was evaluated at 58.28%, while the conventional cycle had an efficiency of 34.5%. We can achieve an annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum.

  11. An efficient combination of transcritical CO_2 refrigeration and multi-effect desalination: Energy and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsi, Aida; Mohammadi, S.M.Hojjat; Ameri, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combination of CO_2 refrigeration and MED system is analyzed from energy and economic viewpoints. • A new heating medium source in MED (supercritical CO_2) is introduced. • Heat transfer coefficients in components of the system are calculated. • In MED, supercritical CO_2 presents better heat transfer characteristics compared to steam. • In similar operating conditions, the combined cycle is more economical than single generation systems. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel combination of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration with Boosted-MED (Multi-Effect-Desalination) system to provide cooling and fresh water simultaneously. In the combined system a part of gas cooler in refrigeration system is replaced by the first effect and Booster module of Boosted-MED; so that a significant amount of waste heat would be recovered. Thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out in order to investigate the proposed system’s performance. Since institution of CO_2 as a heating medium in MED systems is a novel topic; so, the heat transfer process between CO_2 and seawater is studied. Results show that the supercritical CO_2 presents an effective heat exchange process. Therefore, the specific heat transfer area would be reduced 135% and 25% compared to conventional MEDs and sensible heat source MEDs, respectively. The proposed combined system can save 57% of energy and 37.8% and 29.1% of total annual cost in Iran and Toronto respectively, compared to a stand-alone CO_2 refrigeration system and an MED-Boosted.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750–1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5–6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qi; Bader, Roman; Kreider, Peter; Lovegrove, Keith; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750-1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5-6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  14. Primary energy savings in desiccant and evaporative cooling-assisted 100% outdoor air system combined with a fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Hwi; Dong, Hae-Won; Park, Joon-Young; Jeong, Jae-Weon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A LD-IDECOAS integrated with a PEMFC was proposed. • A pilot system was installed and tested during cooling operation. • The proposed system powered by the PEMFC saved 21% of the primary energy consumption during cooling. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study involved investigating the primary energy saving potential of a liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling-assisted 100% outdoor air system (LD-IDECOAS) integrated with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). During the cooling season, the heat produced by the PEMFC was used to regenerate a weak desiccant solution, and the electricity generated was used to operate the LD-IDECOAS. A pilot LD-IDECOAS powered by a PEMFC was installed and operated in an office space to experimentally verify the annual operating energy savings of the proposed system. The findings indicated that the heat reclaimed from the PEMFC saved 42% of the desiccant solution regenerating energy when compared to that in the case of a conventional gas-fired water heater. The results also suggested that the LD-IDECOAS combined with a PEMFC consumed 21% less primary energy when compared with that of a system powered by grid electricity and a conventional gas-fired water heater.

  15. Numerical analysis of passive strategies for energy retrofit of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate: thermal mass and natural ventilation combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcerano Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of coupling natural ventilation and thermal storage systems to improve hygrothermal comfort and reduce energy consumption during summer season in an existing building in the Mediterranean. It aims at bridging the knowledge gap between designers, researchers and building scientists, fostering a multidisciplinary approach and promoting numerical simulation of the energy performance of buildings within architectural professional practice. The study analyses the interaction between six natural ventilation systems (single sided ventilation through facade openings; cross ventilation through facade openings, inlet wind tower, thermal chimney, evaporative cool tower, earth pipes and with two thermal storage typology (heavy and medium-light within four strategic Italian location (Rome, Naples, Messina and Catania. For each interaction we perform a numerical dynamic simulation of indoor comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption during the summer period, on a reference building model corresponding to the most common Italian typology. Results show that the use of the chosen systems ensures significant reductions of discomfort hours and energy consumption in all configurations. The study also highlights the high efficiency of non invasive systems (single-sided and cross ventilation with automatic control present discomfort hours reduction and energy consumption reduction above 68% for all combinations and the significant influence of the daily thermal range value on the performance of systems without air pre-treatment.

  16. The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies.

  17. World energy use in 2010: over 5% growth. Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Enerdata analyses the trends in energy demand, based on its 2010 data for G20 countries. May 5, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Analysis of the energy consumption in 2010 of major countries by Enerdata, based on our global energy database. Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. On the one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend. On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. (authors)

  18. Optimisation of the energy efficiency of bread-baking ovens using a combined experimental and computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatir, Zinedine; Paton, Joe; Thompson, Harvey; Kapur, Nik; Toropov, Vassili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A scientific framework for optimising oven operating conditions is presented. ► Experiments measuring local convective heat transfer coefficient are undertaken. ► An energy efficiency model is developed with experimentally calibrated CFD analysis. ► Designing ovens with optimum heat transfer coefficients reduces energy use. ► Results demonstrate a strong case to design and manufacture energy optimised ovens. - Abstract: Changing legislation and rising energy costs are bringing the need for efficient baking processes into much sharper focus. High-speed air impingement bread-baking ovens are complex systems using air flow to transfer heat to the product. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is combined with experimental analysis to develop a rigorous scientific framework for the rapid generation of forced convection oven designs. A design parameterisation of a three-dimensional generic oven model is carried out for a wide range of oven sizes and flow conditions to optimise desirable features such as temperature uniformity throughout the oven, energy efficiency and manufacturability. Coupled with the computational model, a series of experiments measuring the local convective heat transfer coefficient (h c ) are undertaken. The facility used for the heat transfer experiments is representative of a scaled-down production oven where the air temperature and velocity as well as important physical constraints such as nozzle dimensions and nozzle-to-surface distance can be varied. An efficient energy model is developed using a CFD analysis calibrated using experimentally determined inputs. Results from a range of oven designs are presented together with ensuing energy usage and savings

  19. Behavioral effects of the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks on alcohol hangover in an experimental mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2018-03-23

    In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  2. Using energy budgets to combine ecology and toxicology in a mammalian sentinel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2017-04-01

    Process-driven modelling approaches can resolve many of the shortcomings of traditional descriptive and non-mechanistic toxicology. We developed a simple dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for the mink (Mustela vison), a sentinel species in mammalian toxicology, which coupled animal physiology, ecology and toxicology, in order to mechanistically investigate the accumulation and adverse effects of lifelong dietary exposure to persistent environmental toxicants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our novel mammalian DEB model accurately predicted, based on energy allocations to the interconnected metabolic processes of growth, development, maintenance and reproduction, lifelong patterns in mink growth, reproductive performance and dietary accumulation of PCBs as reported in the literature. Our model results were consistent with empirical data from captive and free-ranging studies in mink and other wildlife and suggest that PCB exposure can have significant population-level impacts resulting from targeted effects on fetal toxicity, kit mortality and growth and development. Our approach provides a simple and cross-species framework to explore the mechanistic interactions of physiological processes and ecotoxicology, thus allowing for a deeper understanding and interpretation of stressor-induced adverse effects at all levels of biological organization.

  3. A Combined Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-GRA Methodology for Hydrogen Energy Storage Method Selection in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Yildiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to select the most appropriate Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES method for Turkey from among the alternatives of tank, metal hydride and chemical storage, which are determined based on expert opinions and literature review. Thus, we propose a Buckley extension based fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (Fuzzy-AHP and linear normalization based fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis (Fuzzy-GRA combined Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methodology. This combined approach can be applied to a complex decision process, which often makes sense with subjective data or vague information; and used to solve to solve HES selection problem with different defuzzification methods. The proposed approach is unique both in the HES literature and the MCDM literature.

  4. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  5. Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Combined Heat and Power Systems. Comparison of Various Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Costea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of various CHP system configurations, such as Vapour Turbine, Gas Turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, External Combustion Engine (Stirling, Ericsson, when different thermodynamic criteria are considered, namely the first law efficiency and exergy efficiency. Thermodynamic optimization of these systems is performed intending to maximize the exergy, when various practical related constraints (imposed mechanical useful energy, imposed heat demand, imposed heat to power ratio or main physical limitations (limited heat availability, maximum system temperature allowed, thermo-mechanical constraints are taken into account. A sensitivity analysis to model parameters is given. The results have shown that the various added constraints were useful for the design allowing to precise the influence of the model main parameters on the system design. Future perspective of the work and recommendations are stated.

  6. Self powered sensing by combining novel sensor architectures with energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vishwas Narayan

    consumption of health monitoring and magnetic field sensors, bottom -- up design of structural health monitoring and magnetic field sensors was investigated. A MWCNT/SiCN nanotube template was developed that exhibits piezoresistive effect. Next, a novel nanotube morphology "nanoNecklace" was synthesized that consists of BaTiO 3 (BTO) nanoparticles decorated along the surface of SiCN. Monolayer coating of SiCN on MWCNT serves two purposes: (i) modifies the surface wetting characteristics, and (ii) enhances the piezoresistive effect. Investigation of the mechanisms that provide periodic arrangement of BTO on nanotube surface was conducted using HRTEM and contact angle measurements. Next, we tried to modify the surface wetting characteristics of MWCNTs in order to get a full coating of BTO nanoparticles. The SiCN/MWCNT approach was further extended to fabricate magnetoelectric nanowire based sensors designs. In this approach a SiCN-NT template was coated with BTO and CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles. Microstructural studies indicated the presence of piezoelectric (BTO) as well as magnetic (CFO) material on the nanotube surface. In order to power the sensors from mechanical vibrations, we investigated two different techniques, (i) piezoelectric and (ii) inductive. An analytical model for energy harvesting from bimorph transducer was developed which was confirmed by experimental measurements. The results show that power density of bimorph transducer can be enhanced by increasing the magnitude of product (d.g), where d is the piezoelectric strain constant and g is the piezoelectric voltage constant. Under inductive energy harvesting, we designed and fabricated a small scale harvester that was integrated inside a pen commonly carried by humans to harvest vibration energy. Inductive energy harvesting was selected in order to achieve high power at lower frequencies. The prototype cylindrical harvester was found to generate 3mW at 5 Hz and 1mW at 3.5 Hz operating under displacement

  7. Combining finite element and finite difference methods for isotropic elastic wave simulations in an energy-conserving manner

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2018-02-22

    We consider numerical simulation of the isotropic elastic wave equations arising from seismic applications with non-trivial land topography. The more flexible finite element method is applied to the shallow region of the simulation domain to account for the topography, and combined with the more efficient finite difference method that is applied to the deep region of the simulation domain. We demonstrate that these two discretization methods, albeit starting from different formulations of the elastic wave equation, can be joined together smoothly via weakly imposed interface conditions. Discrete energy analysis is employed to derive the proper interface treatment, leading to an overall discretization that is energy-conserving. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed interface treatment.

  8. Selective Catalytic Synthesis Using the Combination of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: Catalytic Chess at the Interface of Energy and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankermayer, Jürgen; Wesselbaum, Sebastian; Beydoun, Kassem; Leitner, Walter

    2016-06-20

    The present Review highlights the challenges and opportunities when using the combination CO2 /H2 as a C1 synthon in catalytic reactions and processes. The transformations are classified according to the reduction level and the bond-forming processes, covering the value chain from high volume basic chemicals to complex molecules, including biologically active substances. Whereas some of these concepts can facilitate the transition of the energy system by harvesting renewable energy into chemical products, others provide options to reduce the environmental impact of chemical production already in today's petrochemical-based industry. Interdisciplinary fundamental research from chemists and chemical engineers can make important contributions to sustainable development at the interface of the energetic and chemical value chain. The present Review invites the reader to enjoy this exciting area of "catalytic chess" and maybe even to start playing some games in her or his laboratory. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Combining finite element and finite difference methods for isotropic elastic wave simulations in an energy-conserving manner

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei; Keyes, David E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider numerical simulation of the isotropic elastic wave equations arising from seismic applications with non-trivial land topography. The more flexible finite element method is applied to the shallow region of the simulation domain to account for the topography, and combined with the more efficient finite difference method that is applied to the deep region of the simulation domain. We demonstrate that these two discretization methods, albeit starting from different formulations of the elastic wave equation, can be joined together smoothly via weakly imposed interface conditions. Discrete energy analysis is employed to derive the proper interface treatment, leading to an overall discretization that is energy-conserving. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed interface treatment.

  10. Achievements and most important tasks of the Georgi Dimitrov mining and energy combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoimenov, S

    1979-07-01

    Georgi Dimitrov combine is comprised of 10 surface and underground mines located in the Pernik, Sofia, Svoge and Bobovdol coal fields, two preparation plants, a maintenance and repair plant, a thermal power plant, a motor transport company and a housing construction plant, employing more than 12,000 workers. The present coal output of more than 6,000,000 tons per year is used primarily for production of power; about 300,000 tons are distributed as heating fuel. During the three years of the present five year plan, the capital investments totalled 27,205 levs, but was primarily used for replacing old equipment and for reconstruction work. Improvements will concentrate on the following targets: the life of the Pernik coal field will have to be extended up to 1995-2000 mainly by limiting the output; new mines supplying coal with high ash content will have to be developed; the Sofia coal field must be further developed; organization of work, particularly in the Pernik mines, must be improved.

  11. Structural analysis of magnetic fusion energy systems in a combined interactive/batch computer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.E.; Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.; Gray, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A system of computer programs has been developed to aid in the preparation of input data for and the evaluation of output data from finite element structural analyses of magnetic fusion energy devices. The system utilizes the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program and a special set of interactive pre- and post-processor computer programs, and has been designed for use in an environment wherein a time-share computer system is linked to a batch computer system. In such an environment, the analyst must only enter, review and/or manipulate data through interactive terminals linked to the time-share computer system. The primary pre-processor programs include NASDAT, NASERR and TORMAC. NASDAT and TORMAC are used to generate NASTRAN input data. NASERR performs routine error checks on this data. The NASTRAN program is run on a batch computer system using data generated by NASDAT and TORMAC. The primary post-processing programs include NASCMP and NASPOP. NASCMP is used to compress the data initially stored on magnetic tape by NASTRAN so as to facilitate interactive use of the data. NASPOP reads the data stored by NASCMP and reproduces NASTRAN output for selected grid points, elements and/or data types

  12. Combined Two-Stage Stochastic Programming and Receding Horizon Control Strategy for Microgrid Energy Management Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwen Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids (MGs are presented as a cornerstone of smart grids. With the potential to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources (RES in a flexible and environmental way, the MG concept has gained even more attention. Due to the randomness of RES, load, and electricity price in MG, the forecast errors of MGs will affect the performance of the power scheduling and the operating cost of an MG. In this paper, a combined stochastic programming and receding horizon control (SPRHC strategy is proposed for microgrid energy management under uncertainty, which combines the advantages of two-stage stochastic programming (SP and receding horizon control (RHC strategy. With an SP strategy, a scheduling plan can be derived that minimizes the risk of uncertainty by involving the uncertainty of MG in the optimization model. With an RHC strategy, the uncertainty within the MG can be further compensated through a feedback mechanism with the lately updated forecast information. In our approach, a proper strategy is also proposed to maintain the SP model as a mixed integer linear constrained quadratic programming (MILCQP problem, which is solvable without resorting to any heuristics algorithms. The results of numerical experiments explicitly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed strategy for both island and grid-connected operating modes of an MG.

  13. Electromagnetic design and development of a combined function horizontal and vertical dipole steerer magnet for medium energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kumud; Itteera, Janvin; Ukarde, Priti; Teotia, Vikas; Kumar, Prashant; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is required to match the optical functions between the RFQ and SRF cavities/DTL cavities.The primary function of the MEBT lines is to keep the emittance growth of the output beam as low as possible in a highly space charge environment at low energies. The transverse focusing of the beam is achieved by strong focusing quadrupoles and the longitudinal dynamics is achieved by the buncher cavities. The Dipole Steerers serve the function of a control element to achieve the desired transverse beam position. To minimize the emittance growth high magnetic field rigidity is required in a highly constrained longitudinal space for these corrector magnets. The design and development of an air-cooled dipole steerer magnet has been done for an integral dipole field of 2.1mT-m in a Good Field Region (GFR) of 23 mm diameter with Integral Field homogeneity better than 0.5%. Electromagnetic field simulations were done using 3D-FEM simulation software OPERA. Error sensitivity studies have been carried out to specify the manufacturing tolerances to estimate and minimize the beam transmission loss due to likely misalignments and rotation of the magnet. A combined function dipole corrector magnet has been designed and fabricated at the Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper discusses measurement results of a combined function dipole steerer for MEBT line for Proton (H + ) beam at 2.5 MeV. (author)

  14. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  15. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO 2 + with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H 2 densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH + , CH 2 + , and CH 4 + have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  16. Combining CFD simulations with blockoriented heatflow-network model for prediction of photovoltaic energy-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, I E; Farkas, I

    2011-01-01

    The exterior factors which influencing the working circumstances of photovoltaic modules are the irradiation, the optical air layer (Air Mass - AM), the irradiation angle, the environmental temperature and the cooling effect of the wind. The efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) devices is inversely proportional to the cell temperature and therefore the mounting of the PV modules can have a big affect on the cooling, due to wind flow-around and naturally convection. The construction of the modules could be described by a heatflow-network model, and that can define the equation which determines the cells temperature. An equation like this can be solved as a block oriented model with hybrid-analogue simulator such as Matlab-Simulink. In view of the flow field and the heat transfer, witch was calculated numerically, the heat transfer coefficients can be determined. Five inflow rates were set up for both pitched and flat roof cases, to let the trend of the heat transfer coefficient know, while these functions can be used for the Matlab/Simulink model. To model the free convection flows, the Boussinesq-approximation were used, integrated into the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation. It has been found that under a constant solar heat gain, the air velocity around the modules and behind the pitched-roof mounted module is increasing, proportionately to the wind velocities, and as result the heat transfer coefficient increases linearly, and can be described by a function in both cases. To the block based model the meteorological parameters and the results of the CFD simulations as single functions were attached. The final aim was to make a model that could be used for planning photovoltaic systems, and define their accurate performance for better sizing of an array of modules.

  17. Prediction of hot spot residues at protein-protein interfaces by combining machine learning and energy-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontil Massimiliano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alanine scanning mutagenesis is a powerful experimental methodology for investigating the structural and energetic characteristics of protein complexes. Individual amino-acids are systematically mutated to alanine and changes in free energy of binding (ΔΔG measured. Several experiments have shown that protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues ("hot spots" at the interface. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the free energy of binding and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there is a need for accurate and reliable computational methods. Such methods would also add to our understanding of the determinants of affinity and specificity in protein-protein recognition. Results We present a novel computational strategy to identify hot spot residues, given the structure of a complex. We consider the basic energetic terms that contribute to hot spot interactions, i.e. van der Waals potentials, solvation energy, hydrogen bonds and Coulomb electrostatics. We treat them as input features and use machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes to optimally combine and integrate them, based on a set of training examples of alanine mutations. We show that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and it compares favourably to other available methods. In particular we find the best performances using Transductive Support Vector Machines, a semi-supervised learning scheme. When hot spots are defined as those residues for which ΔΔG ≥ 2 kcal/mol, our method achieves a precision and a recall respectively of 56% and 65%. Conclusion We have developed an hybrid scheme in which energy terms are used as input features of machine learning models. This strategy combines the strengths of machine learning and energy-based methods. Although so far these two types of approaches have mainly been

  18. A robust control strategy for mitigating renewable energy fluctuations in a real hybrid power system combined with SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, G.; Shabib, G.; Elbaset, Adel A.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Utilizing Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is attracting great attention as a solution to future energy shortages. However, the irregular nature of RESs and random load deviations cause a large frequency and voltage fluctuations. Therefore, in order to benefit from a maximum capacity of the RESs, a robust mitigation strategy of power fluctuations from RESs must be applied. Hence, this paper proposes a design of Load Frequency Control (LFC) coordinated with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology (i.e., an auxiliary LFC), using an optimal PID controller-based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the Egyptian Power System (EPS) considering high penetration of Photovoltaics (PV) power generation. Thus, from the perspective of LFC, the robust control strategy is proposed to maintain the nominal system frequency and mitigating the power fluctuations from RESs against all disturbances sources for the EPS with the multi-source environment. The EPS is decomposed into three dynamics subsystems, which are non-reheat, reheat and hydro power plants taking into consideration the system nonlinearity. The results by nonlinear simulation Matlab/Simulink for the EPS combined with SMES system considering PV solar power approves that, the proposed control strategy achieves a robust stability by reducing transient time, minimizing the frequency deviations, maintaining the system frequency, preventing conventional generators from exceeding their power ratings during load disturbances, and mitigating the power fluctuations from the RESs.

  19. The future of combined heat and power generation. Survey of the economic appeal in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.; Rijkers, F.A.M.; Battjes, J.J.; De Raad, A.

    1999-10-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) has made a considerable contribution to Dutch national energy efficiency and is an important element in future energy and environmental policy programs. Recently, the effect of liberalisation of energy markets on prices and tariffs has been signalled to form a threat to CHP. This study calculates effects in two-market scenarios for a wide variety of CHP options and conditions. Results show that indeed profitability of investments in CHP has substantially decreased. Even in a scenario where electricity prices cover more than just marginal costs, most types of CHP are no longer profitable. Cash flow calculations on existing CHP projects also show a substantial decrease. Estimates on the national CHP capacity for 2010 compared to 1999 amount to a decrease in the competitive scenario and a stabilisation in the moderate scenario. The main cause is the fierce competition on the electricity market and the uncertainty whether prices will cover more than just marginal fuel costs in the near future. Part of the study was also to make an update of the technical and cost inputs of CHP projects. Investments and O and M (operation and maintenance) costs seem to have risen substantially, contributing to the decrease in profitability of CHP. 20 refs

  20. Efficient sampling over rough energy landscapes with high barriers: A combination of metadynamics with integrated tempering sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. Isaac [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jun; Che, Xing; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In order to efficiently overcome high free energy barriers embedded in a complex energy landscape and calculate overall thermodynamics properties using molecular dynamics simulations, we developed and implemented a sampling strategy by combining the metadynamics with (selective) integrated tempering sampling (ITS/SITS) method. The dominant local minima on the potential energy surface (PES) are partially exalted by accumulating history-dependent potentials as in metadynamics, and the sampling over the entire PES is further enhanced by ITS/SITS. With this hybrid method, the simulated system can be rapidly driven across the dominant barrier along selected collective coordinates. Then, ITS/SITS ensures a fast convergence of the sampling over the entire PES and an efficient calculation of the overall thermodynamic properties of the simulation system. To test the accuracy and efficiency of this method, we first benchmarked this method in the calculation of ϕ − ψ distribution of alanine dipeptide in explicit solvent. We further applied it to examine the design of template molecules for aromatic meta-C—H activation in solutions and investigate solution conformations of the nonapeptide Bradykinin involving slow cis-trans isomerizations of three proline residues.

  1. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip

    2008-12-01

    that produce biofuels suitable for the transport sector efficiencies between 45 and 55 % can be reached, independent of product. However, there is one exception, which is methane produced via gasification that can reach efficiencies between 70 and 75 %. What differs more between the biofuel producing processes for the transport sector is the amount of biofuel that is possible to get out from the ingoing biomass, which can be anything between 20 and 70 %. Here, ethanol gives the lowest and methane via gasification the highest values. With respect to the costs to produce the different products the lowest costs are obviously related to the production of biofuels to be used in the stationary energy system. The total production cost of these products is between 40 and 90 % higher than the cost for biomass feedstock (Swedish forest residues). The production cost for the other biofuels is 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than the cost for the feedstock (Swedish forest residues), independent of product. However, some polygeneration schemes show very high cost, up to 9 times the cost for the feedstock. The uncertainty in these figures is, nevertheless, high and the real costs are dependent on if there are any supplier of the technology, which availability that is possible to achieve and the costs for the operation and maintenance. As one or several of the components included in these plants are still at a research or at a demonstration stage, it is not possible to give any more precise estimation on the costs or availability of such plants

  2. Wave Loadings Acting on an Innovative Breakwater for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, F.; Buccino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG....... The hydraulic model tests have been carried out at the LInC laboratory of the University of Naples Federico II using random waves. Results indicate wave overtopping is able to cause a sudden inversion of vertical force under wave crest, so that it is alternatively upward and downward directed over a short time...

  3. Students' meaning making in science: solving energy resource problems in virtual worlds combined with spreadsheets to develop graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krange, Ingeborg; Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to scrutinize the characteristics of conceptual meaning making when students engage with virtual worlds in combination with a spreadsheet with the aim to develop graphs. We study how these tools and the representations they contain or enable students to construct serve to influence their understanding of energy resource consumption. The data were gathered in 1st grade upper-secondary science classes and they constitute the basis for the interaction analysis of students' meaning making with representations. Our analyses demonstrate the difficulties involved in developing students' orientation toward more conceptual orientations to representations of the knowledge domain. Virtual worlds do not in themselves represent a solution to this problem.

  4. About the Need of Combining Power Market and Power Grid Model Results for Future Energy System Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Denis; Böttger, Diana; Löwer, Lothar; Becker, Holger; Akbulut, Alev; Stock, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The European power grid infrastructure faces various challenges due to the expansion of renewable energy sources (RES). To conduct investigations on interactions between power generation and the power grid, models for the power market as well as for the power grid are necessary. This paper describes the basic functionalities and working principles of both types of models as well as steps to couple power market results and the power grid model. The combination of these models is beneficial in terms of gaining realistic power flow scenarios in the grid model and of being able to pass back results of the power flow and restrictions to the market model. Focus is laid on the power grid model and possible application examples like algorithms in grid analysis, operation and dynamic equipment modelling.

  5. Topology of surfaces for molecular Stark energy, alignment, and orientation generated by combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2014-02-14

    We show that combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions of linear polar and polarizable molecules with collinear electric fields lead to a sui generis topology of the corresponding Stark energy surfaces and of other observables - such as alignment and orientation cosines - in the plane spanned by the permanent and induced dipole interaction parameters. We find that the loci of the intersections of the surfaces can be traced analytically and that the eigenstates as well as the number of their intersections can be characterized by a single integer index. The value of the index, distinctive for a particular ratio of the interaction parameters, brings out a close kinship with the eigenproperties obtained previously for a class of Stark states via the apparatus of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  6. Topology of surfaces for molecular Stark energy, alignment, and orientation generated by combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, Bretislav, E-mail: brich@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-14

    We show that combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions of linear polar and polarizable molecules with collinear electric fields lead to a sui generis topology of the corresponding Stark energy surfaces and of other observables – such as alignment and orientation cosines – in the plane spanned by the permanent and induced dipole interaction parameters. We find that the loci of the intersections of the surfaces can be traced analytically and that the eigenstates as well as the number of their intersections can be characterized by a single integer index. The value of the index, distinctive for a particular ratio of the interaction parameters, brings out a close kinship with the eigenproperties obtained previously for a class of Stark states via the apparatus of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  7. Heat Modeling and Material Development of Mg-Based Nanomaterials Combined with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Stationary Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu Shao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based materials have been investigated as hydrogen storage materials, especially for possible onboard storage in fuel cell vehicles for decades. Recently, with the development of large-scale fuel cell technologies, the development of Mg-based materials as stationary storage to supply hydrogen to fuel-cell components and provide electricity and heat is becoming increasingly promising. In this work, numerical analysis of heat balance management for stationary solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC systems combined with MgH2 materials based on a carbon-neutral design concept was performed. Waste heat from the SOFC is supplied to hydrogen desorption as endothermic heat for the MgH2 materials. The net efficiency of this model achieves 82% lower heating value (LHV, and the efficiency of electrical power output becomes 68.6% in minimizing heat output per total energy output when all available heat of waste gas and system is supplied to warm up the storage. For the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials, various nano-processing techniques have been widely applied to synthesize Mg-based materials with small particle and crystallite sizes, resulting in good hydrogen storage kinetics, but poor thermal conductivity. Here, three kinds of Mg-based materials were investigated and compared: 325 mesh Mg powers, 300 nm Mg nanoparticles synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, and Mg50Co50 metastable alloy with body-centered cubic structure. Based on the overall performances of hydrogen capacity, absorption kinetics and thermal conductivity of the materials, the Mg nanoparticle sample by plasma synthesis is the most promising material for this potential application. The findings in this paper may shed light on a new energy conversion and utilization technology on MgH2-SOFC combined concept.

  8. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  9. The use of shf-energy in the combined method of a conditioning of the Mogars grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanasharova, D.A.; Khakimzhanov, A.A.; Burtebayeva, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    A complex study of different stages of processing and production of bread-roll products on the basis of specifically local raw material is an actual problem of a contemporary technology of processing of agriculture products. During the development of new technologies of the production of wheaten bread with an addition of new high-productive sorts of 'Mogar' (the sort of Setaria', the family of cereals) is the special methods of a processing in order to improve a quality of a flour and to raise an efficiency of its application in bread - making production. The application of shf-fields (with the frequency of 2.45 GHz) is a practical value and scientific interest. The shf-energy is used for an influence onto a biological system of grains during its processing with the combined method of the conditioning. During this action the degree of the transformation of the shf-energy into a heat one in humid drain is determined by the rate of heating of grain mass, Δt/Δτ, where Δt is change of the temperature in the grain mass (in deg. C) and Δτ is time interval of the processing (in seconds). By experimental way it was established that the most intensive selection of energy, characterized by the rate of heating of drain mass of (0.19-0.21) deg. C/s, takes place during the humidification of drain up to (28-30) %, in the time of a simultaneous air blow-through. In order to avoid the process of denaturation of grain the grain mass was heated up to the temperature of (45-47) deg.C and up to an achievement of its humidity of (16-47) %. The maximum increase of flour yield up to (6-8) %, in the time of a decrease of an ash content by (0.18-0.21) %, was achieved at the optimal duration of moistening of (2.5-3.0) hours, that is essentially less (by (4-5) times than it is during the traditional processing. At the sometime, for experimental samples, the criterion of milling corresponded to the maximum values: K=37/49 and K=7.89. It is established, that during the processing of

  10. In Situ Structure-Function Studies of Oxide Supported Rhodium Catalysts by Combined Energy Dispersive XAFS and DRIFTS Spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, John; Dent, Andrew J.; Diaz-Moreno, Sofia; Fiddy, Steven G.; Jyoti, Bhrat; Tromp, Moniek; Newton, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The techniques of energy dispersive EXAFS (EDE), diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been combined to study the structure and function of an oxide supported metal catalyst, namely 5 wt% Rh/Al2O3. Using a FreLoN camera as the EDE detector and a rapid-scanning IR spectrometer, experiments could be performed with a repetition rate of 50 ms. The results show that the nature of the rhodium centers is a function of the partial pressures of the reacting gases (CO and NO) and also temperature. This combination of gases oxidizes metallic rhodium particles to Rh(CO)2 at room temperature. The proportion of the rhodium adopting this site increases as the temperature is raised (up to 450 K). Above that temperature the dicarbonyl decomposes and the metal reclusters. Once this condition is met, catalysis ensues. Gas switching techniques show that at 573 K with NO in excess, the clusters can be oxidized rapidly to afford a linear nitrosyl complex; re-exposure to CO also promotes reclustering and the CO adopts terminal (atop) and bridging (2-fold) sites

  11. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  12. Enhanced energy recovery from cassava ethanol wastewater through sequential dark hydrogen, photo hydrogen and methane fermentation combined with ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Yang, Zongbo; Ding, Lingkan; Zhang, Jiabei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-01

    Cassava ethanol wastewater (CEW) was subjected to sequential dark H2, photo H2 and CH4 fermentation to maximize H2 production and energy yield. A relatively low H2 yield of 23.6mL/g soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) was obtained in dark fermentation. To eliminate the inhibition of excessive NH4(+) on sequential photo fermentation, zeolite was used to remove NH4(+) in residual dark solution (86.5% removal efficiency). The treated solution from 5gCODs/L of CEW achieved the highest photo H2 yield of 369.7mL/gCODs, while the solution from 20gCODs/L gave the lowest yield of 259.6mL/gCODs. This can be explained that photo H2 yield was correlated to soluble metabolic products (SMPs) yield in dark fermentation, and specific SMPs yield decreased from 38.0 to 18.1mM/g CODs. The total energy yield significantly increased to 8.39kJ/gCODs by combining methanogenesis with a CH4 yield of 117.9mL/gCODs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  14. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector (Slides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  15. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Analysis of a novel solar energy-powered Rankine cycle for combined power and heat generation using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.R.; Yamaguchi, H.; Uneno, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 630-0321 (Japan); Fujima, K. [Mayekawa MFG Co., Ltd., 2000 Tatsuzawa Moriya-city, Ibaraki-Pref. 302-0118 (Japan); Enomoto, M. [Showa Denko K. K., 1-480, Inuzuka, Oyama-city, Tochigi 323-8679 (Japan); Sawada, N. [Showa Tansan Co., Ltd., 7-1, Ogimachi, Kawasaki-Ku, Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa 210-0867 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Theoretical analysis of a solar energy-powered Rankine thermodynamic cycle utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid, is presented. In this system, a truly 'natural' working fluid, carbon dioxide, is utilized to generate firstly electricity power and secondly high-grade heat power and low-grade heat power. The uniqueness of the system is in the way in which both solar energy and carbon dioxide, available in abundant quantities in all parts of the world, are simultaneously used to build up a thermodynamic cycle and has the potential to reduce energy shortage and greatly reduce carbon dioxide emissions and global warming, offering environmental and personal safety simultaneously. The system consists of an evacuated solar collector system, a power-generating turbine, a high-grade heat recovery system, a low-grade heat recovery system and a feed pump. The performances of this CO{sub 2}-based Rankine cycle were theoretically investigated and the effects of various design conditions, namely, solar radiation, solar collector area and CO{sub 2} flow rate, were studied. Numerical simulations show that the proposed system may have electricity power efficiency and heat power efficiency as high as 11.4% and 36.2%, respectively. It is also found that the cycle performances strongly depend on climate conditions. Also the electricity power and heat power outputs increase with the collector area and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The estimated COP{sub power} and COP{sub heat} increase with the CO{sub 2} flow rate, but decrease with the collector area. The CO{sub 2}-based cycle can be optimized to provide maximum power, maximum heat recovery or a combination of both. The results suggest the potential of this new concept for applications to electricity power and heat power generation. (author)

  17. Measurement and interpretation of moments of the combined hadronic mass and energy spectrum in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, V.

    2007-11-29

    This thesis presents first measurements of moments of the hadronic n{sub X}{sup 2} distribution measured in inclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons to final states containing a charm quark, B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}}. The variable n{sub X}{sup 2} is a combination of the invariant mass of the charmed meson m{sub X}, its energy in the B-meson rest-frame E{sub X,BRF}, and a constant {lambda}=0.65 GeV, n{sub X}{sup 2}=m{sub X}{sup 2}c{sup 4}-2{lambda}E{sub X,BRF}+{lambda}{sup 2}. The moments left angle n{sub X}{sup k} right angle with k=2,4,6 are measured as proposed by theory to constrain assumptions made in the theoretical description of inclusive observables in semileptonic B-meson decays. This description uses Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), an effective QCD combined with an Operator Product Expansion. The measurement is based on a sample of 231.6 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {upsilon}(4S) {yields} B anti B events recorded with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -}-storage rings at SLAC. We reconstruct the semileptonic decay by identifying a charged lepton in events tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of the second B meson. Correction procedures are derived from Monte Carlo simulations to ensure an unbiased measurement of the moments of the n{sub X}{sup 2} distribution. All moments are measured requiring minimum lepton momenta between 0.8 GeV/c and 1.9 GeV/c in the rest frame of the B meson. Performing a simultaneous fit to the measured moments left angle n{sub X}{sup k} right angle up to order k = 6 combined with other measurements of moments of the lepton-energy spectrum in decays B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}} and moments of the photon-energy spectrum in decays B{yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, we determine the quark-mixing parameter vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, the bottom and charm quark masses, the semileptonic branching fraction B(B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}}), and four non-perturbative heavy quark parameters. Using HQE

  18. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments of the Combined Hadronic Mass and Energy Spectrum in Inclusive Semileptonic B-Meson Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Verena [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2011-08-12

    This thesis presents first measurements of moments of the hadronic nX2 distribution measured in inclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons to final states containing a charm quark, B → Xcℓν. The variable nX2 is a combination of the invariant mass of the charmed meson mX, its energy in the B-meson rest-frame EX;BRF, and a constant ~Λ = 0.65 GeV, nX2 = mX2c4-2~ΛEX,BRF + ~Λ2. The moments Xk> with k = 2,4,6 are measured as proposed by theory to constrain assumptions made in the theoretical description of inclusive observables in semileptonic B-meson decays. This description uses Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), an effective QCD combined with an Operator Product Expansion. The measurement is based on a sample of 231.6 million e+e- → Υ(4S) {yields} B$\\bar{B}$ events recorded with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+e--storage rings at SLAC. We reconstruct the semileptonic decay by identifying a charged lepton in events tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of the second B meson. Correction procedures are derived from Monte Carlo simulations to ensure an unbiased measurement of the moments of the nX2 distribution. All moments are measured requiring minimum lepton momenta between 0.8 GeV/c and 1.9 GeV/c in the rest frame of the B meson. Performing a simultaneous fit to the measured moments Xk> up to order k = 6 combined with other measurements of moments of the lepton-energy spectrum in decays B → Xcℓν and moments of the photon-energy spectrum in decays B → Xsγ, we determine the quark-mixing parameter |Vcb|, the bottom and charm quark masses, the semileptonic branching fraction β(B → Xcℓν), and four non-perturbative heavy quark

  19. Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kunal K.; Mundada, Aishwarya S.; Pearce, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulated PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three U.S. regions. • Used hybrid optimization model for electric renewable pro microgrid analysis. • Limited size of each sub-module to singe family house size. • Results show that the electricity generated meets residential load demand. • Hybrid systems are technically viable in hot, moderate and cold climates in U.S. - Abstract: Until recently, the relatively high levelized cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic (PV) technology limited deployment; however, recent cost reductions, combined with various financial incentives and innovative financing techniques, have made PV fully competitive with conventional sources in many American regions. In addition, the costs of electrical storage have also declined enough to make PV + battery systems potentially economically viable for a mass-scale off-grid low-emission transition. However, many regions in the U.S. (e.g. Northern areas) cannot have off-grid PV systems without prohibitively large battery systems. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems provide a potential solution for off-grid power backup of residential-scale PV + battery arrays, while also minimizing emissions from conventional sources. Thus, an opportunity is now available to maximize the use of solar energy and gain the improved efficiencies possible with CHPs to deploy PV + battery + CHP systems throughout the U.S. The aim of this study is to determine the technical viability of such systems by simulating PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three representative regions in the U.S., using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) Pro Microgrid Analysis tool. The results show that the electricity generated by each component of the hybrid system can be coupled to fulfill the residential load demand. A sensitivity analysis of these hybrid off grid systems is carried out as a function capacity factor of both the PV and CHP units. The

  20. Combined wet electrostatic aerosol removal and energy recovery; Energigenvinding med samtidig fjernelse af sure komponenter og aerosoler fra roeggas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project, entitled 'Combined Wet Electrostatic Aerosol Removal and Energy Recovery', was to develop and test a low-cost process for removal of fine and ultrafine particles as well as acid gases and other pollutants from flue gases. The process is based on a combination of electrostatic precipitation and wet scrubbing in a single unit. This has several potential advantages compared to traditional bag filtering such as lower operational costs, energy recovery by condensation, elimination of fire risk, as well as the possibility of reducing emissions of acid gases and organic compounds in the scrubber section. Moreover, the electrostatic section could be retrofitted on existing wet scrubbers, thus enhancing their particulate removal efficiency significantly. A pilot-plant (approx. 1:10 of full scale, operated at about 60 kV) was constructed at the 2.5 MW straw-fired district heating plant of Hals. During straw firing a large number of submicron particles are generated that are not removed by the existing wet scrubber at Hals. The particle removal efficiency of the process was monitored on-line using SMPS equipment (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers). Special dilution probes were constructed due to a high moisture content of the gas and high particle number concentrations. Two complete SMPS equipments were operated simultaneously on the raw and clean gas side, respectively. The particle removal efficiency of the process relies on the presence of a strong electric field. The results obtained (up to 40% removal efficiency of particles below 0.8 {mu}m mobile diameter) indicate that the strength and stability of the field is insufficient. The reason for this is not exactly known, because loss of current may occur due to several factors such as particulate build-up on electrode and reactor surfaces, condensation of water on surfaces, variations in gas and particulate composition etc. The efforts were concentrated on the electrostatic section

  1. Combined high-power ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization nanoemulsification: The effect of energy density, oil content and emulsifier type and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Plazzotta, Stella; Valoppi, Fabio; Anese, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Combinations of ultrasound (US) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at low-medium energy densities were studied as alternative processes to individual US and HPH to produce Tween 80 and whey protein stabilized nanoemulsions, while reducing the energy input. To this aim, preliminary trials were performed to compare emulsification efficacy of single and combined HPH and US treatments delivering low-medium energy densities. Results highlighted the efficacy of US-HPH combined process in reducing the energy required to produce nanoemulsions stabilized with both Tween 80 and whey protein isolate. Subsequently, the effect of emulsifier content (1-3% w/w), oil amount (10-20% w/w) and energy density (47-175 MJ/m 3 ) on emulsion mean particle diameter was evaluated by means of a central composite design. Particles of 140-190 nm were obtained by delivering 175 MJ/m 3 energy density at emulsions containing 3% (w/w) Tween 80 and 10% (w/w) oil. In the case of whey protein isolate stabilized emulsions, a reduced emulsifier amount (1% w/w) and intermediate energy density (120 MJ/m 3 ) allowed a minimum droplet size around 220-250 nm to be achieved. Results showed that, in both cases, at least 50% of the energy density should be delivered by HPH to obtain the minimum particle diameter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined heat and power production planning in a waste-to-energy plant on a short-term basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touš, Michal; Pavlas, Martin; Putna, Ondřej; Stehlík, Petr; Crha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, WtE (waste-to-energy) plants are CHP (combined heat and power) producers. They are often integrated into a central heating system and they also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, they have to plan their operation on a long-term basis (months, years) as well as on a short-term basis (hours, days). Simulation models can effectively support decision making in CHP production planning. In general, CHP production planning on a short-term basis is a challenging task for WtE plants. This article presents a simulation based support. It is demonstrated on an example involving a real WtE plant. Most of the models of relevant WtE sub-systems (boilers, steam turbine) are developed using operational data and applying linear regression and artificial neural network technique. The process randomness given mainly by fluctuating heating value of waste leads to uncertainty in a calculation of CHP production and a stochastic approach is appropriate. The models of the sub-systems are, therefore, extended of a stochastic part and Monte-Carlo simulation is applied. Compared to the current planning strategy in the involved WtE plant, the stochastic simulation based planning provides increased CHP production resulting in better net thermal efficiency and increased revenue. This is demonstrated through a comparison using real operational data. - Highlights: • Introduction of a stochastic model of a CHP production in a waste-to-energy plant. • An application of the model for the next day CHP production planning. • Better net thermal efficiency and therefore increased revenue achieved.

  3. LincRNA-ROR promotes metastasis and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating miR-145/FSCN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Muhe Shang, Xianghu Wang, Ying Zhang, Zhikui Gao, Tian Wang, Ran Liu Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Background and objective: In an attempt to discover a new biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the regulation mechanism of large intergenic non-coding RNA–regulator of reprogramming (lincRNA-ROR as a microRNA (miRNA sponge was studied.Patients and methods: ROR expression in 91 pairs of ESCC tissue samples and matched adjacent tissues was quantified with real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The ROR–miRNA–mRNA regulatory network was built with 161 esophageal cancer (EC tissues and 11 adjacent tumor tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database. A total of 96 cases of ESCC from TCGA database were collected for analysis on survival rates. The regulatory relationship between ROR, miR-145 and FSCN1 was verified in ESCC cells via qRT-PCR, dual luciferase reporter (DLR assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP and Western blotting. The transwell method was used to detect cell migration and invasion.Results: ROR expression in ESCC tumor tissues was significantly higher than in the adjacent tissues, p<0.001. The survival rate of ESCC patients with high ROR expression levels was lower than that of patients with low ROR expression levels (p<0.001. ROR overexpression could downregulate miR-145 by up to 50% was proven by RIP, DLR assay, and qRT-PCR. Two effective binding sites of ROR to miR-145 were verified by DLR assay. One of the sites has never been cited in the literature. The Western blotting results showed that FSCN1 was a downstream target of ROR/miR-145 (p<0.05. Transwell assays were used to show that overexpression of ROR enhanced migration and invasion behavior of ESCC and miR-145 hindered these effects.Conclusion: ROR acted as a competitive

  4. The Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): An overview of ice nucleation measurements observed with four on-line ice nucleation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, André; Stratmann, Frank; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are found to be the most relevant cloud type leading to precipitation in mid-latitudes. The formation of ice crystals in MPCs is not completely understood. To estimate the effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds and to describe ice nucleation in models, the specific properties of aerosol particles acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) still need to be identified. A number of devices are able to measure INPs in the lab and in the field. However, methods can be very different and need to be tested under controlled conditions with respect to aerosol generation and properties in order to standardize measurement and data analysis approaches for subsequent ambient measurements. Here, we present an overview of the LINC campaign hosted at TROPOS in September 2015. We compare four ice nucleation devices: PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) and SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) are operated in deposition nucleation and condensation freezing mode. LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011) and PIMCA (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chamber) measure in the immersion freezing mode. PIMCA is used as a vertical extension to PINC and allows activation and droplet growth prior to exposure to the investigated ice nucleation temperature. Size-resolved measurements of multiple aerosol types were performed including pure mineral dust (K-feldspar, kaolinite) and biological particles (Birch pollen washing waters) as well as some of them after treatment with sulfuric or nitric acid prior to experiments. LACIS and PIMCA-PINC operated in the immersion freezing mode showed very good agreement in the measured frozen fraction (FF). For the comparison between PINC and SPIN, which were scanning relative humidity from below to above water vapor saturation, an agreement was found for the obtained INP concentration. However, some differences were observed, which may result from ice

  5. Quasi-brittle damage modeling based on incremental energy relaxation combined with a viscous-type regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, K.; Junker, P.; Mosler, J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with a constitutive model suitable for the analysis of quasi-brittle damage in structures. The model is based on incremental energy relaxation combined with a viscous-type regularization. A similar approach—which also represents the inspiration for the improved model presented in this paper—was recently proposed in Junker et al. (Contin Mech Thermodyn 29(1):291-310, 2017). Within this work, the model introduced in Junker et al. (2017) is critically analyzed first. This analysis leads to an improved model which shows the same features as that in Junker et al. (2017), but which (i) eliminates unnecessary model parameters, (ii) can be better interpreted from a physics point of view, (iii) can capture a fully softened state (zero stresses), and (iv) is characterized by a very simple evolution equation. In contrast to the cited work, this evolution equation is (v) integrated fully implicitly and (vi) the resulting time-discrete evolution equation can be solved analytically providing a numerically efficient closed-form solution. It is shown that the final model is indeed well-posed (i.e., its tangent is positive definite). Explicit conditions guaranteeing this well-posedness are derived. Furthermore, by additively decomposing the stress rate into deformation- and purely time-dependent terms, the functionality of the model is explained. Illustrative numerical examples confirm the theoretical findings.

  6. Combining choice experiments with psychometric scales to assess the social acceptability of wind energy projects: A latent class approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazzera, Elisabetta; Mura, Marina; Contu, Davide

    2012-01-01

    A choice experiment exercise is combined with psychometric scales in order: (1) to identify factors that explain support/opposition toward a wind energy development project; and (2) to assess (monetary) trade-offs between attributes of the project. A Latent Class estimator is fitted to the data, and different utility parameters are estimated, conditional on class allocation. It is found that the probability of class membership depends on specific psychometric variables. Visual impacts on valued sites are an important factor of opposition toward a project, and this effect is magnified when identity values are attached to the specific site, so much that no trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals characterized by strong place attachment. Conversely, other classes of individuals are willing to accept compensations, in form of private and/or public benefits. The distribution of benefits in the territory, and preservation of the option value related to the possible development of an archeological site, are important for a class of individuals concerned with the sustainability of the local economy. - Highlights: ► A Choice Experiment approach is used to assess acceptability of a wind farm project. ► Psychometric variables are used to model heterogeneity in a Latent Class model. ► No trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals. ► Another class of individuals is interested in private benefits. ► Other classes are interested in public benefits and sustainability of the development.

  7. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  8. Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tsubosaka, Miku; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-11-01

    changes, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lower and energy expenditure was higher in the groups fed before exercise than in the groups fed after exercise, and these effects on energy metabolism were also observed in the early stage of HFD feeding before obesity. When obese mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks were exposed to a combination of feeding and exercise timing in an effort to reduce body weight, eating followed by exercise resulted in greater weight loss, similar to the experiments conducted to prevent weight gain. These results demonstrate that a combination of daily timing of eating and exercise may influence weight gain and that eating followed by exercise may be effective for minimizing increases in body and fat weight as well as maximizing increases in skeletal muscle weight.

  9. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Wada, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  10. A sub-50meV spectrometer and energy filter for use in combination with 200kV monochromated (S)TEMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, H A; Barfels, M M G; Burgner, R P; Edwards, B N

    2003-09-01

    A high-energy resolution post-column spectrometer for the purpose of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered TEM in combination with a monochromated (S)TEM is presented. The prism aberrations were corrected up to fourth order using multipole elements improving the electron optical energy resolution and increasing the acceptance of the spectrometer for a combination of object area and collection angles. Electronics supplying the prism, drift tube, high-tension reference and critical lenses have been newly designed such that, in combination with the new electron optics, a sub-50 meV energy resolution has been realized, a 10-fold improvement over past post-column spectrometer designs. The first system has been installed on a 200 kV monochromated TEM at the Delft University of Technology. Total system energy resolution of sub-100 meV has been demonstrated. For a 1s exposure the resolution degraded to 110 meV as a result of noise. No further degradation in energy resolution was measured for exposures up to 1 min at 120 kV. Spectral resolution measurements, performed on the pi* peak of the BN K-edge, demonstrated a 350 meV (FWHM) peak width at 200 kV. This measure is predominantly determined by the natural line width of the BN K-edge.

  11. Annotating function to differentially expressed LincRNAs in myelodysplastic syndrome using a network-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keqin; Beck, Dominik; Thoms, Julie A I; Liu, Liang; Zhao, Weiling; Pimanda, John E; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2017-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of diverse biological functions. The number of newly identified lncRNAs has increased dramatically in recent years but their expression and function have not yet been described from most diseases. To elucidate lncRNA function in human disease, we have developed a novel network based method (NLCFA) integrating correlations between lncRNA, protein coding genes and noncoding miRNAs. We have also integrated target gene associations and protein-protein interactions and designed our model to provide information on the combined influence of mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs on cellular signal transduction networks. We have generated lncRNA expression profiles from the CD34+ haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and healthy donors. We report, for the first time, aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in MDS and further prioritize biologically relevant lncRNAs using the NLCFA. Taken together, our data suggests that aberrant levels of specific lncRNAs are intimately involved in network modules that control multiple cancer-associated signalling pathways and cellular processes. Importantly, our method can be applied to prioritize aberrantly expressed lncRNAs for functional validation in other diseases and biological contexts. The method is implemented in R language and Matlab. xizhou@wakehealth.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Design optimization and sensitivity analysis of a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system with thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliano, Martina; Bianco, Nicola; Graditi, Giorgio; Mongibello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel operation strategy for biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system is presented. • A design optimization of the system is conducted. • The effects of variation of the incentive for the electricity generation are evaluated. • The effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size and the thermal energy storage system one are evaluated. • The inclusion of a cold storage system into the combined cooling, heating and power system is also analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, an operation strategy for a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system, composed of a cogeneration unit, an absorption chiller, and a thermal energy storage system, is formulated in order to satisfy time-varying energy demands of an Italian cluster of residential multi-apartment buildings. This operation strategy is adopted for performing the economical optimization of the design of two of the devices composing the combined cooling, heating and power system, namely the absorption chiller and the storage system. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the incentive for the electricity generation on the optimized results, and also to evaluate, separately, the effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size, and the effects of the variation of the thermal energy storage system size on the system performance. In addition, the inclusion into the system of a cold thermal energy storage system is analyzed, as well, assuming different possible values for the cold storage system cost. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influencing factors from the economical point of view are represented by the incentive for the electricity generation and the absorption chiller power. Results also show that the combined use of a thermal energy storage and of a cold thermal energy storage during the hot season could represent a viable solution from the economical point of view.

  13. 太阳能-热泵复合供能系统%Solar-heat pump combined energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岗; 全贞花; 赵耀华; 靖赫然; 佟建南

    2017-01-01

    为最大限度利用可再生能源,将太阳能PV/T集热器与热泵相结合组成太阳能-热泵复合供能系统,通过不同阀门之间的相互切换,可实现多种运行模式以满足人们对生活热水、采暖或制冷的需求.实验主要针对单空气源热泵制热、PV/T与水源热泵联合制热及PV/T与双热源热泵联合制热3种运行工况进行研究,分别从室内温度、制热量、热泵COP、集热效率、发电效率等方面对系统进行实验研究与理论分析,实验结果表明,3种运行工况下热泵COP分别为2.26、3.4和2.61,平均室内温度分别为15.3、18.8和16.5℃,基本能满足冬季采暖负荷要求.系统可充分利用太阳能与热泵各自的优势,实现能源节约,为太阳能和热泵在建筑中联合运行模式提供部分参考价值.%To make the best use of renewable energy, a system of solar-heat pump composite energy was formed by combining solar PV/T collector with heat pump. Switching between the different valves can achieve many operating modes to meet people's need for hot water and heat and cooling. The experiment mainly studied three operating modes: single-air-source heat pump, solar PV/T collector with water-source heat pump, and solar PV/T collector with dual-heat-source heat pump. Indoor temperature, heat capacity, COP, thermal efficiency and electric efficiency were investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Results showed that COP were 2.26, 3.4 and 2.61, respectively, along with average indoor temperature of 15.3, 18.8 and 16.5℃, which can basically meet the need for heating load in winter. The advantage of solar energy and heat pump were made full use and realized energy conservation, which provide some reference for solar and heat pump operation modes in buildings.

  14. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  15. Effects of high- and low-energy radial shock waves therapy combined with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangzheng; Li, Zhongli; Liu, Zhengsheng; Shi, Teng; Xue, Chao

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high- and low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy patients. Data from rotator cuff tendinopathy patients received high- or low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone were collected. The Constant and Murley score and visual analog scale score were collected to assess the effectiveness of treatment in three groups at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. In total, 94 patients were involved for our retrospective study. All groups showed remarkable improvement in the visual analog scale and Constant and Murley score compared to baseline at 24 weeks. The high-energy radial shock waves group had more marked improvement in the Constant and Murley score compared to the physiotherapy group at 4 and 8 weeks and at 4 weeks when compared with low-energy group. Furthermore, high-energy radial shock waves group had superior results on the visual analog scale at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared to low-energy and physiotherapy groups. This retrospective study supported the usage of high-energy radial shock waves as a supplementary therapy over physiotherapy alone for rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving the symptoms rapidly and maintaining symptoms at a satisfactory level for 24 weeks. Implications for Rehabilitation High-energy radial shock waves can be a supplemental therapy to physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy. We recommend the usage of high-energy radial shock waves during the first 5 weeks, at an interval of 7 days, of physiotherapy treatment. High-energy radial shock waves treatment combined with physiotherapy can benefit rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving symptoms rapidly and maintain these improvements at a satisfactory level for quite a long time.

  16. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sanchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ~4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ~1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ~ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  17. Chemical Recovery of Energy in a Combined MHD-Steam Power Station; Recuperation Chimique d'Energie dans une Centrale Combinee MHD-Vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasse, J. [Societe Alsthom, Paris (France)

    1966-12-15

    This paper studies the energetic and chemical aspects of the operation of a combined MHD-steam power station using the combustion gases from a fossil fuel in an open circuit with potassium seeding. It describes a process for the recovery of energy by endothermal chemical gasification of the fuel. The author first recalls briefly the thermal and chemical conditions to be met throughout the length of the gas flow and points out that it is vital to ensure as much recycling of energy as possible from below to above the MHD generator, at the expense of the conventional power station located further on in the system. The paper then describes the various processes intended to ensure the thermal operating conditions required, including preheating of the air, oxygen enrichment etc. The last part of the paper, which goes into greater detail while taking the foregoing considerations into account, explains the principle and various feasible methods of application of a process at present under study and experimentation. In this process some of the heat energy of the gases discharged from the MHD duct is recycled, partly in chemical form and partly as a limited amount of gas preheat. For this purpose the fuel, mixed with oxidizing agents such as water vapour or carbon dioxide, is gasified, at about 950 Degree-Sign C and after a series of collectively endothermal reactions, into a gas composed mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and excess water vapour and carbon dioxide. It is thus possible to avoid the employment of very high temperature heat exchangers working with seeded gas. The paper stresses the extraction of seeding material, which is simple and can here take place to a great extent in liquid form (fused salts) due to the fact that operation is in the temperature range around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Consideration is finally given to the use after treatment (cooling, extraction of seeding material, absorption of excess H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, compression and re

  18. SNLS3: CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY COMBINING THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY THREE-YEAR DATA WITH OTHER PROBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Conley, A.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K. M.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Howell, D. A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Pritchet, C. J.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. and Conley et al. We use the 472 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H 0 from SHOES, in a flat universe we find Ω m = 0.269 ± 0.015 and w = -1.061 +0.069 - 0 .068 (where the uncertainties include all statistical and SN Ia systematic errors)-a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes-without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a ∼2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, we find Ω m = 0.271 ± 0.015, Ω k = -0.002 ± 0.006, and w = -1.069 +0.091 -0.092 . Parameterizing the time evolution of w as w(a) = w 0 + w a (1 - a) gives w 0 = -0.905 ± 0.196, w a = -0.984 +1.094 -1.097 in a flat universe. All of our results are consistent with a flat, w = -1 universe. The size of the SNLS3 sample allows various tests to be performed with the SNe segregated according to their light curve and host galaxy properties. We find that the cosmological constraints derived from these different subsamples are consistent. There is evidence that the coefficient, β, relating SN Ia luminosity and color, varies with host parameters at >4σ significance (in addition to the known SN luminosity-host relation); however, this has only a small effect on the cosmological results and is currently a subdominant systematic.

  19. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  20. Regulation and energy conservation. The case of combined heat and power in the European Union. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, C.; Worrell, E.; Blok, K.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    Policy measures to stimulate the proliferation of combined heat and power generation (CHP) have been motivated because of the energy efficiency potential. In this paper we investigate to what extent the penetration of CHP has taken place in the 12 member states of the European Union (EU-12). Also analyzed is the potential heat demand which can be covered by CHP, and the corresponding amount of capacity for each country. A short overview is given of the goals for CHP capacity for some of the EU-12 member states. We distinguish two different kinds of policy instruments: standard settings and economic instruments. Four different types of standard settings are given. We evaluate a specific standard setting which is applied in the Netherlands in the 1970's and early 1980's. The economic instruments are evaluated in terms of payback time. This payback period can be influenced by for instance an investment grant, tax on the emission of carbon dioxide, a raise of selling electricity to the public grid and lower the price for natural gas for CHP applications. Finally, we give some recommendations how EU policy may stimulate the application of CHP. In section 2 we describe the development of CHP from 1974 to 1990 in the EU-12 member states. and the intentions stated by the national governments. In section 3 we give an overview of the potential capacity of CHP. In section 4 we discuss the regulation instruments: standard settings and economical instruments. In section 5 we give some conclusions especially with regard to EU policy options. 23 refs

  1. Galaxy bias from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-15

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias from a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a $\\sim$116 deg$^{2}$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al., in prep) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1$\\sigma$ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.33$\\pm$0.18 (z=0.2-0.4), 1.19$\\pm$0.23 (z=0.4-0.6), 0.99$\\pm$0.36 ( z=0.6-0.8), and 1.66$\\pm$0.56 (z=0.8-1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 1-2$\\sigma$ level with mea- surements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing. In addition, our method provides the only $\\sigma_8$-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  2. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aab, A.; Buchholz, P.; Erfani, M.; Froehlich, U.; Heimann, P.; Niechciol, M.; Ochilo, L.; Risse, M.; Tepe, A.; Yushkov, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Cazon, L.; Conceicao, R.; Diogo, F.; Espadanal, J.; Goncalves, P.; Oliveira, M.; Pimenta, M.; Santo, C.E.; Sarmento, R.; Tome, B.; Aglietta, M.; Bertaina, M.E.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Gorgi, A.; Latronico, L.; Maldera, S.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Ahn, E.J.; Fazzini, N.; Glass, H.; Hojvat, C.; Kasper, P.; Lebrun, P.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Al Samarai, I.; Deligny, O.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Martraire, D.; Salamida, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Gouffon, P.; Santos, E.M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Bertou, X.; Berisso, M.G.; Harari, D.; Mollerach, S.; Purrello, V.; Roulet, E.; Sidelnik, I.; Taborda, O.A.; Allen, J.; Awal, N.; Farrar, G.; Zaw, I.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J.J.; Gordon, J.; Griffith, N.; Stapleton, J.; Sutherland, M.S.; Almela, A.; Etchegoyen, A.; Wainberg, O.; Castillo, J.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Nellen, L.; Galicia, J.F.V.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ave, M.; Roca, S.T.G.; Agueera, A.L.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Carvalho, W.R. de; Cabo, I.R.; Elipe, G.T.; Tueros, M.; Valino, I.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.; Batista, R.A.; Schiffer, P.; Sigl, G.; Vliet, A. van; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Buscemi, M.; Cilmo, M.; Colalillo, R.; Guarino, F.; Valore, L.; Aminaei, A.; Buitink, S.; Schulz, J.; Aar, G. van; Velzen, S. van; Wykes, S.; Anchordoqui, L.; Aranda, V.M.; Arqueros, F.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Minaya, I.A.; Rosado, J.; Vazquez, J.R.; Aublin, J.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Caccianiga, L.; Gaior, R.; Ghia, P.L.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Settimo, M.; Avenier, M.; Berat, C.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Louedec, K.; Montanet, F.; Stutz, A.; Tartare, M.; Avila, G.; Vitale, P.F.G.; Badescu, A.M.; Fratu, O.; Barber, K.B.; Bellido, J.A.; Blaess, S.; Clay, R.W.; Cooper, M.J.; Dawson, B.R.; Grubb, T.D.; Harrison, T.A.; Hill, G.C.; Malacari, M.; Nguyen, P.; Saffi, S.J.; Sorokin, J.; Bodegom, P. van; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Fuchs, B.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Huber, D.; Kambeitz, O.; Katkov, I.; Link, K.; Ludwig, M.; Maurel, D.; Melissas, M.; Palmieri, N.; Werner, F.; Becker, K.H.; Homola, P.; Jandt, I.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kampert, K.H.; Krohm, N.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Mathys, S.; Neuser, J.; Niemietz, L.; Papenbreer, P.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Sarkar, B.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Biermann, P.L.; Caramete, L.; Curutiu, A.; Bleve, C.; Cataldi, G.; Cocciolo, G.; Coluccia, M.R.; De Mitri, I.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Perrone, L.; Scherini, V.

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E ≥ 6 x 10 19 eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E ≥ 5 x 10 18 eVarriving within an angular separation of approximately 15 circle . We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns are found with this analysis. The comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources. (orig.)

  3. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; Buchholz, P.; Erfani, M.; Froehlich, U.; Heimann, P.; Niechciol, M.; Ochilo, L.; Risse, M.; Tepe, A.; Yushkov, A.; Ziolkowski, M. [Universitaet Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Cazon, L.; Conceicao, R.; Diogo, F.; Espadanal, J.; Goncalves, P.; Oliveira, M.; Pimenta, M.; Santo, C.E.; Sarmento, R.; Tome, B. [Universidade de Lisboa - UL, Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas - LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico - IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Aglietta, M.; Bertaina, M.E.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Gorgi, A.; Latronico, L.; Maldera, S.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G. [Universita di Torino, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahn, E.J.; Fazzini, N.; Glass, H.; Hojvat, C.; Kasper, P.; Lebrun, P.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Al Samarai, I.; Deligny, O.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Martraire, D.; Salamida, F.; Suomijaervi, T. [Universite Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Orsay (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Gouffon, P.; Santos, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Bertou, X.; Berisso, M.G.; Harari, D.; Mollerach, S.; Purrello, V.; Roulet, E.; Sidelnik, I.; Taborda, O.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J.; Awal, N.; Farrar, G.; Zaw, I. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P.; Beatty, J.J.; Gordon, J.; Griffith, N.; Stapleton, J.; Sutherland, M.S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Almela, A.; Etchegoyen, A.; Wainberg, O. [Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, J.A.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Nellen, L.; Galicia, J.F.V.; Vargas Cardenas, B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ave, M.; Roca, S.T.G.; Agueera, A.L.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Carvalho, W.R. de; Cabo, I.R.; Elipe, G.T.; Tueros, M.; Valino, I.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Batista, R.A.; Schiffer, P.; Sigl, G.; Vliet, A. van [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Buscemi, M.; Cilmo, M.; Colalillo, R.; Guarino, F.; Valore, L. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Aminaei, A.; Buitink, S.; Schulz, J.; Aar, G. van; Velzen, S. van; Wykes, S. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Anchordoqui, L. [City University of New York, Department of Physics and Astronomy, New York (United States); Aranda, V.M.; Arqueros, F.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Minaya, I.A.; Rosado, J.; Vazquez, J.R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Aublin, J.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Caccianiga, L.; Gaior, R.; Ghia, P.L.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Settimo, M. [Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Avenier, M.; Berat, C.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Louedec, K.; Montanet, F.; Stutz, A.; Tartare, M. [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Grenoble (France); Avila, G.; Vitale, P.F.G. [Observatorio Pierre Auger and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Malarguee (Argentina); Badescu, A.M.; Fratu, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Barber, K.B.; Bellido, J.A.; Blaess, S.; Clay, R.W.; Cooper, M.J.; Dawson, B.R.; Grubb, T.D.; Harrison, T.A.; Hill, G.C.; Malacari, M.; Nguyen, P.; Saffi, S.J.; Sorokin, J.; Bodegom, P. van [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Fuchs, B.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Huber, D.; Kambeitz, O.; Katkov, I.; Link, K.; Ludwig, M.; Maurel, D.; Melissas, M.; Palmieri, N.; Werner, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South - Institut fuer Experimentelle, Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Homola, P.; Jandt, I.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kampert, K.H.; Krohm, N.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Mathys, S.; Neuser, J.; Niemietz, L.; Papenbreer, P.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Sarkar, B.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Biermann, P.L.; Caramete, L.; Curutiu, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Bleve, C.; Cataldi, G.; Cocciolo, G.; Coluccia, M.R.; De Mitri, I.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Perrone, L.; Scherini, V. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy); INFN, Lecce (Italy); and others

    2015-06-15

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E ≥ 6 x 10{sup 19} eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E ≥ 5 x 10{sup 18} eVarriving within an angular separation of approximately 15 {sup circle}. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one searching for collimation of energy along the local system of principal axes of the energy distribution. No significant patterns are found with this analysis. The comparison of these measurements with astrophysical scenarios can therefore be used to obtain constraints on related model parameters such as strength of cosmic-ray deflection and density of point sources. (orig.)

  4. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  5. Combining feed-in tariffs and net-metering schemes to balance development in adoption of photovoltaic energy: Comparative economic assessment and policy implications for European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, F. Javier; Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Pham, Duc T.

    2017-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, Europe has been involved in the major development of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. The Kyoto Protocol requirements and the European Union (EU) directives to promote the use of renewable energy sources (RES) together with environmental policies introduced for the development and use of alternative energies have generated a large number of market opportunities for this sector. Differences in the application of energy policies have caused significant imbalances in electricity systems and distortion of electricity prices. The main concern of governments is to define the support schemes to be used and how to combine them in the most profitable manner. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative cost-effectiveness assessment using feed-in tariffs (FiT) and net-metering (NM) schemes in some representative EU countries. The authors have developed an economic model to evaluate the profitability of PV projects combining these support schemes. Results show not only the circumstances under which solar energy is economically profitable, but also the kind of PV systems, locations, minimum levels of tariff prices and specific combination of support schemes that should be promoted. - Highlights: • Comparative cost-effectiveness assessment combining FiT and NM support schemes. • A minimum FiT is proposed in addition to traditional financial performance indicators. • Results show the specific combinations of support schemes that should be promoted. • This work can aid efficient energy policy making. • Model could be applied to other types of RES projects and other geographical areas.

  6. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The main focus of most evaluations is to determine the energy-savings impacts of the installed measure. This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  8. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  9. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  10. Accelerating the energy policy turnaround with combined heat and power units; Mit Blockheizkraftwerken die Energiewende rund machen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joerg; Geiler, Nikolaus [Klimabuendnis Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    No other type of decentralized power plants transforms natural gas to electric power so efficiently as a combined heat and power unit. In the long term, the climate-friendly effect using renewable hydrogen or renewably generated 'natural gas' even could be increased. Thus, combined heat and power units are ideal to achieve the national climate change objectives. Despite their advantages, the implementation of combined heat and power units advances only sluggishly.

  11. A combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation of the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion en Optica y Nanofisica (CIOyN), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Abril, Isabel [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d' Alacant, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Heredia-Avalos, Santiago [Departament de Fisica, Enginyeria de Sistemes i Teoria del Senyal, Universitat d' Alacant, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris, E-mail: rgm@um.es [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-10-07

    We have evaluated the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water using the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids), which combines molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques and includes the main interaction phenomena between the projectile and the target constituents: (i) the electronic stopping force due to energy loss to target electronic excitations, including fluctuations due to the energy-loss straggling, (ii) the elastic scattering with the target nuclei, with their corresponding energy loss and (iii) the dynamical changes in projectile charge state due to electronic capture and loss processes. An important feature of SEICS is the accurate account of the excitation spectrum of liquid water, based on a consistent solid-state description of its energy-loss-function over the whole energy and momentum space. We analyse how the above-mentioned interactions affect the depth distribution of the energy delivered in liquid water by proton beams with incident energies of the order of several MeV. Our simulations show that the position of the Bragg peak is determined mainly by the stopping power, whereas its width can be attributed to the energy-loss straggling. Multiple elastic scattering processes contribute slightly only at the distal part of the Bragg peak. The charge state of the projectiles only changes when approaching the end of their trajectories, i.e. near the Bragg peak. We have also simulated the proton-beam energy distribution at several depths in the liquid water target, and found that it is determined mainly by the fluctuation in the energy loss of the projectile, evaluated through the energy-loss straggling. We conclude that a proper description of the target excitation spectrum as well as the inclusion of the energy-loss straggling is essential in the calculation of the proton beam depth-dose distribution.

  12. A combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation of the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water using the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids), which combines molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques and includes the main interaction phenomena between the projectile and the target constituents: (i) the electronic stopping force due to energy loss to target electronic excitations, including fluctuations due to the energy-loss straggling, (ii) the elastic scattering with the target nuclei, with their corresponding energy loss and (iii) the dynamical changes in projectile charge state due to electronic capture and loss processes. An important feature of SEICS is the accurate account of the excitation spectrum of liquid water, based on a consistent solid-state description of its energy-loss-function over the whole energy and momentum space. We analyse how the above-mentioned interactions affect the depth distribution of the energy delivered in liquid water by proton beams with incident energies of the order of several MeV. Our simulations show that the position of the Bragg peak is determined mainly by the stopping power, whereas its width can be attributed to the energy-loss straggling. Multiple elastic scattering processes contribute slightly only at the distal part of the Bragg peak. The charge state of the projectiles only changes when approaching the end of their trajectories, i.e. near the Bragg peak. We have also simulated the proton-beam energy distribution at several depths in the liquid water target, and found that it is determined mainly by the fluctuation in the energy loss of the projectile, evaluated through the energy-loss straggling. We conclude that a proper description of the target excitation spectrum as well as the inclusion of the energy-loss straggling is essential in the calculation of the proton beam depth-dose distribution.

  13. Do circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (LincRNA-p21, GAS 5, HOTAIR) predict the treatment response in patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayda, Merdan; Isin, Mustafa; Tambas, Makbule; Guveli, Murat; Meral, Rasim; Altun, Musa; Sahin, Dilek; Ozkan, Gozde; Sanli, Yasemin; Isin, Husniye; Ozgur, Emre; Gezer, Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of three lncRNA molecules (lincRNA-p21, GAS5, and HOTAIR) in the treatment response in HNC patients treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Forty-one patients with HNC were enrolled in the study. Most of the patients had nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n = 27, 65.9 %) and locally advanced disease. Blood was drawn at baseline and treatment evaluation 4.5 months after therapy. lncRNAs in plasma were measured by semiquantitative PCR. Treatment response was evaluated according to clinical examination, RECIST and PERCIST criteria based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) findings. Complete response (CR) rates were 73.2, 36.6, and 50 % for clinical investigation, PET/CT-, or MRI-based response evaluation, respectively. Predictive value of lncRNAs was investigated in patients with CR vs. those with partial response (PR)/progressive disease (PD). We found that post-treatment GAS5 levels in patients with PR/PD were significantly higher compared with patients with CR based on clinical investigation (p = 0.01). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that at a cutoff value of 0.3 of GAS5, sensitivity and specificity for clinical tumor response were 82 and 77 %, respectively. Interestingly, pretreatment GAS5 levels were significantly increased in patients with PR/PD compared to those with CR upon MRI-based response evaluation (p = 0.042). In contrast to GAS5, pretreatment or post-treatment lincRNA-p21 and HOTAIR levels were not informative for treatment response. Our results suggest that circulating GAS5 could be a biomarker in predicting treatment response in HNC patients.

  14. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  15. Performance of a combined cooling heating and power system with mid-and-low temperature solar thermal energy and methanol decomposition integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Da; Liu, Qibin; Lei, Jing; Jin, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new middle-and-low temperature solar thermochemical CCHP system is proposed. • The thermodynamic performances of the new system are numerically evaluated. • The superiorities of the new system are demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a new distributed energy system that integrates the mid-and-low temperature solar energy thermochemical process and the methanol decomposition is proposed. Through the solar energy receiver/reactor, the energy collected by a parabolic trough concentrator, at 200–300 °C, is used to drive the decomposition reaction of the methanol into the synthesis gas, and thus the solar thermal energy is converted to the chemical energy. The chemical energy of the synthesis gas released in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine is used to drive the combined cooling heating and power systems. Energy analysis and exergy analysis of the system are implemented to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Under the considerations of the changes of the solar irradiation intensity, the off-design performances of the micro turbine and the variations of the load, the design and off-design thermodynamic performances of the system and the characteristics of the chemical energy storage are numerically studied. Numerical results indicate that the primary energy ratio of the system is 76.40%, and the net solar-electricity conversion rate reaches 22.56%, which is higher than exiting large-scale solar thermal power plants. Owing to the introduction of a the solar thermochemical energy storage in the proposed system, the power generation efficiency is insensitive to the variations of the solar radiation, and thus an efficient and stable utilization approach of the solar thermal energy is achieved at all work condition

  16. Accuracy of Combined Computed Tomography Colonography and Dual Energy Iiodine Map Imaging for Detecting Colorectal masses using High-pitch Dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Han, Ruijuan; Han, Yang; Shi, Xuesen; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Bin

    2018-02-28

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined computed tomography colonography (CTC) and dual-energy iodine map imaging for detecting colorectal masses using high-pitch dual-source CT, compared with optical colonography (OC) and histopathologic findings. Twenty-eight consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were underwent contrast-enhanced CTC acquisition using dual-energy mode and OC and pathologic examination. The size of the space-occupied mass, the CT value after contrast enhancement, and the iodine value were measured and statistically compared. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, and positive predictive and negative predictive values of dual-energy contrast-enhanced CTC were calculated and compared between conventional CTC and dual-energy iodine images. The iodine value of stool was significantly lower than the colonic neoplasia (P dual-energy iodine maps imaging was 95.6% (95% CI = 77.9%-99.2%). The specificity of the two methods was 42.8% (95% CI = 15.4%-93.5%) and 100% (95% CI = 47.9%-100%; P = 0.02), respectively. Compared with optical colonography and histopathology, combined CTC and dual-energy iodine maps imaging can distinguish stool and colonic neoplasia, distinguish between benign and malignant tumors initially and improve the diagnostic accuracy of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  17. An approach towards determining and assessing effects of innovations in energy supply by means of a combined energy and economy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1975-05-01

    The energy system is represented as part of a national economy and analysed by means of the input-output technique. The development of a mathematical model based on two existing models using the same technique is described. This will allow the time behaviour of the energy system and the total system to be simulated and optimized for different objective functions and constraints. In addition, consequences of impacts on the system, e.g. the development of a new energy source such as the fusion reactor, can be shown. (orig.) [de

  18. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-09

    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  19. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  1. Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field on the donor binding energy and polarizability in laterally coupled double InAs/GaAs quantum-well wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangarife, E.; Duque, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with the theoretical study of the combined effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the binding energy and impurity polarizability of a donor impurity in laterally coupled double InAs/GaAs quantum-well wires. calculations have been made in the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational method. The results are reported for different configurations of wire and barriers widths, impurity position, and electric field and hydrostatic pressure strengths. Our results show that for symmetrical structures the binding energy is an even function of the impurity position along the growth direction of the structure. Also, we found that for hydrostatic pressure strength up to 38 kbar, the binding energy increases linearly with hydrostatic pressure, while for larger values of hydrostatic pressure the binding energy has a nonlinear behavior. Finally, we found that the hydrostatic pressure can increase the coupling between the two parallel quantum well wires.

  2. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  3. CERISE - Combining energy and spatial information standards as enabler for smart grids - TKI smart grid project : TKISG01010 - D4.1 Semantic mappings to harmonize energy, geo and government-related information models. Work package 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Knibbe, F.; Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Stap, R.; Daniele, L.

    2015-01-01

    Version 1.0 - Final The CERISE-SG project (Combining Energy and Geo information standards as enabler for Smart Grids) focuses on interoperability with a special interest in the information exchanges between smart grids and their surroundings. We hereby focus on the exchange of information to and

  4. Numerical analysis and field study of time dependent exergy-energy of a gas-steam combined cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barari Bamdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent exergy analysis of the Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle has been investigated. Exergy analysis has been used for investigating each part of actual combined cycle by considering irreversibility from Apr 2006 to Oct 2010. Performance analysis has been done for each part by evaluating exergy destruction in each month. By using of exergy analysis, aging of each part has been evaluated respect to time duration. In addition, the rate of lost work for each month has been calculated and variation of this parameter has been considered as a function of aging rate. Finally, effects of exergy destruction of each part have been investigated on exergy destruction of whole cycle. Entire analysis has been done for Unit 3 and 4 of gas turbine cycle which combined by Unit B of steam cycle in Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle located in Fars province in Iran.

  5. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C60 bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Herzig, Melanie; Knupfer, Martin; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C 60 (MnPc:C 60 ) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C 60 . Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C 60 bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C 60 to MnPc thin films

  6. Development, financing, construction and exploitation of onshore and offshore wind farms. Let us combine our energies for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, Philippe; Simon, Gregoire; Bales, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    After an indication of a brief history of the WPD company through some marking events, and an overview of its expertise and approach, this publication addresses its wind energy projects and gives brief descriptions of wind farms located in France, and then provides some data regarding onshore and offshore wind farm energy production by installations operated by this company in France and in other European countries. As far as offshore wind farm is concerned, planned projects are also briefly presented

  7. Designing of an artificial light energy converter in the form of short-chain dyad when combined with core-shell gold/silver nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Ganguly, Tapan

    2017-06-05

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the short chain dyad MNTMA when combined with gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) nanocomposite , forms elongated conformers in the excited state whereas for the dyad - Ag (spherical) system the majority of dyads remains in a folded conformation. In the dyad-core-shell nanocomposite system, energy wasting charge recombination rate slows down primarily due to elongated conformation and thus it may be anticipated that this hybrid nanocomposite system may serve as a better light energy conversion device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, J.K.; Astrup, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  9. A combined theoretical and experimental approach of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite for hybrid energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakshi, M.; Watcharatharapong, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Ahuja, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable energy sources require an efficient energy storage system possessing excellent electrochemical properties. The better understanding of possible crystal configurations and the development of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite as an electrode for hybrid capacitors can lead to an efficient energy storage system. Here, we reported a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite [(Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4] prepared by simple combustion synthesis with an extended voltage window (1.8 V vs. Carbon) resulting in excellent specific capacity 35 C g-1 (58 F g-1) and energy density (50 Wh kg-1 at 500 W kg-1) for a two electrode system in an aqueous NaOH electrolyte. The binding energies measured for Mn, Co, and Ni 2p are consistent with the literature, and with the metal ions being present as M(II), implying that the oxidation states of the transition metals are unchanged. The experimental findings are correlated well through density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. Our reported work on the ternary metal oxide studies (Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4 suggests that will be an added value to the materials for energy storage.

  10. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  11. Electric cars and wind energy : Two problems, one solution? A study to combine wind energy and electric cars in 2020 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellekom, Sandra; Benders, Rene; Pelgrom, Steef; Moll, Henk

    To limit or, even better, reduce the emission of CO2 and the corresponding global warming effects, measures should be taken in the two most polluting economic sectors: the energy and transport sectors. The Netherlands has set goals to reduce CO2 emissions, in line with global and European

  12. A novel kerf-free wafering process combining stress-induced spalling and low energy hydrogen implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingault, Timothee; Pokam-Kuisseu, Pauline Sylvia; Ntsoenzok, Esidor [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Blondeau, Jean-Philippe [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Universite d' Orleans, Chateau de la Source, 45100 Orleans (France); Ulyashin, Alexander [SINTEF, Forskningsveien 1, 0314 Oslo (Norway); Labrim, Hicham; Belhorma, Bouchra [CNESTEN, B.P. 1382 R.P., 10001 Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we studied the potential use of low-energy hydrogen implantation as a guide for the stress-induced cleavage. Low-energy, high fluence hydrogen implantation in silicon leads, in the right stiffening conditions, to the detachment of a thin layer, around a few hundreds nm thick, of monocrystalline silicon. We implanted monocrystalline silicon wafers with low-energy hydrogen, and then glued them on a cheap metal layer. Upon cooling down, the stress induced by the stressor layers (hardened glue and metal) leads to the detachment of a thin silicon layer, which thickness is determined by the implantation energy. We were then able to clearly demonstrate that, as expected, hydrogen oversaturation layer is very efficient to guide the stress. Using such process, thin silicon layers of around 710 nm-thick were successfully detached from low-energy implanted silicon wafers. Such layers can be used for the growth of very good quality monocrystalline silicon of around 50 μm-thick or less. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Combined influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on interband emission energy of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com

    2016-11-01

    We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature. - Highlights: • Interband emission energy (IEE) of doped quantum dot is studied. • Hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) affect IEE. • The dot is subjected to Gaussian white noise. • Noise amplifies and suppresses IEE depending on particular condition.

  14. Whole-body dose and energy measurements in radiotherapy by a combination of LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Pascal; Schneider, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    Long-term survivors of cancer who were treated with radiotherapy are at risk of a radiation-induced tumor. Hence, it is important to model the out-of-field dose resulting from a cancer treatment. These models have to be verified with measurements, due to the small size, the high sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the tissue-equivalent composition, LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) are well-suited for out-of-field dose measurements. However, the photon energy variation of the stray dose leads to systematic dose errors caused by the variation in response with radiation energy of the TLDs. We present a dosimeter which automatically corrects for the energy variation of the measured photons by combining LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD100) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) chips. The response with radiation energy of TLD100 and TLD100H compared to 60 Co was taken from the literature. For the measurement, a TLD100H was placed on top of a TLD100 chip. The dose ratio between the TLD100 and TLD100H, combined with the ratio of the response curves was used to determine the mean energy. With the energy, the individual correction factors for TLD100 and TLD100H could be found. The accuracy in determining the in- and out-of-field dose for a nominal beam energy of 6MV using the double-TLD unit was evaluated by an end-to-end measurement. Furthermore, published Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulations of the mean photon energy for brachytherapy sources, stray radiation of a treatment machine and cone beam CT (CBCT) were compared to the measured mean energies. Finally, the photon energy distribution in an Alderson phantom was measured for different treatment techniques applied with a linear accelerator. Additionally, a treatment plan was measured with a cobalt machine combined with an MRI. For external radiotherapy, the presented double-TLD unit showed a relative type A uncertainty in doses of -1%±2% at the two standard deviation level compared to an ionization chamber. The type A uncertainty in dose was in

  15. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  16. Combined hydraulic and biomass power - an answer to economic and ecological adaptation pressure on the energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the large scale, there will be an economic pressure in the European Communities on coal and oil from the CO 2 taxes. The economic and ecological advantages of a combination of hydraulic and biomass power in Austria are emphasized. In particular a biomass remote heating pilot project is announced. (Quittner)

  17. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (flue gas) stream of a heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) design of the Elcogas plant adopted from previous studies. The underlying support for this idea was the direct relationship between efficiency of the IGCC and the boiler feedwater...

  18. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  19. Study of the energy efficiency of coffee drying with different revolving combinations time; Estudo da eficiencia energetica de secagem de cafe com diferentes combinacoes de tempo de revolvimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana (GPEA)], e-mail: greco.b@bol.com.br; Molin, Roberto Natal dal; Oliveira, Marcos C. Oliveira; Camara, Roberto J; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Siqueira Filho, Roberto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work objected to evaluate the energy efficiency in the coffee (Coffea arabica L.) drying with different combinations of revolving time in a fixed bed dryer. The experiment was developed the months of June and July of 2003, in a farm located in the municipal district of Jesuitas-Parana State, Brazil. The product quality evaluations were accomplished in the Consolata Agricultural Cooperative Ltda. (COPACOL). The grains parameters were evaluated at the Seeds Technology Laboratory, at the UNIOESTE Campus Marechal Candido Rondon. A fixed bed model dryer was used, with a metallic drying chamber, of cylindrical format, with an adapted grain revolving system, keeping the air temperature at 75 deg C. It was observed that the energy consumed for burning the fuel (wood) overcame the electric energy consumed by the motors. The air relative humidity and temperature exercised influence in the drying time. The combination that provided larger energy efficiency was the continuous ventilation drying, with revolving times of 40 minutes each 2 hours. (author)

  20. The effect of combining a relative-humidity-sensitive ventilation system with the moisture-buffering capacity of materials on indoor climate and energy efficiency of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloszyn, Monika [Universite de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Universite Lyon1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); INSA-Lyon, CETHIL UMR CNRS 5008, bat. Sadi Carnot, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Kalamees, Targo [Chair of Building Physics and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehiteja tee 5 19086 (Estonia); Olivier Abadie, Marc [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR/CCET-Thermal Systems Laboratory, Rua Imaculada Conceicao, 1155 Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTIAB-University of La Rochelle, Avenue M. Crepeau, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Steeman, Marijke [Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, UGENT-Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela [Department of Building Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Sven Hultins gata 8, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Indoor moisture management, which means keeping the indoor relative humidity (RH) at correct levels, is very important for whole building performance in terms of indoor air quality (IAQ), energy performance and durability of the building. In this study, the effect of combining a relative-humidity-sensitive (RHS) ventilation system with indoor moisture buffering materials was investigated. Four comprehensive heat-air-moisture (HAM) simulation tools were used to analyse the performance of different moisture management strategies in terms of IAQ and of energy efficiency. Despite some differences in results, a good agreement was found and similar trends were detected from the results, using the four different simulation tools. The results from simulations demonstrate that RHS ventilation reduces the spread between the minimum and maximum values of the RH in the indoor air and generates energy savings. Energy savings are achieved while keeping the RH at target level, not allowing for possible risk of condensations. The disadvantage of this type of demand controlled-ventilation is that other pollutants (such as CO{sub 2}) may exceed target values. This study also confirmed that the use of moisture-buffering materials is a very efficient way to reduce the amplitude of daily moisture variations. It was possible, by the combined effect of ventilation and wood as buffering material, to keep the indoor RH at a very stable level. (author)

  1. Photochemical Energy Storage and Electrochemically Triggered Energy Release in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar energy storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete energy storage and release cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.

  2. Prebiotic Fibre Supplementation In Combination With Metformin Modifies Appetite, Energy Metabolism, And Gut Satiety Hormones In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Kim Alicia

    The prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in ADThe prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in AD

  3. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    and thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy...

  4. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  5. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  6. Combining monoenergetic extrapolations from dual-energy CT with iterative reconstructions. Reduction of coil and clip artifacts from intracranial aneurysm therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Michels, Lars; Valavanis, Antonios [University of Zurich, Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Stocker, Daniel; Alkadhi, Hatem [University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Regli, Luca [University of Zurich, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2018-03-15

    To compare and to combine iterative metal artifact reduction (MAR) and virtual monoenergetic extrapolations (VMEs) from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for reducing metal artifacts from intracranial clips and coils. Fourteen clips and six coils were scanned in a phantom model with DECT at 100 and 150SnkVp. Four datasets were reconstructed: non-corrected images (filtered-back projection), iterative MAR, VME from DECT at 120 keV, and combined iterative MAR + VME images. Artifact severity scores and visibility of simulated, contrast-filled, adjacent vessels were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by two independent, blinded readers. Iterative MAR, VME, and combined iterative MAR + VME resulted in a significant reduction of qualitative (p < 0.001) and quantitative clip artifacts (p < 0.005) and improved the visibility of adjacent vessels (p < 0.05) compared to non-corrected images, with lowest artifact scores found in combined iterative MAR + VME images. Titanium clips demonstrated less artifacts than Phynox clips (p < 0.05), and artifact scores increased with clip size. Coil artifacts increased with coil size but were reducible when applying iterative MAR + VME compared to non-corrected images. However, no technique improved the severe artifacts from large, densely packed coils. Combining iterative MAR with VME allows for an improved metal artifact reduction from clips and smaller, loosely packed coils. Limited value was found for large and densely packed coils. (orig.)

  7. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application.

  8. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  9. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  10. An optimal energy management system for islanded Microgrids based on multi-period artificial bee colony combined with Markov Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Azarinejadian, Fatemeh; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ) have been studied in many research activities. Moreover, a demand response (DR) expands customer participation to power systems and results in a paradigm shift from conventional to interactive activities in power systems due to the progress of smart grid technology. Therefore, the modeling......The optimal operation programming of electrical systems through the minimization of the production cost and the market clearing price, as well as the better utilization of renewable energy resources, has attracted the attention of many researchers. To reach this aim, energy management systems (EMSs...... of a consumer characteristic in the DR is becoming a very important issue in these systems. The customer information as the registration and participation information of the DR is used to provide additional indexes for evaluating the customer response, such as consumer's information based on the offer priority...

  11. Toward the lowest energy consumption and emission in biofuel production: combination of ideal reactors and robust hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Lv, Bo; Huo, Yi-Xin; Li, Chun

    2018-04-01

    Rising feedstock costs, low crude oil prices, and other macroeconomic factors have threatened biofuel fermentation industries. Energy-efficient reactors, which provide controllable and stable biological environment, are important for the large-scale production of renewable and sustainable biofuels, and their optimization focus on the reduction of energy consumption and waste gas emission. The bioreactors could either be aerobic or anaerobic, and photobioreactors were developed for the culture of algae or microalgae. Due to the cost of producing large-volume bioreactors, various modeling strategies were developed for bioreactor design. The achievement of ideal biofuel reactor relies on not only the breakthrough of reactor design, but also the creation of super microbial factories with highest productivity and metabolic pathway flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 6 (2015), s. 269 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.912, year: 2015

  14. Contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography with a novel anode/filter combination and artifact reduction: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knogler, Thomas; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Leitner, Sabine; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Vienna (Austria); Hoernig, Mathias [Siemens AG, Healthcare, X-Ray Products, Erlangen (Germany); Langs, Georg; Waitzbauer, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Computational Imaging Research Laboratory, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDEM) using titanium (Ti) filtering at 49 kVp for high-energy images and a novel artefact reducing image-subtraction post-processing algorithm. Fifteen patients with suspicious findings (ACR BI-RADS 4 and 5) detected with digital mammography (MG) that required biopsy were included. CEDEM examinations were performed on a modified prototype machine. Acquired HE and low-energy raw data images were registered non-rigidly to compensate for possible subtle tissue motion. Subtracted CEDEM images were generated via weighted subtraction, using a fully automatic, locally adjusted tissue thickness-dependent subtraction factor to avoid over-subtraction at the breast border. Two observers evaluated the MG and CEDEM images according to ACR BI-RADS in two reading sessions. Results were correlated with histopathology. Seven patients with benign and eight with malignant findings were included. All malignant lesions showed a strong contrast enhancement. BI-RADS assessment was altered in 66.6 % through the addition of CEDEM, resulting in increased overall accuracy. With CEDEM, additional lesions were depicted and false-positive rate was reduced compared to MG. CEDEM using Ti filtering with 49 kVp for HE exposures is feasible in a clinical setting. The proposed image-processing algorithm has the potential to reduce artefacts and improve CEDEM images. (orig.)

  15. Combining Observations in the Reflective Solar and Thermal Domains for Improved Mapping of Carbon, Water and Energy FLuxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha; Kustas, Bill; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of leaf chlorophyll (C(sub ab)) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. Day to day variations in nominal LUE (LUE(sub n)) were assessed for a corn crop field in Maryland U.S.A. through model calibration with CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. Changes in Cab exhibited a curvilinear relationship with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) values derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio-temporal variations in LUE(sub n). The results demonstrate the synergy between thermal infrared and shortwave reflective wavebands in producing valuable remote sensing data for monitoring of carbon and water fluxes.

  16. Energy and exergy analysis of a closed Brayton cycle-based combined cycle for solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Hasanzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combined cycle is proposed for solar power tower plants. • The effects of solar subsystem and power cycle parameters are examined. • The proposed combined cycle yields exergy efficiencies of higher than 70%. • For the overall power plant exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% is achievable. - Abstract: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology offers an interesting potential for future power generation and research on CSP systems of all types, particularly those with central receiver system (CRS) has been attracting a lot of attention recently. Today, these power plants cannot compete with the conventional power generation systems in terms of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and if a competitive LCOE is to be reached, employing an efficient thermodynamic power cycle is deemed essential. In the present work, a novel combined cycle is proposed for power generation from solar power towers. The proposed system consists of a closed Brayton cycle, which uses helium as the working fluid, and two organic Rankine cycles which are employed to recover the waste heat of the Brayton cycle. The system is thermodynamically assessed from both the first and second law viewpoints. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of key operating parameters (including solar subsystem and power cycle parameters) on the overall power plant performance. The results indicate that exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% are achieved for the overall power plant. Also, according to the results, the power cycle proposed in this work has a better performance than the other investigated Rankine and supercritical CO_2 systems operating under similar conditions, for these types of solar power plants.

  17. Energy Optimization for Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Combined Heating and Cooling and Thermal Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Blarke, Morten; Yazawa, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    A transcritical heat pump (THP) cycle using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the refrigerant is known to feature an excellent coefficient of performance (COP) as a thermodynamic system. Using this feature, we are designing and building a system that combines a water-to-water CO2 heat pump with both hot....... The usability and the cost effectiveness are critical for smart grid policies on large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. In this paper, we present an analytic thermodynamic model that predicts the effect of temperature and flow rate of hot and cold water circulation on system COP. The analytical...

  18. Solar-energy conversion by combined photovoltaic converters with CdTe and CuInSe2 base layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrypunov, G. S.; Sokol, E. I.; Yakimenko, Yu. I.; Meriuts, A. V.; Ivashuk, A. V.; Shelest, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of the combined use of bifacial thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and frontal solar cells with a CuInSe 2 base layer in tandem structures is experimentally confirmed. It is found that, for the use of bifacial solar cells based on cadmium telluride in a tandem structure, the optimal thickness of their base layer should be 1 μm. The gain in the efficiency of the tandem structure, compared with an individual CuInSe 2 -based solar cell, is 1.8% in the case of series-connected solar cells and 1.3%, for parallel-connected

  19. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  20. Effect of Oxyntomodulin, Glucagon, GLP-1 and Combined Glucagon +GLP-1 Infusion on Food Intake, Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    Context: The gut hormone, oxyntomodulin, is a proglucagon product with body weight-lowering potential. It binds to both the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and the glucagon receptor; however, the mechanism behind the body weight-lowering effect remains elusive. Objective: We wanted.......86 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), oxyntomodulin (3 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), or glucagon+GLP-1 (same doses). Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated resting energy expenditure (measured as oxygen uptake, gastric emptying (GE), composite appetite scores (CAS), and food intake. Results: Oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and GLP-1...

  1. Solar thermal energy storage via exploitation and rational combination of porous ceramic structures and redox oxides chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Agrafiotis, Christos; Becker, Andreas; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. This storage concept can be rendered from “purely” sensible to “hybrid” sensible/thermochemical one, via coating the chemically inert porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactio...

  2. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. A Combined Methodology of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm for Short-term Energy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMPOUROPOULOS, K.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This document presents an energy forecast methodology using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA has been used for the selection of the training inputs of the ANFIS in order to minimize the training result error. The presented algorithm has been installed and it is being operating in an automotive manufacturing plant. It periodically communicates with the plant to obtain new information and update the database in order to improve its training results. Finally the obtained results of the algorithm are used in order to provide a short-term load forecasting for the different modeled consumption processes.

  4. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  5. Proposal of a combined heat and power plant hybridized with regeneration organic Rankine cycle: Energy-Exergy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Jafarmadar, Samad; Khalilarya, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermodynamic cogeneration system is proposed. • Energy and exergy analysis of the considered cycle were performed. • An enhancement of 2.6% in exergy efficiency compared to that of baseline cycle. - Abstract: Among Rankine cycles (simple, reheat and regeneration), regeneration organic Rankine cycle demonstrates higher efficiencies compared to other cases. Consequently, in the present work a regeneration organic Rankine cycle has been utilized to recuperate gas turbine’s heat using heat recovery steam generator. At first, this cogeneration system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis and the obtained results were compared with that of investigated cogeneration found in literature (a cogeneration system in which a reheat organic Rankine cycle for heat recuperation of gas turbine cycle was used with the aid of heat recovery steam generator). Results indicated that the first and second thermodynamic efficiencies in present cycle utilizing regeneration cycle instead of reheat cycle has increased 2.62% and 2.6%, respectively. In addition, the effect of thermodynamic parameters such as combustion chamber’s inlet temperature, gas turbine inlet temperature, evaporator and condenser temperature on the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle and gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator cycle with regeneration organic Rankine cycle was surveyed. Besides, parametric analysis shows that as gas turbine and combustion chamber inlet temperatures increase, energetic and exergetic efficiencies tend to increase. Moreover, once condenser and evaporator temperature raise, a slight decrement in energetic and exergetic efficiency is expected.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  7. Power contracting between two different partners. Biogas combined heat and power plants; Energie-Contracting zweier unterschiedlicher Partner. Biogas-Blockheizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-06-15

    An agricultural consortium in the Eifel (Federal Republic of Germany) has adopted a comprehensive supply of a 7,000 m{sup 2} comprising hotel complex with combined heat and power. The old oil-fired central heating plant has been replaced by a biogas-powered combined heat and power plant (CHP). The hotel was directly connected to the CHP plant by means of a new, approximately 300 m long local heating network including buffer storage. Overall, the hotel operator saves approximately 300,000 L of heating oil annually. The energy demand of the hotel operator will be covered by more than 90 % by means of CHP plants. Thus 20 % of the heating costs is saved.

  8. Nondestructive multielement analyses of airborne particulates by combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mizohata, Akira

    1974-01-01

    Combined uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis make it possible to analyze nondestructively a considerably large number of elements in airborne particulates. We have confirmed that up to 45 elements can be analyzed without any chemical procedures for urban airborne particulate samples. As the radiation spectrometry by semiconductor detectors and the automatic data reduction by electronic computation are quite common to the two techniques, combined uses of them produce no special annoyance. Several elements can be analyzed by both of them and therefore the reliability of the analytical results can be comfirmed by comparing the data obtained by them with each other. It is noted that this confirmation can be made for the very same sample. In this article are described our experiences of multielement analyses of airborne particulates and some problems to be solved in further studies. (auth.)

  9. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (EDs are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx and hippocampus (Hp of adult rats (90 days old. Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

  10. Direct mass measurements in the light neutron-rich region using a combined energy and time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, C.; Swenson, L.W.; Vieira, D.J.; Butler, G.W.; Wouters, J.M.; Rokni, S.H.; Vaziri, K.; Remsberg, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    This experiment has demonstrated that direct mass measurements can be performed (albeit of low precision in this first attempt) using the M proportional to ET 2 method. This technique has the advantage that many particle-bound nuclei, produced in fragmentation reactions can be measured simultaneously, independent of their N or Z. The main disadvantage of this approach is that both energy and time-of-flight must be measured precisely on an absolute scale. Although some mass walk with N and Z was observed in this experiment, these uncertainties were largely removed by extrapolating the smooth dependence observed for known nuclei which lie closer to the valley of β-stability. Mass measurements for several neutron-rich light nuclei ranging from 17 C to 26 Ne have been performed. In all cases these measurements agree with the latest mass compilation of Wapstra and Audi. The masses of 20 N and 24 F have been determined for the first time

  11. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima; Guimaraes, Luciana; Vieira Filho, Sidney A.

    2012-01-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  12. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  13. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  14. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guimaraes, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: bibo@ef.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  15. A study on the electric properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells under the combined radiation of low-energy protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huijie; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; He Shiyu; Yang Dezhuang; Sun Yanzheng; Sun Qiang; Lv Wei; Xiao Zhibin; Huang Caiyong

    2008-01-01

    Displacement damage induced by charged particle radiation is the main cause of degradation of orbital-service solar cells, while the radiation-induced ionization shows no permanent damage effect on their electrical properties. It is reported that in single crystal silicon solar cells, low-energy electron radiation does not exert permanent degradation of their properties, but the fluence of electron radiation exerts an influence on the damage magnitude under the combined radiation of protons and electrons. The electrical properties of the single-junction GaAs/Ge solar cells were investigated after irradiation by sequential and synchronous electron and proton beams. Low-energy electron radiation showed no effects on the change of the solar cell properties during sequential or synchronous irradiation, implying ionization during particle radiation could not exert influence on the displacement damage process to the solar cells under the experimental conditions

  16. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  17. Computation of the free energy change associated with one-electron reduction of coenzyme immersed in water: a novel approach within the framework of the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Ohno, Hajime; Kishi, Ryohei; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2008-11-28

    The isoalloxazine ring (flavin ring) is a part of the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide and acts as an active site in the oxidation of a substrate. We have computed the free energy change Deltamicro(red) associated with one-electron reduction of the flavin ring immersed in water by utilizing the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER method) recently developed. As a novel treatment in implementing the QM/MM-ER method, we have identified the excess charge to be attached on the flavin ring as a solute while the remaining molecules, i.e., flavin ring and surrounding water molecules, are treated as solvent species. Then, the reduction free energy can be decomposed into the contribution Deltamicro(red)(QM) due to the oxidant described quantum chemically and the free energy Deltamicro(red)(MM) due to the water molecules represented by a classical model. By the sum of these contributions, the total reduction free energy Deltamicro(red) has been given as -80.1 kcal/mol. To examine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach, we have also conducted the Deltamicro(red) calculation using the conventional scheme that Deltamicro(red) is constructed from the solvation free energies of the flavin rings at the oxidized and reduced states. The conventional scheme has been implemented with the QM/MM-ER method and the calculated Deltamicro(red) has been estimated as -81.0 kcal/mol, showing excellent agreement with the value given by the new approach. The present approach is efficient, in particular, to compute free energy change for the reaction occurring in a protein since it enables ones to circumvent the numerical problem brought about by subtracting the huge solvation free energies of the proteins in two states before and after the reduction.

  18. Validity of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for the measurement of free-living energy expenditure in very active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Magalhães, João P; Fields, David A; Minderico, Cláudia S; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-07-01

    The correct assessment of energy expenditure in very active individuals is important to ensure that dietary energy intake is sufficient. We aimed to validate a combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor in estimating total (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in males and females with high physical activity levels. Cross-sectional. Doubly-labelled water (DLW) was used to assess 7-day TEE in 12 male and female elite junior basketball players, aged 16-17 years. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed with indirect calorimetry and AEE was calculated (AEE=TEE-RMR-0.1×TEE). Simultaneously, TEE and AEE were measured by combined HR and motion sensing. Individual HR calibration was performed with step-test. TEE and AEE were estimated from accelerometry and HR with individual (ACC+HRstep) and group calibration (ACC+HRgroup). No mean differences were found between TEE and AEE from the ACC+HRstep and ACC+HRgroup with DLW. TEE values (kJ/day) from ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep explained TEE from DLW by ∼60% and 53%, respectively whereas AEE (kJ/day) estimated by ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep explained 53% and 41% of the variability of AEE from the reference method. Concordance correlation coefficients for TEE and AEE using ACC+HRgroup were 0.74 and 0.69, correspondingly while for ACC+HRstep values of 0.69 and 0.45 were found. Large limits of agreement were found for TEE and AEE using both ACC+HRgroup and ACC+HRstep. ACC+HR models are a valid alternative to estimate TEE but not AEE in a group of highly active individuals however the considerable rate of equipment failure (∼50%) limits its usefulness. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level—A combined approach for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Banse, Martin; Dornburg, Veronika; Faaij, André

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. - Highlights: • We analyse large scale production of bioenergy and biochemicals in the Netherlands. • The scenarios include up to 30% substitution of fossil fuels by biomass in 2030. • Resulting in strong greenhouse gas savings and positive macro-economic effects. • Large amounts of imported biomass are required to meet the domestic demand. • This requires high rates of technological change and strict sustainability criteria

  20. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Pdigestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pdigestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  1. Quantifying the risk of an increase in the prices of non-energy products by combining the portfolio and input-output approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kengo; Uchiyama, Yohji

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the price of imported fossil fuels indirectly increases the producer price in non-energy sectors; however, this indirect influence cannot be taken into account by the traditional portfolio approach. This study proposes an analytical framework combining the input-output (I-O) model and the portfolio approach that can take the indirect influence into account. A risk of an increase in the producer price in Japanese non-energy sectors during the period 1970-2000 is estimated, and the causes of a decrease in the risk through the analysis period are clarified by decomposing an index of the risk. The result indicates that almost all non-energy sectors have decreased this risk during the analysis period. The degree and cause of the decrease depends on a sector's location in the hierarchical structure of Japanese industries. For example, assembly sectors have decreased their risk mainly as the result of improvement in energy usage by upstream sectors, such as material sectors, rather than their own improvements. Proper policies considering such a structure are required to decrease the risk further because the effort taken to do so is seldom motivated by economic profit.

  2. ttH, H → WW(*) analysis at Atlas, LHC and Very Low Energy electron studies of 2004 combined test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2008-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN is a proton-proton collider with a designed center of mass energy of 14 TeV. ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector located at one of the colliding point of the LHC. Using ATLAS Computing System Commissioning (CSC) Monte Carlo full simulation data of the tt-bar H, H → WW * channel, this thesis studies the feasibility of measuring top-quark Yukawa Coupling up to 30 fb -1 integrated luminosity, within the intermediate Higgs mass range from 120 to 200 GeV. For the first time, trigger, pileup effects as well as all possible systematic uncertainties are extensively studied. For a Higgs mass of 160 GeV, with the detailed systematics uncertainties studied, the signal significance is shown to exceed 2σ by combining 2 leptons and 3 leptons final states together. The combined branching ratio of σ tt -bar H *BR H→WW (*) can reach an accuracy of 47%, and gives important information on the top quark Yukawa Coupling. This is the first study of the tt-bar H, H → WW * channel based on full simulation data, including a complete and detailed study of the systematic uncertainties. The most difficult part of the tt-bar H, H → WW * analysis is to extract signal from an abundant background since the total cross section of signal is only 0.1% of the main background. Moreover, signals have a complex final state of at least 4 jets, 2 leptons, 2 neutrinos, making the Higgs mass reconstruction very difficult. Lepton isolation is one of the most powerful method to suppress reducible backgrounds. This thesis develops a special Cone Isolation procedure, which suppress by a factor 5 the main tt-bar background. Lepton energy scale uncertainty is one of the important systematics for the tt-bar H, H → WW * analysis. A good linearity of Very Low Energy (VLE) electrons can improve the performance of estimating electron energy scale. The second part of this thesis presents a study of the linearity of VLE electron from 2004 ATLAS Combined Test

  3. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  4. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  5. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  6. The thermal impact of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems: a case study in the Netherlands, combining monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Philip W.; Kooi, Henk; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2015-05-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive thermal impact study on an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The study involved monitoring of the thermal impact and modeling of the three-dimensional temperature evolution of the storage aquifer and over- and underlying units. Special attention was paid to non-uniformity of the background temperature, which varies laterally and vertically in the aquifer. Two models were applied with different levels of detail regarding initial conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic and thermal properties: a fine-scale heterogeneity model which construed the lateral and vertical temperature distribution more realistically, and a simplified model which represented the aquifer system with only a limited number of homogeneous layers. Fine-scale heterogeneity was shown to be important to accurately model the ATES-impacted vertical temperature distribution and the maximum and minimum temperatures in the storage aquifer, and the spatial extent of the thermal plumes. The fine-scale heterogeneity model resulted in larger thermally impacted areas and larger temperature anomalies than the simplified model. The models showed that scattered and scarce monitoring data of ATES-induced temperatures can be interpreted in a useful way by groundwater and heat transport modeling, resulting in a realistic assessment of the thermal impact.

  7. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  8. Low-Energy Solvents For Carbon Dioxide Capture Enabled By A Combination Of Enzymes And Vacuum Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Sonja [Novozymes North America, Inc., Franklinton, NC (United States); House, Alan [Novozymes North America, Inc., Franklinton, NC (United States); Liu, Kun [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Frimpong, Reynolds [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Freeman, Charles [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Slater, Jonathan [Doosan Babcock, Renfew (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, David [Doosan Babcock, Renfew (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-31

    An integrated bench-scale system combining the attributes of the bio-renewable enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) with low-enthalpy CO2 absorption solvents and vacuum regeneration was designed, built and operated for 500 hours using simulated flue gas. The objective was to develop a CO2 capture process with improved efficiency and sustainability when compared to NETL Case 10 monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing technology. The use of CA accelerates inter-conversion between dissolved CO2 and bicarbonate ion to enhance CO2 absorption, and the use of low enthalpy CO2 absorption solvents makes it possible to regenerate the solvent at lower temperatures relative to the reference MEA-based solvent. The vacuum regeneration-based integrated bench-scale system operated successfully for an accumulated 500 hours using aqueous 23.5 wt% K2CO3-based solvent containing 2.5 g/L enzyme to deliver an average 84% CO2 capture when operated with a 20% enzyme replenishment rate per ~7 hour steady-state run period. The total inlet gas flow was 30 standard liters per minute with 15% CO2 and 85% N2. The absorber temperature was 40°C and the stripper operated under 35 kPa pressure with an approximate 77°C stripper bottom temperature. Tests with a 30°C absorber temperature delivered >90% capture. On- and off-line operational measurements provided a full process data set, with recirculating enzyme, that allowed for enzyme replenishment and absorption/desorption kinetic parameter calculations. Dissolved enzyme replenishment and conventional process controls were demonstrated as straightforward approaches to maintain system performance. Preliminary evaluation of a novel flow-through ultrasonically enhanced regeneration system was also conducted, yet resulted in CO2 release within the range of temperature-dependent release, and further work would be needed to validate the benefits of ultrasonic enhanced stripping. A full technology assessment was completed in which four techno-economic cases for

  9. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  10. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A

    2002-01-01

    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  11. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray film/screen combinations up to x-ray energy of 3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, A.; Carmel, Y.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.

    1986-01-01

    The present study is directed towards quantifying some of the parameters which define the quality of the image obtained on x-ray sensitive films and its usual accompanying intensifying screens. Both industrial (Agfa-Geveart D2,D4,D7) and medical (Kodak XAR-5) films with a variety of screens such as metallic (lead) and fluorescent (calcium tungstate, rare earth) were compared. A variety of sources were employed (radioactive, linear accelerators, flash) in order to cover the average x-ray energy spectrum from 100KeV to 3000KeV. This energy spectrum is of interest for non destructive testing, terminal ballistics and for medical purposes. The results indicate that the sensitivity of industrial x-ray films decreases with energy in the range of 100KeV to 1MeV, levels off and increases again with increasing energy. A 2.75MeV Na 24 radioactive source was used to achieve accurate calibration at the high end of the spectrum. Also, the noise level of x-ray industrial films versus film density was found to peak at a density of D=1.4. The line spread function (LSF) - or resolution - of both industrial and medical film/screen combinations were derived from the optical density of a step wedge response on the film. The noise level of medical films is twice as high compared to industrial films and their LSF is 4 to 8 times larger at x-ray energies of 3MeV. Using Pb screens in contact with common industrial x-ray films yields amplification of 2 (compared to a bare film)

  12. Diagnosis value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhoupeng; Zhou Jianjun; Liu Xueling; Wang Chun; Zhang Shunzhuang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Sixty patients who were suspected of clear cell renal cell carcinoma underwent non-enhanced CT and contrast enhancement CT of early interface-phase between cortex -medulla and parenchymal phase on a dual-energy CT. The true non-enhanced kidney CT (TNCT) was performed in a single-energy acquisition mode, but the dual-phase contrast enhancement CT were performed in a dual-energy mode of 80 kV and 140 kV respectively. The virtual non-enhanced CT (VNCT) images were derived from the data of early interface phase using liver virtual non-contrast software. The diagnose according to VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT and dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only were made respectively and compared with χ 2 test. Between the true non-contrast CT and the virtual non-contrast CT, the image quality was compared with Wilcoxon test; The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product(DLP) in a single-phase and total examination, the mean CT HU values of the tumours were compared with t test. Results: The accuracy of VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT was higher than that of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only [93.3% (56/60) vs.78.3% (47/60); χ 2 =5.6, P<0.05]. The detective ability (score) of VNCT was near to that of TNCT and the difference was not obvious (Z=0.00, P>0.05). The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) in a single phase and total examination of VNCT [(8.85 ± 1.28) mGy, (196.45 ±21.12) mGy·cm, (17.69±2.35) mGy, (392.90±42.25) mGy · cm] were lower than that of TNCT [(10.20 ± 1.44) mGy,(218.29 ± 29.60) mGy · cm, (30.61 ± 3.27) mGy and (654.86 ± 88.81) mGy ·cm], t=4.21, 3.58, 23.63, 16.12 respectively, P<0.05. The mean CT HU values of tumours on VNCT images was higher than that

  13. Thermoeconomic and environmental analyses of a low water consumption combined steam power plant and refrigeration chillers – Part 1: Energy and economic modelling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Rashidi, Jouan; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two energy systems by combining refrigeration chillers and power plants. • Model-based comparison of the systems through energy and economic standpoints. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 4.7% by process integration. • Decreasing the water loss in wet cooling towers by up to 18% in the proposed system. • Suggesting a water-fuel economic management strategy based on parametric analysis. - Abstract: Two novel configurations are proposed to replace the conventional Rankine cycle based steam power plants (SPP) with natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT) as cooling units. Closed feedwater heater unit of the base SPP-NDWCT system is eliminated in order to combine a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) and an absorption heat pump (ABHP) with the base SPP-NDWCT system. Both VCR-SPP-NDWCT and ABHP-SPP-NDWCT systems are integrated to decrease the NDWCT load which could result in water losses decrease. In part one of the presented two-part paper, model-based energy and economic analyses are performed to compare systems performance and applicability. The temperature difference at pinch point and temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the heat exchangers which were used for systems integration in VCR-SPP-NDWCT, and the absorber pressure and temperature in ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system are studied using parametric analysis procedure. A water-fuel management strategy is also introduced for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system according to the influence of the absorber pressure changes on system water and fuel consumption. In part 2, environmental and thermoeconomic analyses are performed to complete a comprehensive study on designing steam power plants. The results of part 1 showed that water losses and total annual costs decreased by 1–18% and 0–4.7% for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system but increased by 11% and 60% for the VCR-SPP-NDWCT system, respectively.

  14. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  15. Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations for protein-ligand complexes: free energies of binding of water molecules in influenza neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher J; Shaw, Katherine E; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2015-01-22

    The applicability of combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods for the calculation of absolute binding free energies of conserved water molecules in protein/ligand complexes is demonstrated. Here, we apply QM/MM Monte Carlo simulations to investigate binding of water molecules to influenza neuraminidase. We investigate five different complexes, including those with the drugs oseltamivir and peramivir. We investigate water molecules in two different environments, one more hydrophobic and one hydrophilic. We calculate the free-energy change for perturbation of a QM to MM representation of the bound water molecule. The calculations are performed at the BLYP/aVDZ (QM) and TIP4P (MM) levels of theory, which we have previously demonstrated to be consistent with one another for QM/MM modeling. The results show that the QM to MM perturbation is significant in both environments (greater than 1 kcal mol(-1)) and larger in the more hydrophilic site. Comparison with the same perturbation in bulk water shows that this makes a contribution to binding. The results quantify how electronic polarization differences in different environments affect binding affinity and also demonstrate that extensive, converged QM/MM free-energy simulations, with good levels of QM theory, are now practical for protein/ligand complexes.

  16. Study on the Optimizing Operation of Exhaust Air Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Combined Thermal Compensation System for Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.

  17. Low-Energy Charge Transfer in Multiply-Charged Ion-Atom Collisions Studied with the Combined SCVB-MOCC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zygelman

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of theoretical studies of charge transfer involving collisions of multiply-charged ions with atomic neutrals (H and He is presented. The calculations utilized the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC approach where the requisite potential curves and coupling matrix elements have been obtained with the spin-coupled valence bond (SCVB method. Comparison is made among various collision partners, for equicharged systems, where it is illustrated that even for total charge transfer cross sections, scaling-laws do not exist for low-energy collisions (i.e. < 1 keV/amu. While various empirical scaling-laws are well known in the intermediateand high-energy regimes, the multi-electron configurations of the projectile ions results in a rich and varied low-energy dependence, requiring an explicit calculation for each collision-partner pair. Future charge transfer problems to be addressed with the combined SCVB-MOCC approach are briefly discussed.

  18. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    that produce biofuels suitable for the transport sector efficiencies between 45 and 55 % can be reached, independent of product. However, there is one exception, which is methane produced via gasification that can reach efficiencies between 70 and 75 %. What differs more between the biofuel producing processes for the transport sector is the amount of biofuel that is possible to get out from the ingoing biomass, which can be anything between 20 and 70 %. Here, ethanol gives the lowest and methane via gasification the highest values. With respect to the costs to produce the different products the lowest costs are obviously related to the production of biofuels to be used in the stationary energy system. The total production cost of these products is between 40 and 90 % higher than the cost for biomass feedstock (Swedish forest residues). The production cost for the other biofuels is 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than the cost for the feedstock (Swedish forest residues), independent of product. However, some polygeneration schemes show very high cost, up to 9 times the cost for the feedstock. The uncertainty in these figures is, nevertheless, high and the real costs are dependent on if there are any supplier of the technology, which availability that is possible to achieve and the costs for the operation and maintenance. As one or several of the components included in these plants are still at a research or at a demonstration stage, it is not possible to give any more precise estimation on the costs or availability of such plants

  19. More with thermal energy storage. Report 12. Combination with the water chain. New applications of thermal energy storage in combination concepts in the water chain. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 12. Combinatie met de waterketen. Nieuwe toepassingen van bodemenergie bij combinatieconcepten in de waterketen. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woning, M.; Van Oostrom, N. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Kleinlugtenbelt, R. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report presents the activities carried out in WP4 with results of both the inventory phase and the feasibility phase. After the introduction of WP4, outlining the framework and the aim, follows a survey of heat and cold storage combinations and elaborations of 3 combination concepts [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2

  20. Energy versus economic effectiveness in CHP (combined heat and power) applications: Investigation on the critical role of commodities price, taxation and power grid mix efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Rossi, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Starting from PES (primary energy saving) and CSR (cost saving ratio) definitions the work pinpoints a “grey area” in which CHP (combined heat and power – cogeneration) units can operate with profit and negative PES. In this case, CHP can be profitably operated with lower efficiency with respect to separate production of electrical and thermal energy. The work defines the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. The optimal value of R-index for which CHP units operate with both environmental benefit (PES > 0) and economic profitability (CSR > 0) is the reference value of electrical efficiency, η_e_l_-_r_e_f, of separate production (national power grid mix). As a consequence, optimal R-index varies from Country to Country. The work demonstrates that the value of R corresponds to the minimum value of electrical efficiency for which any power generator operates with profit. The paper demonstrates that, with regard to the profitability of cogeneration, the ratio between the cost of commodities is more important than their absolute value so that different taxation of each commodity can be a good leverage for energy policy makers to promote high efficiency cogeneration, even in the absence of an incentive mechanism. The final part of the study presents an analysis on micro-CHP technologies payback times for different European Countries. - Highlights: • Investigation of the grey area where CHP profitably operates also with negative PES. • Study starts from definition of primary energy saving PES and cost saving ratio CSR. • Definition of the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. • The optimal value of R for which the “grey area” disappears is R = η_e_l_-_r_e_f. • R is also the value of η_e_l for which any electric generator profitably operates.

  1. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  2. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  3. Combined heart rate- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity energy expenditure and associations with glucose homeostasis markers in a population at high risk of developing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Carstensen, Bendix; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and different subtypes of dysglycemia have shown different associations with PA. To better understand the associations of PA and glucose homeostasis, we examined the association of objectively measured PA...... energy expenditure (PAEE) with detailed measures of glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 1,531 men and women, with low to high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, we measured 7 days of PAEE using a combined accelerometry and heart rate monitor (ActiHeart). Measures and indices of glucose...... of PAEE slightly in an entire population at risk for developing type 2 diabetes may be a realistic and worthwhile goal to reach in order to achieve beneficial effect in terms of glucose metabolism....

  4. Stress distribution in mechanically surface treated Ti-2.5Cu determined by combining energy-dispersive synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maawad, E.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Hofmann, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Wagner, L.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatments such as shot peening (SP) or ball-burnishing (BB) induce plastic deformation close to the surface resulting in work-hardening and compressive residual stresses. It enhances the fatigue performance by retarding or even suppressing micro-crack growth from the surface into the interior. SP and BB were carried out on a solution heat treated (SHT) Ti-2.5Cu. The investigations of compressive and balancing tensile residual stresses need a combination of energy-dispersive synchrotron (ED) and neutron diffraction. Essential for the stress distribution is the stress state before surface treatments which was determined by neutron diffraction. Results show that the maximum compressive stress and its depth play an important role to improve the fatigue performance.

  5. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  6. Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Voss, P L; Ougazzaden, A; Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Troadec, D; Gautier, S; Moudakir, T; Suresh, S

    2012-01-01

    Using elastic scattering theory we show that a small set of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements is sufficient to experimentally evaluate the scattering function of electrons in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We then demonstrate how to use this function to transform qualitative HAADF-STEM images of InGaN layers into precise, quantitative chemical maps of the indium composition. The maps obtained in this way combine the resolution of HAADF-STEM and the chemical precision of EDX. We illustrate the potential of such chemical maps by using them to investigate nanometer-scale fluctuations in the indium composition and their impact on the growth of epitaxial InGaN layers. (paper)

  7. Reduction of environmental pollution - Mohndruck Energy Centre with PHC installation and cooperative energy combination. Final report - appendices; Verminderung von Umweltbelastungen - Energiezentrum Mohndruck mit KWK-K-Anlagen und kooperativem Energieverbund. Abschlussbericht mit Anlagen zum Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichter, T.

    1999-11-30

    One of the leading printing firms im Europe covers its energy requirements for thermal and cooling energy from a Power-Heat-Cooling-combined installation. The central element of the installation is a gas and steam process with 3 gas turbines and a steam turbine with an electrical performance of 20,5 MW in total. The waste heat extracted from the combined cycle-process is used to produce refrigeration using absorption refrigeration equipment and to provide district heating for internal and external firms. The waste heat is used several times in the refrigerating centre through cascade switching. The solvent-containing vitiated air from the offset printing machines present is used in the combined cycle-process to generate electricity. The vitiated air is cleaned in TNV equipment and the hot waste gases used to produce steam. The process steam produced is sent into the combined cycle-progress installation and so used for the generation of more electricity. In 1998 the atmosphere was relieved of the burden of about 78 000 t of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, together with a comprehensive reduction of air pollutants such as nitrous oxides (by 60%), carbon oxides (by 49%) sulphur oxides and dust (by 100% in each case), by the environment and resources conserving technology of the PHC-combined installation. (orig.) [German] Eine der fuehrenden Druckereien Europas deckt ihren Energiebedarf an Waerme- und Kaelteenergie aus einer Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplungsanlage. Zentrales Element der Anlage ist ein GuD-Prozess mit 3 Gasturbinen und einer Dampfturbine mit einer elektrischen Leistung von insgesamt 20,5 MW. Die aus dem GuD-Prozess ausgekoppelte Abwaerme wird zur Kaelteerzeugung ueber Absorptionskaelteanlagen und zur Fernwaermeversorgung interner sowie externer Betriebe eingesetzt. Die Abwaerme wird in den Kaeltezentralen durch Kaskadenschaltung mehrfach genutzt. Die loesemittelhaltige Abluft vorhandender Offsetdruckmaschinen wird zur Stromerzeugung im GuD-Prozess genutzt

  8. Coupled cooling method and application of latent heat thermal energy storage combined with pre-cooling of envelope: Method and model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yanping; Gao, Xiangkui; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zujin; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang; Yu, Nanyang

    2017-01-01

    The traditional cooling methods cannot meet the requirements of safety, stability, reliability and no-power at the same time under some special circumstances. In this study, a new coupled cooling method of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) combined with Pre-cooling of Envelope (PE) is proposed and the numerical model of the coupled cooling method is developed. In the current study, a refuge chamber is selected as a case study. A semi-analytical method is used to analyze the cold storage performance of the Surrounding Rock (SR). Afterwards, a numerical model of the coupled cooling system, which takes the heat source, SR, Phase Change Material (PCM) and air heat transfer into consideration, is further established. The study identified that the simplified semi-analytical calculation formula with the diagram of the cold storage quantity of SR are very helpful for engineering calculation. The influence of the Fourier and Biot number on the cold storage capacity of SR can be easily analyzed. In addition, the whole-field model of the coupled cooling system is completely developed based on the PCM unit. - Highlights: • A new coupled cooling method that combines LHTES with PE is proposed. • This method can be applicable to a high-temperature and no-power circumstance. • The simplified calculation formula of the cold storage quantity of SR is given. • An efficient simulation model of the coupled cooling system is established.

  9. Combined near- and far-field high-energy diffraction microscopy dataset for Ti-7Al tensile specimen elastically loaded in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Todd J.; Shade, Paul A.; Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai; Schuren, Jay C.; Lind, Jonathan; Lienert, Ulrich; Kenesei, Peter; Suter, Robert M.; Blank, Basil; Almer, Jonathan

    2016-03-18

    High-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM) constitutes a suite of combined X-ray characterization methods, which hold the unique advantage of illuminating the microstructure and micromechanical state of a material during concurrent in situ mechanical deformation. The data generated from HEDM experiments provides a heretofore unrealized opportunity to validate meso-scale modeling techniques, such as crystal plasticity finite element modeling (CPFEM), by explicitly testing the accuracy of these models at the length scales where the models predict their response. Combining HEDM methods with in situ loading under known and controlled boundary conditions represents a significant challenge, inspiring the recent development of a new high-precision rotation and axial motion system for simultaneously rotating and axially loading a sample. In this paper, we describe the initial HEDM dataset collected using this hardware on an alpha-titanium alloy (Ti-7Al) under in situ tensile deformation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. We present both near-field HEDM data that maps out the grain morphology and intragranular crystallographic orientations and far-field HEDM data that provides the grain centroid, grain average crystallographic orientation, and grain average elastic strain tensor for each grain. Finally, we provide a finite element mesh that can be utilized to simulate deformation in the volume of this Ti-7Al specimen. The dataset supporting this article is available in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) repository (http://hdl.handle.net/11256/599).

  10. Iron speciation of airborne subway particles by the combined use of energy dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and Raman microspectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hae-Jin; Sobanska, Sophie; Chung, Sang-Gwi; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Sunwoo, Young; Ro, Chul-Un

    2013-11-05

    Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), known as low-Z particle EPMA, and Raman microspectrometry (RMS) were applied in combination for an analysis of the iron species in airborne PM10 particles collected in underground subway tunnels. Iron species have been reported to be a major chemical species in underground subway particles generated mainly from mechanical wear and friction processes. In particular, iron-containing particles in subway tunnels are expected to be generated with minimal outdoor influence on the particle composition. Because iron-containing particles have different toxicity and magnetic properties depending on their oxidation states, it is important to determine the iron species of underground subway particles in the context of both indoor public health and control measures. A recently developed analytical methodology, i.e., the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and RMS, was used to identify the chemical species of the same individual subway particles on a single particle basis, and the bulk iron compositions of airborne subway particles were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The majority of airborne subway particles collected in the underground tunnels were found to be magnetite, hematite, and iron metal. All the particles collected in the tunnels of underground subway stations were attracted to permanent magnets due mainly to the almost ubiquitous ferrimagnetic magnetite, indicating that airborne subway particles can be removed using magnets as a control measure.

  11. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  12. Combination of low-energy shock-wave therapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to improve the erectile function of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Chen, Wen-Tao; Chen, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jin-Tai; Yue, Min; Lin, Ji-Hong; Wei, An-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation and low-energy shock-wave therapy (LESWT) have emerged as potential and effective treatment protocols for diabetic erectile dysfunction. During the tracking of transplanted stem cells in diabetic erectile dysfunction models, the number of visible stem cells was rather low and decreased quickly. LESWT could recruit endogenous stem cells to the cavernous body and improve the microenvironment in diabetic cavernous tissue. Thus, we deduced that LESWT might benefit transplanted stem cell survival and improve the effects of stem cell transplantation. In this research, 42 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized into four groups: the diabetic group (n = 6), the LESWT group (n = 6), the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation group (n = 15), and the combination of LESWT and BMSC transplantation group (n = 15). One and three days after BMSC transplantation, three rats were randomly chosen to observe the survival numbers of BMSCs in the cavernous body. Four weeks after BMSC transplantation, the following parameters were assessed: the surviving number of transplanted BMSCs in the cavernous tissue, erectile function, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and penile immunohistochemical assessment. Our research found that LESWT favored the survival of transplanted BMSCs in the cavernous body, which might be related to increased stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression and the enhancement of angiogenesis in the diabetic cavernous tissue. The combination of LESWT and BMSC transplantation could improve the erectile function of diabetic erectile function rats more effectively than LESWT or BMSC transplantation performed alone.

  13. Combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics dynamics simulation of A-DNA double strands irradiated by ultra-low-energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngaojampa, C.; Nimmanpipug, P. [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.t [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Lee, V.S., E-mail: vannajan@gmail.co [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In order to promote understanding of the fundamentals of ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA, molecular dynamics simulations using combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics of poly-AT and poly-GC A-DNA double strands irradiated by <200 eV carbon ions were performed to investigate the molecular implications of mutation bias. The simulations were focused on the responses of the DNA backbones and nitrogenous bases to irradiation. Analyses of the root mean square displacements of the backbones and non-hydrogen atoms of base rings of the simulated DNA structure after irradiation revealed a potential preference of DNA double strand separation, dependent on the irradiating energy. The results show that for the backbones, the large difference in the displacement between poly-GC and poly-AT in the initial time period could be the reason for the backbone breakage; for the nitrogenous base pairs, A-T is 30% more sensitive or vulnerable to ion irradiation than G-C, demonstrating a preferential, instead of random, effect of irradiation-induced mutation.

  14. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C + using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV-30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C+) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures Tg between 500 and 590 °C. C+-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observable. CAs acceptor-related emissions such as ``g,'' [g-g], and [g-g]β are observed and their spectra are significantly changed with increasing C+ beam current density Ic. PL measurements showed that C atoms were efficiently incorporated during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were optically well activated as an acceptor in the as-grown condition even for Tg as low as 500 °C. Raman measurement showed negligible lattice damage of the epilayer bombarded with 100 eV C+ with no subsequent heat treatment. These results indicate that contamination- and damage-free impurity doping without postgrowth annealing can be achieved by the CIBMBE method.

  15. Ion-beam doping of GaAs with low-energy (100 eV) C(+) using combined ion-beam and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lida, Tsutomu; Makita, Yunosuke; Kimura, Shinji; Winter, Stefan; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Uekusa, Shin-Ichiro

    1995-01-01

    A combined ion-beam and molecular-beam-epitaxy (CIBMBE) system has been developed. This system consists of an ion implanter capable of producing ions in the energy range of 30 eV - 30 keV and conventional solid-source MBE. As a successful application of CIBMBE, low-energy (100 eV) carbon ion (C(+)) irradiation during MBE growth of GaAs was carried out at substrate temperatures T(sub g) between 500 and 590 C. C(+)-doped layers were characterized by low-temperature (2 K) photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, and van der Pauw measurements. PL spectra of undoped GaAs grown by CIBMBE revealed that unintentional impurity incorporation into the epilayer is extremely small and precise doping effects are observab