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Sample records for linaire qui relie

  1. Une herbe qui relie les parties du monde…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bénat-Tachot

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Le livre 50 de la Historia natural y moral de las Indias est la conclusion de trente-cinq années d’expérience américaine, de compilation de récits, de témoignages, d’entrevues dont Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo se fait le garant. Peu étudié et surtout classé comme une forme littéraire de l’histoire où intervient le miraculeux, cet ensemble de 19 chapitres présente néanmoins un intérêt singulier pour comprendre le monde colonial et l’importance que la navigation comme expérience commune partagée a pu avoir dans les sociétés en voie de constitution. Ce livre n’est donc pas simplement une vision assombrie de l’Amérique, aux antipodes de l’utopie, mais plutôt la claire affirmation d’un changement radical de la sensibilité sociale et de la culture matérielle. Le naufrage n’est pas autre chose que le coût de la modernité d’une navigation-monde ibérique qui dominera la deuxième moitié du XVIe siècle.El libro 50 de la Historia natural y moral de las Indias de Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo se presenta como la conclusión de treinta y cinco años de experiencia americana del autor, durante la cual acumuló relatos, testimonios, realizó entrevistas, como cronista al servicio de la corona. Este libro, poco estudiado, se suele definir como un texto híbrido de « literatura » en el que se mezcla todo tipo de naufragios (sucesos milagrosos, curiosos o espantosos a lo largo de 19 capítulos. Sin embargo presenta un interés singular para el historiador por la visión del mundo colonial que dibuja y la importancia concedida a la navegación, como experiencia compartida por la mayoría, en el proceso de construcción de la sociedad colonial. Este libro de los naufragios no es solo un panorama oscurecido de las Indias Occidentales, contrapuesto al discurso utópico, es más bien la clara afirmación de un cambio radical en la sensibilidad y en la cultura material. El naufragio no es sino el coste de la modernidad

  2. Qui est Méduse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kristeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Une belle histoire de têtes coupées traverse l'Antiquité grecque : celle des Gorgones, trois monstres ailés au corps de femme et à la chevelure de serpents, dont le regard changeait en pierre celui qui se risquait à les contempler – Méduse, Euryalé et Sthéno. Pour commencer, Méduse est une jeune fille qui se fait remarquer : séduite puis violée par Poséidon, elle se révèle fertile puisqu'elle accouche de faux jumeaux, le cheval Pégase et le géant Chrysaor. Une longue fable la transforme en terrible puissance. Pour simplifier, disons que le monstre est par deux fois tué : Persée assassine d'abord Méduse pour assurer la protection de sa mère, Danaé, importunée par le roi Polydectès. Ensuite, il délivre Andromède des liens méduséens qui la retiennent et, pour ce faire, tranche la tête de la Gorgone. La mer se teinte de sang, tandis que le vainqueur tient à l'écart l'épouvantail de Méduse, de peur que ne soient changés en statues de pierre ceux qui s'exposeraient à sa vue.

  3. Rely-Guarantee Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Rely-Guarantee Protocols”, to appear in the...Yemini. Typestate: A programming language concept for enhancing software reliability. IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1986. [29] K. Svendsen, L. Birkedal, and

  4. Ce qui se passe dans tes doigts

    OpenAIRE

    Quintans, Santiago; Lähdeoja, Otso

    2010-01-01

    Une question simple, c’est quoi la guitare électrique ? Claude Pavy : C’est une planche avec un manche, des cordes qui font tzing, des micros qui captent tzing, et après on fait joujou avec ça. La guitare électrique c’est d’abord le son. Je dis souvent à mes élèves : « la guitare, cela ne m’intéresse pas ». Alors évidemment, ils me regardent avec des yeux ronds, et ils me disent, « T’es guitariste ? » Oui, mais la guitare en elle-même, cela ne m’intéresse pas. Ce qui m’intéresse, c’est ce qu...

  5. Archiver ce qui aurait pu avoir lieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Baumann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas Group, un projet de l’artiste libanais Walid Raad, est « dédié à la recherche et la compilation de documents sur l’histoire contemporaine libanaise. L’Atlas Group produit, localise, conserve et étudie des documents visuels, sonores, textuels et autres, qui mettent en lumière l’histoire actuelle du Liban. »Ce projet est ainsi présenté comme une fondation qui génère des archives historiques et qui collecte des traces relevant de la guerre au Liban afin de les mettre à disposition aux chercheurs. Mais, les matériaux sont produits par l’artiste : l’archive est imaginaire, les documents et récits sont inventés, ainsi que le Docteur Fakhouhi, le personnage principal, présenté comme étant « le plus renommé des historiens au Liban ». Le spectateur se trouve alors devant un scénario très étrange dans lequel sont détournées les notions de document (qui peut désormais être aussi bien trouvé que produit et d’histoire (car les situations décrites sont considérées comme « ayant très bien pu avoir eu lieu », l’Atlas Group  les traite comme de véritables événement historiques et qui déplace, mine de rien, tout un dispositif. Au sein de ce projet, la frontière entre fiction et documentaire est complètement estompée : le geste de l’artiste (qui, lui, se présente comme une institution, un « Groupe », interroge ainsi le statut même d’auteur vise à la déplacer pour poser des questions relatives aux représentations possibles de l’histoire, aux personnes aptes à se charger de son écriture et à l’opération historiographique.

  6. L homme qui plantait des arbres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Giono

    2011-01-01

    A partir de 1920,je ne suis jamais resté plus d'un an sans rendre visite à Elzéard Bouffier.Je ne l'ai jamais vu fléchir ni douter.Et pourtant,Dieu sait si Dieu meme y pousse ! Je n'ai pas fait le compte de ses déboires.On imagine bien cependant que,pour une réussite semblable,il a fallu vaincre l'adversité;que,pour assurer la victoire d'une telle passion,il a fallu lutter avec 1e désespoir.Ⅱ avait,pendant un an,planté plus de dix mille érabies.Ils moururent tous.L'an d' après,il abandonna les érables pour reprendre les hetres qui réussirent encore mieux que les chenes.

  7. Un livre qui résiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Blanquie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Christian Jouhaud n’est jamais où on l’attend et venant après la maîtrise des Pouvoirs de la littérature, ce nouvel essai étonnera autant qu’avait surpris celui qu’il avait consacré à Richelieu après son premier livre sur les mazarinades. Voici en effet un livre qui résiste. à la facilité, d’abord, car Christian Jouhaud pose une question que, pour notre confort, nous préférons habituellement ignorer, celle des conditions de  « la rencontre du passé dans sa vérité matérielle et monumentale et ...

  8. Qui gouverne les industries ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Genieys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La question de savoir qui gouverne l’économie a longtemps fasciné les sciences sociales sans pour autant souvent générer de résultats probants et rigoureux. Bernard Jouve a tenté d’y répondre en se focalisant sur l’élite de chacune des métropoles qu’il a étudiée. Ce texte prolonge son travail en changeant de focale pour aborder plutôt les élites qui régulent chaque industrie en présentant leur «  programme » respectif. Après avoir exposé les développements théoriques menant à ce concept « d’élite programmatique », l’article les croise avec une approche du gouvernement des industries afin de tracer une nouvelle voie vers une meilleure compréhension du rôle du politique dans l’économie.The question «who governs the economy ?» has fascinated social science for years without often generating stimulating and rigorous results. Bernard Jouve attempted to reply to it by focusing on the elite of each metropole he studied. This text extends his work by changing the focus in order to study the elites who regulate each industry through promoting their respective «programme». Having first presented the theoretical developments that produced the concept of «programmatic elite», the article combines it with an approach to the government of industries in order to set out a new route map towards better understanding of the role of politics in the economy.

  9. Lying relies on the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain Relies on Two Timekeepers for Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160407.html Brain Relies on Two Timekeepers for Sleep Study shows ... internal "hourglass" affect how different parts of your brain respond to sleep deprivation, a new study shows. ...

  11. Regarder ceux qui regardent : Eudora Welty photographe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Victor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Biographes et critiques ont largement souligné la concomitance, chez Eudora Welty, de la venue à l’écriture et de la pratique photographique au milieu des années 30 : en 1936, elle obtient en même temps, et pour la première fois, la publication d’une de ses nouvelles (« Death of Traveling Salesman » ainsi que la tenue d’une exposition, dans une galerie new-yorkaise, de ses photographies du Mississippi prises pour le compte de l’agence locale de la Works Progress Administration, qui l’emploie...

  12. An Atom Trap Relying on Optical Pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyer, P; Dahan, M B; Michaud, A; Salomon, C; Dalibard, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a $J_{g} \\longrightarrow J_{e} = J_{g} + 1$ atomic transition with $J_{g} \\geq 1/2$. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm $J_{g} = 4 \\longrightarrow J_{e} = 5$ resonance transition. The trap contained up to $3 \\cdot 10^{7}$ atoms in a cloud of $1/\\sqrt{e}$ radius of 330 $\\mu$m.

  13. La vérite sur ce qui nous motive

    CERN Document Server

    Pink, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Voici enfin la traduction française du best-seller international DRIVE ! Qu'est-ce qui nous motive vraiment ? Dans quels cas sommes-nous les plus performants et les plus enthousiastes ? La plupart d'entre nous sommes persuadés que les récompenses (salaire, primes...) sont notre meilleure motivation. La logique de la carotte et du bâton finalement... Et si nous faisions fausse route ? En s'appuyant sur quatre décennies d'études scientifiques et psychologiques sur la motivation humaine, Pink démontre que les entreprises dirigent très mal leurs équipes avec d'énormes conséquences sur notre vie (absence d'ambition, lassitude, morosité). Le secret de la performance (et de la satisfaction) dans les entreprises, l'enseignement ou dans notre vie personnelle , c'est le besoin profondément humain de diriger sa propre vie, d'apprendre, de créer de nouvelles choses et de s'améliorer. Dans ce livre, Pink examine les 3 éléments de la motivation, l'autonomie, la maîtrise et le besoin de donner un sens ...

  14. Bernard George, Le Scribe qui dessine, l’art du contour

    OpenAIRE

    Courant, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Pour celles et ceux qui ont manqué la merveilleuse exposition L’art du contour. Le dessin dans l’Egypte ancienne qui s’est tenue au musée du Louvre du 19 avril au 22 juillet 2013, le documentaire de Bernard George ouvre une formidable fenêtre sur ces scribes qui dessinent, maîtres de l’art du contour. Rappelant que pour l’Egypte antique, le dessin est le berceau de tous les arts, la base de l’écriture, de l’architecture et de la sculpture, ce documentaire permet de saisir l’importance et la n...

  15. Celui qui implose dans le vacuum de la difficulté de survivre dans le vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Tremblay

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Le vacuum dont nous parlons découle directement de l’implosion du Canada français, c’est-à-dire du mouvement de repli qui, à la fin des années soixante, amène les Canadiens-Français à délimiter pour la première fois leurs frontières nationales. C’est en quelque sorte une conversion au réel, aussi bien pour les Québécois qui tentent alors de prendre possession de leur territoire, que pour les Franco-Ontariens qui doivent faire le deuil de leurs institutions nationales.

  16. In search of Godard’s ‘Sauve la vie (qui peut’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a little-known compilation film titled Sauve la vie (qui peut that Jean-Luc Godard created in 1981 within the framework of a series of lectures on cinema history that he delivered in Rotterdam in 1980-1981. To make this compilation film he combined sections from his Sauve qui peut (la vie with extracts from four other films. Based on archival research, the article considers the context for the screening, the film’s structure, Godard’s wider engagement with the filmmakers whose work he incorporated, the prints he used, my attempts to reconstruct the film, and its reception in 1981 and today.

  17. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  18. «¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as?». Personajes en busca de identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caretti, Laura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Who am I? Who are they? These are the questions haunting the characters, created by writers such as Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett and others, whose emblematic search for identity is explored in the article. The complex interconnections between subjectivity and alterity are focused within the coordinates of space (society and time (memory in their outward and inward movement. The characters are seen on stage relating also to the otherness of actors and spectators. Particular relief is given to the difference between the female and male search for identity in the light of contemporary historical changes.¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as? Estas son las cuestiones que obsesionan a los personajes creados por escritores como Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett y otros, cuya emblemática búsqueda de identidad se explora a lo largo de este artículo. Las complejas interconexiones entre subjetividad y alteridad son analizadas con las coordenadas del espacio (sociedad y el tiempo (memoria en su movimiento interno y externo. Los personajes son vistos en el escenario desde la alteridad de actores y espectadores. Un particular relieve se otorga a la diferencia entre la búsqueda de la identidad femenina y masculina a la luz de los cambios históricos contemporáneos.

  19. Relying on topic subsets for system ranking estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Azzopardi, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Ranking a number of retrieval systems according to their retrieval effectiveness without relying on costly relevance judgments was first explored by Soboroff et al [6]. Over the years, a number of alternative approaches have been proposed. We perform a comprehensive analysis of system ranking

  20. Relying on topic subsets for system ranking estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Azzopardi, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Ranking a number of retrieval systems according to their retrieval effectiveness without relying on costly relevance judgments was first explored by Soboroff et al [6]. Over the years, a number of alternative approaches have been proposed. We perform a comprehensive analysis of system ranking estima

  1. The Biosynthesis of UDP-d-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soyoun; Aronov, Avi; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-d-glucose, QuiNAc) is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg) that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-d-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-d-xylo-4-hexulose); and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq) that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-d-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-d-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-d-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-d-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus. PMID:26207987

  2. The Biosynthesis of UDP-D-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoun Hwang

    Full Text Available N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-D-glucose, QuiNAc is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-4-hexulose; and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-D-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-D-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-D-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus.

  3. Haddad, Galit. 2012. 1914-1919. Ceux qui protestaient (Paris : Les Belles Lettres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Amossy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Avec 1914-1919. Ceux qui protestaient (2012, Galit Haddad nous offre une somme impressionnante sur un sujet qui ne peut manquer de susciter l’intérêt général : la question de la protestation contre la guerre pendant la (Grande guerre. Sans doute est-ce avant tout un livre d’historienne, foisonnant de détails sur la guerre de 1914-18, utilisant des procédures d’analyse empruntées aux disciplines historiques, et en partie fondé sur des archives inédites : les rapports du contrôle postal des c...

  4. Lac Qui Parle Flood Control Project Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    lower 18 miles to the mouth, the fall is about 14.0 feet per mile. Tributaries entering from the north, such as the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa Rivers...rather poorly defined, with small lakes and marshy areas marking the watercourses. Between the Pom de Terre and Chippewa River mouths are some ancient...agricultural limitations. 3.13 Water Resources Surface Waters The dig Stone Lake, Po-me de Terre River, Yellow Bank River, Lac qui Parle River, and

  5. ¿Cine para qué? ¿Cine para quién?

    OpenAIRE

    Lluna, Catalina; Perazzo, Matías; Tegiachi, Luz

    2016-01-01

    El “cine arte”, “cine de autor” o sencillamente el cine independiente parece atenerse a reglas muy distintas que las películas comerciales. ¿Qué buscan los realizadores independientes? ¿En quién(es) piensan a la hora de desarrollar sus películas? Pensamos algunas de estas cuestiones a partir del análisis de una instancia del proyecto de tesis de Matías Perazzo, estudiante de cine.

  6. Covert face recognition relies on affective valence in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Haslam, Catherine; Jansari, Ashok; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2009-06-01

    Dominant accounts of covert recognition in prosopagnosia assume subthreshold activation of face representations created prior to onset of the disorder. Yet, such accounts cannot explain covert recognition in congenital prosopagnosia, where the impairment is present from birth. Alternatively, covert recognition may rely on affective valence, yet no study has explored this possibility. The current study addressed this issue in 3 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia, using measures of the scanpath to indicate recognition. Participants were asked to memorize 30 faces paired with descriptions of aggressive, nice, or neutral behaviours. In a later recognition test, eye movements were monitored while participants discriminated studied from novel faces. Sampling was reduced for studied--nice compared to studied--aggressive faces, and performance for studied--neutral and novel faces fell between these two conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that (a) positive emotion can facilitate processing in prosopagnosia, and (b) covert recognition may rely on emotional valence rather than familiarity.

  7. L'antimatière la matière qui remonte le temps

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Si un monde de matière rencontrait un monde d’antimatière, on assisterait à une conflagration d’une extrême violence ! L’antimatière apparaît dans la théorie quantique comme une matière « miroir » selon les transformations de l’espace et de la charge, ou selon celle du temps. Pourquoi la nature a-t-elle créé ce monde miroir du nôtre ? L’Univers contient-il autant de matière que d’antimatière ? Où donc est passée toute l’antimatière qui était présente au début de l’Univers et pourquoi en a-t-on perdu la trace ? Dans cet ouvrage, qui fait référence, Gabriel Chardin nous aide à approcher cette « matière qui remonte le temps » !

  8. Ceux qui sauront : le déclinisme uchronique de Pierre Bordage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ainseba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “What if the French Revolution had never happened? What if what seems to be France's greatest pride was simply erased from history books? These are the questions that haunt Pierre Bordage's alternate history fiction Ceux qui sauront (Those who know which was published in 2008 and is the first volume of a trilogy (Ceux qui rêvent (Those who dream, 2010; Ceux qui osent (Those who dare, 2012. Bordage does not outline all the political ramifications of this null and void revolution but his narrative is centred on the prohibition of teaching for the enduring Third Estate. Even though it has been labelled children's literature, this work of alternate history is full of violent declinism: it tackles both the State's misology and the way scholars are disdained within a mercantile order, it denounces the way politics have abandoned the social and the way school has been forced to secrecy. Given these declinist characteristics, might we not classify this alternate history as a distopia? What are the whys and the wherefores of this all-French anti-humanism? What does this work reveal as regards contemporary, end of twentieth, beginning of twenty-first century France?

  9. Ceux qui sauront : le déclinisme uchronique de Pierre Bordage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ainseba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “What if the French Revolution had never happened? What if what seems to be France's greatest pride was simply erased from history books? These are the questions that haunt Pierre Bordage's alternate history fiction Ceux qui sauront (Those who know which was published in 2008 and is the first volume of a trilogy (Ceux qui rêvent (Those who dream, 2010; Ceux qui osent (Those who dare, 2012. Bordage does not outline all the political ramifications of this null and void revolution but his narrative is centred on the prohibition of teaching for the enduring Third Estate. Even though it has been labelled children's literature, this work of alternate history is full of violent declinism: it tackles both the State's misology and the way scholars are disdained within a mercantile order, it denounces the way politics have abandoned the social and the way school has been forced to secrecy. Given these declinist characteristics, might we not classify this alternate history as a distopia? What are the whys and the wherefores of this all-French anti-humanism? What does this work reveal as regards contemporary, end of twentieth, beginning of twenty-first century France?

  10. ReLIS: Research Papers on Library and Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Subirats-Coll, Imma; Barrueco, José-Manuel

    2002-01-01

    ReLIS is realtionated with the international tendencies of open archives of scientific Literature, which guarantees its quality, continuity and also extension possibility. ] applies to the philosophy harnessed by the Open Archives Initiative, and of its future products come from that, at the moment are in phase of study on the part of our equipment. OAI develop and promote the interoperability to facilitate the diffusion of contents, to offer the access to e-prints and to increase the communi...

  11. L'homme qui ne portait pas de chaussettes, ou Quel Einstein célébrons-nous ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marage, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    2005 est l’Année internationale de la Physique. Elle marque le centième anniversaire des fameux articles d’Einstein de 1905 :la description du mouvement des corpuscules en suspension dans un liquide (le « mouvement brownien »), qui permit enfin de confirmer l’existence des atomes et qui formera sa thèse de doctorat ;l’article sur les quanta et l’effet photoélectrique qui, reprenant et élargissant l’hypothèse de Planck sur le rayonnement, fait d’Einstein l’un des pères de la mécanique quantiqu...

  12. Number Comparison and Number Line Estimation Rely on Different Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sasanguie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance in comparison and number line estimation is assumed to rely on the same underlying representation, similar to a compressed mental number line that becomes more linear with age. We tested this assumption explicitly by examining the relation between the linear/logarithmic fit in a non-symbolic number line estimation task and the size effect (SE in a non-symbolic comparison task in first-, second-, and third graders. In two experiments, a correlation between the estimation pattern in number line estimation and the SE in comparison was absent. An ANOVA showed no difference between the groups of children with a linear or a logarithmic representation considering their SE in comparison. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie both basic number processing tasks.

  13. Note de lecture: 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent'

    CERN Document Server

    Merlaud, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    This is a critical review of the book 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent', under the scientific supervision of Pr Itsvan Mark\\'o, and co-authored by Anne Debeil, Ludovic Delory, Samuel Furfari, Drieu Godefridi, Henri Masson, Lars Myren, and Alain Pr\\'eat. We show that regarding climate science, the book contains too many approximations or mistakes to be considered seriously. Nevertheless, the book is interesting in several aspects, in particular from an epistemological perspective. We also argue that the main take-home message is not stated clearly enough by the authors: there is a strong practical incompatibility between economic \\emph{laissez-faire} and anthropogenic climate change. ----- Ceci est une analyse du livre 'Climat: 15 v\\'erit\\'es qui d\\'erangent', publi\\'e par un collectif sous la direction scientifique du Pr Itsvan Mark\\'o et incluant Anne Debeil, Ludovic Delory, Samuel Furfari, Drieu Godefridi, Henri Masson, Lars Myren, et Alain Pr\\'eat. Nous montrons qu'au sujet de la science du climat, ...

  14. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  15. La tête qui fume de l’église de Nārgā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bosc-Tiessé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’église de Nārgā Śellāsē, construite dans les années 1738-1750, une sculpture très inhabituelle montre un homme qui fume. Cette représentation est d’autant plus surprenante que nous pensons généralement que le fait de fumer était fortement condamné dans la société chrétienne, comme en témoignent les textes qui prolifèrent à la fin du xixe siècle. Mais les images et l’archéologie donnent des informations contradictoires sur cette pratique, ce qui nous conduit à reconsidérer l’histoire des textes. Du xvie au xxe siècle, fumer a été stigmatisé comme une activité païenne pour montrer du doigt l’étranger, et par conséquent, affirmer la domination de l’État chrétien sur la région du Choa méridional. Enfin, la position de la sculpture de Nārgā au sein de l’église, en relation avec la liturgie, montre que l’image du « roi arrogant » a été utilisée pour créer une représentation religieuse du mal.In the church of Nārgā Śellāsē, built in the years 1738-50, a very unusual sculpture depicts a man smoking. This representation is surprising for we generally think that smoking was highly condemned in the Christian society. It is however what texts from the end of the nineteenth century assert. However pictures and archaeology give contradictory information on that practice. It leads us to reconsider the history of written sources. From the sixteenth to the twentieth century, smoking was stigmatized as a pagan tradition in order to designate the “alien” and, thus, to assert the domination of the Christian State on the region of the Southern Choa. To come back to the carving of Nārgā, the position of the sculpture inside the church according to the liturgy confirms that the association of this image with the “arrogant king” was used to create a religious representation of evil.

  16. ¿Quién apoya a la izquierda ‘populista’ latinoamericana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Moncagatta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A inicios del siglo XXI, América Latina se ve gobernada en su mayor parte por gobiernos de izquierda. Varios autores han diferenciado entre una izquierda ‘pragmática’, por un lado, y una ‘populista’ por otro. Usando datos de las encuestas AmericasBarometer del 2012, indagamos sobre el perfil socio-demográfico de quién apoya a la izquierda ‘populista’ en cuatro naciones: Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador y Venezuela. Mediante modelos de regresión logística, analizamos las probabilidades de expresar intención de voto por el candidato o partido del actual presidente de ciudadanos pertenecientes a distintos niveles de educación, riqueza, y otras variables socio-demográficas. Los resultados permiten concluir que no todos los gobiernos calificados como pertenecientes a la izquierda ‘populista’ latinoamericana reciben el apoyo del mismo tipo de individuos.

  17. Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrié, Jean-Noël

    2012-01-01

    Le Centre Jacques Berque (USR 3136 du CNRS) à Rabat vient de publier sous format électronique Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels (collection : Les Rencontres du CJB, n° 2). Le monde dans lequel nous vivons est, en effet, peuplé d’êtres de différentes sortes, dont l’existence relève d’ontologies et d’épistémologies variées. Nous considérons comme « êtres » des entités dotées d’une intentionnalité semblable à la nôtre ou compatible avec elle, s’établiss...

  18. Qui sait danser sur cette chanson, nous lui donnerons la cadence.1

    OpenAIRE

    Belalimat, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Cet article analyse un genre musical nouveau et désormais prépondérant au sein de la société touarègue, que ce soit au Mali, au Niger, en Algérie ou en Libye. A travers des textes de poésies chantées par les Tinariwen, groupe fondateur de ce genre, l’auteur étudie les différentes étapes de formation du mouvement politique et armé touareg qui sera officiellement reconnu à partir de 1990. Ce mouvement est communément désigné par l’expression « Rébellion touarègue de 1990 ». Est proposée ensuite...

  19. De l’ethnologie du Japon : par qui, où, comment ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bouchy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available « Ce qui importe, c’est que l’esprit humain, sans égard pour l’identité de ses messagers occasionnels, y [dans ce livre] manifeste une structure de mieux en mieux intelligible à mesure que progresse la démarche doublement réflexive de deux pensées agissant l’une sur l’autre et dont, ici l’une, là l’autre, peut être la mèche ou l’étincelle du rapprochement desquelles jaillira leur commune illumination. Et, si celle-ci vient à révéler un trésor, on n’aura pas besoin d’arbitre pour procéder au p...

  20. Le soja local en Allemagne, une demande soutenue, une offre qui s’étoffe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recknagel Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2009, la sole de soja ne cesse d’augmenter en Allemagne, surtout dans le sud du pays mais aussi à l’est et un peu partout dans les régions au climat propice. Un programme national a permis de créer les références nécessaires pour un conseil qualifié apporté aux agriculteurs via un réseau de développement. Ainsi toute une filière soja est déjà bien avancée dans le sud et en cours de mise en place dans le reste du pays, pour organiser la collecte auprès des producteurs et obtenir une offre groupée pour les transformateurs pour l’alimentation animale et humaine. Le soja allemand ne veut pas rivaliser avec le soja OGM ni pour instant avec le soja non-OGM des Amériques mais vise plutôt les filières courtes régionales et le marché bio qui est encore plus déficitaire en auto-approvisionnement que le conventionnel. Avec 10 000 ha en 2014, dont 25 % en bio, le soja en Allemagne est encore loin de la surface du maïs grain (2008–2014 autour de 500 000 ha. En pratique, 20 % de ces surfaces de maïs au climat a priori propice pourraient représenter le potentiel réel pour le soja en Allemagne, sous condition de prix garantissant une rentabilité suffisante par rapport aux autres grandes cultures. Pour les programmes non-OGM des grands distributeurs, il faut de toute façon une base de production élargie comme celle proposée par l’initiative Danube-Soja, qui dans une version Europe-Soja engloberait aussi la France. Avec le verdissement de la PAC et la montée du cours du Dollar par rapport à l’Euro, les perspectives pour une augmentation de la surface de production de soja en Allemagne et en Europe paraissent bonnes. Maintenant il faut travailler sur les débouchés pour garantir l’absorption de la production grandissante par les marchés et les consommateurs à tous les niveaux : régional, national et européen.

  1. Sri Lanka : un pays qui s’enfonce de nouveau dans la guerre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delon Madavan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le retrait unilatéral de l’accord de cessez-le-feu par le Président Rajapakse marque le retour officiel à l’état de guerre à Sri Lanka. L’île est meurtrie par les affrontements opposant l’armée gouvernementale aux militants séparatistes tamouls. Les civils se retrouvent encore prisonniers du cynisme des belligérants, qui préfèrent ignorer les répercussions de leurs actes pour arriver à leur fin, quitte à mettre en danger l’harmonie intercommunautaire dans l’île.  President Rajapakse’s decision to withdraw from the cease-fire agreement marks the official return to state of war in Sri Lanka. The island has immensely suffered by clashes between government forces and tamil separatist militants. Once again, the civilians are prisoners of cynicism of belligerents, those prefer ignoring the consequences of their acts to archieve their goal, even if it means endangering intercultural harmony in the island.

  2. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing to identify available channels. Devices authorized...

  3. La economía de la droga, ¿quiénes se benefician?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge información nacional e internacional relacionada con la industria de drogas ilícitas. Si bien la lista de drogas prohibidas es amplia, este trabajo solamente se concentra en tres de ellas: la heroína, la cocaína y la marihuana. De estos tres productos, la marihuana tiene multitud de usos, pero su empleo como fármaco no exige ningún proceso adicional que le agregue valor. La producción de las otras dos, estrictamente hablando, no se realiza en una industria de grandes proporciones; se trata de producción en pequeña escala, integrada por un archipiélago muy grande de productores, cuyo volumen y nivel de operaciones suma miles de millones de dólares. El artículo pone de relieve las leyes que prohíben este negocio, pero al mismo tiempo destaca su inoperancia. Además estudia los procesos de producción y de comercialización, las estrategias de penetración en los mercados, y aborda las implicaciones éticas y morales del negocio. El trabajo se concentra en el estudio de las consideraciones socioeconómicas de este negocio, ilustra con algunos ejemplos quiénes son los principales beneficiarios de este tráfico, y llama la atención para que se consideren salidas diferentes a la represión y se piense mejor en la eliminación de las condiciones que hacen posible que la enorme masa de valor agregado que genera el proletariado rural que cultiva y procesa estos productos no sea el incentivo para que los narcotraficantes se apropien de ella a través de la especulación clandestina y para que su magnitud se reduzca a expresiones controlables política y socialmente.

  4. D’étranges étrangers. Qui gouverne les correspondants de Jérusalem ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit d’une enquête ethnographique auprès des correspondants de la presse étrangère en Israël dans les années 2000, cet article analyse la façon dont les relations des journalistes avec les différents états et nations (y compris les leurs impliqués dans le conflit, affectent leur travail. Il montre comment les journalistes, en fonction de leurs appartenances nationales ou ethniques, sont sommés de prendre parti vis-à-vis de multiples acteurs, ce qui déstabilise la possibilité d’une couverture « neutre » ou « extérieure » acceptable par tous. Cette déstabilisation est analysée à quatre niveaux. 1. Le monde professionnel des journalistes est traversé par ce conflit qui est perçu comme très proche, « quasiment une affaire de politique intérieure », les divisions étant politiques mais aussi nationales, singulièrement entre journalistes américains et européens. 2. Les journalistes sont sommés par les deux parties au conflit, toutes deux très soucieuses de leur image, l’Etat d’Israël recourant aux brimades – ou à la force vis-à-vis des gens d’image palestiniens, les deux partis étant « assoiffés de médias » ; 3. Les journalistes sont mis en cause en raison de leurs origines juive ou arabe, réelles ou supposées ; 4. Enfin des publics nationaux, proisraéliens ou propalestiniens, que le conflit divise, eux-mêmes dotés de moyens de surveillance et de critique nouveaux (satellites, internet, s’en prennent aux correspondants dont le travail ne correspond pas à leur attente.This study is based on an ethnographic investigation of foreign-press correspondentsin Israel/Palestine in the year 2000. It analyzes how the journalists’ work is affected by their relationship to the different states and nations (including their own involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It shows how journalists, according to their own national or ethnic affiliation, are pressured to take sides by various participants

  5. Académico Correspondiente Arturo Morillo Quiñones (1925-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nació en Cereté, Córdoba, el 28 de abril de 1925, murió en Bogotá, el 27 de abril de 2015, a la edad de 90 años. Transcurría el año 1950 cuando estudiaba medicina en la Universidad Javeriana en Bogotá. Una tarde casi noche, con el frío sabanero, conocí un personaje cuyo nombre era Arturo Morillo Quiñones, el cual generaría en mí un impacto a diferentes niveles: intelectuales, científicos y humanos, en especial por su manera de ser auténtica, veraz, cálida, con un amplio humor, leal, inteligente, real y brillante. Por aquellos años 1950 establecimos una relación de una profunda amistad. Así vinieron diferentes hechos de nuestras historias personales y el conocimiento de la vida familiar, así como nuestras experiencias. Arturo relataba una serie de reminiscencias vividas de niño por allá en la región del Sinú, el Magdalena, y toda la región llamada de la “Costa Caribe”. Las narraciones que él hacía tenían un tinte de fascinación y despertaban al niño que todos guardamos, y que le seduce esa clase de historias, las cuales oscilaban entre la realidad y la fantasía, lo absurdo y lo lógico, lo primitivo imaginario de sueños despiertos a la realidad, además de una multiplicidad de creencias supersticiones dirigidas por el pensamiento mágico. Personalmente no cesaba de preguntar sobre detalles de los contenidos de las narraciones. Aquí consigno, cómo en los años 1967 volví a leer en textos novelescos estos mismos relatos de Arturo Morillo; ahora escritos por un genio Nobel, Gabriel García Márquez. El doctor Arturo Morillo Quiñones, académico y neurocientífico acabó sus estudios de medicina en 1951 y se graduó en 1954 en la misma Universidad Javeriana; realizó su postgrado en electroencefalografía y neurofisiología en National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Perfeccionó sus estudios de neurofisiología y métodos neurofisiológicos en la investigación de psicofármacos en el Galesburg

  6. Une crise financière au Japon qui n’empêche pas les cerisiers de fleurir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Guichard-Anguis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La crise financière au Japon a frappé brutalement les industries exportatrices qui soutenaient depuis des décennies l’essor économique. Elle a révélé l’ampleur du fossé qui sépare désormais les travailleurs temporaires, premières victimes de cette crise, des employés permanents, amplifié par la faiblesse de la protection sociale. Cet écart qui ne cesse de s’accroître n’a cependant provoqué aucun mouvement social notable.The financial crisis has severely hit all the export industries, which sustain the economic growth those last years. The gap between the temporary workers first victims of the crisis, and the fully employed ones, was revealed, and is enlarged by the weakness of the social protection. In spite of this gap, no social upheaval can be noticed.

  7. The QUiPP App: a safe alternative to a treat-all strategy for threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H A; Carter, J; Seed, P T; Tribe, R M; Shennan, A H

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of triaging women at risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) using the QUiPP App, which incorporates a predictive model combining history of sPTB, gestational age and quantitative measurements of fetal fibronectin, compared with a treat-all policy (advocated by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) among women with threatened preterm labor before 30 weeks' gestation. Prospectively collected data of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of preterm labor (abdominal pain or tightening) at 24-34 weeks' gestation were retrieved from the research databases of the EQUIPP and PETRA studies for subanalysis. Each episode of threatened preterm labor was retrospectively assigned a risk for sPTB within 7 days using the QUiPP App. A primary outcome of delivery within 7 days was used to model the performance accuracy of the QUiPP App compared with a treat-all policy. Using a 5% risk of delivery within 7 days according to the QUiPP App as the threshold for intervention, 9/9 women who presented with threatened preterm labor preterm labor would have been missed, as no woman who was assigned a risk of preterm labor, the QUiPP App can accurately guide management at risk thresholds for sPTB of 1%, 5% and 10%, allowing outpatient management in the vast majority of cases. A treat-all approach would not have avoided admission for any woman, and would have exposed 188 mothers and their babies to unnecessary hospitalization and steroid administration and increased the burden on network and transport services owing to unnecessary in-utero transfers. Prediction of sPTB should be performed before 30 weeks to determine management until there is evidence that such a high level of unnecessary intervention, as suggested by the treat-all strategy, does less harm than the occurrence of rare false negatives. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ‘Il n’y a que Superman qui porte le slip par-dessus le pantalon’ – les clivées en il n’y a que x qui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karssenberg Lena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, je me propose d’étudier les clivées en il y a qui contiennent la tournure de restriction ne… que, comme Il n’y a que Superman qui porte le slip par-dessus le pantalon (voir Jeanjean 1979 ; Pierrard 1985 ; Léard 1992 ; Furukawa 1996. Je répondrai à deux questions principales, à savoir (i Quelle est la distribution de ces clivées à travers deux registres différents de français ? (ii Quelles sont leurs caractéristiques au niveau de la Structure de l’Information ? Une analyse de corpus nous amène à la conclusion que, premièrement, ce type de clivée est beaucoup plus fréquent en français écrit informel qu’en français écrit journalistique. Deuxièmement, les données de corpus contiennent trois types d’articulations informationnelles, dont seule la première a été mentionnée dans la littérature linguistique sur les phrases en il n’y a que x qui : (i dans les clivées focus – arrière-fond, l’élément clivé (Superman est en focus, alors que l’information exprimée par la phrase relative représente l’arrière-fond. (ii Dans l’articulation ‘à double focus’, (une partie de l’élément clivé et (une partie de la phrase relative sont focalisé(es. Finalement, (iii l’élément clivé peut également être un topique spatio-temporel qui sert d’encadrement de l’information exprimée par la phrase relative. En outre, plusieurs clivées ont une articulation informationnelle ambiguë en raison du fait que l’information nouvelle en discours peut être réinterprétée par l’interlocuteur comme donnée en discours par un processus d’ « accommodation » (Lewis 1979.

  9. Fabrice Fanet et de Jean-Christophe Romer (dir.), Les militaires qui ont changé la France

    OpenAIRE

    Texier, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Cet ouvrage grand public, où se rencontrent nombre de signatures connues, se destine à dresser en quelques pages le portrait de tous les hommes (réels ou relevant du mythe lorsqu’il s’agit du capitaine Fracasse, de Pandore ou du gendarme Cruchot) qui, sous l’uniforme, ont fait l’histoire de France. D’accès facile, les textes insistent le plus souvent sur les aspects les plus militaires de la carrière de professionnels du métier des armes dont, pour certains, les nombreuses biographies publiée...

  10. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Enrique, E-mail: villae@unican.es; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel [Departamento Ingeniería de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Plaza de la Ciencia s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Hoyland, Roger [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna 38205 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  11. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: concept and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  12. DISCOURS QUI RÉSISTENT À L’OBJECTIVATION : QUE PEUT-ON EN TIRER POUR L’ÉVALUATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousselle, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Résumé L’évaluateur doit porter attention aux distorsions qu’il contribue à créer lorsqu’il utilise l’entrevue comme méthode de collecte de données. L’évaluation est un exercice politique qui, placé dans un contexte politique, peut favoriser l’émergence de discours de résistance à l’objectivation. À partir des entrevues que nous avons effectuées lors de l’évaluation du processus d’implantation de l’initiative ONUSIDA d’accès aux médicaments au Chili, nous illustrons différentes tactiques que les acteurs utilisent et qui peuvent soit attirer la sympathie de l’évaluateur, soit faire obstacle à son besoin d’information. Nous présentons une méthode d’analyse que l’évaluateur peut utiliser pour redonner du sens aux discours de résistance. PMID:23997421

  13. Un environnement 3D qui favorise le sentiment d’appartenance en situation de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire IsaBelle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available De plus en plus de plateformes hypermédias sont créées pour combler les besoins de la formation à distance et en ligne. Le langage de modélisation Virtual Reality Modeling Language permet de créer des représentations numériques d'un environnement 3D, imitant un monde réaliste, dans lequel l’apprenant évolue de façon interactive à l’aide d’un avatar. Une étude a été menée auprès de 40 apprenants afin de mesurer l’effet d’un environnement 3D, avec avatars, sur leur sentiment d’appartenance au groupe et sur le taux de rétention. Les apprenants qui ont suivi la formation avec le monde 3D ont affirmé avoir ressenti un sentiment d’appartenance plus élevé que ceux qui ont suivi la formation avec une plateforme de type traditionnel.

  14. "Toi qui, de façon générale..." : propositions relatives et "tu" générique en samba leko

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Gwenaëlle

    2004-01-01

    A partir de récits techniques en samba leko, je cherche ici à rendre compte de constructions originales qui associent un "tu" ou un "nous" au personnage central de l'activité décrite. Sur le plan syntaxique, il s'agit d'énoncés complexes qui comportent une proposition principale, une proposition relative et un topique.

  15. ¿Quién debe fijar las prioridades de las universidades y quién debe ejecutarlas? Una mirada al sistema de acreditación en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Beca Frei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda los modelos de universidad existentes, los que fijan las formasde organización de las instituciones de educación superior, preguntándose, en base a ellos, quiéndebe fijar los estándares para las universidades. Se concluye que debe existir su cierto gradode intromisión estatal en la definición de requisitos de calidad, dejando amplio espacio a laautonomía universitaria para cumplir su cometido. Luego se analiza en forma crítica el sistemanacional de acreditación en Chile, establecido en la ley N° 20.129, para finalmente reflexionarsobre el nivel de participación que debe existir al interior de las universidades.

  16. Wireless Indoor Positioning Relying on Observations of Received Power and Mean Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begusic, Stjepan; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Kolonic, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    This contribution introduces position estimation methods relying on observations of the received power and mean delay obtained in a wideband multi-link scenario. In particular, one- and two-step methods are introduced based on statistical models of the observed link parameters. The proposed methods...... are tested on data from a wideband measurement campaign. The results show that including observations of mean delay of the wideband links can notably improve positioning accuracy as compared to relying on observations of received power alone....

  17. Pascal Pansu, Nicole Dubois, Jean-Léon Beauvois, Dis-moi qui te cite et je saurai

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, Claire

    2014-01-01

    À la lecture de l’ouvrage, on ne peut s’empêcher de penser à la difficulté évoquée par Pierre Bourdieu dans Homo academicus (Paris, Éd. de Minuit, 1984, p. 11) de conduire une réflexion critique et distanciée au sujet d’« un monde social dans lequel on est pris ». C’est pourtant l’exercice auquel se prêtent Pascal Pansu, Nicole Dubois et Jean-Léon Beauvois dans le livre, même si celui-ci constitue plus un état des lieux des principes qui gouvernent la scientométrie, qu’une diatribe sociologiq...

  18. De l'injure en pays maure ou « qui ne loue pas critique »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Taine-Cheikh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Taine-Cheikh, qui s'intéresse au phénomène de l'injure dans la société arabophone de Mauritanie, commence par étudier les différents termes du dialecte hassâniyya qui relèvent de ce champ sémantique. Elle s'attache ensuite à montrer l'importance et la complexité de l'« effet injure », dans cette société fortement imprégnée par les valeurs de l'honneur où non seulement la critique mais aussi la louange peuvent apparaître comme des manifestations de l'injure. Passant en revue diverses situations empruntées à la vie quotidienne ou puisées dans des matériaux littéraires (écrits et surtout oraux, l'auteur relève diverses stratégies adoptées, soit par les injurieurs, soit par les injuriaires, pour tenter de maîtriser les effets des mots (ou gestes « déplacés ». Bien que le problème du contrôle de soi semble presque toujours primordial, la gestion de l'injure laisse apparaître une différenciation importante en fonction du sexe et du statut relatif des acteurs sociaux concernés.

  19. Reliģiskā tematika un simbolisms "Heavy Metal" subkultūrā

    OpenAIRE

    Vizla, Edmunds

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tiek aplūkota Heavy Metal subkultūras attieksme pret reliģiju, tās tematiku un simboliem. Vairākās nodaļās tiek apkopoti tie galvenie simboli un tēmas, ar kurām darbojas Heavy Metal subkultūrā, izmantojot autentiskus avotus dziesmu tekstu veidā. Padziļināti tiek aplūkota kristietība, sātanisms un okultisms, senās reliģijas un pagānisms, kā arī ateisms. Viss darbs kopumā sniedz ieskatu pašā Heavy Metal subkultūras reliģiskās domāšanas iekšienē, ar spilgtiem piemēriem ilustrējot to r...

  20. ¿Quién es la víctima y quién el agresor en la violencia física entre parejas?: estudio epidemiológico en siete ciudades del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Identificar factores asociados con la probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en violencia física entre parejas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la base de datos de una encuesta poblacional aplicada en siete ciudades de Perú (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cusco, Callao y Maynas. Participaron 6399 hombres y mujeres, de los cuales 3909 refirieron vivir en pareja al momento de la entrevista. Se empleó regresión logística univariada y multivariada para identificar factores asociados con cualquiera de los roles, víctima o agresor. El alfa establecido fue 0,01. Resultados. La probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en la violencia física entre parejas fue similar para ambos sexos (p>0,01, e independiente del tiempo de convivencia. La exposición a la violencia en la niñez, tener una actitud favorable a la violencia, ser menor de 45 años, el consumo excesivo de alcohol, tener educación superior incompleta y tener un ingreso familiar de menos de 750 USD son factores asociados tanto a ser víctima como a ser agresor. Geográficamente, Cusco es la ciudad en que se puede encontrar con mayor probabilidad personas que ejercen violencia física contra la pareja o son víctimas de ella. El valor fue p<0,001 para la mayoría de estas asociaciones. Conclusiones. El patrón de características que predice quién es la víctima, es muy similar al que predice quién es el agresor en los casos de violencia física contra la pareja. El sexo y los años de convivencia no son predictivos para ninguno de los roles violencia física contra la pareja.

  1. ¿Quién es la víctima y quién el agresor en la violencia física entre parejas? Estudio epidemiológico en siete ciudades del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Identificar factores asociados con la probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en violencia física entre parejas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la base de datos de una encuesta poblacional aplicada en siete ciudades de Perú (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cusco, Callao y Maynas. Participaron 6399 hombres y mujeres, de los cuales 3909 refirieron vivir en pareja al momento de la entrevista. Se empleó regresión logística univariada y multivariada para identificar factores asociados con cualquiera de los roles, víctima o agresor. El alfa establecido fue 0,01. Resultados. La probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en la violencia física entre parejas fue similar para ambos sexos (p>0,01, e independiente del tiempo de convivencia. La exposición a la violencia en la niñez, tener una actitud favorable a la violencia, ser menor de 45 años, el consumo excesivo de alcohol, tener educación superior incompleta y tener un ingreso familiar de menos de 750 USD son factores asociados tanto a ser víctima como a ser agresor. Geográficamente, Cusco es la ciudad en que se puede encontrar con mayor probabilidad personas que ejercen violencia física contra la pareja o son víctimas de ella. El valor fue p<0,001 para la mayoría de estas asociaciones. Conclusiones. El patrón de características que predice quién es la víctima, es muy similar al que predice quién es el agresor en los casos de violencia física contra la pareja. El sexo y los años de convivencia no son predictivos para ninguno de los roles violencia física contra la pareja

  2. Qui Exanimis Nascitur?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    deliberation afterwards. Utilising a novel typology linking regulatory reform proposals to the risk of politicisation, the argument advanced in this article is that only a minority of the proposals to be considered by Platform members have a low risk of depoliticisation. This, it is argued, is due...

  3. Qui attrapera le Higgs?

    CERN Multimedia

    Colas, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Higgs boson was theoretically created about 40 years ago by a Scott Peter Higgs who wanted to explain why some particles get a mass. Since then the Higgs boson has taken consistency and has become an important point of the standard model theory. Its experimental discovery would be a milestone of modern physics. The search for the Higgs boson is an international challenge that takes place around 2 huge machines: the Tevatron near Chicago and the LHC (large hadron collider) that is being built in CERN. The Tevatron is in fact the upgrading of an old particle accelerator, it is a proton collider and its narrow range of energy is compensated by a low background noise. On the other hand the LHC will begin operating only in 2007 and its full power will be reached a few years later, the energy available to create particles will be then 7 times higher than for the Tevatron. Both machines have chance of succeeding by being the first to detect the Higgs boson. Time plays in favor of the Tevatron but in any case if ...

  4. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  5. 77 FR 70117 - Purchase of Certain Debt Securities by Business and Industrial Development Companies Relying on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Business Administration, small entities in the financial investment industry include entities with $7... Development Companies Relying on an Investment Company Act Exemption AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... a new rule under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Investment Company Act'') to establish a...

  6. Bidirectional Regulation of Innate and Learned Behaviors That Rely on Frequency Discrimination by Cortical Inhibitory Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Aizenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to discriminate tones of different frequencies is fundamentally important for everyday hearing. While neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AC respond differentially to tones of different frequencies, whether and how AC regulates auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination remains poorly understood. Here, we find that the level of activity of inhibitory neurons in AC controls frequency specificity in innate and learned auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination. Photoactivation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs improved the ability of the mouse to detect a shift in tone frequency, whereas photosuppression of PVs impaired the performance. Furthermore, photosuppression of PVs during discriminative auditory fear conditioning increased generalization of conditioned response across tone frequencies, whereas PV photoactivation preserved normal specificity of learning. The observed changes in behavioral performance were correlated with bidirectional changes in the magnitude of tone-evoked responses, consistent with predictions of a model of a coupled excitatory-inhibitory cortical network. Direct photoactivation of excitatory neurons, which did not change tone-evoked response magnitude, did not affect behavioral performance in either task. Our results identify a new function for inhibition in the auditory cortex, demonstrating that it can improve or impair acuity of innate and learned auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination.

  7. Dieva koncepcija Senās Ēģiptes reliģijā

    OpenAIRE

    Lielpētere, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    Darba nosaukums ir „Dieva koncepcija senās Ēģiptes reliģijā”. Darba tēze ir: Senās Ēģiptes reliģijā valdīja monoteisms. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot ko vairāk par kristietības saknēm – seno ēģiptiešu priekšstatu par Dievu. Darba pirmajā nodaļā sniegs ieskats Senās Ēģiptes reliģijā, kas palīdz izprast apstākļus un domāšanu Senajā Ēģiptē. Apraksts veidots, sākot no sociālā stāvokļa Senajā Ēģiptē un beidzot ar seno ēģiptiešu svētajiem rakstiem. Otrā nodaļa apspriež ēģiptologu izvir...

  8. The Effect of Instruction on Children's Perceived Musical Tension in Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Fredrickson, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored possible effects of instruction (highlighting a choral composition's historical and social context) on perceived musical tension recorded by children (N = 62). Children listened to a recording of Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons" (The Christmas Carol of the Children who No Longer Have a House/Home) performed…

  9. The Effect of Instruction on Children's Perceived Musical Tension in Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Fredrickson, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored possible effects of instruction (highlighting a choral composition's historical and social context) on perceived musical tension recorded by children (N = 62). Children listened to a recording of Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons" (The Christmas Carol of the Children who No Longer Have a House/Home)…

  10. ¿Arqui tec tu ra para quién? ¿Arquitectura para qué?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vera Guardia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este dis cur so el au tor pre sen ta una vi sión crítica, filosófica, ética y epistémica de la Arquitec - tura entendida como una disciplina cientí fica y hu - manís tica. En tal sentido Arquitectura es sinónimo de: i representación sim bólica, conceptual y estéti - ca de la rea li dad, ii de sa rro llo de las ba ses ma te ria - les de la vida en su con di ción de há bi tat, y iii com - pro mi so éti co con la de fen sa y pro tec ción de las in - teracciones bióticas y ecológicas entre la naturaleza y el pro gre so hu ma no. ¿Pa ra quién y para qué?, son dos “pre gun tas para pen sar”, acer ca de los fi nes y los me dios que con vier ten a la Arqui tec tu ra en un sa ber in ter pre tar y cons truir el há bi tat de la vida hu - mana desde la perspectiva histó rica, social, am - bien tal, eco nó mi ca y po lí ti ca en la que los se res hu - manos se desenvuelven.

  11. Dépendre de la distribution d’aide alimentaire caritative / Relying on charity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine César

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail qualitatif de socio-anthropologie est centré sur l’analyse du récit de vie d’une famille de sans-papiers. L’objectif est de décrire et d’analyser de façon approfondie l’articulation entre l’aide alimentaire et les conditions de vie de personnes y ayant recours. Cette approche par l’alimentation apporte un éclairage particulier sur la situation des personnes se trouvant sans autorisation de travail sur le territoire, car les sans-papiers constituent une des figures extrêmes de dépendance au soutien mis en place par la société civile, les associations caritatives. Si la situation des sans-papiers se situe à la marge de la marge, elle révèle cependant des logiques de fonctionnement qui soulignent plus largement la dimension heuristique des pratiques alimentaires pour appréhender la variété des situations de pauvreté.Depending on charitable food aid distribution: the case of undocumented immigrants.This qualitative socio-anthropological work is focused on the analysis of a life narrative of an undocumented immigrant family. The objective of this paper is to describe and analyze in detail the relations between food aid and the living conditions of people dependent on charitable donations. This method of obtaining food provides a particular perspective on the situation of undocumented immigrants and reveals their extreme dependence on public programs, as seen by their submissive behavior when receiving aid from charitable associations. Analyzing the situation of undocumented immigrants who belong to the extreme margins of poverty reveals more than what influences their dietary practices: it helps to better understand the various situations of poverty.

  12. Qui s’assoit où ? Who sits down where? Strategies of seats’ occupation in the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Forest

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’observation et l’analyse du comportement des spectateurs entrant dans une salle de cinéma, choisissant leurs places puis les libérant en fin de séance, ont permis de mettre en relief de nombreuses caractéristiques communes. Le choix et l’occupation d’un siège dans ces salles ne relève pas de la recherche d’un optimum technique de visionnement de la projection du film.  Une différenciation de certains comportements peut s’observer selon la composition du public qui varie elle-même selon la salle, le film ou  l’heure de séance, mais les interactions mimétiques entre spectateurs sont indéniables, et des mécanismes d’influence récurrents, indépendants de la composition du public, et peuvent être structurés par l’architecture et l’espace de la salle elle-même. L’essentiel des comportements de choix et libération des sièges obéissent avant tout à des règles et stratégies d’occupation d’un espace et d’un territoire, fortement conditionnées par l’âge et surtout le sexe du spectateur.The observation and the analysis of the spectators’ behavior entering a cinema, choosing their places then releasing them at the end of the meeting, made possible to highlight many common characteristics. The choice and the occupation of a seat don’t concern the search for a technical optimum of viewing of the film’s projection. A differentiation of certain behaviors can be observed according to the composition of the public which varies itself according to the room, film or the hour of meeting, but the interactions mimetic between spectators is undeniable, and the recurring mechanisms of influence, independent of public’s composition, and can be structured by the architecture and the space of the room itself. The main part of behaviors for the choice and the release of the seats first obey rules and strategies of occupation of a space and a territory, strongly conditioned by the age and especially the sex

  13. Anemonefishes rely on visual and chemical cues to correctly identify conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nicole K.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2017-09-01

    Organisms rely on sensory cues to interpret their environment and make important life-history decisions. Accurate recognition is of particular importance in diverse reef environments. Most evidence on the use of sensory cues focuses on those used in predator avoidance or habitat recognition, with little information on their role in conspecific recognition. Yet conspecific recognition is essential for life-history decisions including settlement, mate choice, and dominance interactions. Using a sensory manipulated tank and a two-chamber choice flume, anemonefish conspecific response was measured in the presence and absence of chemical and/or visual cues. Experiments were then repeated in the presence or absence of two heterospecific species to evaluate whether a heterospecific fish altered the conspecific response. Anemonefishes responded to both the visual and chemical cues of conspecifics, but relied on the combination of the two cues to recognize conspecifics inside the sensory manipulated tank. These results contrast previous studies focusing on predator detection where anemonefishes were found to compensate for the loss of one sensory cue (chemical) by utilizing a second cue (visual). This lack of sensory compensation may impact the ability of anemonefishes to acclimate to changing reef environments in the future.

  14. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area.

  15. Relativit\\'e g\\'en\\'erale (d'apr\\`es M.Vaugon) et quelques probl\\`emes math\\'ematiques qui en sont issus

    CERN Document Server

    Humbert, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This text aims to explain general relativity to geometers who have no knowledge about physics. Using handwritten notes by Michel Vaugon, we first construct the bases of the theory. Then, we describe the physical context of some mathematical problems coming from general relativity. ----- Ce texte s'adresse aux g\\'eom\\`etres, qui veulent comprendre la relativit\\'e g\\'en\\'erale mais qui n'ont aucune connaissance en physique. Nous expliquons d'abord les bases de la th\\'eorie en nous appuyant sur des notes manuscrites de Michel Vaugon et nous abordons ensuite quelques probl\\`emes math\\'ematiques issus de la relativit\\'e et que nous repla\\c{c}ons dans un contexte physique.

  16. Alimentación de bovinos con ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo y ráquis en diferentes proporciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. De la Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de bovinos consumiendo ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo como fruta y ráquis en diferentes proporciones, se realizó una prueba de alimentación con 12 bovinos cebú comercial, machos, enteros, con un peso promedio de 168±17 kg, a los que se les asignó, de manera aleatoria, cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: I ensilado con 50% banano y 50% ráquis; II ensilado con 75% banano y 25% ráquis; y III un grupo testigo con zacate Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum. Los animales recibieron, además, 1.1 kg de pasta de soya como fuente proteica y 50 g de una premezcla comercial de minerales y sal común. La prueba tuvo una duración de 120 días, más un tiempo de adaptación de 15, periodo en el que las dietas se ofrecieron a libertad. Los animales fueron pesados cada 30 días y se les llevó diariamente el control de consumo de alimento. Las mejores (P0.05 entre ellos. El consumo de alimento base húmeda (CABH no presentó diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre tratamientos; sin embargo, el consumo de alimento base seca (CABS fue mayor (P<0.05 en el tratamiento ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 comparado con el de 50:50 (6.433 vs. 4.308 kg. El consumo de materia seca/100 kg de peso vivo fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 (2.334 y 1.990, comparados con los del ensilado 50:50 (1.413. El consumo de proteína cruda en kg fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales alimentados con zacate Taiwán. Porcentualmente, el consumo de proteína cruda fue mayor (P<0.05 en los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50 (16.99 y 17.36 %. La mayor eficiencia alimenticia (P<0.05 la obtuvieron los animales que consumieron el ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50. El análisis económico de este sistema de alimentación nos indica que se obtuvieron las mayores ganancias con el uso de los ensilados, siendo el mejor

  17. Fernando Quiñones en su habitado corazón (Las crónicas de al-Ándalus)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Análisis del libro de poemas Las crónicas de Al-Andalus (1970), de Fernando Quiñones, uno de los primeros títulos del llamado "mester andalusí". Integrado en los comienzos de la etapa de madurez de este autor, este libro ilustra la mezcla de testimonio, poesía narrativa, coloquialismo y culturalismo.

  18. Fully automatic assignment of small molecules' NMR spectra without relying on chemical shift predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Andrés M; Bernal, Andrés; Patiny, Luc; Wist, Julien

    2015-08-01

    We present a method for the automatic assignment of small molecules' NMR spectra. The method includes an automatic and novel self-consistent peak-picking routine that validates NMR peaks in each spectrum against peaks in the same or other spectra that are due to the same resonances. The auto-assignment routine used is based on branch-and-bound optimization and relies predominantly on integration and correlation data; chemical shift information may be included when available to fasten the search and shorten the list of viable assignments, but in most cases tested, it is not required in order to find the correct assignment. This automatic assignment method is implemented as a web-based tool that runs without any user input other than the acquired spectra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....

  20. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....

  1. RELY: A reliability modeling system for analysis of sodium-sulfur battery configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.; Huber, H.D.; Doggett, W.H.; Dirks, J.A.; Dovey, J.F.; Grinde, R.B.; Littlefield, J.S.; Cuta, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a microcomputer-based software package, called RELY, to assess the impact of sodium-sulfur cell reliability on constant current discharge battery performance. The Fortran-based software operates on IBM microcomputers and IBM-compatibles that have a minimum of 512K of internal memory. The software package has three models that provide the following: (1) a description of the failure distribution parameters used to model cell failure, (2) a Monte Carlo simulation of battery life, and (3) a detailed discharge model for a user-specified battery discharge cycle. 6 refs., 31 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Cochlear implant users rely on tempo rather than on pitch information during perception of musical emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meredith; Rankin, Summer K; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which cochlear implant (CI) users rely on tempo and mode in perception of musical emotion when compared with normal hearing (NH) individuals. A test battery of novel four-bar melodies was created and adapted to four permutations with alterations of tonality (major vs. minor) and tempo (presto vs. largo), resulting in non-ambiguous (major key/fast tempo and minor key/slow tempo) and ambiguous (major key/slow tempo, and minor key/fast tempo) musical stimuli. Both CI and NH participants listened to each clip and provided emotional ratings on a Likert scale of +5 (happy) to -5 (sad). A three-way ANOVA demonstrated an overall effect for tempo in both groups, and an overall effect for mode in the NH group. The CI group rated stimuli of the same tempo similarly, regardless of changes in mode, whereas the NH group did not. A subgroup analysis indicated the same effects in both musician and non-musician CI users and NH listeners. The results suggest that the CI group relied more heavily on tempo than mode in making musical emotion decisions. The subgroup analysis further suggests that level of musical training did not significantly impact this finding. CI users weigh temporal cues more heavily than pitch cues in inferring musical emotion. These findings highlight the significant disadvantage of CI users in comparison with NH listeners for music perception, particularly during recognition of musical emotion, a critically important feature of music.

  3. The prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products that contain dang-qui and risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Tung Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. RESULTS: Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44-0.84. To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55-79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46-1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment.

  4. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism.

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    Marc Prudhomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP, whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact.

  5. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

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    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  6. Motor imagery modulation of body sway is task-dependent and relies on imagery ability

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    Thiago eLemos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject’s imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, moderately intense imagery or a LOW group (scores ≤2, mildly intense imagery. An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p=0.01 and the lateral reaching imagery (p=0.02. Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p0.08 or task (p>0.46 for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject’ imagery ability.

  7. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J; Vassilev, Alex; Depamphilis, Melvin L; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-04-12

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway.

  8. Cell sorting enriches Escherichia coli mutants that rely on peptidoglycan endopeptidases to suppress highly aberrant morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Mary E; Melquist, Amy L; Chandramohan, Lakshmi; Young, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects.

  9. Sensory map transfer to the neocortex relies on pretarget ordering of thalamic axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokmane, Ludmilla; Proville, Rémi; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Györy, Ildiko; Keita, Maryama; Mailhes, Caroline; Léna, Clément; Gaspar, Patricia; Grosschedl, Rudolf; Garel, Sonia

    2013-05-06

    Sensory maps, such as the representation of mouse facial whiskers, are conveyed throughout the nervous system by topographic axonal projections that preserve neighboring relationships between adjacent neurons. In particular, the map transfer to the neocortex is ensured by thalamocortical axons (TCAs), whose terminals are topographically organized in response to intrinsic cortical signals. However, TCAs already show a topographic order early in development, as they navigate toward their target. Here, we show that this preordering of TCAs is required for the transfer of the whisker map to the neocortex. Using Ebf1 conditional inactivation that specifically perturbs the development of an intermediate target, the basal ganglia, we scrambled TCA topography en route to the neocortex without affecting the thalamus or neocortex. Notably, embryonic somatosensory TCAs were shifted toward the visual cortex and showed a substantial intermixing along their trajectory. Somatosensory TCAs rewired postnatally to reach the somatosensory cortex but failed to form a topographic anatomical or functional map. Our study reveals that sensory map transfer relies not only on positional information in the projecting and target structures but also on preordering of axons along their trajectory, thereby opening novel perspectives on brain wiring.

  10. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  11. Quality of record linkage in a highly automated cancer registry that relies on encrypted identity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidtmann, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the absence of unique ID numbers, cancer and other registries in Germany and elsewhere rely on identity data to link records pertaining to the same patient. These data are often encrypted to ensure privacy. Some record linkage errors unavoidably occur. These errors were quantified for the cancer registry of North Rhine Westphalia which uses encrypted identity data. Methods: A sample of records was drawn from the registry, record linkage information was included. In parallel, plain text data for these records were retrieved to generate a gold standard. Record linkage error frequencies in the cancer registry were determined by comparison of the results of the routine linkage with the gold standard. Error rates were projected to larger registries.Results: In the sample studied, the homonym error rate was 0.015%; the synonym error rate was 0.2%. The F-measure was 0.9921. Projection to larger databases indicated that for a realistic development the homonym error rate will be around 1%, the synonym error rate around 2%.Conclusion: Observed error rates are low. This shows that effective methods to standardize and improve the quality of the input data have been implemented. This is crucial to keep error rates low when the registry’s database grows. The planned inclusion of unique health insurance numbers is likely to further improve record linkage quality. Cancer registration entirely based on electronic notification of records can process large amounts of data with high quality of record linkage.

  12. Secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Comenge, Yannick; Ruby, Vincent; Amsellem, Raymonde; Nicolas, Valérie; Servin, Alain L

    2011-07-01

    The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, which belongs to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, acts as a virulence factor in extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We observed that HeLa cells exposed to the cell-free culture supernatant of recombinant strain AAEC185p(Sat-IH11128) producing the Sat toxin (CFCS(Sat) ), displayed dramatic disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton before loosening cell-to-cell junctions and detachment. Examination of the effect of Sat on GFP-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) HeLa cells revealed that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy follows CFCS(Sat) -induced F-actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. The induced autophagy shows an acceleration of the autophagy flux soon after Sat treatment, followed later by a blockade of the flux leading to the accumulation of large GFP-LC3-positive vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. CFCS(Sat) did not induce cell detachment in autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts in contrast with wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The CFCS(Sat) -induced large GFP-LC3 dots do not display the characteristics of autophagolysosomes including expression of cathepsin D and Lamp-1 and 2 proteins, and Lysotracker Red- and DQ-BSA-positive labelling. We provide evidences that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy is not a cell response intended to get rid of the intracellular toxin. By a pharmacological blockers approach, we found that the blockade of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs, but not JNK, inhibited the CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy and cell detachment whereas phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase blockers inhibiting canonical autophagy were inactive. When attached CFCS(Sat) -treated cells start to detach they showed caspase-independent cell death and rearrangements of the focal adhesion-associated vinculin and paxillin. Collectively, our results support that Sat triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on its cell-detachment effect. © 2011 Blackwell

  13. Traceable quantum sensing and metrology relied up a quantum electrical triangle principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hengliang; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Jingsong

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid quantum state engineering in quantum communication and imaging1-2 needs traceable quantum sensing and metrology, which are especially critical to quantum internet3 and precision measurements4 that are important across all fields of science and technology-. We aim to set up a mode of traceable quantum sensing and metrology. We developed a method by specially transforming an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) into a conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) with a feedback control loop, wherein quantum entanglement enabling higher precision was relied upon a set-point, a visible light laser beam-controlled an interferometer with a surface standard at z axis, diffractometers with lateral standards at x-y axes, four-quadrant photodiode detectors, a scanner and its image software, a phase-locked pre-amplifier, a cantilever with a kHz Pt/Au conducting tip, a double barrier tunneling junction model, a STM circuit by frequency modulation and a quantum electrical triangle principle involving single electron tunneling effect, quantum Hall effect and Josephson effect5. The average and standard deviation result of repeated measurements on a 1 nm height local micro-region of nanomedicine crystal hybrid quantum state engineering surface and its differential pA level current and voltage (dI/dV) in time domains by using C-AFM was converted into an international system of units: Siemens (S), an indicated value 0.86×10-12 S (n=6) of a relative standard uncertainty was superior over a relative standard uncertainty reference value 2.3×10-10 S of 2012 CODADA quantized conductance6. It is concluded that traceable quantum sensing and metrology is emerging.

  14. High sugar-induced insulin resistance in Drosophila relies on the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo.

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    Matthieu Y Pasco

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, insulin/IGF signaling (IIS plays a central role in matching energy needs with uptake and storage, participating in functions as diverse as metabolic homeostasis, growth, reproduction and ageing. In mammals, this pleiotropy of action relies in part on a dichotomy of action of insulin, IGF-I and their respective membrane-bound receptors. In organisms with simpler IIS, this functional separation is questionable. In Drosophila IIS consists of several insulin-like peptides called Dilps, activating a unique membrane receptor and its downstream signaling cascade. During larval development, IIS is involved in metabolic homeostasis and growth. We have used feeding conditions (high sugar diet, HSD that induce an important change in metabolic homeostasis to monitor possible effects on growth. Unexpectedly we observed that HSD-fed animals exhibited severe growth inhibition as a consequence of peripheral Dilp resistance. Dilp-resistant animals present several metabolic disorders similar to those observed in type II diabetes (T2D patients. By exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in Drosophila Dilp resistance, we found a major role for the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo (NLaz, a target of JNK signaling. NLaz expression is strongly increased upon HSD and animals heterozygous for an NLaz null mutation are fully protected from HSD-induced Dilp resistance. NLaz is a secreted protein homologous to the Retinol-Binding Protein 4 involved in the onset of T2D in human and mice. These results indicate that insulin resistance shares common molecular mechanisms in flies and human and that Drosophila could emerge as a powerful genetic system to study some aspects of this complex syndrome.

  15. High sugar-induced insulin resistance in Drosophila relies on the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Matthieu Y; Léopold, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) plays a central role in matching energy needs with uptake and storage, participating in functions as diverse as metabolic homeostasis, growth, reproduction and ageing. In mammals, this pleiotropy of action relies in part on a dichotomy of action of insulin, IGF-I and their respective membrane-bound receptors. In organisms with simpler IIS, this functional separation is questionable. In Drosophila IIS consists of several insulin-like peptides called Dilps, activating a unique membrane receptor and its downstream signaling cascade. During larval development, IIS is involved in metabolic homeostasis and growth. We have used feeding conditions (high sugar diet, HSD) that induce an important change in metabolic homeostasis to monitor possible effects on growth. Unexpectedly we observed that HSD-fed animals exhibited severe growth inhibition as a consequence of peripheral Dilp resistance. Dilp-resistant animals present several metabolic disorders similar to those observed in type II diabetes (T2D) patients. By exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in Drosophila Dilp resistance, we found a major role for the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), a target of JNK signaling. NLaz expression is strongly increased upon HSD and animals heterozygous for an NLaz null mutation are fully protected from HSD-induced Dilp resistance. NLaz is a secreted protein homologous to the Retinol-Binding Protein 4 involved in the onset of T2D in human and mice. These results indicate that insulin resistance shares common molecular mechanisms in flies and human and that Drosophila could emerge as a powerful genetic system to study some aspects of this complex syndrome.

  16. Fruit production in three masting tree species does not rely on stored carbon reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin

    2013-03-01

    Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three species with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed trees to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower δ(13)C values compared to control trees. δ(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three species, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of δ(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting trees, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding.

  17. « L’écho de ceux qui ont crié » : le legs symboliste et moderniste dans la poésie d’Alexandre Amprimoz

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    Antonio G. Viselli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cibler la poétique d’Amprimoz est aussi problématique que situer une unique tendance littéraire, esthétique et philosophique chez le critique qu’était le professeur de littérature et de linguistique françaises : ses vastes intérêts et ses publications multiples dans des domaines aussi amples que la littérature canadienne française, la littérature pour la jeunesse, le symbolisme – de Germain Nouveau à Rimbaud, la sémiotique, entre autres –, sans oublier le crepuscolarismo italien et le modernisme anglophone, en font foi. Pour lui rendre hommage, je souhaite surtout explorer, dans la présente analyse, la relation ambigüe entre la poétique symboliste et l’écriture moderniste : la poésie d’Amprimoz semblerait réconcilier, par le biais d’un multilinguisme sans effort, la représentation artistique qui unit les pensées contradictoires d’un Stéphane Mallarmé et d’un Ezra Pound. Certes, la poétique d’Amprimoz reste essentiellement inclassable. Cependant, en l’inscrivant dans les courants littéraires qui le fascinaient tant, on est capable de déchiffrer un travail à la fois critique et poétique, qui rassemble des mouvements littéraires distincts et que l’on regroupe, souvent à tort, sous l’unique nomenclature anglophone de « modernisme ».

  18. ¿Quién fue el autor del "epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada"?

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    Juan Friede

    1960-02-01

    Full Text Available Sobre quién fue el autor del "Epítome" se ha discutido entre los historiadores. El conocido investigador colombiano don Enrique Otero D'Costa pone en duda la aseveración de Jiménez de la Espada de que el autor fuera el licenciado Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, pues encuentra en el "Epítome" noticias contradictorias, que parecen demostrar un desconocimiento de hechos que no se puede presumir del conquistador del Nuevo Reino.

  19. Lexicon and Humor: Considerations about the witty functioning of the meanings in the Dictionnaire des mots qui n’existent pas

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    Anderson Braga do CARMO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand and analyze the processes involved in the production of humour and new lexical units and verify the constitution and the witty functioning of the senses in entries that make up the book Le dictionnaire des mots qui n’existent pas (1992. To carry out this research, we consider Freud (1905, Possenti (2010, Bergson (2007 and Raskin (1944. So, we explore some questions which allowed us to understand how the lexicon, presented as a comic creativity, reveals an offensive reality.

  20. You can't rely on color, yet we all do 2.0 (Manuscript Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2014-01-01

    Everybody views and uses color from early childhood onwards. But this magnificent property of all objects around us turns out to be elusive if you try to specify it and communicate it to another person. Also, people often don't know what effects color may have under different conditions. However, color is so important and omnipresent, that people can hardly avoid to 'rely on it' - so they do, in particular on its predictability. Thus, there is a discrepancy between the seeming self-evidence of color and the difficulty in specifying it accurately, for the prevailing circumstances. In order to analyze this situation, and possibly remedy it, a short historic perspective of the utilization and specification of color is given. The 'utilization' includes the emotional effects of color, which are important in, for instance, interior decorating but also play a role in literature and religion. 'Specification' begins with the early efforts by scientists, philosophers and artists to bring some order and understanding in what was observed with and while using color. Color has a number of basic functions: embellishment; attracting attention; coding; and bringing order in text by causing text parts presented in the same color to be judged as belonging together. People with a profession that involves color choices for many others, such as designers and manufacturers of products, including electronic visual displays, should have a fairly thorough knowledge of colorimetry and color perception. Unfortunately, they often don't, simply because for 'practitioners' whose work involves different aspects, applying color being only one of those, the available tools for specifying and applying color turn out to be too difficult to use. Two consequences of an insufficient knowledge of the effects color may have are given here. The first of these consequences, on color blindness, relates to 8% of the population, but the second one, on reading colored text, bears on everyone. Practical

  1. Optimization of cDNA microarrays procedures using criteria that do not rely on external standards

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    Beisvag Vidar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of gene expression using microarray technology is a complicated process in which a large number of factors can be varied. Due to the lack of standard calibration samples such as are used in traditional chemical analysis it may be a problem to evaluate whether changes done to the microarray procedure actually improve the identification of truly differentially expressed genes. The purpose of the present work is to report the optimization of several steps in the microarray process both in laboratory practices and in data processing using criteria that do not rely on external standards. Results We performed a cDNA microarry experiment including RNA from samples with high expected differential gene expression termed "high contrasts" (rat cell lines AR42J and NRK52E compared to self-self hybridization, and optimized a pipeline to maximize the number of genes found to be differentially expressed in the "high contrasts" RNA samples by estimating the false discovery rate (FDR using a null distribution obtained from the self-self experiment. The proposed high-contrast versus self-self method (HCSSM requires only four microarrays per evaluation. The effects of blocking reagent dose, filtering, and background corrections methodologies were investigated. In our experiments a dose of 250 ng LNA (locked nucleic acid dT blocker, no background correction and weight based filtering gave the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The choice of background correction method had a stronger impact on the estimated number of differentially expressed genes than the choice of filtering method. Cross platform microarray (Illumina analysis was used to validate that the increase in the number of differentially expressed genes found by HCSSM was real. Conclusion The results show that HCSSM can be a useful and simple approach to optimize microarray procedures without including external standards. Our optimizing method is highly

  2. Cœur elle y gît rouge (qui gît dans l’élégie ?

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    Benoît Conort

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Si le recueil Cœur élégie rouge de James Sacré fait bien apparaître l’ombre d’une femme aimée et perdue, ne voir dans cette élégie qu’une dimension autobiographique serait réducteur, et il faut peut-être y entendre aussi, selon une approche réflexive, le poème qui échoue à restituer le monde, le végétal, les visages. De la sorte, l’élégie serait aussi le deuil de ce rêve, avec le constat de l’incompatibilité du poème et du monde, pour peu que le sujet lyrique s’abandonne à un aveu naïf de son amour. Le poème doit donc se reconstruire comme espérance, projet incessamment relancé d’une écriture par quoi la vie continue. L’élégie ne se contente plus de chanter la perte ni de méditer sur l’inadéquation de la langue, elle tire sa force d’un espoir qui renaît toujours et dont témoigne la prégnance de la métaphore végétale.

  3. «Neutre est le seul genre qui me convienne»: retoriche dell’androginia nell’opera di Claude Cahun

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    Silvia Nugara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rhetoric and discursive strategies through which surrealist artist and writer Clade Cahun elaborates forms of self-representations which, by subverting gender norms, reinvent non only femininity but humanity overall. The analysis will be carried out on the basis of Roland Barthes’ reflections on androgyny which he elaborated during his course on Neutre at the Collège de France. For Barthes, Neutre is a vector of symbolic change: « un mélange, un dosage, une dialectique, non de l’homme et de la femme (génitalité, mais du masculin et du féminin. Ou mieux encore: l’homme en qui il y a du féminin, la femme en qui il y a du masculin ». Neutre is whatever breaks the binary opposition between terms A and B by assuming the form of either “not A nor B”, or “A+B”. Neutre is therefore an attempt to elude the doxa and all immutable binary scheme of meaning through linguistic and rhetoric strategies such as epicene nouns and names, impersonals, a fluctuant use of gender forms, amphibology, irony, paradox, parallelism, antiphrasis.

  4. Dis-moi qui te cite et je saurai ce que tu vaux que mesure vraiment la bibliométrie ?

    CERN Document Server

    Pansu, Pascal; Beauvois, Jean-Léon

    2013-01-01

    Comme tous les travailleurs, les chercheurs ne peuvent échapper à l'évaluation. Celle-ci ne peut être conduite par eux-mêmes. De nombreuses questions se posent : qui doit les évaluer ? À quel rythme ? Et surtout, sur quelles bases ? Sur leur réputation, leurs interventions, leur implication dans la discipline, leur présence dans la littérature scientifique ? Mais alors quelle littérature ? Comment apprécier cette présence ? Par le nombre de textes publiés ? La diversité des revues ? Par l'écho qu'ont les textes dans la littérature ? La bibliométrie tend aujourd'hui à saturer l'évaluation. Elle est une réponse à quelques-unes de ces questions. Elle propose une forme d'évaluation comptable qu'on voudrait objective mais qui comporte de nombreuses limites et ambiguïtés. Ce livre présente quelques outils bibliométriques comme les fameux «facteur d'impact» et «h-index» et, à travers une analyse des pratiques mises en oeuvre, montre que l'objectivité n'est pas au rendez-vous et que...

  5. The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, S. J.; Wallentin, L.; Ezekowitz, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background During follow-up of between 1 and 3 years in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, 2 doses of dabigatran etexilate were shown to be effective and safe for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. There i.......3 years of continued treatment with dabigatran after RE-LY, there was a higher rate of major bleeding with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily in comparison with 110 mg, and similar rates of stroke and death. Clinical Trial Registration URL: . Unique identifier: NCT00808067....

  6. ALLAIN Greg et BASQUE Maurice, Une présence qui s’affirme. La communauté acadienne et francophone de Fredericton, Nouveau-Brunswick

    OpenAIRE

    Ferréol, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Dans leur préface, les auteurs partent du constat suivant : « La ville de Fredericton est la capitale de la province du Nouveau-Brunswick, c’est là un fait bien connu. Mais combien de gens savent-ils que les Acadiens furent les premiers habitants de ce lieu, qu’ils appelaient le village de la Pointe Sainte-Anne, dès le début du XVIIIe siècle ? Et qui se doute qu’aujourd’hui, dans cette cité plutôt connue comme anglophone et de tradition loyaliste, on trouve une communauté francophone dynamiqu...

  7. Sail d’Escola, “Gran esfortz fai qui chanta ni·s deporta” (BdT 430.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Scarpati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The only extant poem by Sail d’Escola, “Gran esfortz fai qui chanta ni·s deporta”, must have been quite successful with the troubadours since its melody was reused several times. Without a doubt its interest also lies in the fact that it mentions another (or others? poem in which the troubadour has recourse to the ‘mala canso’, believing, quite rightly, that he may offend the lady who proved to be a bad ‘amigua’. The text is ambiguous: it appears to be a love song asking for forgiveness to a lady who had previously been treated badly, but it also contains hidden threats of abuse, should the lady not show herself to be once more well-disposed towards her lover. This paper will propose a new interpretation of the simile in ll. 5-7, as well as some corrections to the previous edition (Chabaneau.

  8. «Estrange amour, qui n’as point ta pareille!»: Pierre de Brach et la traduction de l’Aminte du Tasse

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallini, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    Pierre de Brach fut le premier traducteur de l’Aminte du Tasse en France. Sa traduction se trouve dans un volume d’Imitations imprimé par Simon Millanges à Bordeaux, avec privilège du 5 août 1584; l’épître dédicatoire de l’auteur à Marguerite de Navarre est datée du 27 août de la même année. Dans cette épître, Pierre de Brach avoue avoir traduit l’Olympe, l’autre pièce présente dans le volume et qui imite un épisode de l’Arioste, bien avant l’Aminte; la reine a certainement apprécié l’Olympe...

  9. ¿Quién amasa la masa? Los proveedores de comestibles en el sitio a Colonia del Sacramento de 1735-1737

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa Emilia Sandr\\u00EDn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un estudio de los individuos que vivían de la provisión general de comestibles necesarios para el abastecimiento de las tropas destinadas al Sitio de Colonia del Sacramento entre los años 1735-1737. Analizar estos proveedores permite dar respuesta a preguntas en torno a los actores involucrados: quiénes eran; cuántos eran; qué porcentaje representaron dentro de la población del complejo portuario rioplatense en ese momento; si eran proveedores especializados en un solo bien, o iban rotando sus provisiones; si eran proveedores directos o eran “intermediarios” entre éstos y los destinatarios de los bienes y/o servicios; qué incidencia económica tuvieron sus provisiones dentro de los gastos totales del sitio y en comparación con la economía local del complejo portuario rioplatense; de esta manera se seguirá trabajando en el estudio de la estructura socio económica del Río de la Plata de ese momento, prestando especial atención a estos sectores medios y/o bajos. La detallada contabilidad del Proveedor General de la Expedición de la Colonia del Sacramento, ofrece una invalorable puerta de acceso a estos problemas, ya que a través de cientos de registros es posible establecer qué se compraba, quiénes lo proveían, cómo llegaba lo comprado a destino y todos los demás elementos que invitan a pensar en un mundo de la producción y la circulación mucho más rico y complejo que el conocido hasta ahora a través del gran comercio.

  10. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  11. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  12. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to...

  13. Immobilization of α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 on ReliZyme and Immobead Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummirul Mukminin Kahar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0–9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5–12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.

  14. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... basic components with embedded digital devices. DATES: Submit comments by July 19, 2013....

  15. « C’est eux contre nous » ou « Qui a peur de qui ? » : la rhétorique post-11 septembre de l’administration américaine vue par la caricature de presse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique CADINOT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans les mois qui suivent les attentats du 11 septembre 2001, face aux douleurs encore vives et à la phobie anti-terroriste qui gagne du terrain, rares sont ceux qui s’interrogent sur le caractère liberticide de l’arsenal juridique mis en place par l’administration Bush. Encore plus rares sont les observateurs qui choisissent de jouer la carte de l’humour et de la dérision. Pourtant, en dépit du contexte, le 15 décembre 2001, soit trois mois après les attentats, le quotidien d’Atlanta en Géorgie, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, fait paraître un dessin humoristique de Mike Luckovich caricaturant la politique du ministre de la justice John Ashcroft. De prime abord, l’auteur de la caricature dénonce la diabolisation de l’ennemi interne que forme alors la communauté américaine de culture arabe ou islamique. Dans son dessin, Luckovich met en effet clairement en cause la pratique du profilage racial et le caractère artificiel de la division dichotomique mise en avant par l’administration fédérale. Cependant, le choix de caricaturer John Ashcroft, représentant notoire de la droite religieuse, nous porte à croire que c’est en fait la délicate problématique des relations entre pouvoir et religion qui est au cœur du message adressé par l’auteur.Le dessin humoristique constituant un instrument de lecture privilégié d’une époque, cette analyse sera l’occasion de mettre en évidence les sentiments d’une catégorie d’Américains qui, dans les mois ayant suivi la réaction des agences fédérales, se sont opposés aux manœuvres visant à réduire le patriotisme aux seules convictions religieuses.In the months following the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington when the anti-terrorist phobia was at its peak, very few Americans dared voice criticism of the Bush administration’s assault on civil liberties. Even fewer commentators dared to use humor in dealing with the tragedy. However, despite the

  16. Un ami qui est toujours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2012-01-01

    Un jour,pendant la récréation,je suis descendue dans le bureau du secrétariat.Quand je préparais un café,une femme professeur d'espagnol s'est exclamée:《Tiens! Tu es de bonne humeur ce matin ! 》 (E)tonnée,je lui ai demandé pourquoi.Elle a répondu:《 Parce que tu prends un ca fé.》Quelle réponse inattendue! Ce n'est qu'un café instantané,un peu fade,pas très bon,à dire vrai.Si j'en prends une petite tasse,ce n'est pas que je suis de bonne humeur.C'est plut(o)t mon habitude,ou bien c'est que le café me donne une belle humeur.

  17. Bene qui latuit bene vixit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The contribution attempts to build up a strong, fact based argument against the idea that only states are relevant for the history of international law. Empires and companies have played a major part, but this is largely ignored by main stream conceptions of international law. The contribution al...... argues – perhaps to provoke the subject of our tribute – that the role of companies and empires have been much better understood by the conservative Edmund Burke than the by liberal J.S. Mill or the socialist Karl Marx....

  18. L’urbanisme qui vient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Matthey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Depuis moins d’une dizaine d’années, le double registre des valeurs et du récit de communication prend une importance croissante dans la conduite des projets urbains. C’est cette transformation de la production urbanistique, co-occurrente d’une transformation de la condition d’urbaniste, que discute cet article. Pour ce faire, il revient sur l’avènement d’un urbanisme de coordination consécutif à la généralisation de l’idéologie du projet urbain. Dans un deuxième temps, l’hypothèse d’une dématérialisation de l’urbanisme corrélatif à l’émergence d’un paradigme du mouvant est discutée. Enfin, l’émergence des valeurs et du récit dans la conduite de projet urbain, simultanément à un affaissement de la règle et de la regula, est envisagée du point de vue de la reconfiguration du champ de la pratique professionnelle qu’il occasionne. Mobilisant librement le matériau d’une recherche récente consacrée aux métiers du territoire, il montre que les transformations en cours ne s’effectuent pas sans accroc, contrairement à ce qu’en disent les apologistes du nouvel urbanisme.

  19. ¿Quién es el sujeto en la investigación educativa? / Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo argumento, en primer lugar, que la identidad de quien investiga incide no solo en su forma de investigar, sino también en los procesos de formación de sus estudiantes y, por ende, en la formación de las futuras investigadoras y los futuros investigadores educativos. En segundo lugar, señalo que las instituciones educativas, así como sus docentes, juegan un rol central en la construcción de identidades. En tercer lugar, enfatizo que de esta responsabilidad no se eximen quienes se dedican a la investigación educativa, por lo que les invito a reflexionar sobre: ¿Cuáles son nuestras responsabilidades en el proceso de construcción de identidades? ¿Quién es el sujeto de la educación? ¿Quién es el sujeto de la investigación educativa y en ella?¿Cuán inclusivas son nuestras nociones de sujeto educativo y del sujeto empírico?Mediante el desarrollo y análisis de interrogantes sobre temas como: la relación sujeto-objeto; el sujeto en la investigación educativa; el aporte de la subjetividad; la contribución de la fenomenología; entre otros, argumento que: a la autobiografía intelectual es un instrumento de gran potencialidad para comprender el tono y la dirección de un proceso investigativo y b centrar la atención en las personas, en su historia, sus relaciones sociales y su ambiente, como sujetos actuantes y no solo como objetos de estudio es un movimiento epistémico, político y ético, puesto que reconoce la acción del sujeto en el mundo y sobre este. Por último, apelo a que las investigadoras y los investigadores cualitativos no solo deben comprender quiénes son, sino que también deben hacerlo explícito puesto que hay un condicionamiento ético que lo demanda. AbstractIn this paper I argue, first, that the identity of the researcher has an impact not only in the way she/he invThis article explains, in the first place, that the identity of the researcher not only influences his way to do research, but

  20. Des morts qui font désordre. L'émotion suscitée par l'évacuation forcée de tombes dans la campagne périurbaine du Henan (Chine).

    OpenAIRE

    David, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    International audience; début du texte : Dans le passé le qualificatif « luan », qui exprime la notion chinoise du désordre, s'appliquait pour désigner les funérailles sauvages (luanzang) des défunts qui, tels les enfants morts en bas âge, n'avaient pas qualité à recevoir le traitement funéraire réservé aux ancêtres. Dans le langage de l'Etat chinois moderne le « désordre » qualifie les pratiques qui contreviennent à la nouvelle norme élaborée dans le cadre de la réforme funéraire entreprise ...

  1. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, T.; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M.

    1998-01-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes. Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination. The free energy values of Escherichia coli K-12 sho...

  2. L'électronique pour les débutants qui sèchent les cours mais soudent sans se brûler les doigts

    CERN Document Server

    Mallard, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    Par où commencer pour débuter en électronique ? Vais-je m'égarer en explorant l'internet ? Il regorge de schémas, mais sont-ils fiables ? Me faut-il un livre avec des montages simples ou plutôt un livre sur les composants ? Après trente ans de pratique, l'auteur de ce livre, resté l'éternel débutant qui réalisait lui-même son premier montage dès l'âge de dix ans, partage ici sa soif toujours vive d'apprendre. Fin pédagogue, il guide les débutants et répond aux questions que trop de livres laissent en suspens : "Quel type de fer à souder acheter ?"... "Un multimètre à 5 € peut-il suffire ?"... "Un oscilloscope est-il indispensable ?"... "Peut-on installer son montage dans une boîte à cigares ?"... Rémy Mallard démystifie l'électronique en n'utilisant que ce qu'il vous faut de théorie pour aborder joyeusement la pratique sans risque de faire de grosses bêtises. Vous apprendrez à identifier les composants et leur rôle (résistances, condensateurs, bobines, diodes, transistors, rela...

  3. Flower bats (Glossophaga soricina and fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata rely on spatial cues over shapes and scents when relocating food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. Because the flower bat Glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, G. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. Indeed, G. soricina has been observed to rely far more heavily on spatial cues than on shape cues when relocating food, and to learn poorly when shape alone provides a reliable cue to the presence of food. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we determined whether G. soricina would learn to use scent cues as indicators of the presence of food when such cues were also available. Nectar-producing plants fed upon by G. soricina often produce distinct, intense odors. We therefore expected G. soricina to relocate food sources using scent cues, particularly the flower-produced compound, dimethyl disulfide, which is attractive even to G. soricina with no previous experience of it. We also compared the learning of associations between cues and food sources by G. soricina with that of a related fruit-eating bat, Carollia perspicillata. We found that (1 G. soricina did not learn to associate scent cues, including dimethyl disulfide, with feeding sites when the previously rewarded spatial cues were also available, and (2 both the fruit-eating C. perspicillata and the flower-feeding G. soricina were significantly more reliant on spatial cues than associated sensory cues for relocating food. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, taken together with past results, provide evidence of a powerful, experience-independent predilection of both species to rely on spatial cues when attempting to relocate food.

  4. Relying on known or exploring for new? Movement patterns and reproductive resource use in a tadpole-transporting frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina B. Beck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals relying on uncertain, ephemeral and patchy resources have to regularly update their information about profitable sites. For many tropical amphibians, widespread, scattered breeding pools constitute such fluctuating resources. Among tropical amphibians, poison frogs (Dendrobatidae exhibit some of the most complex spatial and parental behaviors—including territoriality and tadpole transport from terrestrial clutches to ephemeral aquatic deposition sites. Recent studies have revealed that poison frogs rely on spatial memory to successfully navigate through their environment. This raises the question of when and how these frogs gain information about the area and suitable reproductive resources. To investigate the spatial patterns of pool use and to reveal potential explorative behavior, we used telemetry to follow males of the territorial dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis during tadpole transport and subsequent homing. To elicit exploration, we reduced resource availability experimentally by simulating desiccated deposition sites. We found that tadpole transport is strongly directed towards known deposition sites and that frogs take similar direct paths when returning to their home territory. Frogs move faster during tadpole transport than when homing after the deposition, which probably reflects different risks and costs during these two movement phases. We found no evidence for exploration, neither during transport nor homing, and independent of the availability of deposition sites. We suggest that prospecting during tadpole transport is too risky for the transported offspring as well as for the transporting male. Relying on spatial memory of multiple previously discovered pools appears to be the predominant and successful strategy for the exploitation of reproductive resources in A. femoralis. Our study provides for the first time a detailed description of poison frog movement patterns during tadpole transport and corroborates

  5. The immune toxicity of titanium dioxide on primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages relies on their surface area and crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Yin, Li-hong; Pu, Yue-pu; Li, Yun-hui; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Liang, Ge-yu; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan-fen; Zhang, Xue-yan

    2010-12-01

    Surface properties are critical to assess effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) primary nanoparticles on the immune function of pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAMs). In this study the immune toxicity of TiO2 primary nanoparticles on PAMs relies on their surface area and crystal structure were determined. The primary PAMs of rats exposed to different sizes and crystal structure of TiO2 particles at different dosages for 24 hrs were evaluated for cytokines, phagocytosis, chemotaxis and surface molecules expression. Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level of PAMs significantly increased when exposed to TiO2 primary particles and there were significant association with the exposure total surface area and crystal structure of TiO2 particles in the former. TiO2 particles showed significant inhibiting effects on phagocytotic ability, chemotactic ability, Fc receptors and MHC-II molecular expression of macrophages compared with control. Exposure dosage and crystal structure of TiO2 particles play effects on phagocytotic ability and chemotactic ability of PAMs. These results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles could induce the release of inflammatory mediators, initiate the inflammation development and inhibit the immune function of PAMs associated with non-specific immunity and specific immunity relies on surface area and crystal structure. NO activity might be a candidate marker indicating the TiO2 exposure burden and cell damage in PAMs.

  6. ¿Quién legisla en México? Descentralización y proceso legislativo Who legislates in Mexico? Decentralization and legislative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Béjar Algazi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema político mexicano ha experimentado transformaciones que han afectado hondamente el proceso legislativo. El poder Ejecutivo no sólo ha dejado de jugar un papel fundamental en este proceso, sino que, además, la descentralización política ha obligado a los legisladores a cultivar una reputación personal frente a los distintos actores con capacidad de dar continuidad a su carrera política. En este contexto, en necesario preguntar quién legisla en México. Para responder a esta cuestión, en este artículo se analizan los cambios observados en la forma de hacer la ley y la carrera seguida por los autores de las iniciativas aprobadas en la Cámara de Diputados durante las tres legislaturas que siguieron a la alternancia.The Mexican political system has undergone transformations that have deeply affected the legislative process. Not only has the executive branch stopped playing a key role in this process but political decentralization has forced legislators to cultivate a personal reputation in regard to the various actors able to lend continuity to their political careers. This raises the question of who legislates in Mexico. In order to explore this issue, this article analyzes the changes observed in the ways of making laws and the career followed by the authors of the initiatives passed in the Chamber of Deputies during the three periods of office that followed the party alternation of the year 2000.

  7. Dime cómo escribes y te diré quién eres: Textualizaciones del campesinado indígena de la Puna de Atacama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Haber

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un análisis de las estrategias textuales de representación del campesinado indígena que se han desarrollado tanto desde la disciplina arqueológica como desde la etnohistoria. Cada una de estas disciplinas, a lo largo del tiempo, ha defendido sus modos diferenciales de acceso al pasado frente a los de la otra. Es nuestra intención mostrar cómo, a pesar de las diferencias marcadas en esas discusiones, ambas disciplinas parten de presupuestos comunes respecto del objeto de estudio por ellas construido. Se tomaron para los análisis diferentes textos referidos a la arqueología, historia o etnohistoria de la Puna de Atacama desde la conquista hasta el siglo XIX y se confrontaron con los resultados de nuestras propias investigaciones. Finalmente argumentamos que los discursos académicos nos dicen más acerca de quién escribe que sobre quienes lo hacen.Archaeological and ethnohistorical textual practices regarding indigenous peasantry are analyzed. Both disciplines, along their history, have defended their own specific methods of approaching the past against the methods of the other. We intend to show how, despite the differences noticed on those discussions, both disciplines are based on common cultural biases about their subject matter. For analytical purposes we use different texts from archaeology, history or ethnohistory of the Atacama Plateau from the Castilian Conquest to the twentieth century, which are also confronted with the results of our own research. It is argued that academic discourses tell us more about who writes than about who is being described.

  8. Episodic feeling-of-knowing relies on noncriterial recollection and familiarity: Evidence using an online remember-know procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingrini, Michel; Sacher, Mathilde; Perrotin, Audrey; Taconnat, Laurence; Souchay, Céline; Stoehr, Hélène; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa

    2016-04-01

    We examined the hypothesis that feeling-of-knowing judgments rely on recollection as well as on familiarity prompted by the cue presentation. A remember-know-no memory procedure was combined with the episodic FOK procedure employing a cue-target pair memory task. The magnitude of FOK judgments and FOK accuracy were examined as a function of recollection, familiarity, or the "no memory" option. Results showed that the proportion of R and K responses was similar. FOK accuracy and magnitude of FOK judgments were higher for R and K responses than for N responses. FOK accuracy related to R and K responses were above chance level, but FOK was not accurate in the "no memory" condition. Finally, both FOK magnitude and FOK accuracy were related more to recollection than to familiarity. These results support the hypothesis that both recollection and familiarity are determinants of the FOK process, although they suggest that recollection has a stronger influence.

  9. Optimal myelin elongation relies on YAP activation by axonal growth and inhibition by Crb3/Hippo pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Ruani N.; Cotter, Laurent; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Berthelot, Jade; Bartolami, Sylvain; Pereira, Jorge A.; Gonzalez, Sergio; Suter, Ueli; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Fast nerve conduction relies on successive myelin segments that electrically isolate axons. Segment geometry—diameter and length—is critical for the optimization of nerve conduction and the molecular mechanisms allowing this optimized geometry are partially known. We show here that peripheral myelin elongation is dynamically regulated by stimulation of YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription cofactor activity during axonal elongation and limited by inhibition of YAP activity via the Hippo pathway. YAP promotes myelin and non-myelin genes transcription while the polarity protein Crb3, localized at the tips of the myelin sheath, activates the Hippo pathway to temper YAP activity, therefore allowing for optimal myelin growth. Dystrophic Dy2j/2j mice mimicking human peripheral neuropathy with reduced internodal lengths have decreased nuclear YAP which, when corrected, leads to longer internodes. These data show a novel mechanism controlling myelin growth and nerve conduction, and provide a molecular ground for disease with short myelin segments. PMID:27435623

  10. Estimation of the Patients' Adaptation to Noble Alloy Dentures Relying on the Parameters of Biological Fluids in Oral Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEBEDENKO I. Yu.; PARUNOV V. A.; KITKINA T. B.

    2012-01-01

    For the study of the effect of Plagodent and Palladent noble alloy dentures (OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’",Russia),the elemental compositions of the fluids obtained from gingival sulcus of abutment teeth of metal-ceramic dentures with frames made of the above-stated dental alloys,have been investigated.Response of white blood cells and fibroblasts in the gingival fluid and the mixed saliva of the patients a long time after prosthetic repair,relying on the content of proinflammatory interleukins IL-1 β and IL-6,anti-inflammatory interleukins IL-4 and IL-10,the factor of tumor necrosis TNF-α and lactoferrin,has been investigated.The results obtained have convincingly proved the biosafety of the Plagodent and Palladent noble alloys.

  11. Influence of Computerized Sounding Out on Spelling Performance for Children who do and not rely on AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Beukelman, David R.; Schwarz, Ilsa E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Methods Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. Results The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. Conclusion The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24512195

  12. Can we rely on the antiretroviral treatment as the only means for human immunodeficiency virusprevention? A Public Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; García de Olalla, Patricia; Moreno, Antonio; Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-11-01

    The evidence that supports the preventive effect of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV sexual transmission suggested the so-called 'treatment as prevention' (TAP) strategy as a promising tool for slowing down HIV transmission. As the messages and attitudes towards condom use in the context of TAP appear to be somehow confusing, the aim here is to assess whether relying on cART alone to prevent HIV transmission can currently be recommended from the Public Health perspective. A review is made of the literature on the effects of TAP strategy on HIV transmission and the epidemiology of other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) in the cART era, and recommendations from Public Health institutions on the TAP as of February 2014. The evolution of HIV and other STIs in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012 has also been analysed. Given that the widespread use of cART has coincided with an increasing incidence of HIV and other STIs, mainly amongst men who have sex with men, a combination and diversified prevention methods should always be considered and recommended in counselling. An informed decision on whether to stop using condoms should only be made by partners within stable couples, and after receiving all the up-to-date information regarding TAP. From the public health perspective, primary prevention should be a priority; therefore relying on cART alone is not a sufficient strategy to prevent new HIV and other STIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. La chronique: un genre littéraire qui peut rendre hommage à la mémoire politique d’un pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo busca mostrar que a vida política de um país pode ser também representada por meio da literatura. Pela análise discursiva de alguns trechos de crônicas políticas (escritas por L. F. Veríssimo, pudemos notar que ali palpitam, em filigrana, ecos passados de vários anos da história do Brasil. A crônica se presta a tal análise, já que é um gênero literário misto, que se equilibra entre efeitos de real e efeitos de ficção. No presente caso, destacamos ainda, vinda da parte do autor, a presença de um olhar que sorri dos acontecimentos narrados, mas que é também impregnado de uma doce amargura que somente o exercício da ironia poderia conceder.Palavras-chave: Crônica; memória; ironia; análise do discurso.  Résumé: Cet article tient à montrer que la vie politique d’un pays peut aussi être représentée par la littérature. L’analyse discursive de quelques extraits des chroniques politiques (écrites par L. F. Veríssimo nous a permis de voir, en filigrane, une esquisse de la mémoire des plusieurs années de vie politique au Brésil. La chronique se prête à ce type d’approche parce qu’elle est un genre littéraire mixte, qui s’équilibre entre effets de réel et effets de fiction. Dans le présent cas, il faut souligner que les faits historiques qu’elle raconte ont été empreints du regard souriant et à la fois doux-amer (ironie oblige de l’auteur.Mots-clés: Chronique; mémoire; ironie; analyse du discours.Keywords: Chronicle; memory; irony; discourse analysis.

  14. 49 CFR 40.371 - On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding? 40.371 Section 40.371 Transportation Office of the... start a PIE proceeding? (a) An initiating official may rely on credible information from any source as the basis for starting a PIE proceeding. (b) Before sending a correction notice (see § 40.373),...

  15. 17 CFR 270.12d1-3 - Exemptions for investment companies relying on section 12(d)(1)(F) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Exemption from sales charge limits. A registered investment company (“acquiring fund”) that relies on... company (“acquired fund”) may offer or sell any security it issues through a principal underwriter or... companies relying on section 12(d)(1)(F) of the Act. 270.12d1-3 Section 270.12d1-3 Commodity and...

  16. BÜSYAT Periodicals Retrieval System BÜSYAT Süreli Yayın Sorgulama Sistemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Özturan

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it gets more difficult to access information in periodicals due to the increase in the number of these periodicals. But, on the other hand, computers are widely used today in different fields to complete jobs easily and efficiently. One of those applications is the easy and quick access to the required information in periodicals. User interfaces that form the bridge between human and machine undertake a critical role in access operations. Though as an extension of ergonomy discipline, a great experience of user interface design has been accumulated, still there would be some new system-specific design criteria for each new application. In this paper, a periodicals retrieval system and a software called BÜSYAT, designed and developed to take into account of the above mentioned considerations, are discussed and presented. Günümüzde sayısı gittikçe artmakta olan süreli yayınlarda istenen bilgiye erişim gitgide zorlaşmaktadır. Ancak, diğer taraftan hızlandırıcı ve kolaylaştırıcı özelliği olan bilgisayarlar pek çok alanda kullanılmaktadır. Söz konusu uygulamalardan birisi de süreli yayınlarda istenen bilgiye kolay ve hızlı erişimin sağlanabilmesidir. Bilgisayarlar ile kullanıcılar arasındaki bağlantıyı kuran kullanıcı arayüzleri ise bilgiye erişim uygulamalarında kritik bir yol üstlenmektedir. Her ne kadar ergonomi disiplininin uzantısı olarak son yıllarda bilgisayar programlarında arayüzü tasarımı konusunda büyük bir birikim olmuşsa da, yine de her program için kendi özgün koşullarına bağlı olarak yeni bir tasarım çalışması gerekmektedir. Bu makalede, yukarıda belirtilen hususlar doğrultusunda, süreli yayınlarda bilgi erişim amaçlı tasarlanmış bir sistem ve bu tasarım doğrultusunda geliştirilmiş BÜSYAT adlı yazılım tartışılmakta ve tanıtılmaktadır.

  17. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C.; Cardoso, Sara D.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2016-01-01

    Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod). Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e., Winners, Losers, and Mirror-fighters) present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g., BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homolog of the mammalian hippocampus). Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These results

  18. L'absentéisme au travail : une approche théorique qui intègre la survenance de la maladie comme un choc exogène

    OpenAIRE

    ZANARDELLI Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Les études économiques qui s?intéressent aux déterminants de l?absentéisme et qui cherchent à prendre en compte l'effet de la santé se contentent d?introduire comme variable explicative l?état de santé général des individus sans jamais chercher à introduire l?effet, plus global, de la survenance de la maladie à un moment donné, qu?elle soit liée ou non, d'ailleurs, à l'état de santé général de l'individu. Le peu d?intérêt manifesté pour la prise en compte de la survenance de la maladie dans l...

  19. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, T; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M

    1998-12-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes. Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination. The free energy values of Escherichia coli K-12 shows a sharp drop, as expected, at 30 bp downstream of the stop codon, presumably due to hairpin-forming sequences. Similar drops are observed for Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Bacillus subtilis and Chlamydia trachomatis, suggesting that these organisms also form hairpins at their transcription termination sites. On the other hand, 12 other prokaryotes- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Synechocystis PCC6803, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Aquifex aeolicus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Treponema pallidum -show no apparent decrease in free energy value at the corresponding regions. This result suggests that these prokaryotes, or at least some of them, may never form hairpins at their transcription termination sites.

  20. A second mechanism for aluminum resistance in wheat relies on the constitutive efflux of citrate from roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Harsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Horst, Walter J; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F(2) population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xce(c), which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xce(c) locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F(2:3) families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.

  1. Spatial reorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis relies on mitotic kinase cyclin A in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Zane J; Mclaurin, Justin D; Eritano, Anthony S; Johnson, Brittany M; Sims, Amanda Q; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope.

  2. Kinetochore function and chromosome segregation rely on critical residues in histones H3 and H4 in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tessie M; Lenstra, Tineke L; Duggan, Nicole; Jiang, Shuangying; Ceto, Steven; Holstege, Frank C P; Dai, Junbiao; Boeke, Jef D; Biggins, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires that sister kinetochores biorient and attach to microtubules from opposite poles. Kinetochore biorientation relies on the underlying centromeric chromatin, which provides a platform to assemble the kinetochore and to recruit the regulatory factors that ensure the high fidelity of this process. To identify the centromeric chromatin determinants that contribute to chromosome segregation, we performed two complementary unbiased genetic screens using a library of budding yeast mutants in every residue of histone H3 and H4. In one screen, we identified mutants that lead to increased loss of a nonessential chromosome. In the second screen, we isolated mutants whose viability depends on a key regulator of biorientation, the Aurora B protein kinase. Nine mutants were common to both screens and exhibited kinetochore biorientation defects. Four of the mutants map near the unstructured nucleosome entry site, and their genetic interaction with reduced IPL1 can be suppressed by increasing the dosage of SGO1, a key regulator of biorientation. In addition, the composition of purified kinetochores was altered in six of the mutants. Together, this work identifies previously unknown histone residues involved in chromosome segregation and lays the foundation for future studies on the role of the underlying chromatin structure in chromosome segregation.

  3. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  5. The infectious intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella enterica relies on the adaptation to nutritional conditions within the Salmonella-containing vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diacovich, Lautaro; Lorenzi, Lucía; Tomassetti, Mauro; Méresse, Stéphane; Gramajo, Hugo

    2016-12-09

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined. In this work we developed different biological probes whose expression is modulated by the environment and the physiological state of the bacterium. We constructed transcriptional reporters by fusing promoter regions to the gfpmut3a gene to monitor the expression profile of genes involved in glucose utilization and lipid catabolism. The induction of these probes by a specific metabolic change was first tested in vitro, and then during different conditions of infection in macrophages. We were able to determine that Entner-Doudoroff is the main metabolic pathway utilized by Salmonella during infection in mouse macrophages. Furthermore, we found sub-populations of bacteria expressing genes involved in pathways for the utilization of different sources of carbon. These populations are modified in presence of different metabolizable substrates, suggesting the coexistence of Salmonella with diverse metabolic states during the infection.

  6. Influence of computerized sounding out on spelling performance for children who do and do not rely on AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Hogan, Tiffany P; Beukelman, David R; Schwarz, Ilsa E

    2015-05-01

    Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. We investigated how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudowords for children with complex communication needs who did and did not use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Results indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words by participants, suggesting that computerized sounding out might assist in more accurate spelling for children who use AAC. Future research is needed to determine how language and reading abilities influence the use of computerized sounding out with children who have a range of speech intelligibility abilities and do and do not use AAC.

  7. ¿Quién pagó los tributos en la castilla del siglo XVII? El impacto de los tributos sobre el vino en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Los tributos indirectos fueron la base del sistema fiscal castellano durante la Edad Moderna y a menudo se afirma que el peso de este tipo de tributación recayó sobre los consumidores. El propósito de este artículo es analizar quién pagó en realidad los tributos cobrados sobre el vino en Madrid en el siglo XVII. La primera parte muestra que la creciente carga fiscal que recayó sobre el vino causó el desarrollo de un fraude masivo que perjudicó a los miembros del Gremio de Taberneros de la villa y a la hacienda real y municipal, en beneficio de todos aquellos que podían vender esta bebida de forma ilegal. La segunda parte indica que a pesar de la continua introducción de tributos sobre el vino en Madrid a lo largo del siglo, los niveles de consumo individual de esta bebida sólo se redujeron moderadamente. Pudiera alegarse que gracias al fraude los consumidores madrileños compraron vino a precios baratos, pero la evidencia ofrecida sugiere que no debió de ser así. De hecho, el vino vendido de forma ilegal apenas era un 5-10% más barato que el vendido legalmente por los taberneros. Según se muestra en la tercera parte, los precios del vino vendido en Madrid a lo largo del siglo XVII tanto en los mercados legales como

  8. Nota de la editora y los editores invitados. Memorias del presente y del futuro: ¿cómo, para quién, para qué?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vignolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para su volumen 40(1 del primer semestre del 2017, la Revista Colombiana de Sociología (rcs ha convocado a la comunidad nacional e internacional a reflexionar sobre los procesos de construcción social de la memoria en Colombia y Latinoamérica, alrededor de un eje provocativo de discusión: memorias del presente y del futuro: ¿cómo rememorar, para quién y para qué? Antes de ofrecer algunas puntadas analíticas de apertura a este número, comenzaremos la disertación comentando que el azar quiso que la elaboración de esta introducción se haya dado entre la firma protocolaria de los acuerdos de paz entre el Gobierno colombiano y las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia - Ejército del Pueblo (farc-ep del 26 de septiembre y el inesperado rechazo de estos en el plebiscito del 2 de octubre del 2016. En esta transición histórica, esculpida con dolores, fallos, paciencias y esperanzas, las prácticas y las políticas de la memoria han desempeñado una función crucial, marcando los términos del debate en cuanto a la agencia y al estatus de las víctimas, la puesta en marcha de una justicia transicional y la redefinición de Colombia como país. El título Memorias del presente y del futuro corresponde precisamente a esta coyuntura, en la que convergen relatos de vida abortados, así como procesos históricos de amplio alcance, tácticas y estrategias de resistencia, macro- y micropolíticas. Al formular la convocatoria para el número teníamos en mente que la memoria, como acto colectivo de rememoración, articula el pasado, el presente y el futuro, y queríamos ir más allá de la noción habitual de memoria como anclada en el pasado, focalizada en una serie de hechos que se sitúan en un tiempo y un espacio que resultan significativos para alguien desde el presente. Si bien el pasado parece un país extraño al que queremos retornar, como lo ha dicho el escritor David Lowenthal (1998, igualmente, asumimos que la memoria es un

  9. An Overview of the Characteristics and Function of Vitamin C in Various Tissues: Relying on its Antioxidant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Akbari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid or ascorbate is a biomolecule that participates in many biochemical processes. It is an essential nutrient for humans, however, in some species such as rodents and guinea pigs is synthesized. It has a variety of functions in the body that we might venture to say make it a very important antioxidant nature and pro-oxidant. L-ascorbic acidic a reduced form of vitamin C and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA is the oxidized form of ascorbate, both L-ascorbic acid and dihydroascorbic acid retain the vitamin C activity. Dehydro-ascorbate is reconverted to ascorbate in the cytosol by cytochrome b reductase and thioredoxin reductase in reactions involving NADH and NADPH, respectively. Ascorbate is transported into the cell via the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs, which causes accumulation of ascorbate within cells against a concentration gradient. Dehydroascorbic acid, the oxidized form of ascorbate, is transported via glucose transporters family (GLUTs. The highest concentrations of ascorbate in the body are found in brain and adrenal gland. Vitamin C also acts as a co-factor in several enzyme reactions. This vitamin is an essential biochemical factor in the reproductive process. The pharmacophore of vitamin C is the ascorbate, ascorbate is an antioxidant.Ascorbate is a neuromodulator of glutamatergic and dopaminergic system and related behaviors. It also improves components of the immune system. Given the wide role of ascorbate, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the exact mechanism(s underlying these effects. In this review we will consider a short overview of the characteristics and function of vitamin C (relying on antioxidant function in various tissues.

  10. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolas; Halliday, Karen J.; Martinez-García, Jaime F.; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments essential for the protection against excess light. During deetiolation, their production is regulated by a dynamic repression-activation module formed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). These transcription factors directly and oppositely control the expression of the gene encoding PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), the first and main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. Antagonistic modules also regulate the responses of deetiolated plants to vegetation proximity and shade (i.e. to the perception of far-red light-enriched light filtered through or reflected from neighboring plants). These responses, aimed to adapt to eventual shading from plant competitors, include a reduced accumulation of carotenoids. Here, we show that PIF1 and related photolabile PIFs (but not photostable PIF7) promote the shade-triggered decrease in carotenoid accumulation. While HY5 does not appear to be required for this process, other known PIF antagonists were found to modulate the expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PSY gene and the biosynthesis of carotenoids early after exposure to shade. In particular, PHYTOCHROME-RAPIDLY REGULATED1, a transcriptional cofactor that prevents the binding of true transcription factors to their target promoters, was found to interact with PIF1 and hence directly induce PSY expression. By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY expression or carotenoid accumulation. Our data suggest that the fine-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in response to shade relies on specific modules of antagonistic transcriptional factors and cofactors. PMID:26082398

  11. Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Johansson, Orjan; Pedersen, Hans C; Liberg, Olof

    2008-05-01

    So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to serious underestimates of the total annual predation rate. This study is the first to present detailed empirical data on kill rates and prey selection in a wolf-moose system during summer (June-September) as obtained by applying modern Global Positioning System-collar techniques on individual wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Moose (Alces alces) was the dominant prey species both by number (74.4%) and biomass (95.6%); 89.9% of all moose killed were juveniles, representing 76.0% of the biomass consumed by wolves. Kill rate in terms of the kilogram biomass/kilogram wolf per day averaged 0.20 (range: 0.07-0.32) among wolf territories and was above, or well above, the daily minimum food requirements in most territories. The average number of days between moose kills across wolf territories and study periods was 1.71 days, but increased with time and size of growing moose calves during summer. Over the entire summer (June-September, 122 days), a group (from two to nine) of wolves killed a total of 66 (confidence interval 95%; 56-81) moose. Incorporation of body growth functions of moose calves and yearlings and wolf pups over the summer period showed that wolves adjusted their kill rate on moose, so the amount of biomass/kilogram wolf was relatively constant or increased. The kill rate was much higher (94-116%) than estimated from the winter period. As a consequence, projecting winter kill rates to obtain annual estimates of predation in similar predator-prey systems may result in a significant underestimation of the total number of prey killed.

  12. Restauración ecológica y paisajística del Arroyo de los Quiñones. San Sebastián de los Reyes, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peinado Albendea, Pedro

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the Arroyo (stream de los Quiñones (San Sebastián de los Reyes poses a problem whose solution consists in neutralizing the principal sources of its degradation. These sources are: waste water discharges, an urban solid waste dump, situated in the very bed of the stream, and the intensive aggregate extraction which made the stream itself disappear at various points. This article also deals with the recuperation of the surrounding wood in a natural and landscape-friendly way, which would facilitate the access and the walk along the sides of the stream. This would lead to the clearing of other areas of a high ecological value within this municipality.

    La restauración del Arroyo de los Quiñones (San Sebastián de los Reyes, Madrid plantea como problema resolver sus principales fuentes de degradación. Estas son los vertidos de aguas residuales, un vertedero de residuos sólidos urbanos ubicado en el cauce, y la intensiva extracción de áridos que ha llegado a hacer desaparecer el arroyo en diversas zonas. Posteriormente se plantea la recuperación del bosque ripario de una forma lo más natural paisajísticamente, facilitando el acceso y el paseo para des congestionar otras zonas de alto valor ecológico del término municipal.

  13. Dažādu reliģiju duālā praktika un sinkrētisms. Katoļticība un Joruba

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Darba tēma ir dažādu reliģiju duālā praktika un un sinkrētisms starp kristietību un jorubu. Darba mērķis ir izanalizēt sinkrētismu starp šīm divām reliģijām un to duālo praktiku. Pētījuma jautājumi ir sekojoši: kas ir jorubas reliģija un kādas ir tās īpašības un ticības, kā kristietība ir ietekmējusi jorubas reliģiju, kāds ir jorubas un kristietības sinkrētisma process un kā jorubas simboli tiek izmantoti mākslā. Darba gaitā tika secināts, ka kristietībai ir bijusi liela ietekme uz jorubu...

  14. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  15. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  16. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Pjeta, Robert; Wunderer, Julia; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Arbore, Roberto; Schaerer, Lukas; Berezikov, Eugene; Hess, Michael W.; Pfaller, Kristian; Egger, Bernhard; Obwegeser, Sabrina; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an an

  17. Effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with Rely X U200 self-adhesive cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawaf, Shirin; Jalalian, Ezatallah; Roshan, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Considering the importance of retention in the success and long-term clinical service of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) as well as the existing controversy regarding the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement, this study aimed to assess the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented using RelyX U200. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this experimental study, 20 sound human premolars were prepared; a 0.5 mm chamfer finish line was prepared above the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups: a desensitizer group (n = 10, treated with GLUMA desensitizer) and a control (n = 10, no surface treatment). Full metal crowns were fabricated of base metal alloy and had a ring. All crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 and subjected to retention test by using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and independent t-test. RESULTS The mean tensile bond strength was significantly higher in the GLUMA desensitizer group (230.63 ± 63.8 N) compared to the control group (164.45 ± 39.3 N) (P≤.012). CONCLUSION GLUMA desensitizer increases the tensile bond strength of RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement to dentin. PMID:27826391

  18. [Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā] / Marija Golubeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Golubeva, Marija, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā / Hrsg. von Andris Šnē. Acta Universitatis Latviensis ; 725. (Riga: Verlag Latvijas Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2009)

  19. [Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā] / Marija Golubeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Golubeva, Marija, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā / Hrsg. von Andris Šnē. Acta Universitatis Latviensis ; 725. (Riga: Verlag Latvijas Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2009)

  20. Le comte qui était comtesse : un cas de gynandrie au tribunal de Vienne (1890 The Count who was a Countess: a Case of Gynandry in the Court of Vienna (1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pognant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Il s’agit d’une des premières expertises auprès des tribunaux de la Cour impériale conduite par Krafft-Ebing alors qu’il venait d’être nommé professeur de psychiatrie à Vienne. Il eut à mener cette expertise dans une affaire de mœurs à propos d’une jeune comtesse hongroise qui, selon lui, souffrait de gynandrie, ce qui l’aurait conduite à convoler en noces illégitimes avec une jeune fille en escroquant au passage son « beau-père ». Il sera notamment intéressant de voir comment Krafft-Ebing a orienté son expertise pour la faire coïncider avec la théorie qu’il avait élaborée à propos des psychopathies sexuelles (et notamment les degrés de l’homosexualité et comment il obtint l’acquittement de la jeune femme qui, d’ailleurs, passa le reste de sa vie dans la peau (et le pantalon d’un homme en se faisant appeler M. le Comte…This article is about one of the first expert testimonies presented to the tribunals of the imperial Court, conducted by Krafft-Ebing when he had just been named professor of psychiatry at Vienna. He was called in on a case involving a young Hungarian countess – in his view, suffering from gynandrism – charged with illegitimate marriage to a young woman and knowingly misrepresenting herself to her “father-in-law” in the process.  Of particular interest is the way Krafft-Ebing oriented his testimony, aligning it with the theory he had previously elaborated regarding sexual psychopathies (notably degrees of homosexuality. Of interest, too, is his role in the acquittal of the countess, who spent the rest of her life as a man (in body and dress, identifying himself as Monsieur le Comte…

  1. Femme, genre et politique en Grèce archaïque et classique. Autour d’Artémise d’Halicarnasse, l’amazone qui a existé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Sébillotte Cuchet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Le dossier regroupe divers travaux rédigés sur la thématique des rapports individu/cité déclinée sur l’axe de l’intégration dans une filiation politique naturalisante (notion de patris et dans une catégorie de sexe (homme/femme. Le manuscrit sur Artémise est un travail d’histoire sociale du culturel dans une démarche critique de genre. Hérodote raconte l’histoire de cette reine d’Halicarnasse en Carie qui, à la tête d’une flottille, tient tête aux Athéniens lors de la bataille de Salamine (...

  2. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  3. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  4. Servicio personal, tributo y conciertos en Córdoba a principios del siglo XVII: La visita del gobernador Luis de Quiñones Osorio y la aplicación de las ordenanzas de Francisco de Alfaro Personal service, tribute and conciertos in Córdoba in the early seventeenth century: The visita of governor Luis de Quiñones Osorio and the application of Francisco de Alfaro´s ordinances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro Olañeta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1616-17 se realizó en la jurisdicción de Córdoba, Gobernación del Tucumán, una visita a la población indígena encomendada en cumplimiento de la Ordenanza 101 del oidor Francisco de Alfaro. Este trabajo presenta un análisis de dicha visita como parte de la gestión del gobernador Luis de Quiñones Osorio, la cual se caracterizó por la aplicación de algunos aspectos de las Ordenanzas de 1612 con el objetivo de institucionalizar las relaciones entre los indios encomendados y los encomenderos. Específicamente se aborda el problema de las formas que adquiere el trabajo indígena y su transferencia al sector privado como conmutación de la tasa o como conciertos por jornales.In 1616-17 an inspection ( to the indigenous population of the jurisdiction of Córdoba, , was conducted in compliance with one of the ordinances enacted by Francisco de Alfaro. This article analyzes this as a part of Governor Luis de Quiñones Osorio's administration, which implemented some aspects of Alfaro´s Ordinances of 1612 sining at institutionalizing the relations between and . More specifically, this article focuses on the different forms Indian labor acquired in the jurisdiction of Córdoba and how it was transfered to the private sector, either through commutation of indigenous tribute( or labor arrangements for wages(.

  5. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-15

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  6. Neutrino, la petite particule qui monte

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    IN 1956, a very discrete particle was detected for the first time. 50 years latter, the neutrino became a true star for physics. In the whole world, resarchers display detectors always more fantastic to catch it, or even use it. Full lights on seven experiments which promise to bring to light finally the most mysterious particle of modern science (8 pages)

  7. QUI CONSTRUEIX EL NOSTRE IMAGINARI URBÀ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mejías Cubero

    2013-12-01

    Com a producte d’això es proposa la utilització d’un model d’anàlisi de la imatge urbana basat en variables extretes del context urbà local i des del punt de vista del vianant. Es planteja especialment una visió de la imatge a partir de com ens movem dins l’espai, de com estan construïdes visualment les seves relacions formals i les vivències que la caracteritzen.

  8. La question qui fâche

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    L’action humanitaire a beaucoup évolué depuis ses premiers balbutiements. D’initiatives caritatives à caractère religieux, en passant par les « french doctors » et le sans-frontiérisme, jusqu’à la « guerre humanitaire » de certains États, il est légitime de s’interroger : l’humanitaire neutre et indépendant a-t-il encore un avenir ou bien doit-on parler désormais du complexe militaro-humanitaire ? Ou pire, doit-on se demander si l’humanitaire a jamais été un jour indépendant ? Après à quoi se...

  9. Cytotoxicity Comparison of Harvard Zinc Phosphate Cement Versus Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus Resin Cements on Rat L929-fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasti, Sahabi; Sattari, Mandana; Romoozi, Elham; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Resin cements, regardless of their biocompatibility, have been widely used in restorative dentistry during the recent years. These cements contain hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) molecules which are claimed to penetrate into dentinal tubules and may affect dental pulp. Since tooth preparation for metal ceramic restorations involves a large surface of the tooth, cytotoxicity of these cements would be more important in fixed prosthodontic treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of two resin cements (Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus) versus zinc phosphate cement (Harvard) using rat L929-fibroblasts in vitro. In this experimental study, ninety hollow glass cylinders (internal diameter 5-mm, height 2-mm) were made and divided into three groups. Each group was filled with one of three experimental cements; Harvard Zinc Phosphate cement, Panavia F2 resin cement and Rely X Plus resin cement. L929- Fibroblast were passaged and subsequently cultured in 6-well plates of 5×10(5) cells each. The culture medium was RPMI_ 1640. All samples were incubated in CO2. Using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of the cements was investigated at 1 hour, 24 hours and one week post exposure. Statistical analyses were performed via two-way ANOVA and honestly significant difference (HSD) Tukey tests. This study revealed significant differences between the three cements at the different time intervals. Harvard cement displayed the greatest cytotoxicity at all three intervals. After 1 hour Panavia F2 showed the next greatest cytotoxicity, but after 24-hours and oneweek intervals Rely X Plus showed the next greatest cytotoxicity. The results further showed that cytotoxicity decreased significantly in the Panavia F2 group with time (pcytotoxicity increased significantly in the Rely X Plus group with time (pcytotoxicity with time. Although this study has limitations

  10. Drugs with anti-oxidant properties can interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Stenson, Mary; Lawson, Joshua; Abeykoon, Jithma; Patnaik, Mrinal; Wu, Xiaosheng; Witzig, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Cell viability assays such as Cell Titer Blue and Alamar Blue rely on the reducing property of viable cells to reduce the reagent dye to a product which gives a fluorescent signal. The current manufacture-recommended protocols do not take into account the possibility of the reagent substrate being reduced directly to the fluorescent product by drugs with an anti-oxidant property. After suspecting spurious results while determining the cytotoxic potential of a drug of interest (DOI) with known anti-oxidant property against a renal cell cancer (RCC) cell line, we aimed to establish that drugs with anti-oxidant property can indeed cause false-negative results with the current protocols of these assays by direct reduction of the reagent substrate. We also aimed to counter the same with a simple modification added to the protocol. Through our experiments, we conclusively demonstrate that drugs with anti-oxidant properties can indeed interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells. A simple modification in the protocol, as elaborated in the manuscript, can prevent spurious results with these otherwise convenient assays.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.18.

  11. A series of meta-analytic tests of the depletion effect: Self-control does not seem to rely on a limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Evan C; Kofler, Lilly M; Forster, Daniel E; McCullough, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Failures of self-control are thought to underlie various important behaviors (e.g., addiction, violence, obesity, poor academic achievement). The modern conceptualization of self-control failure has been heavily influenced by the idea that self-control functions as if it relied upon a limited physiological or cognitive resource. This view of self-control has inspired hundreds of experiments designed to test the prediction that acts of self-control are more likely to fail when they follow previous acts of self-control (the depletion effect). Here, we evaluated the empirical evidence for this effect with a series of focused, meta-analytic tests that address the limitations in prior appraisals of the evidence. We find very little evidence that the depletion effect is a real phenomenon, at least when assessed with the methods most frequently used in the laboratory. Our results strongly challenge the idea that self-control functions as if it relies on a limited psychological or physical resource. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Los recursos metaficcionales en la literatura juvenil: el caso de Dónde crees que vas y quién te crees que eres de Benjamín Prado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Amo Sánchez-Fortún

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el amplio panorama de la Literatura Juvenil comienza a despuntar una práctica narrativa que se caracteriza por llamar la atención sobre su propia forma y su propio proceso de construcción, desvelando así su naturaleza ficcional. Se trata de una producción literaria que rompe con los códigos narrativos tradicionales y que requiere del lector una forma más activa de acercamiento. Con esteartículo he pretendido analizar las técnicas y recursos literarios recurrentes en este tipo de obras, poco frecuentes en el ámbito literario que nos ocupa. Para tal fin, he indagado, por un lado, en el estado de la cuestión acerca de la teoría de la metaficción y, por otro, en las estrategias creativas utilizadas por Benjamín Prado en su novela Dónde crees que vas y quién te crees que eres, por ser esta una obra paradigmática.

  13. El surgimiento de la agrupación HIJOS-La Plata: La discusión por quiénes son las víctimas del terrorismo de Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cueto Rúa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el proceso de formación de HIJOS, organismo de derechos humanos que nuclea principalmente a los HIJOS de las "víctimas del terrorismo de Estado" acaecido en la Argentina durante la última Dictadura militar y el período inmediato anterior. A partir del análisis de las disputas por la membresía del grupo, se indaga cómo HIJOS ha reactualizado una discusión que cruza a todo el movimiento de derechos humanos: ¿quiénes son las víctimas del terrorismo de Estado? A su vez se analiza la ambivalencia que el grupo muestra frente a la noción de "víctima". Por un lado, reconocen que son víctimas y que sus padres lo han sido, y por el otro intentan distanciarse de esa noción por el carácter pasivo y despolitizado que supone

  14. High school students rely on phone and analysis of the state of personality%高中生手机依赖与人格状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉芳

    2015-01-01

    随着移动互联网的迅猛发展,青少年网民的急剧增加,对手机依赖也趋向年轻化,为了了解高中生手机依赖的现状及其与焦虑、人格特征的关系,随机选取福州某中学168名学生,采用问卷调查的形式,运用列联表相关分析等统计方法分析高中生手机依赖与焦虑、人格特征的关系。结果表明,高中生手机依赖与焦虑无相关关系,手机依赖在人格特质三个维度(内外向、精神质以及神经质)上均存在显著差异,所对应的的概率值分别为0.004<0.05、0.023<0.05、0.04<0.05.%With the rapid development of mobile Internet, the rapid increase of teenagers, the dependency on mobile phones tend to be younger, in order to understand the present situation of the mobile phone rely on high school students and its relationship with anxiety, personality characteristics, at the middle school, 168 students randomly selected from Fuzhou, in the form of questionnaire survey, the use of contingency table analysis and so on related statistical methods to analyze mobile phone rely on high school students and anxiety, the relationship between personality traits. Results show that high school students phone no correlation with anxiety, rely on mobile phone on personality traits three dimensions (inside and outside, psychoticism and neuroticism) there were significant differences, the corresponding probability value was 0.004 < 0.05, 0.023 < 0.05, 0.04 < 0.05.

  15. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  16. The clinical and epidemiologic consequences of redefining treatment criteria: who should be treated? Consecuencias clínicas y epidemiológicas de la redefinición de criterios de tratamiento: ¿quién debe tratarse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McClung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD is the tool for diagnosing osteoporosis in older adults. However, BMD alone is not sufficient for deciding who should be given treatment at either the individual patient or the public health level. Robust, scientifically validated algorithms that combine BMD with other clinical risk factors provide more accurate assessment of fracture probability. New guidelines for managing osteoporosis are now based on the assessment of absolute fracture risk, not simply on bone mineral density values. Accordingly, treatment resources will be redirected away from young postmenopausal women with low BMD and low fracture risk toward older adults at moderate or high risk for fracture. It is expected that, with these algorithms, the cost and effectiveness of medical care for patients with osteoporosis will be improved.La densidad mineral ósea (DMO es la herramienta de diagnóstico para osteoporosis en adultos mayores. Sin embargo, por sí sola la DMO no es suficiente para decidir quién debe recibir tratamiento ni al nivel del paciente individual ni al nivel de salud pública. Los algoritmos robustos, científicamente comprobados, que combinan DMO con otros factores de riesgo clínicos proporcionan una evaluación más precisa de la probabilidad de fractura. Los nuevos lineamientos para el manejo de la osteoporosis se basan en la evaluación del riesgo de fractura absoluto, no ya tan sólo en los valores de densidad mineral ósea. Por lo tanto, los recursos para el tratamiento cambiarán, de dirigirse a mujeres postmenopáusicas jóvenes con baja DMO y bajo riesgo de fractura, a mujeres mayores con riesgo de fractura alto o moderado. Se espera que con estos algoritmos haya una mejora en cuanto al costo y la efectividad de la atención médica para pacientes con osteoporosis.

  17. Espacios exclusivos y excluyentes: ¿Cómo y quién habita el espacio público? El Boulevard Naciones Unidas (Quito y La Boca (Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hopfgartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales del siglo XX, gobiernos locales de diferentes ciudades de América Latina implementan políticas urbanas de corte neoliberal. El objetivo es re-configurar ciudades económicamente productivas. Para ello, se busca el mejoramiento del factor de localización de estas a través de la atracción de visitantes e inversionistas. Con ello, se da el paso de una lógica de gobernanza urbano gerencial a “la ciudad empresarial”. Una de las implicaciones más significativas es el carácter selectivo que toman los espacios públicos. Concretamente, se los convierte en nuevas centralidades orientadas, fundamentalmente, al consumo de sectores de altos ingresos. Esto deriva en una producción del espacio público, que profundiza la polarización socio-económica y la configuración de ciudades fragmentadas y desiguales. Sin embargo, la producción de un determinado espacio se realiza tanto desde las políticas urbanas, como desde los actores del lugar. En este sentido, el espacio público es uno de los lugares en los cuales se materializa la tensión entre estas dos escalas. Tensión que se deriva a partir de la disputa por quien instalará los parámetros de cómo y quién podrá habitar y consumir el espacio público. En esta línea, el presente trabajo analiza la producción de espacios públicos en dos casos de estudios latinoamericanos: la construcción del Boulevard Naciones Unidas, en la ciudad de Quito, y la renovación urbana del barrio La Boca, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

  18. 依托社区居家养老--老年社区设计探索%Relying on Community Home Care--Elderly Community Design Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛婷

    2013-01-01

      人口老龄化是未来发展的一个重要趋势。如何解决老龄人口的养老问题成为我们所要面临的重大课题。依托社区居家养老是符合我国国情的老年人主要养老模式。那么如何创造适合老年人需求的居住社区,已经逐渐成为社区设计所急待解决的问题。本文通过对老年人的生理特征、心理特征、行为特点等方面的调查与分析,对老年社区居住空间、老年社区环境的空间功能及细部设计原则进行探索研究,提出适合老年人居家养老的社区设计方法,使老年人真正做到依托社区居家养老。%The aging of the population is an important trend of development in the future. How to solve the pension proble-m of aging population has become a major issue we faced. Re-lying on the community home endowment is the pension mode for china. So how to create suitable for the needs of the elderly living community, has become the urgent problems in commu-nity design. Though the investigation and analysis of old peop-le’s physiological characteristics, the psychological characteri-stics, behavioral characteristics, this paper studies the spatial f-unction and detail design principle of environment of the old c-ommunity living space, the old community, the community de-sign suitable for the elderly pension law, made old people truly rely on the community home endowment.

  19. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Tomas; Zaal, Maarten P; Skitka, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1-3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences.

  20. Automatic and intentional number processing both rely on intact right parietal cortex: A combined fMRI and neuronavigated TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi eCohen Kadosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional towards more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s, and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioural, neuroimaging, modelling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization.

  1. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  2. When Excessive Perturbation Goes Wrong and Why IPUMS-International Relies Instead on Sampling, Suppression, Swapping, and Other Minimally Harmful Methods to Protect Privacy of Census Microdata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lara; McCaa, Robert; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    IPUMS-International disseminates population census microdata at no cost for 69 countries. Currently, a series of 212 samples totaling almost a half billion person records are available to researchers. Registration is required for researchers to gain access to the microdata. Statistics from Google Analytics show that IPUMS-International’s lengthy, probing registration form is an effective deterrent for unqualified applicants. To protect data privacy, we rely principally on sampling, suppression of geographic detail, swapping of records across geographic boundaries, and other minimally harmful methods such as top and bottom coding. We do not use excessively perturbative methods. A recent case of perturbation gone wrong— the household samples of the 2000 census of the USA (PUMS), the 2003–2006 American Community Survey, and the 2004–2009 Current Population Survey—, an empirical study of the impact of perturbation on the usability of UK census microdata—the Individual SARs of the 1991 census of the UK—, and a mathematical demonstration in a timely compendium of statistical confidentiality practices confirm the wisdom of IPUMS microdata management protocols and statistical disclosure controls.

  3. A Feminist Intervention That Hurt Women: Biological Differences, Ergonomics, and Occupational Health: Une intervention féministe qui a nui aux femmes: différences biologiques, égalité, ergonomie et santé au travail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The University of Québec in Montréal has agreements with trade unions providing access to university resources. Researchers involved in this program worked in partnership with union women's and health and safety committees for more than twenty years. Not all studies succeeded in improving women's working conditions. One joint project involved observational studies of tasks done by health-care workers, complemented by interviews and questionnaires. We found that task assignments, movements, postures, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied by gender/sex and made recommendations for change. However, issues of pay equity, spending on health care, and contracting-out of "ancillary work" were salient. Researchers learned that in the absence of changes in power relationships in the workplace, women may be disadvantaged by denial as well as by exaggeration of female-male differences. Men may also be at risk when their gender is invisible. We suggest some feminist approaches to workplace solutions and some pathways for research. Résumé L'Université du Québec à Montréal a signé avec des centrales syndicales des ententes leur donnant un accès à des ressources universitaires. Des chercheures ont travaillé en partenariat avec des comités syndicaux de condition des femmes et de santé-sécurité au travail pendant plus de 25 ans, mais ce ne sont pas toutes les études qui ont abouti à des améliorations. Un projet concernait des observations du travail d'employé.e.s du secteur de la santé, dont les tâches, mouvements, et postures variaient selon le genre/sexe. Nous avons recommandé des transformations, mais des enjeux d'équité salariale, de coûts et de sous-traitance y ont fait obstacle. Les chercheures ont appris qu'en l'absence de transformation des rapports de pouvoir au travail, le déni des différences hommes-femmes, autant que leur exagération, peut désavantager les travailleuses (et les travailleurs). Nous suggérons des approches f

  4. Cytosolic NADPH homeostasis in glucose-starved procyclic Trypanosoma brucei relies on malic enzyme and the pentose phosphate pathway fed by gluconeogenic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmann, Stefan; Morand, Pauline; Ebikeme, Charles; Gales, Lara; Biran, Marc; Hubert, Jane; Brennand, Ana; Mazet, Muriel; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Michels, Paul A M; Portais, Jean-Charles; Boshart, Michael; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2013-06-21

    All living organisms depend on NADPH production to feed essential biosyntheses and for oxidative stress defense. Protozoan parasites such as the sleeping sickness pathogen Trypanosoma brucei adapt to different host environments, carbon sources, and oxidative stresses during their infectious life cycle. The procyclic stage develops in the midgut of the tsetse insect vector, where they rely on proline as carbon source, although they prefer glucose when grown in rich media. Here, we investigate the flexible and carbon source-dependent use of NADPH synthesis pathways in the cytosol of the procyclic stage. The T. brucei genome encodes two cytosolic NADPH-producing pathways, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the NADP-dependent malic enzyme (MEc). Reverse genetic blocking of those pathways and a specific inhibitor (dehydroepiandrosterone) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase together established redundancy with respect to H2O2 stress management and parasite growth. Blocking both pathways resulted in ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress and cell death. Unexpectedly, the same pathway redundancy was observed in glucose-rich and glucose-depleted conditions, suggesting that gluconeogenesis can feed the PPP to provide NADPH. This was confirmed by (i) a lethal phenotype of RNAi-mediated depletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) in the glucose-depleted Δmec/Δmec null background, (ii) an ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress observed for the Δmec/Δmec/(RNAi)PGI double mutant when compared with the single mutants, and (iii) the (13)C enrichment of glycolytic and PPP intermediates from cells incubated with [U-(13)C]proline, in the absence of glucose. Gluconeogenesis-supported NADPH supply may also be important for nucleotide and glycoconjugate syntheses in the insect host.

  5. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  6. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern

  7. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures.

  8. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1–3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences. PMID:27851777

  9. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  10. Antinuclear laugh, but ecologists cry; Verts qui rient, ecolos qui pleurent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H

    2002-07-01

    Facing the decision of the German Government, of renounce the nuclear before 2001 and replace by fossil energy, the author compares the nuclear disadvantages and those of the fossil fuels, producers of greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)

  11. Adieu, de Balzac : « Une absence au monde qui vient de se déclarer au cœur de l’histoire »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Vernier

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Balzac s’est toujours intéressé au sort des victimes « oubliées » des campagnes napoléoniennes et, outre Le Colonel Chabert, on rencontre dans son œuvre plusieurs figures de vieux grognards, mutilés ou survivant avec une maigre pension. Mais il est une nouvelle peu connue, Adieu, dont le sujet manifeste une préoccupation étonnamment moderne, et si insolite à son époque qu’il conduit le romancier à inventer une forme narrative inédite et surprenante, dont je tenterai de montrer qu’il l’emprunte au discours et à la pratique psychiatrique alors récemment mis en œuvre par Esquirol. Il s’y agit d’une femme, chose rare, qui a été traumatisée par les horreurs de la retraite de la Bérésina (où elle accompagnait son mari et, après des années d’errance, est devenue folle et muette sans qu’aucun traitement soit parvenu à la guérir. La nouvelle, qui relève l’invraisemblable défi de nous faire pénétrer l’univers d’une folle aphasique, évoque le stratagème spectaculaire qu’invente son ancien amant pour éveiller un instant sa raison et sa parole, avant qu’elle ne meure, et qu’il se suicide dix ans après. Non sans éveiller chez le lecteur des abîmes de réflexion sur cette victime « collatérale », et le recentrement de l’Histoire.Balzac siempre se interesó por la suerte de las víctimas «olvidadas» de las campañas napoleónicas. Además de El Coronel Chabert, en su obra se pueden encontrar muchos personajes de viejos gruñones, mutilados o supervivientes con una reducida pensión. Pero es en una novela muy poco estudiada, Adieu, donde el tema ofrece una preocupación asombrosamente moderna y tan insólita para su época que obliga al novelista a inventarse una forma narrativa inédita y sorprendente, Mi intención es mostrar que Balzac toma esta forma del discurso y la práctica psiquiátrica, desarrollada en aquel entonces por Esquirol. La novela trata de una mujer, cosa rara

  12. « Journal de ce qui s’est passé à Versailles depuis l’instant de l’arrivée de Monsieur le comte et de Madame la comtesse du Nord, jusqu’à celui de leur départ »

    OpenAIRE

    Anonyme

    2014-01-01

    La voyage du « comte » et de la « comtesse du Nord » (noms d’emprunt utilisés par le grand-duc Paul de Russie et son épouse Marie Feodorovna) à travers l’Europe en 1781-1782 a fait l’objet d’un nombre considérable d’écrits qui varient aussi bien par leur genre que par le public ciblé. À l’intérieur de ce corpus, le « Journal de ce qui s’est passé à Versailles depuis l’instant de l’arrivée de Monsieur le comte et de Madame la comtesse du Nord, jusqu’à celui de leur départ » (Paris, Archives na...

  13. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-04-19

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells.

  14. [Analysis of EDS fingerprint spectra of mineral drug montmorillonite powder relying on dual index grade sequence individualized pattern recognition method and their quickly quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua-Bin; Ayiguzaili; Ablimiti; Zhai, Hong

    2013-12-01

    EDS(energy dispersive spectrometer) element fingerprint spectra is able to quickly measure the kinds and the contents of elements in any mineral drug. In dual index grade sequence individualized pattern recognition method, common (quantity) index and variation (quantity) index ratios of any two samples' fingerprint spectra are calculated, and the individualized dual index sequence of each sample is constructed relying on its own EDS fingerprint spectra as the reference. Then the mean common (quantity) index ratio P and the standard deviation S of all samples in each sample's individualized dual index sequence are computed. On this basis, for each sample, its own similarity scale function P> or =P+xS is built up. By this function, the optimum x suitable for optimized classification/cluster of all samples is determined, and the individualized characteristics sequence of one sample, to which samples in the individualized characteristics sequence are significantly similar, is decided also. Finally, depending on these individualized characteristics sequences, the optimized classification/cluster of all samples can be carried out perfectly without any prior knowledge related to them. This method is not only suitable for the quantitative analysis on fingerprint spectra being of only common peaks, but also fits for that being of both common and variant peaks. In this study, the EDS element fingerprint spectra of seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples from different companies were detected. Then common (quantity) index and variant (quantity) index ratios of peak area (or contents of majorly active element Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Si) among different EDS fingerprint spectra were obtained. In the similarity scale function P> or =P+xS, when x= 0. 5, these seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples could be quickly identified with high resolution, be classified into two groups, and their quality could be evaluated precisely. In general EDS element fingerprint spectra

  15. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation in E-learning 2.0: Confirmatory Factor Model | Facteurs qui influencent la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage 2.0 : modèle de facteur confirmative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-04-01

    éterminants environnementaux jouent un rôle clé pour modeler la maîtrise de soi dans le processus d’apprentissage. Cet article rapporte une étude sur les influences de l’environnement de cyberapprentissage 2.0 sur la maîtrise de soi. L’étude a cerné les facteurs qui, dans un tel environnement, influencent la maîtrise de soi et déterminent les relations entre les facteurs et la maîtrise de soi. Un modèle théorique de catégorisation des facteurs de réussite pour l’apprentissage autogéré a été proposé pour ce type d’environnement. Un questionnaire a été conçu selon ce modèle et plus de deux cent cinquante élèves en téléapprentissage à Beijing et à Hong Kong y ont répondu. À l’aide d’une technique de modélisation par équation structurelle, les relations entre les facteurs environnementaux et l’autogestion ont été analysées. Les résultats statistiques ont démontré que plusieurs facteurs affectent l’autogestion dans l’environnement de cyberapprentissage 2.0. Ceux-ci comprennent la qualité du système, la qualité de l’information, la qualité du service et la satisfaction de l’usager.

  16. Un Canada et un Québec qui conjuguent le passé différemment : le poids du passé dans le rapport préliminaire de la Commission royale d’enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Lapointe-Gagnon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’articule autour d’une source, le rapport préliminaire de la Commission royale d’enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme, qui permet, à l’aide de bribes de témoignages de citoyens canadiens et de l’analyse des commissaires, de pénétrer les mémoires québécoise et canadienne, qui évoluent en vases clos. Paru en 1965, le rapport préliminaire révèle au grand jour l’intensité de la crise canadienne, une intensité telle qu’elle menace, aux yeux des commissaires, l’unité du pays. Comment se manifestent les traces du passé au sein du rapport ? Qu’est-ce que le document révèle sur les mémoires canadienne et québécoise ? Où la crise décrite par les commissaires puise-t-elle sa source ? Tels sont les questionnements qui nous intéresseront. À travers l’analyse du rapport préliminaire, se dégage toute la complexité des rapports canado-québécois. Se dégage également des pistes de solutions qui sont encore criantes d’actualité.This article is about a source, the Preliminary Report of the Royal Commission on Bilinguism and Biculturalism, that permits to enter, through the fragments of testimonies of Canadian citizens and their analysis by the commissers, in the Quebecers and Canadians’ memories, which evolve in two ways apart. Published in 1965, the Preliminary Report had the effect of a bomb in revealing the intensity of the Canadian crisis, which threatens, according to the commissers, the Canadian unity. How does the tracks of past manifest themselves within the report? What does the document reveal on the Canadian and Quebecois memories? Where does the crisis described by commissers draws its source? Such are the questionings which will interest us. Through the analysis of the preliminary report, all the complexity of the Canado-Quebecois connections is appearing. Also appears some solutions which are still of a profound actuality.

  17. Optimization of covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports for cellulose hydrolysis, in buffer and ionic liquids/buffer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ramazan; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports were carried out. The optimal immobilization conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis of cellulose using the free and immobilized cellulase preparations in ionic liquids (IL) using cosolvents was investigated. The hydrolytic activities in buffer medium containing 25% (v/v) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were around 2.6-, 1.6-, and 5.5-fold higher than the activities in buffer medium. The retained initial activities were 32% and 57%, respectively for cellulase preparations immobilized onto Sepabeads EC-EP support and onto modified ReliZyme HA403 support after 5 reuses.

  18. Twee reliëfs herenigd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haarlem, W.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Museum acquired a new relief from the tomb of Saiempetref (reign of Seti I), belonging to a piece which was already in the collection. It has three registers; the upper one is showing the Solar Boat, the middle one the deceased and his wife offering to Osiris, and the third register

  19. Should We Rely on Intelligence Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence cycle is a systematic process which is usually applied in order to obtain intelligence from raw data. Today the world has been experiencing dazzling changes on many fields as well as technology. With the help of the new emerging technologies the data that have to be handled for intelligence is much more than ever. In addition to new technological contributions, there are discussions about intelligence cycle whether it’s being out-dated and old fashioned. Intelligence cycle was ma...

  20. Electricity Saving Relies on Mechanism Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Chun; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy saving is a vital important issue concerning sustainable development of social economy including national economic security, international competitiveness, resources conservation and environmental protection. Energy saving has now become one of the most important national strategy of China in the 21st Century. The Author believes, mechanism innovation to realize new type of management system, that is, to stipulate quota and efficiency standards of power utilization,to set up incentive and restrictive mechanism taking electricity price as a leverage so as to intensify the leading role of electricity price on power demand that electricity saving needs.

  1. Quels enseignements retenir de l’évaluation des compétences documentaires des étudiants qui accèdent à l’enseignement supérieur en Communauté française de Belgique ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, Bernard; Thirion, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cette enquête est une adaptation d’une étude équivalente réalisée, en 2002, au Québec. Le questionnaire comporte 20 questions réparties en 5 thèmes représentant les étapes de la recherche documentaire. Elle vise à connaître le niveau de compétences documentaires des étudiants qui arrivent dans l’enseignement supérieur, vérifier l’adéquation de celui-ci avec la perception qu’en ont les formateurs et identifier les lacunes afin de permettre d’améliorer les formations. 31 établissements d'en...

  2. Efeito protetor do complexo de rutÃnio (II) (cis-[RuCl(qui)(bpy)2]PF6) contra lesÃo gÃstrica induzida por naproxeno: possÃvel papel regulador da enzima guanilato ciclase solÃvel

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ãder Enzo Albuquerque Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    IntroduÃÃo: Os AINEs sÃo um dos principais agentes que contribuem para a patogÃnese da Ãlcera gastrintestinal e representam um importante fator etiolÃgico por serem comumente utilizados na prÃtica clÃnica. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito protetor do complexo de rutÃnio (II) (cis-[RuCl(qui)(bpy)2]PF6), contra a lesÃo gÃstrica induzida por naproxeno (NPX) em camundongos. MÃtodos: Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss (18-22g). Mensuramos os nÃveis de GMPc incubando amostras de tecidos gÃstricos com DMS...

  3. The RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x<1) series revisited. Synthesis, crystal chemistry, and magnetic susceptibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makongo, Julien P.A.; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Guo, Shengping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Saha, Shanta; Greene, Richard; Paglione, Johnpierre [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This study is concerned with the ternary compounds RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x<1), which have been previously thought to be the stoichiometric RELiSn{sub 2} phases. These materials crystallize with the base-centered orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), and can be formally assigned with the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type (Pearson symbol oC16). Our systematic single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed substantial Li-deficiencies in all cases, with SmSn{sub 2} (space group Cmmm, ZrGa{sub 2} structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) and GdSn{sub 2} (space group Cmcm, ZrSi{sub 2} structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) being completely lithium-free. The structure refinements also uncovered positional disorder on the Sn site neighboring the vacancies. The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn{sub 2} and GdSn{sub 2} structures are devoid of any disorder. Temperature-dependent studies of the magnetic response of the title compounds are also presented and discussed. -- Graphical abstract: RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x<1) crystallize in a defect variants of the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type (a). The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn{sub 2} (b) and GdSn{sub 2} (c) structures are devoid of any disorder. Highlights: • The crystal structures of the RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x<1) compounds are revised using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. • The structure is a filled derivative of the ZrSi{sub 2} structure type or defect variant of the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type. • SmSn{sub 2} is isotypic with the ZrGa{sub 2} structure, while RESn{sub 2} (RE=Gd–Lu) are isotypic with the ZrSi{sub 2} structure.

  4. Comment choisir ce qui aura été?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many have invoked the nihilism that is endemic of the age we call the anthropocene. Bernard Stiegler has articulated this sentiment by highlighting how anthropocene films are typically nihilistic, for example, Von Trier’s Melancholia. But if the age is characterized by a cultural pessimism about ...

  5. Dominio informativo, ¿quién tiene el poder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mauricio Velásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la historia, las relaciones entre los gobiernos y la prensa han sido definitivas en el éxito o fracaso de quienes ostentan el poder. No es extraño que algunos jefes de Estado se sientan incómodos con la manera de informar de algunos medios o, por el contrario, decidan aliarse para estructurar determinadas agendas que se manejan de manera unánime para orientar el temario que decida el ejecutivo. El Observatorio de Medios de la Facultad de Comunicación Social y Periodismo realizó un estudio para conocer el estado de la relación entre el presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez y la prensa. La investigación reveló presiones directas e indirectas que el gobierno ejerce sobre los periodistas.

  6. Soudan : à qui profite l'aide humanitaire ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lavergne, Marc; Fabrice, Weissman

    2003-01-01

    L'aide humanitaire est au coeur du conflit au Sud-Soudan : elle en est le moteur et souvent l'enjeu. Les détournements systématiques de nourriture au profit des organisations combattantes (gouvernement soudanais et SPLA) s'opère avec le consentement tantôt contraint, tantôt enthousiaste des bailleurs de fonds, des agences de l'ONU et des ONG présentes sur le terrain. La population civile paie un lourd tribut en vies humaines à ces crises alimentaires provoquées de toute pièce, et aux exaction...

  7. Quis custodiet ipsos custodies: who watches the watchmen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Meier, Roland; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Should this be said again? No cell is an island and in tissue-specificity and cancer, context is supreme. Decades ago, seminal recombination experiments illustrated the dominant role of mammary mesenchyme in directing epithelial development, and strongly suggested that the microenvironment plays a significant role also in the manifestation of carcinoma. More direct evidence for such functions came from a study demonstrating that an unadulterated microenvironment can suppress the malignant phenotype and re-direct tumor cells to give rise to normally functioning tissues and indeed healthy mice. One may wonder why such a stunning finding did not convince the scientific community to pay more attention to the role of context. The answers are complex, not the least of which is that concomitantly with this finding, the roles of oncogenes and mutations were being discovered. That excitement carried the day, specially because no one subsequently determined whether or not these mice generated from malignant cells contained tumorigenic mutations, and no new group reproduced the work. The following decade saw the discovery that even potent oncogenes could be ruled by context, and another couple of decades later it was shown that similar reprogramming of metastatic melanoma by an embryonic microenvironment was possible. There are many more examples which are not as clear cut, but are nevertheless compelling. The extensive literature of two-stage carcinogenesis, namely initiation and progression, indeed clearly indicates that 'initiation' and DNA damage alone are not sufficient to allow carcinogenesis. Implicit in these findings is: once a tumor or an oncogene, not always a tumor or an oncogene. A renewed focus on the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic target has also led to the recognition that markers within the microenvironment could have predictive power. Two recently published reports identifying 'stromal signatures' in breast cancer patients prognostic for patient survival and predictive of response to chemotherapeutic treatment provide proof of this concept. In the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology, two independent studies identify a novel stromal marker, caveolin (Cav)-1, which predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer patients irrespective of its expression in tumor epithelium. Cav-1 is a scaffolding protein essential to the structure of caveolae, 'little caves' or invaginations in cellular plasma membranes. Cav-1 recruits and arranges lipids and proteins to these membrane sites to function in endocytosis and signal transduction. The observation that Cav-1 expression is attenuated in oncogenically transformed cells led to exploration of whether Cav-1 loss in mammary epithelium was causative. Although mechanistic data suggested that Cav-1 null mice exhibited aberrant epithelial growth, and that forcing Cav-1 expression in breast cancer cell lines inhibited growth and metastases in xenograft models, a clinical link proved elusive. However, MMTV-PyMT tumors transplanted into the fat pads of Cav-1 knockout mice displayed significantly enhanced growth (vs. wild-type mice), motivating investigation of whether stromal Cav-1 expression correlates with human breast cancer patient survival. This is precisely what Sloan et al. and Witkiewicz, Dasgupta, et al. demonstrate in this issue of AJP. Using tissue microarray data in conjunction with breast tumor sections and extensive patient survival data, Sloan et al. demonstrate that strong stromal Cav-1 expression is associated with smaller breast tumor size and grade, and is highly predictive of increased survival (Fig. 1). Patients with positive expression of stromal Cav-1 had a 91% ten year survival rate, vs. a 43% survival rate for patients lacking stromal Cav-1 expression. Importantly, there was no correlation between Cav-1 expression in the tumor epithelium and clinical outcome in either tissue arrays or tumor sections.

  8. ¿A quién tratar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianella Madrigal-Borloz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el objetivo óptimo del tratamiento de la Hepatitis B, sería la erradicación del virus, con las terapias con que contamos, en la actualidad, esto se consigue en un porcentaje mínimo de los pacientes. Por lo tanto, según el conocimiento actual, queda claro que el tratamiento que genera y logra mantener una supresión de larga duración del HBV DNA en niveles indetectables, reduce la incidencia de enfermedad hepática avanzada y hepatocarcinoma y este debería ser el objetivo que se plantee al tratar a los pacientes. Para la decisión de qué pacientes tratar debe considerarse su perfil clínico, perfil serológico, bioquímico y valores de carga viral. En algunas ocasiones, el clínico completará el estudio con una biopsia hepática. Hay tres grupos de pacientes por considerar cuándo se evalúa el paciente para darle tratamiento y todos tienen criterios distintos que guiarán la decisión del médico tratante, a saber: pacientes con hepatitis crónica HbeAg positivo, pacientes con hepatitis crónica HbeAg negativo, pacientes con enfermedad hepática avanzada.

  9. De Barbare à Babel, des sons qui bredouillent et excluent

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    L’analyse externe et l’analyse interne ne sont nullement en contradiction, mais reflètent cependant deux attitudes, deux approches, deux angles de vue différents. La première cherche d’abord l’étymon historique et n’admet une origine onomatopéique qu’en dernier ressort, alors que nous postulons d’abord la structure onomatopéique et cherchons ensuite le mot dans lequel elle s’est actualisée.(Pierre Guiraud) Parmi les « structures onomatopéiques » des mots français, que Pierre Guiraud a si bien...

  10. ¿Quién es el Dr. Alvarado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Jauretche

    2012-01-01

    1955, el Dr. Alvarado es separado de su cargo por la Revolución Libertadora, momento en que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud lo designa asesor regional y entre 1959 y 1964 lo nombran jefe del programa de erradicación de la malaria de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en Ginebra, Suiza. A su regreso al país en 1966, organiza el Plan de Salud Rural, creando para ello la figura del "agente sanitario" y la "ronda sanitaria" anticipándose a conceptos que varios años después se plasmarían en la Atención Primaria de la Salud. El texto de Jauretche fue publicado originalmente en 1967 en el libro Los profetas del odio, por la editorial de Arturo Peña Lillo, editor de los grandes títulos del "pensamiento nacional" argentino. Su reedición en la sección "Memoria e historia" es un modo de rendir homenaje a una de las figuras indiscutibles de la Salud Pública argentina.

  11. Peter, le langage qui n’existe pas...

    OpenAIRE

    Liquori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    “Inside every large language is a small language struggling to get out ...” [Igarashi et al. 2001]“... and inside every small language is a sharp extension looking for better expressivity ...” [Liquori & Spiwack 2008]; It is my privilege and pleasure to introduce Peter, the language that does not exist... The Peter language contains almost the linguistic features I have introduced and investigated in the field of functional and object-oriented programming, plus some new features not published...

  12. Un petit chemin qui ne sent pas la noisette!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Travelling gypsies settle very often in Echevenex. Due to the lack of toilettes, they use a nice shaded path to make their bodily needs... Sanitary problems appeared and the inhabitants of Echenevex announce their anger

  13. ¿filosofía para quién?

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Jorge Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    La filosofía fue en Grecia ante todo una opción de vida. Con el cristianismo esa función fue acaparada por la religión. Para emanciparse de la religión y de Aristóteles, la filosofía tuvo que pagar con la renuncia a conocer las verdades fundamentales. El nominalismo de Ockham y la confrontación de Spinoza con el cartesianismo marcan las dificultades que encuentra la filosofía para recuperar su función, las cuales se proyectan sobre la actualcontroversia entre una moral de obligaciones y una é...

  14. Music-ripping: des pratiques qui provoquent la musicologie

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseaux, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Out of the scope of the usual positions of computing in the field of music and musicology, one notices the emergence of human-computer systems that do exist by breaking off. Though these singular systems take effect in the usual fields of expansion of music, they do not make any systematic reference to known musicological categories. On the contrary, they make possible experiments that open uses where listening, composition and musical transmission get merged in a gesture sometimes named as ?music-ripping?. We will show in which way the music-ripping practices provoke traditional musicology, whose canonical categories happen to be ineffectual to explain here. To achieve that purpose, we shall need: - to make explicit a minimal set of categories that is sufficient to underlie the usual models of computer assisted music;- to do the same for human-computer systems (anti-musicological?) that disturb us; - to examine the possibility conditions of reduction of the second set to the first; - to conclude on the natur...

  15. Who decides what, when, how?; Qui decide quoi, quand, comment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Marseille. The main discussions of this session concerns the decision making in nuclear wastes management and the use of public funds for the management of radioactive wastes today and tomorrow. (J.S.)

  16. 依托博客重构大学英语专业写作评价模式%Reconstruction of Evaluation Model of Writing of English Major Relying on Blog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓南; 毛力

    2011-01-01

    Blog, as a new media, increasingly draws the attention of English educators. To explore the conjunction point of the blog and teaching evaluation of English writing, this paper discussed the reconstruction of writing evaluation model in English major relying on blog and designed out its relevant teaching plan.%博客作为一种新兴媒介日益引起英语教育者的关注,为探索博客与英语写作教学评价的契合点,本文探讨了依托博客重构大学英语专业写作评价模式并设计出了其相关教案.

  17. 依托食品专业社团创新工学结合人才培养模式%Relying on the food professional association to innovate the work-study combination talent training mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孔海; 豆成林; 魏明奎

    2014-01-01

    依托食品专业社团---食品科技协会,模拟企业运行机制,创新工学结合人才培养模式,实现教学做一体化、课内课外一体化、校内校外一体化,促进学生专业技能与综合素质的提高,开辟培养学生职业能力与素养的新途径。%Relying on a food professional association --- food science and technology association , simulating enter-prise’ s operating mechanism , innovating talent training mode of work -study combination , realizing integration of teach-ing, classroom curriculum integration and inside and outside university integration , improving students ’ professional and overall quality , and opening up a new way to train students ’ professional ability and quality .

  18. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  19. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  20. 基于依托项目模式的商务英语专业实训研究与实践%Business English professional practical research and practice based on relying on the project model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯巧丽

    2015-01-01

    作为一种以学习者为中心的教学方法,因其能够培养学生的创新能力、批判性思维的能力和合作学习的能力,依托项目模式在外语教学领域有着很大的发展潜力.本文以基于依托项目的商务英语专业实训课程为例,使用定性研究方法,结合定量数据,介绍了依托项目的语言实训教学的具体实施过程,并通过与传统教学方法的比较,指出其在学习者能力培养和反思,以及促进教师各方面提高等方面的特点与优势.%As a learner centered teaching methods, to cultivate students' innovation ability, critical thinking ability and cooperative learning ability, based on a project model has great potential for development in the field of foreign language teaching. In this paper, based on relying on the project of business English professional training courses, for example, using qualitative research methods, combined with the quantitative data, this paper introduces the implementation process of the relying on language training teaching project, and comparing with the traditional teaching methods, points out that the learners ability training and reflection, and improve teachers' various aspects.

  1. L'aide humanitaire dans les pays en développement : qui évalue qui ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian NGOs which help developing countries are usually assessed by their funders, not their beneficiaries. Such a system brings several conflicts of interest : 1) it needs to be approved by those who are evaluated and so does not deal with “bad eggs” that refuse to be investigated ; 2) it produces biased analysis, doesn’t name names and passes over fundamental issues ; 3) it is very formal and technocratic, if not meaningless ; 4) it does not help to learn from past mistakes. Hence thi...

  2. La taille démographique – critère qui souligne fidèlement les rapports réciproques entre la population du secteur montaigneux de la vallée de la Moldavie et l’ environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina VASILCU

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Le critère concernant la taille des localités rurales met en évidence les rapports entre la population et l’environnement et sa connaissance permet la proposition des solutions adéquatesconcernant l’ aménagement du territoire, et surtout les problèmes de l’ équipement technique du réseau des habitats ruraux, processus qui doit se dérouler en concordance avec le niveausocio – économique de chaque localité, vu que les problèmes auxquels se confrontent les habitats ruraux du secteur montagneux de la vallée de la Moldavie sont différents. En analysant la taille démographique des villages par unités administratives on constate quechacune des unités a un type spécifique de village, conséquence de l’ancienneté des habitats, des conditions naturelles et économiques.

  3. 依托网络媒体开展新时期大学生思想政治工作%Relying on Online Media to Carry Out the Ideological and Political Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝振师; 朱家全; 韦容

    2012-01-01

    随着人类进入信息社会,网络以其独特的方式影响着社会各个领域,社会环境也发生了复杂而深刻的变化,思想政治工作面临着越来越多的困难和前所未有的挑战。本文从新时期对大学生思想政治工作的新要求出发,分析网络媒体在大学生思想政治工作中的作用,并提出了如何依托网络媒体开展大学生思想政治工作的开展。%As mankind enters the information society,the network in its own way affect all areas of society,the social environment has also undergone a complex and profound changes,more and more difficult and unprecedented challenges facing the ideological and political work.From the new requirements of the new era of ideological and political work,analysis of the role of online media in the ideological and political work,and how to rely on the network media to carry out ideological and political work carried out.

  4. Relying on Local Unique Advantages to Promote Transfer of Shaanxi Rural Labour%依托本地特色优势,促进陕西农村劳动力转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱黎阳; 楼旭明

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of rural labour is related to farmers' income, also is the basic premise of achieve social stability. This thesis, taking Shaanxi province as an example,presented the transfer of rural surplus labour should not only face industrial departments, but also rely on local unique advantages to achieve internal transfer, and developing the distinctive labor export, characteristic forestry, characteristic tourism and related special industry are the specific ways of transfer of rural surplus labour.%农村劳动力的转移关系到农民增收,也是实现社会稳定的一个基本前提.本文以西部省份-陕西省为例,从分析农村剩余劳动力形成的原因入手,认为农村剩余劳动力的转移不仅应面向工业部门,而且还应依托本地特色优势实现内部转移,其转移的具体方式为发展有特色的劳务输出、特色林业、特色旅游业和相关的特色产业.

  5. 依托住宅产业化开发蒸压砂加气混凝土成套体系技术%Exploitation of Complete Sets of Sand Autoclaved Aerated Concrete System Technology Relying on the Housing Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超华

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the advantage of group industrialization to develop research and development and application of sand autoclaved aerated concrete materials for the maintenance system of the green, environmental protection,energy saving technology,formed sets of system technology of the sand autoclaved aerated insulation,exterior insulation,partition panel,steel structure within the envelope insulation panels etc.,then summarized the construction method of complete system.%依托集团产业化优势,大力开展以蒸压砂加气混凝土材料为建筑围护体系的绿色、环保、节能技术研发与应用,形成了蒸压砂加气自保温、外墙外保温、內隔墙板、钢结构外围护保温墙板等多项成套体系技术,进而总结提炼出成套体系施工工法。

  6. An Investigation on the impact of using problem-based trainings in the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the elementary sixth grade mathematics book (case study: the city of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Cheraq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the administrative structure of the education system and the need to coordinate with the world of science and technology and hence, the need to update the general and technical information and knowledge, have doubled the importance and necessity of holding the new and efficient in-service trainings for the teachers. In this study, the attempt was taken to examine and analyze the impact of using problem-based trainings during the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the mathematics book of the sixth grade elementary level (case study: the city of Ahvaz. To do so, using a quasi-experimental study, 37 teachers of the sixth grade were selected from the elementary schools of Ahvaz city. For the in-service training courses on the teaching of mathematics, the problem-based learning method was used. After conducting the problem-based teaching method and the traditional method of teaching, through using the test and the standard questionnaire, the data about the teaching practice and the capabilities of the teachers were collected. Using t-test for the paired and independent samples, it was demonstrated that the problem-based in-service trainings, enhance the teachers' capabilities and performance regarding the problem-solving skills.

  7. Cultivation Full-time Professional Master Relying on the Public Laboratory%依托公共实验基地培养全日制专业硕士

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚睿; 王友仁; 陈则王; 周翟和; 万晓冬

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,instructional and teaching methodologies to cultivate applied cross-disciplinary full-time professional master have been explored relying on the graduate public experimental teaching base. Further reforms have been carried on the curriculum system and teaching content of the curriculum set of high and new technology in automation field,such as DSP,ARM,MCU,FPGA and PLC,etc.;meanwhile,teaching model,teaching method as well as the opening mechanism of the public experimental teaching base have also been explored,so as to train the capabilities of the engineering application,and science and technology of full-time professional master.%本文依托研究生公共实验教学基地,以自动化领域高新技术工程应用与科技创新能力培养为抓手,探索应用复合型全日制专业硕士生的教育教学方法;对DSP、ARM、单片机、FPGA和PLC等自动化领域高新技术系列课程的课程体系与教学内容、教学模式与教学方法,以及公共实验基地的开放机制进行了深入改革,取得了良好效果。

  8. Deriving Empirically-Based Design Guidelines for Advanced Learning Technologies that Foster Disciplinary Comprehension / Définir des lignes directrices fondées sur des données empiriques pour les technologies d’apprentissage avancé qui favorisent la compr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Poitras

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning, conducting, and reporting leading-edge research requires professionals who are capable of highly skilled reading. This study reports the development of an empirically informed computer-based learning environment designed to foster the acquisition of reading comprehension strategies that mediate expertise in the social sciences. Empirical data were gathered in a mixed-methods explanatory sequential design that examined the reading comprehension strategies used by an expert social scientist while reading a professional-level text. Process data were collected through a concurrent think-aloud protocol and coded according to reading comprehension processes. We combined both quantitative and qualitative analyses to identify, describe, and explain patterns in the expert’s use of reading strategies. Our findings indicate that highly-skilled reading is characterized by critiquing text information, relating information to prior knowledge, and evaluating one’s own understanding of text information. Findings are used to inform the design of worked-examples and a pedagogical agent embedded within the Highly-Skilled Reading Tutor. Le type de planification, de réalisation et l’analyse qui caractérise une recherche d’avant-garde nécessite des professionnels en mesure d’effectuer des lectures hautement spécialisées. La présente étude dresse un rapport sur l’élaboration d’un milieu d’apprentissage informatisé conçu pour favoriser l’acquisition de stratégies de compréhension en lecture permettant d’assurer la transmission des connaissances spécialisées en sciences sociales. La collecte de données empiriques s’est effectuée suivant une conception séquentielle explicative fondée sur une méthode mixte, qui étudiait les stratégies de compréhension de lecture utilisées par un expert en sciences sociales lors de sa lecture d’un texte de calibre professionnel. La collecte des données sur le processus s

  9. Ege bölgesi standart süreli yıllık maksimum yağışları için en uygun dağılımlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Karahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Su kaynaklarının temel girdisi olan yağışların; miktarı, süresi, şiddeti, alansal ve zamansal değişimi v.b. özelliklerinin bilinmesi; su kaynakları, tarım, kentleşme, drenaj, taşkın kontrolü ve ulaşım gibi farklı sektörlere ait planlama, tasarım, inşaat ve işletme çalışmaları için gereklidir. Belirtilen faaliyetlerin gerçekleştirilebilmesi için; mevcut gözlemlere dayalı, güvenilir ve gerçekçi tahminlerin yapılması gerekir. Güvenilir tahmin yapabilmenin ilk aşaması ise mevcut gözlemlerin güvenirliğinin test edilmesidir. Bu çalışmada; DMİ Genel Müdürlüğü tarafından işletilen Ege Bölgesi il ve ilçe merkezlerinde yer alan meteoroloji istasyonlarında (1929-2005 yıllarında ölçülen standart süreli maksimum yağış değerlerinin hangi dağılıma uyduklarını belirlemek için; Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling ve Ki-Kare dağılım uygunluk testleri uygulanmıştır. Anderson-Darling testine göre gözlemlerin tümüne yakını GEV dağılımına uyum gösterirken, Kolmogorov-Smirnov ve Ki-Kare testlerine göre kısa, orta ve uzun süreli yağış gözlemleri için genellikle GEV, Gamma ve Log-Normal dağılımın uygun olduğu görülmüştür. Seçilen olasılık dağılımının parametrelerini belirlemek için farklı dağılımlara göre maksimum olabilirlik (LN2, LN3, EXP2, Gamma3, olasılık-ağırlıklı momentler (LP3,Gamma2, L-momentler (GEV ve en küçük kareler (Weibull2 yöntemleri kullanılmıştır.

  10. Tackle“Three New Dimensional Rural Issues” Relying on Innovation-Driven Development Strategy%依靠创新驱动发展战略发展“新三农”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来武

    2014-01-01

    The article first explores the backgrounds of bringing forward “Four New Modernization” and“Four Moderni-zations Synchronization”,pointing out that agricultural modernization is the base of industrialization ,informatization and urbanization.Then the article analyses the challenges in the process of China's agricultural modernization in terms of re-sources and environments , market demands , production factors , as well as organization models , putting forward that we must rely on innovation-driven development strategy to tackle “Three New Dimensional Rural Issues” -“modern new agriculture,urbanized new countryside and professional new farmer”.Finally the article discusses how to handle “Three New Dimensional Rural Issues” depending on innovation-driven development strategy , combining with the practice of Technical Task Force ( TTF) system and rural sci-tech entrepreneurship.%本文首先分析了“新四化”以及“四化同步”提出的背景,认为农业现代化是工业化、信息化和城镇化的基础和支撑;随后从资源环境、市场需求、生产要素和组织模式等方面分析了新时期我国农业现代化面临的挑战,提出要依靠创新驱动发展战略发展“新三农”---现代化的新农业、城镇化的新农村以及职业化的新农民;最后结合科技特派员制度和农村科技创业实践,探讨了新时期如何依靠创新驱动发展战略发展“新三农”。

  11. Suggestions for Development of High-end Fine Quality Agriculture by Relying on Scientific and Technological Innovation%依靠科技创新促精品高端农业发展的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温淑萍

    2014-01-01

    介绍了精品高端农业概念的发展,分析了发展精品高端农业的必要性及现存共性问题,提出依靠科技创新,促精品高端农业发展的建议。并提出各类农产品的加工标准及其信息化、自动化生产线成套设备设施的研发是精品高端农业科技创新的一个重要方向;提出精品高端农业发展的一个主流模式是合理布局农产品区域加工中心企业,以此关联产业协会及农产品生产主体,形成“初级农产品由生产主体按相关标准生产-加工产品统一质量规格标准经生产线加工包装-商品区域品牌市场化联营联销-产品质量主要由产业协会全程追溯监管”的品牌化生产模式。%A discussion is made on the concept of the high-end fine quality agriculture. The necessity and existing common problems in the development of the high-end fine quality agriculture are elaborated. Some suggestions for promoting the development of the high-end fine quality agriculture by relying on scientific and technological innovation are put forward. It is also put forward that the R&D of various agriculture products process standards and their informationized and automatic process equipment and facilities are the main direction of scientific and technological innovation in the aspect of the high-end fine quality agriculture. A mainstream pattern for development of the high-end fine quality agriculture is to arrange the regional core agricultural products process enterprises in this way that the agriculture industry association and the agricultural products producing bodies are combined together and consist a brand products process pattern: primary agricultural products produced by the farmer or agricultural company according to the standards, made products processed and packaged by processing lines according to the unified quality standards, the commodity labeled local brands sale in market by chain stores, the quality of the products is

  12. 依托冀中南经济区优势促进邯郸产业发展%Relying on ji-zhong-nan economic zone advantage to promote the handan industry development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健夫; 宁志玲

    2014-01-01

    Handan is a national famous city with long history and culture. It is located in the southern part of hebei province, shanxi-hebei-shandong-henan area over the four provinces and the central plains economic zone centre, Handan is an important part in the hebei economic development due to its rich mineral resources. Relying on its unique advantages, the economy develops constantly. But in the new situation, its economic development is faced with many difficulties and challenges. This article is mainly about handan industry development and its pillar industry based on the advantage of resources. Under the beijing-tianjin-hebei regional integration background, there are lots ofopportunities and challenges for handan to adjust its industrial structure. Moreover, it points out how to transform and upgrade the handan’s industrial structure in the future. Through analysis of the handan’s industry problem, I hope that it can provide certain reference to the handan industry development for the future.%邯郸市是国家历史文化名城,地处河北省南部,晋冀鲁豫四省交界和中原经济区腹心,矿产资源丰富,是河北经济发展的重要力量,依据其独特的优势,经济不断发展。但是在新形势下,邯郸经济发展也面临着许多困难与挑战。文章主要从邯郸经济发展拥有的优势、基于优势建立起来的支柱产业,融合了京津冀一体化大背景下,邯郸进行产业结构调整面临的机遇与挑战以及未来邯郸应当如何转型升级发展等问题展开分析。

  13. EPO relies upon novel signaling of Wnt1 that requires Akt1, FoxO3a, GSK-3β, and β-catenin to foster vascular integrity during experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen; Wang, Shaohui; Maiese, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    caspase activation during elevated D-glucose. Our studies identify critical elements of the protective cascade for EPO that rely upon modulation of Wnt1, Akt1, FoxO3a, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways for the development of new strategies against DM vascular complications.

  14. 依托家教网的电子学习档案的设计和有效使用%The Design and Effective Use of Electronic Learning Files Relying on Tutor Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼曼; 杨小娟

    2013-01-01

    Based on the currently popular tutors network, the pa-per studies the entry of its present situation, the background and significance. It analyzes the importance of electronic learning archives in recording and evaluating students' learning process, and finds the possibility of combining electronic learning archives with tutoring nets. Through various experimental investigation and analysis of literature, this paper puts forward the module function of electronic learning archives relying on the tutoring nets and supported by various learning theories, and eventually establishes the modules of electronic learning archives based on theory and practice investigation, and explains the deficiency in its use and practice. It is of profound significance to continuously research electronic learning archives in the background of further development of individualized education.%  本文以现在流行的家教网为切入点进行分析,研究了其现状、背景和意义。对电子学习档案在学生学习过程中的重要记录评价作用进行分析,研究发现电子学习档案和家教网相结合的可能性。通过各种实验调查,文献分析研究,提出依托家教网的电子学习档案在各种学习理论支持下应该具有的模块功能,最终依托理论和实践调查,建立起电子学习档案的各个模块,并且对其使用和实践中的不足给以说明。在个别化教育深入发展的同时对依托家教网的电子学习档案的不断研究意义深远。

  15. Economic-statistical design of variable parameters non-central chi-square control chart Projeto econômico-estatístico de gráficos de controle qui-quadrado não-central com parâmetros variáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Sacramento de Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production processes are monitored by control charts since their inception by Shewhart (1924. This surveillance is useful in improving the production process due to increased stabilization of the process, and consequently standardization of the output. Control charts keep track of a few key quality characteristics of the outcome of the production process. This is done by means of univariate or multivariate charts. Small improvements in control chart methodology can have significant economic impact in the production process. In this investigation, we propose the monitoring of a single variable by means of a variable parameter non-central chi-square control chart. The design of the chart is accomplished by means of optimizing a cost function. We use here a simulated annealing optimization tool, due to the difficulty of classical gradient based optimization techniques to handle the optimization of the cost function. The results show some of the drawbacks of using this model.Processos de produção são monitorados por gráficos de controle desde a sua introdução por Shewhart (1924. Este monitoramento é útil na melhoria do processo de produção devido à crescente estabilização do processo, e consequentemente, padronização do produto. Gráficos de controle mantêm vigilância de características de qualidade de um processo de produção. Isto é feito por intermédio de gráficos univariados ou multivariados. Melhorias na metodologia de gráficos de controle podem levar a um impacto econômico significativo no processo de produção. Neste artigo, propomos um gráfico de controle de parâmetros variáveis baseado na estatística qui-quadrado nãocentral para monitorar uma característica de qualidade de interesse. O projeto do gráfico é realizado através da otimização de uma função custo. O algoritmo simulated annealing é usado devido à dificuldade dos métodos clássicos de otimização baseados no gradiente, de lidarem com a

  16. Performance and appraisal assessment integrated system for management of nosocomial infections relying on informatization%依托信息化手段构建医院感染绩效考核一体化管理体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荔红; 吴鲤霞; 王佳; 刘玉光; 游荔君

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore a scientific, objective, efficient hospital infection management new pattern, improve the quality of hospital infection management. METHODS Based on computer network technology, a performance assessment of integrated management system of hospital infection was developed. The incidence of . hospital infections, pathogen detection rate, hospital infection knowledge training participation rates, antibiotic use rates in inpatients, liquid soap and disinfectant hand consumption ratio were compared through the application of performance appraisal of integrated management system. RESULTS Before the use of performance appraisal of integrated management system, the hospital infection knowledge training participation rates of the medical staff and the submission rate of the pathogens were 91. 30% and 34. 87%, respectively, which were 97. 80% and 47.98% after the use of the system, the consumption of the hand disinfectants and the sanitizer increased significantly; the incidence of nosocomial infections and the utilization rate of antibiotics were 3. 78% and 58. 93% before the use of system and were 2. 20% and 43. 72% after the application, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The application of hospital infections of performance appraisal management integrated system relying on the informatization can effectively improve the whole quality of hospital infection management and management efficiency.%目的 探索一种科学、客观、高效的医院感染管理新模式,提高医院感染管理质量.方法 依托计算机网络技术研发一套医院感染绩效考核一体化管理体系,医院感染管理对应用医院感染绩效考核一体化管理体系前后医院感染发病率、病原送检率、医院感染知识培训参学率、住院患者抗菌药物使用率、洗手液和手消毒剂消耗量进行比效.结果 在应用绩效考核一体化管理体系前医务人员医院感染知识培训参学率

  17. Nursing care for patients with copd on long-term oxygen therapyUzun süreli oksijen tedavisi alan koah hastalarında hemşirelik bakımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Karaca

    2016-05-01

    çinde kronik solunum yolu hastalıkları, kalp damar hastalıkları, kanserler ve diyabet ile beraber dünyanın en büyük katilleri olup, her yıl tahminen 35 milyon ölüme neden olmaktadır.  Bu verilere ek olarak, dünyada ölüm nedeni sıralamasında solunum sistemi hastalıklarından, KOAH dördüncü sırada yer almaktadır. Ayrıca bu raporda, 2030 yılı için öngörülen ölüm nedeni sıralamasında, KOAH’ın üçüncü sıraya yükseleceği tahmin edilmektedir (DSÖ, 2010.   Teknolojide ve sağlık alanında ki gelişmeler, hastalıklara erken tanı koymasına ve hastalık durumunda en uygun tedavi yöntemini uygulamasına olanak sağlamaktadır. KOAH’da en sık kullanılan tedavi yöntemi uuzun süreli oksijen tedavisidir. Bu nedenle hemşirelerin kaliteli bir hemşirelik bakımı vermeleri için, oksijen tedavisinin temel kavramlarını, uygulama yöntemlerini, gelişebilecek komplikasyonları bilmesi önemlidir.

  18. The Transfer of Acquired Spatial Associations Relies on Verbal Working Memory%习得性空间联结的迁移依赖于语义工作记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈安涛

    2012-01-01

    employment of Chinese characters in the verbal WM load task could be problematical, since it has been demonstrated that Chinese characters may engage spatial processing in addition to verbal processing; on the other hand, pseudo-characters may have some linguistic properties. Therefore, it is premature to conclude that the acquired associations are represented as verbal codes in WM. In order to address the limitations of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2, the stimuli of WM load task were the Chinese characters presented through auditory modality in the verbal WM load task and the pseudo-characters were replaced with black filled squares. The characteristics of these stimuli may ensure that the verbal WM load and spatial WM load occupied the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad of the working memory, respectively. The results showed significant reversal Simon effects in the spatial dual-task, but no normal or reversal Simon effect was observed in the verbal dual-task, which perfectly accords with Experiment 1. Hence, we can confirm that the acquired associations are represented as verbal codes in WM. Straightforwardly, the present study strongly suggested that the transfer of acquired associations relies on the verbal working memory.%采用练习迁移范式与双任务范式相结合的设计来探讨练习所习得的空间联结在工作记忆中如何表征.被试先进行不一致空间的刺激一反应映射练习任务,五分钟后,随机迁移到单任务(Simon任务)或者双任务(Simon任务+语义工作记忆负荷任务或空间工作记忆负荷任务).结果发现:不一致的练习能使单任务出现反转的Simon效应,但语义工作记忆负荷会使反转的Simon效应消失,而空间工作记忆负荷却对反转的Simon效应没有影响.实验结果表明练习产生的空间联结依赖于语义工作记忆.

  19. Quem são os egressos de internação psiquiátrica? ¿Quiénes son los pacientes que obtuvieron el alta de la internación psiquiátrica? Who are the patients who have been discharged from psychiatric hospital care recently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer quem são, hoje, as pessoas com transtornos mentais que tiveram alta hospitalar de internação psiquiátrica recente, e quais suas características comuns. Método: Pesquisa quantitativa descritiva realizada no período: 17/12/2007 a 17/04/08, através de questionário acerca das variáveis sociodemográficas, internações anteriores e conhecimento de 48 pacientes quanto ao diagnóstico e tratamento psicofarmacológico. Resultados: A média de idade foi 39 anos e 30 pacientes eram mulheres. Diagnósticos de Esquizofrenia e Transtornos Esquizotípicos foram prevalentes em 33,3% da amostra. Não souberam dizer qual era seu diagnóstico 56% da amostra, e apenas 43,8% souberam dizer corretamente nomes e dosagens dos medicamentos. Tinham pelo menos uma internação psiquiátrica anterior 62,5% deles. Conclusões: Conhecer quem são esses pacientes possibilita identificar características que podem fomentar a determinação do melhor tratamento, suporte profissional e elaboração de intervenções psicoeducativas que demonstraram ser necessárias a essa população.Objetivo: Conocer quiénes son, hoy, las personas con trastornos mentales que obtuvieron el alta hospitalaria de internación psiquiátrica reciente, y cuáles son sus características comunes. Métodos: Investigación cuantitativa descriptiva en el período: 17/12/2007 a 17/04/08, a través de cuestionario acerca de las variables sociodemográficas, internaciones anteriores y conocimiento de los pacientes en lo que se refiere al diagnóstico y tratamiento psicofarmacológico. Resultados: Fueron entrevistados 48 pacientes. El promedio de edad fue 39 años y 30 pacientes eran mujeres. Diagnósticos de Esquizofrenia y Trastornos Esquizoides prevalecieron en 33,3% de la muestra. No supieron decir cuál era su diagnóstico 56% de la muestra, y apenas 43,8% supieron decir correctamente nombres y dosis de los medicamentos. Tenían por lo menos una internación psiqui

  20. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Birot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced in these developing countries continues to increase to the extent that it can now be exported. Thus, associations such as Spirulidaire market a traditional, fair and supportive spirulina in France and Europe and thus promote local producers.The perception of spirulina continues to evolve with the multiplication of field initiatives and the accumulation of scientific data. New studies demonstrate that spirulina also presents clinically significant anti-viral and immuno-stimulating effects in people infected by HIV.Sur la base de sa composition en micronutriments, de son potentiel pour la santé et du fait qu’elle soit cultivable localement, la spiruline présente des avantages majeurs dans la lutte contre la malnutrition chronique. Des associations de solidarité internationale, comme Antenna Technologies et Entrepreneurs du Monde qui ont comme vocation de réduire l’extrême pauvreté et les problèmes de santé publique dans les pays en développement, ont entrepris des programmes de culture et de distribution de spiruline notamment en Afrique de l’Ouest. La qualité de la spiruline produite dans ces pays en développement ne cesse d’augmenter et est telle qu’elle permet son exportation. C’est ainsi que des associations comme Spirulidaire commercialisent une spiruline artisanale, équitable et solidaire en France et en Europe et permettent ainsi de soutenir les producteurs locaux.La perception de la spiruline ne cesse d’évoluer avec la

  1. Who amends the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the participation that the Latin American Herbaria have and how it can be increased? ¿Quién modifica el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura para algas, hongos y plantas, que participación tienen los herbarios latinoamericanos y como puede ésta incrementarse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rico-Arce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided upon every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections that are part of International Botanical Congresses (IBC. How the Code is amended? The "decision" to conserve the name Acacia with a new type from Australia, one of the most heated and polarized debates over botanical nomenclature, casting doubt over the legitimacy of the procedure and botanical decision-making is taken as example. Despite a website www.acaciavote.com, for which by July 2011, the votes were: 7 659 opposing the re-typification of Acacia, including 101 votes from people in Australia, and only 110 accepting the re-typification, did not make any affect to influence to amend the Code? Only delegates present at the Nomenclature Section and the number of active institutional votes that they carry can decide the changes to the Code; from 878 distributed to registered herbaria only 396 of these were taken to Melbourne. Australia and the United States were the countries with the largest number of votes. There is little participation of Latin American Countries, in general of developing countries, how this can be increased and effective throughout herbaria institutional votes? In this note the steps to follow up are given.Cada 6 años se debate sobre las modificaciones que se efectuarán en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura en el marco del Congreso Internacional de Botánica. ¿Quién decide modificar el código? Se toma como ejemplo la "decisión" de conservar el nombre del género Acacia con un nuevo tipo de una especie australiana, que es uno de los debates más controversiales y polarizados en la historia de la nomenclatura botánica, a la vez que puso en duda lo legitimidad del procedimiento efectuado. A pesar de los resultados que tuvo el sitio web www.acaciavote.com a fines de Julio del 2011, 7 659 se opusieron a la retipificación, que incluyeron 101 de personas Australiana, en contra de solo 110 aceptando esta

  2. La spirale dell’azzardo: una subcultura del gioco che “evapora” le relazioni / La spirale du jeu de hasard : une sous-culture qui empêche toute relation / The gambling: a subculture of game that “burns” the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molin Valentina

    2011-07-01

    neutralizzazione dei possibili rinforzi negativi che provengono invece dai “non-giocatori”.Dans cet article, l’auteur analyse les caractéristiques de ce qu’elle a appelé « sous-culture des jeux de hasard », décelable dans certains milieux de loisirs et dans les sous-groupes de joueurs particulièrement « acharnés ». Parmi ces formes de sous-culture, l’article va identifier les règles et les sanctions, les valeurs, les comportements durables, la caractérisation des relations et des interactions, en concluant que ce qui est construit dans l'espace du jeu est un univers séparé, une «réalité extérieure» dans laquelle des nouvelles règles sont écrites et où les valeurs changent par rapport au «monde extérieur» . Il a également été possible de conclure que l'adhésion à l' «univers du jeu» - l'internalisation de ses normes, le partage de ses valeurs, le développement des relations en son sein - est un facteur de maintenance de la conduite du jeu, car cette adhésion permet d'envisager comme «normal» son propre comportement grâce à des réactions positives provenant des compagnons de jeu et à la neutralisation d’éventuelles réactions négatives provenant des «non joueurs».

  3. Comparative study of enamel adhesion between RelyX™ Unicem® (3M), a self-adhesive bonding agent, and the combination of MIP® (3M), a hydrophilic adhesive, and Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity® (3M), a traditional hydrophobic adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubernard, Charles; Raynal, Perrine; Tramini, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Although the bond strength of self-adhesive bonding agents is inferior to that of other families of adhesives, it is still adequate for orthodontic purposes provided prior enamel etching is performed. To determine the efficacy of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) self-adhesive cement both in vitro and in vivo and to compare it with the combination of MIP(®) (3M), a moisture-insensitive primer, with a traditional hydrophobic adhesive, Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M). Comparison of bonding results on 23 trial dentures using RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) with bonding results on 29 trial dentures using a combination of MIP(®) and Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M), by means of a multipurpose Instron(®) 4444 testing machine. the breaking force of MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M) (mean: 144±37.5 Newtons) was significantly higher than that of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) (mean=110±26 Newtons) (P=0.001). A 12-month prospective, randomized, monocentric, single-blind clinical study in order to investigate the failure rate of orthodontic attachments according to the type of adhesive used, and the precise site of the debonding. Bracket bonding was performed on 16 patients with randomized allocation of the two adhesives to each of the semi-arches. The failure rates were: 15.3% for the MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M) combination and 8.2% for the RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M), with a significant difference (P=0.039). The more posterior the bonded teeth, the greater the superiority of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M). The in vivo results did not concord with those obtained in vitro. RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) exhibited lower adhesion values in vitro and yet it presented a debonding rate almost half that of the MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M). The viscosity of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) and its moisture tolerance would appear to account for these results. With prior etching, RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M), a self-adhesive, self-etching bonding

  4. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals YÖK Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi Koleksiyonundaki Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler Konulu Süreli Yayınların Kullanım Değerlendirmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal titles in Arts and Humanities appears to be quite satisfactory. Some suggestions are made so as to increase the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals collection. Bilimsel araştırmalar için en güncel bilgileri veren ve maliyeti diğer materyallere göre daha fazla olan süreli yayınların ne oranda kullanıldığının araştırılması, koleksiyon değerlendirmesi açısından önemlidir. Bu amaçla, Yükseköğretim Kurulu Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi süreli yayınlar koleksiyonunun genel bir değerlendirmesi yapılarak "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların kullanımları incelenmiş, Yükseköğretim Kurulu Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi 'nde önemli ve büyük bir süreli yayınlar koleksiyonu bulunduğu, "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların da yeterli olduğu sonuçları çıkartılmıştır. "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların kullanımlarının nispeten düşük oluşu, bu alanda çalışan araştırmacıların süreli yayınlara yeterince ilgi göstermemelerine bağlanarak, kullanımı artırmak için öneriler getirilmiştir.

  5. An efficient circle detector not relying on edge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Huang, Panfeng; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Accurate and efficient detection of circular modules fixed on non-cooperative target is a key technology for Tethered Space Robot. This paper presents an efficient circle detector based on region-growing of gradient and histogram distribution of Euclidean distance. Region-growing of gradient is applied to generate arc support regions from single point. And the corresponding square fitting areas are defined to accelerate the detection and decrease storage. A histogram is then used to count frequency of the distances that participates in the accumulator and the parameters of each circle are acquired. Finally, a verification strategy of circular integrity is designed to test the detection results. We have tested our algorithm on 35 images dealing with kinds of circles and ellipses. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to detect circular objects under occlusion, image noises and moderate shape deformations with a good precision.

  6. Does avian magnetoreception rely on both magnetite and maghemite?

    CERN Document Server

    Winklhofer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a putative magnetoreceptor in the upper-beak skin of homing pigeons was chemically characterized using X-ray flourescence and absorbtion studies [Fleissner et al., 2007. A novel concept of Fe-mineral based magnetoreception: histological and physiochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeons. Naturwissenschaften 94 (8), 631-642]. In this short communication we point out that the novel concept propagated is based on conclusions that are not supported by data and, in fact, stand in contradiction to previously published crystallographic and magnetic data.

  7. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    , through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...... and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education...

  8. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research works within the framework of constructivist learning (based on constructivist epistemology) and examines learning as an activity of construction, and it posits that knowledge acquisition (and learning) are transformative through self-involvement in some subject matter. Thus it lead...

  9. Why cryptography should not rely on physical attack complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    This book presents two practical physical attacks. It shows how attackers can reveal the secret key of symmetric as well as asymmetric cryptographic algorithms based on these attacks, and presents countermeasures on the software and the hardware level that can help to prevent them in the future. Though their theory has been known for several years now, since neither attack has yet been successfully implemented in practice, they have generally not been considered a serious threat. In short, their physical attack complexity has been overestimated and the implied security threat has been underestimated. First, the book introduces the photonic side channel, which offers not only temporal resolution, but also the highest possible spatial resolution. Due to the high cost of its initial implementation, it has not been taken seriously. The work shows both simple and differential photonic side channel analyses. Then, it presents a fault attack against pairing-based cryptography. Due to the need for at least two indepe...

  10. Unlocking good design does not rely on designers alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Morrison, Ann;

    This article describes on-going research in the design of sustainable systems to support transfer of indigenous knowledge between rural elders and city living youths in Namibia. Specifically we here address the importance of co-design and highlight some of our findings through experiences gathere...

  11. The Failing Heart Relies on Ketone Bodies as a Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Gregory; Martin, Ola J; Horton, Julie L; Lai, Ling; Vega, Rick B; Leone, Teresa C; Koves, Timothy; Gardell, Stephen J; Krüger, Marcus; Hoppel, Charles L; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Crawford, Peter A; Muoio, Deborah M; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-02-23

    Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is energy starved. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models. As expected, the amounts of proteins involved in fatty acid utilization were downregulated in myocardial samples from the failing heart. Conversely, expression of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidation pathway, was increased in the heart failure samples. Studies of relative oxidation in an isolated heart preparation using ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance combined with targeted quantitative myocardial metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry revealed that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to oxidizing ketone bodies as a fuel source in the context of reduced capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Distinct myocardial metabolomic signatures of ketone oxidation were identified. These results indicate that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to ketone bodies as a significant fuel source for oxidative ATP production. Specific metabolite biosignatures of in vivo cardiac ketone utilization were identified. Future studies aimed at determining whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive could unveil new therapeutic strategies for heart failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Mayaro virus infection cycle relies on casein kinase 2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Madalena M S; Lima, Carla S; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2002-09-06

    Replication of Mayaro virus in Vero cells induces dramatic cytopathic effects and cell death. In this study, we have evaluated the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) during Mayaro virus infection cycle. We found that CK2 was activated during the initial stages of infection ( approximately 36% after 4h). This activation was further confirmed when the enzyme was partially purified from the cellular lysate either by Mono Q 5/5Hr column or heparin-agarose column. Using this later column, we found that the elution profile of CK2 activity from infected cells was different from that obtained for control cell enzyme, suggesting a structural modification of CK2 after infection. Treatment of infected cells with a cell-permeable inhibitor of CK2, dichloro-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (DRB), abolished the cytopathic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Together this set of data demonstrates for the first time that CK2 activity in host cells is required in Mayaro virus infection cycle.

  13. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Germana; Di Caprio, Giorgia; Fimia, Gian Maria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Marco; Alonzi, Tonino

    2016-02-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral persistence and pathogenesis are due to the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, mainly lipid metabolism and innate immunity. In particular, HCV exploits the lipoprotein machineries for almost all steps of its life cycle. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge concerning the interplay between HCV and lipoprotein metabolism. We discuss the role played by members of lipoproteins in HCV entry, replication and virion production.

  14. Pallet industry relying more on recovered wood material

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bejune; R. Bush; Philip A. Araman; B. Hansen; D. Cumbo

    2002-01-01

    This article is a research report titled, Wood Use Trends in the Pallet and Container Industry: 1992 - 1999, that was published by the authors earlier this year. The research was conducted by Virginia Tech in collaboration with the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. Part one, published in the September, 2002 issue of Pallet Enterprise, summarized the...

  15. Legal research when relying on open access: a primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    With more and more information disclosed online and with open-access policies on the rise, legal academic research is becoming more accessible. The potential impact of this development is enormous, particularly in areas or jurisdictions where offline information is scarce and where access to subscri

  16. A Connectionist Treatment of Grammar for Generation: Relying on Emergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    specifically, ( Stemberger 1985) suggested that human speakers can be modeled as having many ’phrase structure units’ being ’partially activated’ si...Second European Workshop on Natural Language Generation. Stemberger , J. P. (1985). An Interactive Activation Model of Language Production. In

  17. Reinforcement learning in multidimensional environments relies on attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Yael; Daniel, Reka; Geana, Andra; Gershman, Samuel J; Leong, Yuan Chang; Radulescu, Angela; Wilson, Robert C

    2015-05-27

    In recent years, ideas from the computational field of reinforcement learning have revolutionized the study of learning in the brain, famously providing new, precise theories of how dopamine affects learning in the basal ganglia. However, reinforcement learning algorithms are notorious for not scaling well to multidimensional environments, as is required for real-world learning. We hypothesized that the brain naturally reduces the dimensionality of real-world problems to only those dimensions that are relevant to predicting reward, and conducted an experiment to assess by what algorithms and with what neural mechanisms this "representation learning" process is realized in humans. Our results suggest that a bilateral attentional control network comprising the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in selecting what dimensions are relevant to the task at hand, effectively updating the task representation through trial and error. In this way, cortical attention mechanisms interact with learning in the basal ganglia to solve the "curse of dimensionality" in reinforcement learning.

  18. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Trabold, H.; Trübswetter, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the question of why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. First, we adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to include...... a TI that is able to pool market access cost. This framework suggests explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports, which are largely in line with the literature. Second, we test these explanatory factors with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i......) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) network effects are important determinants of trade intermediation....

  19. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Trabold, Harald; Trübswetter, Parvati

    2003-01-01

    The paper explores theoretically and empirically why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. We adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access......) to include a TI that is able to pool market access cost. From this framework explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports are derived and subsequently tested with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii......) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) the TI share is independent from variable (distance-dependent) export costs....

  20. Legal research when relying on open access : A primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    With more and more information disclosed online and with open-access policies on the rise, legal academic research is becoming more accessible. The potential impact of this development is enormous, particularly in areas or jurisdictions where offline information is scarce and where access to subscri

  1. Teaching Mathematical Proofs That Rely on Ideas from Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila; Jahnke, H. Niels; DeBruyn, Ysbrand; Lomas, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes empirical research into the effectiveness of using concepts and principles of physics in the teaching of geometrical proofs. Demonstrates, tentatively, that proofs from physics could be a viable addition to the mathematics curriculum. (Author/MM)

  2. ¿Quién decide? ¿Quién es responsable? ¿Quién gana? Análisis de las dificultades para la implantación de equipos de trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AITOR ARITZETA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura de gestión y de la Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones existe una sobreabundancia de testimonios referidos a la influencia positiva de los equipos de trabajo sobre variables psicosociales y sobre los resultados económicos de las empresas donde se implantan. Sin embargo, sospechamos que tal sobre representación de éxitos no siempre refleja la realidad de las empresas. Este trabajo pretende realizar un análisis de las dificultades que la implantación de equipos de trabajo conlleva en los procesos de reestructuración del poder y de la organización del trabajo. También se examinarán algunas de las resistencias de carácter individual que suelen aparecer al iniciar procesos de reestructuración organizacional en base a equipos de trabajo. Este artículo no pone en duda la potencialidad de los equipos de trabajo, lo que cuestiona es que puedan llegar a ser efectivos sin una adecuada dirección, estructura, formación y facilitación. Desarrollando una apreciación más crítica de los costes y beneficios de la implantación de sistemas de trabajo basados en equipos esperamos favorecer un uso más apropiado de los mismos.

  3. La répartition géographique des poissons d'eau douce en France : qui est autochtone et qui ne l'est pas ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERSAT H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les bouleversements intervenus ces dernières décennies dans la composition de l'ichtyofaune d'eau douce française incitent, d'une part, à faire un bilan de la situation présente (cf. l'Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France et, d'autre part, à promouvoir une politique de gestion cohérente avec le principe de protection du patrimoine biologique naturel. Cette notion de patrimoine reste toutefois à définir. En effet, les changements actuels ne sont que les derniers d'une longue série, où l'homme est un acteur capital depuis plus longtemps qu'on ne le croit. De fait, beaucoup des espèces dites françaises n'ont probablement pas de valeur patrimoniale dans nombre de nos bassins fluviaux. Le présent article a pour ambition de décrire l'ampleur du problème et de solliciter la communauté scientifique, afin de rassembler les informations et développer les investigations selon un cadre géographique et historique précis.

  4. Modelo de gestión del servicio de transporte UBER. ¿Quién pierde y quién gana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmín Hernández Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una comparación, basada en una investigación documental, entre el modelo de gestión del servicio proporcionado en México de la empresa de redes de transporte Uber y el servicio de taxi tradicional. Se llevó a cabo una revisión conceptual, desde la sociología del trabajo y las diferentes formas de flexibilidad. Asimismo, se hizo una indagación documental relativa a la normatividad en el transporte revisando algunas de las declaraciones de actores involucrados en la prestación de este servicio ante el debate suscitado por la entrada de Uber a México. Como resultado se encontró que Uber replica el modelo de gestión del taxi tradicional, en relación con la flexibilidad en la organización y relaciones de trabajo.

  5. 依托国家级科研平台促进林业创新人才培养实践与思考%Practice and Consideration on Cultivation of Forestry Innovative Talents relying on State-level Scientiifc Research Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 胡冬梅; 程武; 康向阳

    2015-01-01

    It is an effective approach to strengthen the cultivation of innovative talents relying on the existing high-level scientiifc research platform. The authors made some studies on the mode of undergraduate innovative talent cultivation relying on National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding of Beijing Forestry University. A group of innovative elite students majored in biology and forestry were cultivated. Strengthening combination of classroom teaching and scientific research training, encouraging joint innovation crossing disciplines, and enhancing the sustainable culture have positive signiifcance for forestry innovative talent cultivation.%依托高等学校科研平台优势开展科研训练,是加强创新型人才培养的有效途径。基于北京林业大学林木育种国家工程实验室,对本科创新人才培养模式进行了一些有益的探索,培养了一批具有创新精神的生物学和林学专业优秀本科生,认为加强学研结合、鼓励跨学科联合创新、突出持续性培养,对于林业创新人才涌现具有积极意义。

  6. Result analysis of comprehensive nursing intervention on elderly patients at home with insomnia relying on sedative-hypnotic drugs for a long time%对居家长期使用镇静催眠药物的老年失眠患者综合护理干预结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝惠云

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨综合护理干预对居家长期使用镇静催眠药物老年失眠患者的有效性。方法:对32例使用镇静催眠药物超过1年的老年失眠患者的睡眠和用药情况进行调查,并进行为期1年的综合护理干预。结果:老年失眠患者痊愈15例(46.87%),有效13例(40.63%),无效4例(12.5%)。镇静催眠药物服用人数明显减少,用药量下降。有药物依赖者11例(34.38%),其中7例(77.78%)在干预后消除了依赖。结论:综合护理干预,对居家长期使用镇静催眠药物的老年失眠患者,是必要的和有效的。%Objective:To discuss effectiveness of comprehensive nursing intervention on elderly patients at home with insomnia relying on sedative-hypnotic drugs for a long time. Methods:An investigation on sleeping state and drug usage had been done on 32 elderly patients with insomnia relying on sedative hypnotic drugs for over one year, and the comprehensive nursing intervention was car-ried on for more than one year. Results:15 cases (46. 87%) were cured, 13 cases (40. 63%) were effective, and 4 cases (12. 5%) were ineffective. The number of the patients using sedative-hypnotic drugs was significantly reduced, and the average drug usage was also declined. There were 11 drug-dependent cases (34. 38%); of which, 7 patients (77. 78%) succeeded in eliminating the de-pendence on drugs after the intervention. Conclusions:It is necessary and effective to have comprehensive nursing intervention on the elderly patients at home with insomnia relying on sedative hypnotic drugs for a long time.

  7. To Explore the Path of Sustainable Development in the Areas that Rely on Resources:A Case Study of Shenmu City in Shaanxi Province%资源依托区可持续发展的路径探索——以陕西省神木县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仲举

    2011-01-01

    分析了神木县资源型经济的优势和劣势,提出了资源型经济转型的必要性和迫切性,进一步探讨了以优势产业为依托,统筹兼顾,协调区域经济社会发展思路和对策.%The advantages and disadvantages of resource-based economic of Shenmu county are analyzed, of the necessity and urgency of the transformation of resource-based economy are proposed, the ideas and strategies about relying on competitive industries, making overall plans and taking all factors into consideration, coordinating regional economic and social development are discussed.

  8. Comment protéger la santé des travailleurs dans un système qui ne repose pas sur les notions d’aptitude et d’inaptitude ? How to protect workers’ health in a system that is not based on the concepts of “capacity” and “incapacity” Cómo proteger la salud de los trabajadores en un sistema que no se basa en los conceptos de aptitud et ineptitud ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Plante

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Au Québec, en santé au travail, l’approche de santé publique a été privilégiée à l’approche médicale individuelle, parce qu’elle est conséquente aux objectifs de la loi, à savoir la prise en charge par le milieu de ses problèmes et la diminution, voire l’élimination des dangers. Quant aux activités médicales individuelles, elles ne sont réalisées que lorsqu’elles sont légitimes, c’est-à-dire lorsque leur pertinence et leur efficacité sur le plan de la prévention ont été démontrées. Quelques évaluations l’ont confirmé, l’approche par programme des services de santé publique québécois fonctionne en général très bien et elle est efficace. Mieux que l’examen médical de chaque sujet, elle permet de centrer les énergies sur les expositions professionnelles et les composantes de l’organisation du travail susceptibles de provoquer des problèmes. Malgré toutes ses qualités, le système de santé au travail québécois se heurte à de sérieuses résistances institutionnelles et politiques qui ont compromis son développement et mènent progressivement à son essoufflement.In Québec, in occupational health, the public health approach has been favoured over the individual medical approach because it is consistent with the objectives of the law, namely this community taking charge of its problems, and the reduction and even elimination of risk factors. Individual medical activities are limited to cases where the relevance and effectiveness of preventive benefits have been demonstrated. Some evaluative studies have shown that this Québec public health program approach works well in general, and is effective. Compared with the medical examination of each subject, it has a better potential for focusing energies on occupational exposures and on work organizational factors that could cause problems. Despite all its advantages, the Québec occupational health system is facing serious institutional and

  9. Akranların Sunduğu Sabit Bekleme Süreli Öğretim Gelişimsel Geriliği Olan Öğrencilere Tanıtıcı Levhaların Öğretiminde Etkili midir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yıldırım

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Araştırmada normal gelişim gösteren öğreten akranların sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi kullanarak gelişimsel geriliği olan öğrenen akranlarına tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmeleri değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma iki amaç etrafında toplanmıştır: (a Öğreten akranlar gelişimsel geriliği olan Öğrenen akranlarına tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmek üzere, sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi güvenilir bicinule kullanabilirler mi? (b sabit bekleme süreli öğretim, öğrenen akranlara tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmekte etkili midir? Ayrıca, araştırmada akranlar tarafından sunulan sabit bekleme süreli öğretimin kişilerarası genelleme etkisi ve uygulama tamamlandıktan I, 3 ve 4 hafta sonra da kalıcılık etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya normal gelişim gösteren üç öğrenci öğreten akran, gelişimsel gerilik gösteren üç Öğrenci de öğrenen akran olarak katılmıştır. Tüm oturumlar birebir öğretim düzenlemesi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada tek-denekli araştırma modellerinden yoklama evreli davranışlar arası çoklu yoklama modeli kullanılmış ve deneklerle replike edilmiştir. Araştırmada uygulama, yoklama, öğretim genelleme ve izleme oturumları düzenlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda. Öğreten akranların sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi güvenilir biçimde uyguladıkları görülmüştür. Gelişimsel geriliği olan öğrenen akranlar tanıtıcı levhaları etkili biçimde öğrenmişlerdir. Öğrenen akranlar tanıtıcı levhaları %I00 düzeyde genelleyebilmişlerdir. Ayrıca, öğrenen akranların tanıtıcı levhaların kalıcılığını yüksek düzeyde korudukları görülmüştür. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of constant time delay procedure delivered by peer tutors on teaching expressively identifying community signs to the peer tutees with developmental disabilities. The study was twofold: (a Can peer tutors deliver constant

  10. Matters which shorten the ozone layer; Substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This document, proposed by the ministry of the national development and the environment, gives the list of the main texts relative to the matters which shorten the ozone layer and the evolution of the community regulations in this domain. The concerned matters are the Cfc and the HCFC production and use. (A.L.B.)

  11. Bernard Lamizet, L’œil qui lit : significations des images

    OpenAIRE

    Lauvaux, Léonie

    2014-01-01

    Après La Médiation culturelle (1999) et La Médiation politique (1998), Bernard Lamizet explore cette fois-ci le champ théorique de la médiation esthétique. Cette dernière serait pensée comme la réception de l’œuvre par le spectateur, mais aussi par et dans la communauté à laquelle il appartient. L’expérience esthétique ne pourrait donc pas exister sans un fort rapport au politique, tout comme la médiation esthétique ne pourrait être pensée comme universelle puisque ancrée socialement, culture...

  12. Sedación ¿Qué es?, ¿Quién debe administrarla?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rojas-Rivera

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La sedación es un procedimiento que se ha vuelto muy común en nuestro medio, se aplica en oficinas, consultorios y salas quirúrgicas, sin embargo, los riesgos implícitos en la aplicación de esta técnica anestésica parecen ser obviados por muchos, quienes se lanzan a la odisea de sedar pacientes sin las condiciones de soporte y monitoreo necesarias para un adecuado transcurrir, o bien, en caso de una eventualidad. Es por ello que se describen las condiciones técnicas y profesionales mínimas para la adecuada administración de una sedación.

  13. ¿Quién compra? El consumidor real o el estereotipado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Zacipa I.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende condensar la visión que se generó al desarrollar una tesis en publicidad, cuyo objetivo era conocer las caracterizaciones (actitudes estereotipadas que le dan cuerpo a las marcas, en el acto del consumo, en la construcción de escenarios sociales, donde el joven se apropia y busca modelos de identidad que le permitan emerger ante su grupo de pares

  14. Sociedad, infancia y adolescencia, ¿de quién es la dificultad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gaitán Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ser una invitación a un viaje en el que no se den por hechas las seguridades compartidas acerca de la realidad de los niños y adolescentes de hoy, sino que se pongan en cuestión, buscando para ello otras explicaciones alternativas, que nos habiliten para abordar el estudio de las vidas de los niños, o las intervenciones con niños (sean ellos o nosotros quienes nos encontremos en dificultad con una mirada distinta. En primer lugar se analiza el proceso de construcción social del propio concepto de “infancia y adolescencia en dificultad”, a la luz de los cambios que se han producido, especialmente a lo largo del último siglo, en las ciencias sociales y su repercusión en la formación de una idea de infancia en el imaginario colectivo. En segundo término, se aborda la condición de ser niño o adolescente en la llamada “sociedad del riesgo”, caracterizada, entre otras cosas, por la incertidumbre y los deseos de alcanzar un cierto control sobre los peligros percibidos como potenciales. La percepción de los riesgos para la infancia en la sociedad tiene dos caras: por un lado los peligros a los que están expuestos y por otro aquellos que causan, esto es, lo que nos amenaza. Para conjurar estos riesgos se exige mayor control por parte de las instituciones que regulan la vida de los niños (la familia, la escuela o el sistema de protección. El resultado es una restricción de la autonomía de los niños, niñas y adolescentes, que contrasta con las expectativas de que, como “hijos de la modernidad”, sean capaces de elegir sus propios caminos de autorrealización.-------------------------------------------------------------------This article tries to be an invitation to a journey in which the shared safeties taken for granted on the reality of the children and today teenagers, are being put in question, looking for other alternative explanations, which enable us to approach the study of the lives of the children, or the interventions with children (be they or we who meet in difficulty with a different look. First it is analyzed the process of social construction of the proper concept of "childhood and adolescence in difficulty", in the light of the changes that have taken place, specially throughout last century, in the social sciences and its repercussion in the social images of childhood. In the second term, it is approached the condition to be child or teenager in so called "risk society", characterized, among other things, by the uncertainty and the desires to reach a certain control on the dangers perceived as potentials. The perception of the risks for the childhood in the society has two faces: on the one hand the dangers to those who are exposed and for other one those that they cause, which threatens us. To conspire these risks it is required major control on the part of the institutions that regulate the life of the children (the family, the school or the protection system. The result is a restriction of the autonomy of the children and teenagers, which confront with the expectations of whom, as " children of the modernity ", are capable of choosing their own ways of self-realization. 

  15. Et le pouce, où est-il, qui montrera vers le ciel? (Sonnet XXXII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Pintarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lʼarticle soumet à une brève analyse les Sonnets romains dʼAndrej Capuder, homme de politique, diplomate, professeur dʼuniversité, écrivain, traducteur et poète. Le passé et le souvenir mélancolique de lʼamour de jeunesse, lʼavenir et la rencontre prochaine avec Dieu, entre lʼun et lʼautre, tant de choses si terrestres, tantôt jugées avec sévérité, tantôt tolérées et tantôt même rendues complices.

  16. ¿A quién le pertenece lo terreno?

    OpenAIRE

    Patán López, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Con base en citas tomadas de Friedrich, Goethe, Huetius, Pacheco, Reyes, Schlegel y varios pensadores más, el ensayo procura adentrarse en el examen de ciertas cuestiones que han preocupado a la teoría de la traducción. Por ejemplo, ¿llevar el texto al lector o acercar éste al texto?, ¿qué determina la supervivencia de una traducción?, ¿cómo se resuelve el encuentro de dos culturas, sobre todo cuando están separadas en el tiempo?, ¿es válida la traducción indirecta?, ¿es la traducción ...

  17. Un accélérateur de particules qui redouble d'énergie

    CERN Multimedia

    Dumas, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    On a very short distance, physicists have doubled the energy of particules propeled in an accelerator. A new technics that could improve the performances of these instruments without increasing costs. (1/2 page)

  18. ¿Quién es el dueño de la pantalla?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez Jaramillo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1990 la legislación colombiana ha tenido significativos avances para permitir que todas las personas puedan acceder a los servicios de telecomunicaciones, tal como corresponde en ejercicio del derecho fundamental del acceso a la información. Gracias al desarrollo de la tecnología, la limitación que generaba la necesidad de utilizar frecuencias radioeléctricas ya no es una razón válida desde el punto de vista constitucional para restringir el establecimiento de nuevos servicios y la difusión de información. Esta realidad técnica debe ser reconocida por el ordenamiento jurídico respecto de todos los servicios de telecomunicaciones. Dentro del actual marco constitucional no existe ningún fundamento para que los servicios que no utilicen frecuencias radioeléctricas sean objeto de reserva estatal. Este reconocimiento ya lo hizo el legislador al establecer que el servicio de telefonía pública básica conmutada local no sea objeto de concesión. En el mismo sentido, los medios masivos de comunicación, incluida la televisión, que no requieran el uso de frecuencias radioeléctricas y que puedan ser trasmitidos a través de redes de cable, gozan del derecho constitucional de establecerse libremente, aunque deben someterse a los reglamentos del servicio que establezca la autoridad competente. Las disposiciones legales que actualmente no permiten el ejercicio de tal derecho, son inconstitucionales. / Since 1990 Colombian telecommunication law has had significant advances allowing everybody access to telecommunication services in exercise of the fundamental right of information. Technology development permit that the limitation which generated the need of use frequencies, know days is not a valid reason -from a constitutional point of view- to restrict the operation of new telecommunication services and the information diffusion. This technical reality, have to be recognize in the legal order among all the telecommunication services. Colombian constitutional framework, does not has any rule that allow the restriction of telecom services which do not use frequencies under a "state reserve regime". Legal recognition in this sense, has been made by the legislator, when he established that the local telephony service does not required concession for its operation. In the same sense, massive media operators -including television operators- which do not use frequencies and which can be transmitted by wires, can be freely established observing only the specific service regulation dictated by the telecommunication authority. Legal dispositions that today do not allow the exercise of this constitutional right are illegal.

  19. "La meilleure chose qui me soit arrivée" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Sabine Verhest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti riigipea räägib eestlaste ootustest ja võimalustest Euroopa Liidus, eurole üleminekust, majanduskriisiga toimetulemisest, Euroopa Liidu laienemisest, kandidaatidest Euroopa Ülemkogu eesistuja kohale

  20. ¿Quién teme al periódico digital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lucía Martínez Odriozola

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En un momento en que hablar de los diarios en Internet está de moda y en el que se hacen cábalas constantemente con el futuro de la prensa tradicional y su sustitución por los denominados periódicos digitales, el presente trabajo, basado en un estudio realizado en el País Vasco (UPV-EHU, pone en cuestión que en realidad estos últimos sean, de momento, una amenaza real para los diarios convencionales.Ni empresarialmente, ya que ambas versiones, papel y digital, pertenecen a la misma empresa editora; ni periodísticamente, porque las ediciones digitales son un mero volcado o copia de las de papel, que no aprovechan las prácticamente infinitas posibilidades que les otorga el soporte electrónico ni han creado un lenguaje propio para el nuevo medio.

  1. Dime qué tango quieres y te diré quién eres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Montes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Las músicas populares representan lugares de incalculable valor para la construcción de narrativas identitarias, especialmente en el ámbito de su recepción. Escuchar tango, salsa o cuarteto cordobés es también un modo de decirle al mundo el lugar social que ocupamos o, más exactamente, en qué lugar simbólico queremos ser ubicados, en función de los valores que atribuimos a esas músicas. En el presente trabajo se analiza cómo las opciones realizadas en el ámbito de la recepción del tango por parte de los milongueros de la ciudad de Córdoba, les sirven a estos milongueros a para construir sus identidades sociales, una imagen valorada de sus propias competencias y, con ella, de sí mismos. Es, precisamente, en la puesta en valor de sus propias competencias donde podemos encontrar claves para comprender la selección del tango (y de cuáles tangos, dentro del vasto abanico de músicas populares a su disposición. Esta comunicación ofrece una lectura en clave sociodiscursiva de la recepción del tango en Córdoba, atravesada por cuestiones de clase, de identidad nacional y de género. [en] Popular music represents a place of invaluable importance when it comes to the construction of a narrative identity, particularly, in the field of its reception. Listening to tango, salsa, or the popular music of Córdoba (called “Cuarteto Cordobés is also a way of telling the world the social place we occupy or, more precisely, in which symbolic place we want to be located, depending on the values we confer to that music. In this paper, I analyze the way in which the choices made in the reception of tango by the dancers of the city of Córdoba are used by these milongueros (social tango dancers to build their social identities, an appraised image of their own competences, thus of themselves. It is in that very appraisal of their competences where we can find the key to understand their choosing tango (and which tango songs within a vast range of popular music available. This communication provides an interpretation in sociodiscursive key of the reception of tango in Cordoba, crossed through by class, gender, and national identity.

  2. Who Cares for Children? Notes, Comments... No. 188 = Les enfants, qui s'en soucie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The finding of positive effects of developmentally sensitive interaction on children's physical health is discussed and expanded in terms of five propositions. The first is that development requires participation in progressively more complex reciprocal activities on a regular basis over an extended period of time, with at least one person…

  3. Inmigración y justicia:¿A quién dejamos pasar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carens, Joseph H.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what justice requires with respect to the admission of immigrants in Europe and North America given two general assumptions: a general right of states to control immigration and a commitment to liberal democratic principles. The paper argues that states are morally constrained in the sorts of criteria they can use to exclude and select immigrants. In particular, they normally cannot use racial or ethnic criteria in selection. Furthermore, states have an obligation to admit as immigrants the immediate relatives (spouse and minor children or current and permanent residents and an obligation to accept refugees who apply for asylum.

    Este artículo quiere ofrecer una visión general de lo que la justicia demanda respecto a la admisión de inmigrantes en Europa y en América del Norte si se aceptan dos presupuestos generales: un derecho general de los Estados a controlar la inmigración y el compromiso con los principios liberal-democráticos. El artículo argumenta que los Estados están moralmente constreñidos en cuanto a los tipos de criterios que pueden utilizar para excluir y seleccionar inmigrantes. En particular, normalmente no pueden utilizar criterios raciales o étnicos en la selección. Más aún, los Estados tienen la obligación de admitir como inmigrantes a los parientes cercanos (esposa e hijos menores de edad, o a los ya ciudadanos, a los residentes permanentes y tienen la obligación de aceptar a los refugiados que solicitan asilo.

  4. "Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?" All Curriculum Policy Makers Potentially Wear Black Hats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Alan

    1985-01-01

    This article closes off a debate in this journal between the author and James D. Kaminsky concerning the latter's philosophical analysis of a "Freedom and Authority Memorandum" delivered to South Australian public schools in the early 1970s by then Director-General of Education, A. W. Jones. (TE)

  5. "La meilleure chose qui me soit arrivée" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Sabine Verhest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti riigipea räägib eestlaste ootustest ja võimalustest Euroopa Liidus, eurole üleminekust, majanduskriisiga toimetulemisest, Euroopa Liidu laienemisest, kandidaatidest Euroopa Ülemkogu eesistuja kohale

  6. ¿Para quién la plusvalía urbana?

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Habrá que tomar decisiones para lograr una distribución equitativa de cargas y beneficios e imponerle límites a los apetitos del mercado, controlando los procesos especulativos del suelo urbano para facilitar la función social de la propiedad y prevenir un modelo conflictivo de ocupación del territorio

  7. El Mercosur agrario: ¿Integración para quién?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Costantino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian en este trabajo los efectos sobre la estructura agraria de la formación del Mercado Común del Sur (Mercosur. Este proceso de integración regional fue guiado por la perspectiva política del realismo periférico y dentro de un marco de regionalismo abierto, lo que consagró la apertura comercial como el aspecto más desarrollado del nuevo bloque. Este proceso tendió a favorecer a los grandes capitales. En el agro, en cambio, la agricultura familiar empezó a ser desplazar y a reforzarse un modelo concentrador y latifundista caracterizado por los monocultivos orientados a la exportación, organizado sobre relaciones capitalistas de producción.AbstractIn this work, we study the effect of the formation of the Southern Common Market (Mercosur on the agrarian structure. This process of regional integration was guided by the peripheral realism political perspective and within the framework of open regionalism which consecrated open markets as the most developed aspect of the new block. This process tended to favor large capital. In the countryside, on the other hand, family farms began to be displaced and the large landholding model to be reinforced, characterized by monocultures oriented to export, a model organized according to capitalist production relations.

  8. Maíz transgénico: ¿Beneficio para quién?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel Marina Luna Mena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la introducción se comentan algunas de las consecuencias ecológicas, agronómicas, socioeconómicas y culturales de la liberación comercial de maíz transgénico en México. Posteriormente, se describe la situación actual del proceso de concentración y privatización en la producción y comercio de semillas a nivel mundial y de manera particular en México. Luego, se mencionan las oportunidades y alternativas que existen ante la situación descrita previamente. Así, se indican los aspectos relacionados con las patentes biotecnológicas dentro del contexto internacional y los Derechos de Obtentor, seguido del análisis de las propuestas de reformas a la Ley Federal de Variedades Vegetales del país. El documento finaliza con una discusión general y con las conclusiones.

  9. Alice au-delà du selfie. Pour être digne de ce qui lui arrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vignola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alice’s becoming, as becoming simultaneously larger and smaller, provides the oppor-­‐‑ tunity to diagnose the present through a phenomenon more “current” than ever: Tiqqun’s “Jeune-­‐‑Fille” (young girl, which today is amplified by social networks. At the same time, Alice’s becoming indicates a political strategy that is rigorously untimely, which means inclined to find singular virtualities that escape the chronology of the commodification of the time of existence. Following Deleuze’s Logic of Sense, but also projecting it onto the present (hence in-­‐‑actualizing it, the commodification of existence occurs first in chronological time, which is why one says, “time is money”. This is the time of consumption, time that literally consumes itself, but it is also the time in which we consume and consume ourselves.

  10. Qui sera le nouvel Einstein ? Vers une nouvelle theorie de la gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Un debat de plus d'un siecle a resurgi ces toutes dernieres annees avec une vigueur nouvelle. L'enjeu ? Mettre fin, ni plus ni moins, a l'une des contradictions les plus inouies de la physique fondamentale, en reconciliant mecanique quantique et relativite generale. En effet, a l'heure ou la gravitation semble enfin sur le point de fusionner avec les trois autres forces de la nature. il est certain que la relativite d'Einstein doit etre bientot remplacer par une autre theorie... Reste quye tous les physiciens sont loin de s'accorder sur la marche a suivree. Gravitation quantique, relativite d'echelle, supersymetrie, les candidates ne manquent pas.

  11. Quiere saber quién es Anastasia Candre? Amigo lector, aquí estoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Candre Yamacuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto autobiográfico de Anastasia Candre fue compuesto a partir de fuentes inéditas en español y uitoto y fragmentos de fuentes publicadas. Está dividido en ocho partes. En la primera, Anastasia cuenta sobre su niñez, el aprendizaje junto a sus padres y hermanos hasta su ingreso al internado indígena. En la segunda parte, narra sobre su llegada a Leticia, sus trabajos allí y su estudio de bachillerato. En la tercera parte, relata sobre su época de estudiante de lingüística en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. En la cuarta parte habla sobre su investigación del ritual del dios de las cosechas y su encuentro con el anciano Jimuizɨtofe. En la quinta parte, hace un relato de sus actividades como cantora y bailarina, incluyendo imágenes de sus presentaciones. En la sexta parte se refiere a su trabajo como pintora y se reproducen imágenes de varias de sus obras. En la séptima parte se refiere a su incursión en la poesía y se reproducen dos poemas publicados y uno inédito. En la octava parte habla sobre sus sueños y concluye con un poema inédito. El texto contiene también un listado de la trayectoria de Anastasia: premios, publicaciones, informes, exposiciones, ponencias y presentaciones, y actividades de docencia.

  12. Neutrino, la particule qui façonne l'univers

    CERN Multimedia

    Orloff, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Neutrinos change spontaneously when they propagate: these "oscillations" and their corollary, the existence of a mass for the neutrinos, would be the mains causes of the prevalence of matter on antimatter. (14 pages)

  13. A fuel which cleans underground waters; Un combustible qui decontamine les nappes phreatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzalira, G.; Brocchi Colonna, M. [Paulownia Italia Srl (Italy)

    2002-03-01

    Italian scientists, contractors and farmers are looking for a process to produce wood pellets from short turnover copse. This process, which is supported by the Agricultural Policy, absorbs the nitrates of the soils. (A.L.B.)

  14. Qui révélera le premier la particule de Dieu

    CERN Multimedia

    Dessibourg, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    L'accélérateur LHC reprend du service le 20 février. Dés les découvertes, dont celle peut-être du fameux "boson de Higgs", la tentation sera grande pour les chercheurs de les annoncer, sur des blogs, afin de se faire connaître. Au risque de se faire exclure. (1 page)

  15. LA COLONNE SANS FIN, LE THÉÂTRE QUI UNI T LES MONDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcrămioara BERECHET

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reading of Mircea Eliade ’ s drama writing The Endless Column ( Coloana nesfârșită is meant to focus on the writer ’ s play by using operators that are specific to textuality and myth as a literary method. As for the acting in a mise - en - scene context, the perspective of anthropology and religious phenomenology, announced in the inner and outer didascalies of the text, anchors the interpretation i n the context of Mircea Eliade's work both at literary and scientific level. The theoretical perspective comes closer to its critical testimonies regarding Eliade's drama experiment and have shaped a first level of perception, by considering the play to be long to the Living Theater current, especially owing to Monique Borie. In this context, Mircea Eliade ’ s plays are in line with Grotowski, Peter Brook, and tries to present a sensitive world on stage, by means of a symbolic language specific to drama. Moldi ng the sign of ‘ reality ’ into a mythical register can be confirmed both at the level of the text and at the level of mise en scene. The reading of Mircea Eliade ’ s drama writing The Endless Column ( Coloana nesfârșită is meant to focus on the writer ’ s play by using operators that are specific to textuality and myth as a literary method. As for the acting in a mise - en - scene context, the perspective of anthropology and religious phenomenology, announced in the inner and outer didascalies of the text, anchors the interpretation i n the context of Mircea Eliade's work both at literary and scientific level. The theoretical perspective comes closer to its critical testimonies regarding Eliade's drama experiment and have shaped a first level of perception, by considering the play to be long to the Living Theater current, especially owing to Monique Borie. In this context, Mircea Eliade ’ s plays are in line with Grotowski, Peter Brook, and tries to present a sensitive world on stage, by means of a symbolic language specific to drama. Moldi ng the sign of ‘ reality ’ into a mythical register can be confirmed both at the level of the text and at the level of mise en scene.

  16. Le verbe qui vole; mot de l'enterprete (The Flying Verb; The Interpreter's Word)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Therese

    1975-01-01

    After a brief discussion on the nature of the interpreter's work, a survey is made of the beginnings of interpreting as a profession in 1953 and its growth since then in North America and Europe. Attention is called to the problem of incompetence brought about by the growing number of interpreters; and to the need for professional interpreter…

  17. ¿Quién teme al periódico digital?

    OpenAIRE

    Dra. Lucía Martínez Odriozola; Dra. María José Cantalapiedra; Dr. Eloi Martínez; Dr. Jesús Canga; Dr. César Coca

    1999-01-01

    En un momento en que hablar de los diarios en Internet está de moda y en el que se hacen cábalas constantemente con el futuro de la prensa tradicional y su sustitución por los denominados periódicos digitales, el presente trabajo, basado en un estudio realizado en el País Vasco (UPV-EHU), pone en cuestión que en realidad estos últimos sean, de momento, una amenaza real para los diarios convencionales.Ni empresarialmente, ya que ambas versiones, papel y digital, pertenecen a la misma empresa e...

  18. Sobre la relevancia de quién paga el impuesto

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Solís Soberón

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a model of international trade with imperfect competition to show that in the absence of price discrimination it matters which economic agent pays the tariff. The analysis indicates that the effects of trade protection (or liberalization) are not uniform across industries, and that they could even not exist.

  19. La formación de profesionales empresarios. ¿Responsabilidad de quién?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Enrique Rodríguez Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Esta es una pregunta que muy a menudo se formulan, educadores, empresarios, políticos, profesionales, gobierno y universitarios. Igualmente, se discute el papel de la universidad, como ente determinante en la calificación y profesionalización del Recurso Humano. Su quehacer en el campo de la investigación,  su liderazgo en el tratamiento de los grandes conflictos nacionales, su papel en el manejo de las organizaciones  empresariales, etc. Tradicionalmente, la universidad encaminó su acción hacia la formación de profesionales con capacidad de enfrentar los retos del mundo productivo, como empleados. Sin embargo, en los últimos 20 años el modelo cambió. Hoy la sociedad espera empresarios que generen su propio  negocio y contribuyan al fomento de nuevos empleos.

  20. Un labo qui défie les lois de la physique

    CERN Multimedia

    Demarthon, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    Preparation for action! The discoveries about particles don't stop to push aside theories of classic physics. Among the responsibles, a troop of physicists from LAL who track, measure and try to understand the world of infinitely small and the physics of tomorrow. (2 pages)

  1. Web révolution; il y a 17 ans, qui le connaissait?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    When tim Berners Lee, a CERN scientist, found the World Wide Web in 1989, the aim was to find an automatic sharing of the information for scientists working in the universities or institutes in the whole world. (2 pages)

  2. «Qui patrie excidium intulerunt». Hispania 711: Desperate explanations for an unexpected collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. Díaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo from the Muslim incursion in the year 711 has been generally explained by specialists as an inevitable consequence of a disintegration process in the Visigothic power structures. Historians have associated this situation to a confrontation – either direct or indirect – between Hispanic-Visigothic monarchy and aristocracy, being the standstill of the kingdom (caused by its administrative, military and judicial institutional incapacity also considered. In this paper, as opposed to the fatalistic perspective where the idea of an inevitable end was irrationally imposed, a different explanation is proposed based on the multiple power dynamics, the Kingdom’s defense mechanisms and the last Visigothic monarchs’ legislative activity. All these ideas will be framed into the context of the (unstable normality and the efficacy of the Visigothic institutional machinery.

  3. The battery that will save the electric powered automobile; La batterie qui sauvera la voiture electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-05-15

    Twelve years have been necessary to conceive a battery with polymer metal lithium ( anode in metal lithium, electrolyte in polymer). This new battery will be more compact, its weight will be 150 kilograms instead of 400 kg for cadmium nickel batteries and 650 kg for lead batteries. Its autonomy will be 250 to 300 kilometers. Its price of utilization will be one euro for 100 kilometers. (N.C.)

  4. Refugiados climáticos: ¿quién debe cargar los costos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loewe

    Full Text Available El artículo¹ argumenta a favor del concepto de "refugiado climático" y sostiene que la responsabilidad por su desplazamiento así como los costos asociados, incluyendo su recepción en otros Estados, deben ser asignados entre los Estados en razón de su uso del recurso atmosférico así como del beneficio que ese uso les reporta.

  5. Tanorexia: ¿a quién afecta? ¿Problemas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Dolores Azúa Blanco

    Full Text Available El sol y la salud son términos que siempre han ido de la mano, pero no por eso es totalmente cierto que las radiaciones solares sean siempre saludables. Son indiscutibles los beneficios que el sol nos brinda, e imprescindibles para el mantenimiento y desarrollo de la vida tal y como la comprendemos; pero si la insolación de radiaciones ultravioletas (UV e infrarrojos (IR es elevada surgirán, a la larga, problemas de salud. Esta situación se complica extraordinariamente si aparece el "síndrome de tanorexia". Hallaremos entonces problemas y patologías incluso graves, tanto físicas como psíquicas, que afectarán también a las actividades sociales. Esta situación, si bien hasta ahora sólo se observaba en personas jóvenes, comienza a aparecer, en número creciente, en edades avanzadas de la vida, aumentando así los problemas de salud integral.

  6. Dependencia versus autodeterminación: Una ley para quién

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El autor de este artículo, director de la Federación de asociaciones a favor de las personas con discapacidad intelectual del País Vasco, analiza el contenido que, en la fase de redacción correspondiente a octubre de 2006, caracteriza al proyecto de Ley de Dependencia. Aunque muestra su confianza por que al final se reconocerán en la Ley las necesidades de apoyo para la autonomía personal que requieren las personas con discapacidad intelectual o mental para hacer efectivo un grado satisfactor...

  7. Public buildings: what will change in the regulation; ERP: ce qui va changer dans la reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchin, Th.

    2000-09-01

    The new French official texts about the safety regulations of electrical installations and lighting systems in public buildings will be published soon. This technical supplement to the August-September 2000 issue of J3E summarizes the main modifications given to the previous texts concerning the fire resistance of materials, conductors and cables, and of electrotechnical equipments, and the conformability of lighting systems (ambient and emergency lighting). Specific rules are detailed for each type of building: conference, show and meeting rooms, shops and commercial centers, restaurants and cafeterias, hotels and guest houses, dancing and game halls, schools and recreational centers, libraries, exhibition halls, medical centers, big tops and tents etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Estimation of the impact of warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range on stroke and major bleeding rates and its influence on the medical cost avoidance associated with novel oral anticoagulant use-learnings from ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steve; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) is highly variable among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of variations in wafarin's TTR on rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings among NVAF patients in the ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials. Additionally, differences in medical costs for clinical endpoints when novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were used instead of warfarin at different TTR values were estimated. Quartile ranges of TTR values and corresponding event rates (%/patient - year = %/py) of SSE and major bleedings among NVAF patients treated with warfarin were estimated from published literature and FDA documents. The associations of SSE and major bleeding rates with TTR values were evaluated by regression analysis and then the calculated regression coefficients were used in analysis of medical cost differences associated with use of each NOAC versus warfarin (2010 costs; US payer perspective) at different TTRs. Each 10 % increase in warfarin's TTR correlated with a -0.32%/py decrease in SSE rate (R(2) = 0.61; p estimated medical cost decreased from -$902 to -$83 for apixaban, from -$506 to +$314 for rivaroxaban, and from -$596 to +$223 for dabigatran. Among NVAF patients there is a significant negative correlation between warfarin's TTR and SSE rate, but not major bleedings. The variations in warfarin's TTR impacted the economic comparison of use of individual NOACs versus warfarin.

  9. 依托校园文化提高高职院校单招生自我管理能力调查研究%Investigation on Improving the Self-Management Ability of Independent Enrollment Students in Higher Vocational Colleges Relying on the Campus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪峰; 苏燕华; 李韵

    2014-01-01

    The work of independent enrollment students leads to many new problems in students management in higher vocational colleges. Improving self-management ability of independent enrollment students can make these problems solved efficiently. According to analyzing the characteristics of independent enrollment students, the author puts forward a series of measures to improve self-management ability of independent enrollment students relying on the campus culture, and provides a theoretical basis to cultivate the independent enrollment students.%单招生工作的开展,使高职院校学生管理出现了许多新问题,提高单招生自我管理能力能够使这些问题得到有效解决。本文通过分析单招生的特点,提出了依托校园文化提高单招生自我管理能力的系列措施,为单招生的培养提供了理论依据。

  10. Study on Present Development of Academic Research in Higher Vocational Colleges and Necessity of Relying on Scientific and Academic Research to Rejuvenate Higher Vocational Education%高职科研形势分析和实施“科研兴校”战略之必然

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进思

    2012-01-01

    The four major responsibilities of higher vocational education are training qualified workforce, undertaking scientific and academic research project, serving the social development and inheriting and passing on culture. To higher vocational colleges, the paper maintains that training qualified workforce is the core and the most important, while the scientific and academic research is the supporting force, serving social development is the ultimate objective, passing on culture is the fundamental responsibility. After studying the recent development of scientific and academic research in higher vocation colleges, the paper puts forward that the scientific and academic research is growing in importance, con- sidering which researchers and scholars should be motivated to devote themselves to the academic research. Finally, it elaborates on the necessity of relying on scientific and academic research to rejuvenate higher vocational education.%高职教育四大职能:"培养人才、科学研究、社会服务、文化传承",人才培养是核心,科学研究是支撑,社会服务是需要,文化传承是根本,科研工作的重要地位日益明显。为了提高高职教育工作者的科研积极性,文章分析了高职当前科研工作形势,阐述了实施"科研兴校"战略的必然要求。

  11. 元朝统治者信奉藏传佛教倚重萨迦派的原因探析%Reason Analysis of the Rulers of the Yuan Dynasty Believing in Tibetan Buddhism and Relying Heavily on the Sakyapa Sect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文萍; 张付新

    2015-01-01

    The rulers the Yuan dynasty converted to Tibetan Buddhism and relied heavily on the Sakyapa sect to manage local affairs in Tibet, which became one of their management and governance policies in Tibet. An analy⁃sis has been done on the reasons of why the Yuan’s rulers executed the policy by referring to a large number of historical facts, and it is found that the rebellions of other Mongolian tribes in Central Asia and the close relation⁃ship between the Sakyapa and Mongolian royalty were the main reasons why the Yuan rulers adopted this policy.%元朝统治者选择信仰藏传佛教,并倚重萨迦派管理西藏地方事务,成为其管理和治理西藏的策略之一。文章基于大量的历史事实,分析了藏传佛教界对蒙古王室的积极传教,元朝中央为应对中亚蒙古宗王的反叛以及萨迦派与元王室的联姻等是影响元统治者采取这一政策的重要因素。

  12. From Permanent Neutrality to Relying on the United States--Japanese Government's National Security Conception in the Early Postwar Period%从永久中立到依附美国--简析战后初期日本政府的国家安全构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树良

    2014-01-01

    In the early period of postwar, Japanese government worked hard to explore a way of how to defend Japan's national security from its demilitarization. Generally speaking, Japan's national security conception experienced an evolution process from permanent neutrality to relying on the United Nations, and ifnally to counting on the United States. Under the international environment of the conlfict between the United States and the Soviet Union, and facing the fact of occupancy by the United States, the policymakers of Japanese government made a strategic decision to depend on the United States by its “follow”mentality. Now the Japanese national security policy, which cultivated the conception of depending on the United States, is in an important transition period. It is noteworthy that how the Abe cabinet will execute its national security policy.%战后初期的日本政府从非武装化的现状出发,积极需求维护国家安全之路。概而言之,其国家安全构想经历了一个从永久中立国到依靠联合国,再到依附美国的演变过程。日本政府决策层最终选择依附美国,是在美苏对立的国际环境下,在被美国占领这一最大现实中,以“追随强者”的结盟心态做出的重大战略决择。在依附美国构想的基础上形成的战后日本国家安全政策目前正处于重要转型期,安倍内阁的国家安全政策走向特别值得关注。

  13. On the Significance andPoints of the Creation of Educational Environment in Kindergarten---Relying on Values Guidance Rather than Behavior Control%营造“峡谷式”幼儿教育环境的意义与要旨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田虎

    2016-01-01

    The creation of education environment in kindergarten should rely on the guidance of values rather than the control of behavior .Education environment of controlling type is to the disadvantage of developing children ’ s sense of security and freedom .Education environment of guide type can improve children ’ s independence ,creation and cooperation in educational activities ,and lay a solid foundation for the healthy growth of children .The creation of guide type education environment can satisfy the needs of developing children’s different concepts and behaviors ,ensure of children’s coordination ,and promote the development of children .%峡谷式教育环境的价值约束表现为指导性观点而非控制性行为。峡谷式教育环境能让幼儿既有确定感和可控制感,又有安全感和自由感。营造峡谷式教育环境,能够有效激发幼儿参与活动的主动性与创造性,保持幼儿活动的生成性,增强幼儿活动的合作性。营造峡谷式教育环境,需要革新教育思想,优化课程资源,改进师生关系,完善评价方式,增强幼儿观念和行动的自主性与协调性,帮助幼儿做最好的自己。

  14. Relations entre acides gras oméga-3, oméga-9, structures et fonctions du cerveau. Le point sur les dernières données. Le coût financier alimentaire des oméga-3 « Je chercherai à connaître les différences qui existent entre les huiles de faine, de colza, d’olive, de noix ». Honoré de Balzac. « Histoire de César Birotteau ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour ce qui concerne le cerveau, les acides gras ω3 ont été plus spécialement étudiés que les acides gras ω6 ou ω9. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique (18 :3 ω3 altère la structure et la fonction des membranes, et entraîne de légers dysfonctionnements cérébraux, comme cela a été montré sur les modèles animaux puis chez les nourrissons humains. Les résultats récents ont montré que son déficit alimentaire induit des anomalies plus marquées dans certaines structures cérébrales que dans d’autres, le cortex frontal et l’hypophyse étant les plus touchés. Ces singularités sont accompagnées de perturbations comportementales qui touchent plus particulièrement certains tests (habituation, adaptation à une situation nouvelle. Les anomalies biochimiques et comportementales sont partiellement réversées par une supplémentation avec des phospholipides, notamment extraits d’oeuf enrichis en ω3 ou de cervelle de porc. Une étude effet-dose montre que les phospholipides d’origine animale sont plus efficaces que ceux d’origine végétale pour réverser les conséquences du déficit, dans la mesure, entre autres, où ils apportent les très longues chaînes pré-formées. La déficience en acide alpha-linolénique se traduit au niveau du cortex frontal de rat par des perturbations de la neurotransmission mono-aminergique. Mais ne sont touchées ni la densité ni la fonction des transporteurs de la dopamine. Chez l’animal carencé, la réversibilité dans la neurotransmission dopaminergique (dans le cortex préfrontal, entre autres n’est que partielle après arrêt du déficit alimentaire. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique diminue la perception du plaisir, en altérant légèrement l’efficacité des organes sensoriels et en affectant certaines structures cérébrales. Cette carence modifie le métabolisme énergétique du cerveau en perturbant le transport du glucose. Au cours du vieillissement, la baisse

  15. 我国农村公共体育服务“以县为主”发展模式的困境与突破%Predicament and Breakthrough of the Development Model of "Relying Mainly on County" of the Public Sports Service in China's Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇昌店; 肖林鹏; 杨茜萍

    2012-01-01

    摘要:分税制以来,我国农村公共体育服务秉承“以县为主”的发展模式。这种发展模式体现了政府对公共服务职责的认定,但是在发展过程中面临一些困境:县级政府承担公共服务事权过多,体育事权在供给序列中较为滞后;大部制改革后,地方政府体育行政部门合并。供给能力有所降低;地方政府成悬浮型政府,制度内供给与制度外供给并存。并提出突破困境的建议:合理划分我国政府公共体育服务的事权,并逐渐法制化;建立以省市统筹为主、多级负责的财政投入体制;提高农村居民的决策能力.建立需求导向的供给体制。%The public sports service in China's rural areas has adopted the development model of "relying mainly on countyi" since the implementation of tax-sharing system. This kind of model shows government's acknowledgment of the responsibility of public service. Yet the development of the public sports service is facing some difficulties. The county governments take too much responsibility in public service. Sports responsibility is relatively lagging behind in the order of supply. After the administrative system reform, the merger of the sports administrative departments of the local government lowers the supply ability to some extent. The local governments have become suspended ones. The supplies inside and outside the system co- exist. The article suggests dividing rationally the Chinese government's power for public sports service and gradually realizing legalization, establishing a financial investment system of planning by the provinces or cities and directing by the different levels, improving rural residents' decision-making ability and forming a demand-oriented supply system.

  16. Il lavoro penitenziario: la dimensione umana del carcere e della città che lo accoglie. L’esperienza della cooperativa sociale Rio Terà dei Pensieri/Le travail carcéral : la dimension humaine de la prison et de la ville qui l'abrite. L'expérience de la coopérative sociale Rio Terà dei Pensieri/Prison inmates work: the human dimension of the prison and the town where prison is built in. The experience of social cooperative Rio Terà dei Pensieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ferrara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro approfondisce, nella parte teorica, le tematiche relative alla pena detentiva, analizzando la tradizione sociologica sull’argomento e confrontandola con le contingenze attuali, ponendo specifica attenzione al «problema» dell’immigrazione; traccia in seguito il quadro normativo relativo al lavoro in carcere e, contestualmente, alle cooperative sociali, quale cornice entro cui presentare i dati afferenti alla parte empirica. La ricerca di approccio quantitativo ha analizzato i dati dei dipendenti della Cooperativa al fine di rilevare la porzione di posti di lavoro garantiti dalla stessa rispetto al totale dei detenuti della Regione Veneto e della città di Venezia; la ricerca di approccio qualitativo ha indagato l’impatto delle attività della Cooperativa all’interno del carcere (osservazione, trattamento, misure alternative e al suo esterno (percezione dei cittadini rispetto agli istituti penitenziari. La première partie de cet article s’attache à analyser certains aspects de la détention à travers la littérature sociologique et accordant une attention particulière aux « problèmes » d’immigration. Ensuite, l’auteur examine les lois sur l’emploi en milieu carcéral et, parallèlement, les coopératives sociales. Dans la deuxième partie, l’auteur prend en considération les données provenant d’une étude quantitative menée parmi les salariés de la coopérative Rio Terà dei Pensier dans le but d’estimer le pourcentage d’emplois assuré par cette coopérative par rapport au nombre total de détenus en Région de Vénétie et dans la ville de Venise. De plus, en ce qui concerne la partie qualitative de cette recherche, l’auteur se penche sur l’impact des activités menées par cette coopérative tant en prison (traitement et réinsertion des délinquants, mesures alternatives à la détention qu’à l’extérieur (les perceptions qui ont les citoyens de la prison. The first part of this article

  17. Analysis of EDS Fingerprint Spectra of Mineral Drug Montmorillonite Powder Relying on Dual Index Grade Sequence Individualized Pattern Recognition Method and their Quickly Quality Evaluation%矿物药蒙脱石散EDS指纹图谱双指标等级序列个性化模式识别分析及快速质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华彬; 阿依古再丽·阿不力米提; 翟红

    2013-01-01

    EDS(energy dispersive spectrometer )element fingerprint spectra is able to quickly measure the kinds and the contents of elements in any mineral drug .In dual index grade sequence individualized pattern recognition method ,common (quantity) in-dex and variation (quantity) index ratios of any two samples’ fingerprint spectra are calculated ,and the individualized dual index sequence of each sample is constructed relying on its own EDS fingerprint spectra as the reference .Then the mean common (quantity ) index ratio P and the standard deviation S of all samples in each sample’s individualized dual index sequence are com-puted .On this basis ,for each sample ,its own similarity scale function P≥ P+ xS is built up .By this function ,the optimum x suitable for optimized classification/cluster of all samples is determined ,and the individualized characteristics sequence of one sample ,to which samples in the individualized characteristics sequence are significantly similar ,is decided also .Finally ,depen-ding on these individualized characteristics sequences ,the optimized classification/cluster of all samples can be carried out per-fectly without any prior knowledge related to them .This method is not only suitable for the quantitative analysis on fingerprint spectra being of only common peaks ,but also fits for that being of both common and variant peaks .In this study ,the EDS ele-ment fingerprint spectra of seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples from different companies were detected .Then common (quantity) index and variant (quantity) index ratios of peak area (or contents of majorly active element Fe ,Al ,Ca , Mg ,Si) among different EDS fingerprint spectra were obtained .In the similarity scale function P≥ P+ xS ,when x=0.5 ,these seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples could be quickly identified with high resolution , be classified into two groups ,and their quality could be evaluated precisely .In general EDS element fingerprint

  18. Feasibility of the Establishment of Community HyPertensive patients Self -management GrouP Relying on Social Net-work%依托社区高血压患者社会网络关系建立自我管理小组的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖娜; 张东; 段英伟; 王崴; 于国龙; 苏清香

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解社区内高血压患者之间的网络关系及特征,探讨高血压患者依托社会网络关系组建和扩展社区自我管理的可行性。方法2013年1-5月,采用多阶段随机抽样的方法抽取北京市西城区4个社区卫生服务站1074例高血压患者,采用问卷调查和测量的方法调查性别、年龄、血压等基本情况,采用提名生成法对社会网络度数中心度进行调查。使用构成比、度数中心度、Spearman等级相关等进行统计描述和分析。结果社区高血压患者社会网络度数中心度为0的占31.0%(333/1074),为1的占41.4%(445/1074),≥2的占27.6%(296/1074)。社会网络度数中心度为1的社区高血压患者中,64.5%(287/445)的患者选择家属为其社会网络关系对象;社会网络度数中心度≥2的社区高血压患者中,61.1%(181/296)的患者选择社区内病友为其社会网络关系对象。社区高血压患者社区活动组织参与率为8.7%(93/1074),社区高血压患者的社会网络度数中心度与参加社区活动组织数呈正相关关系(rs =0.521,P<0.05)。患者之间的小群体中存在中心人物。结论社区高血压患者之间社会网络特征较松散,社区活动组织内部的高血压患者之间网络关系较为密切,可作为社区高血压自我管理小组覆盖范围扩展的基础,社会网络分析有助于完成自我管理小组长的选择。%Objective To understand the social network and its characteristics among hypertensive patients in the com-munity and explore the feasibility of establishing and expanding self-management group relying on the social networking of the pa-tients. Methods 1 074 hypertensive patients were extracted from 4 community health service stations of Xicheng district with Multi-stage random sampling method. They were investigated about age,gender and blood pressure using questionnaires and physical examination. Degree

  19. Cet article vise à aborder la relation biographique comme rémunération d’une « injustice » commise à l’égard de l’écrivain biographié ou de son entourage. À travers l’analyse de trois exemples d’écrits biographiques — Alabama Song de Gilles Leroy sur Zelda Fitzgerald, La vocation du bonheur de Karin Reschke sur Henriette Vogel et Le médecin de Lord Byron de Paul West sur John Polidori — où il s’agit de réparer un oubli non mérité, une occultation volontaire ou encore une méprise fondamentale, je tenterai de cerner les enjeux d’une entreprise qui, à distance, vise à réhabiliter des figures historiques tout autant qu’à s’inscrire en faux contre les forces qui les marginalisent, notamment au sein des biographies des « héros » de l’histoire littéraire. This paper endeavours to consider the relationship between the biographer and the writer-biographee as a form of reparation for an injustice committed toward the latter and his/her entourage. I will examine three examples of biographical works—Alabama Song by Gilles Leroy on Zelda Fitzgerald, La vocation du bonheur by Karin Reschke on Henriette Vogel and Lord Byron’s Doctor by Paul West on John Polidori—in which the aim is to redress an undeservedly overlooked detail, an intentional oversight or a fundamentally mistaken assessment of the subject. In so doing, I will attempt to delimit the challenges of the biographical endeavour that seeks, from a distance, to rehabilitate historical figures as much as to denounce the forces that have marginalised them, in particular in the biographies of the so-called “heroes” of literary history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à aborder la relation biographique comme rémunération d’une « injustice » commise à l’égard de l’écrivain biographié ou de son entourage. À travers l’analyse de trois exemples d’écrits biographiques — Alabama Song de Gilles Leroy sur Zelda Fitzgerald, La vocation du bonheur de Karin Reschke sur Henriette Vogel et Le médecin de Lord Byron de Paul West sur John Polidori — où il s’agit de réparer un oubli non mérité, une occultation volontaire ou encore une méprise fondamentale, je tenterai de cerner les enjeux d’une entreprise qui, à distance, vise à réhabiliter des figures historiques tout autant qu’à s’inscrire en faux contre les forces qui les marginalisent, notamment au sein des biographies des « héros » de l’histoire littéraire. This paper endeavours to consider the relationship between the biographer and the writer-biographee as a form of reparation for an injustice committed toward the latter and his/her entourage. I will examine three examples of biographical works—Alabama Song by Gilles Leroy on Zelda Fitzgerald, La vocation du bonheur by Karin Reschke on Henriette Vogel and Lord Byron’s Doctor by Paul West on John Polidori—in which the aim is to redress an undeservedly overlooked detail, an intentional oversight or a fundamentally mistaken assessment of the subject. In so doing, I will attempt to delimit the challenges of the biographical endeavour that seeks, from a distance, to rehabilitate historical figures as much as to denounce the forces that have marginalised them, in particular in the biographies of the so-called “heroes” of literary history.

  20. Relying on Geographical Advantages of Red Culture and Promoting the Development of National Defense Education in Depth and Breadth to Explore the Ways of Developing Weinan Normal University's National Defense Education Activity%依托地域红色文化资源推动国防教育纵深发展--渭南师范学院国防教育活动途经探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马耀斌

    2014-01-01

    面对国防教育活动形式单一,缺乏特色的现状,渭南师范学院结合学校所处的地域资源和地域文化优势,探索性地依托地域红色文化资源优势,通过对学生进行红色校史教育、革命圣地教育、“战地学风”宣讲等活动,有步骤地推动国防教育活动朝纵深发展,使国防教育引领学风校风,不断激发学生报效国家的自觉性和坚定性。%In the face of national defense education activities in the form of a single, lack of features, combined with the re-gional resources and geographical and cultural advantages in Weinan Normal University, the paper is exploratory to rely on the re-gional advantage of red cultural resources, by the red-school history education for students, the sacred place of the revolution of edu-cation, and the preaching activities of“the Battlefield Study Style”, step by step to promote the national defense education activities in depth development.

  1. Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: Protection of Human Rights at the International Criminal Court (Quis custodiet ipsos custodes: zaščita človekovih pravic v postopku pred Mednarodnim kazenskim sodiščem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zgaga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available International criminal law has been long focusing on providing criminal responsibility to perpetrators of international crimes and preventing their impunity, but it also has to provide fair trial at the same time. In connection to this an issue arises, whether the legality of the procedure has to be ensured by external supervision. That became especially relevant with the establishment of a permanent International Criminal Court (the ICC. This paper therefore tries to verify the hypothesis that the Rome Statute includes all the regular mechanisms for protection of the defendant’s rights, but the external supervision is still required. The paper firstly discussed the existing possibility of protection of the defendant’s rights in the ICC − means of invoking or sanctioning violations of these rights through legal remedies, criminal, civil and tort liability or inadmissibility of evidence. Second part of the paper includes thoughts on possibility of the ICC joining the existing universal, regional or national supervisory mechanisms.

  2. La ecuación "más privado, menos estatal": quiénes ganan y quiénes pierden. El caso del servicio de transporte público en el Gran Buenos Aires

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    Susana Kralich

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende demostrar, particularmente para el caso del transporte público metropolitano, cómo la transformación de las estructuras estatales, siguiendo los dictados de las nuevas formas de acumulación flexible, impactan en perjuicio de crecientes contingentes de población. Cautivos del sistema de transporte masivo, operado hoy en su totalidad por empresas privadas; desprotegidos por un Estado debilitado y permeable al poder de lobby de los concesionarios, ven desdibujarse hasta casi desaparecer el concepto de servicio público, cuya esencia implica la garantía de universalidad de las prestaciones. Presentamos la medición de la accesibilidad departamental, relacionando oferta de transporte masivo con población residente y niveles de pobreza. El análisis de su distribución socioespacial explicaría las incidencias con que los costos de transporte gravitan sobre los estratos más desprotegidos, los que por sus características y localización, no conforman mercados rentables para la operatoria privadaThis article pretends to demostrate, specially about the case of the metropolitan public transport system, how the changes to the state structures, resulting from the new flexible ownership patterns, impact to the detriment of increasing groups of captive users. The mass transport system, now operated solely by private operators, without sufficient regulatory protection, shows the gradual disappearance of public service concept, since weakness state is more receptive to the lobbying power of the concessionaires. With that objective, we present the results of our accessibility departmental measurement, by comparing the amount of public transport service offer with the number of residents and poor levels. The analysis would explain a socio-spatial pattern of higher costs of public transport in areas where the most vulnerable population groups are located due to the lack of profitable markets to be served

  3. ¿Quién puede ser autor de un artículo científico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (1, autor tiene cinco acepciones, pero la que se acerca a los intereses del presente escrito reza así: “Persona que ha producido alguna obra científica, literaria o artística”. No obstante, en el ámbito científico y académico esta definición puede ser más amplia, compleja y aun alcanzar diferentes connotaciones si se tienen en cuenta algunas reflexiones generales sobre la materia y no menos importante cuando se tiene presente; como debería ser, las razones éticas para firmar como autor o coautor de un artículo. Estas consideraciones son las intrínsecas de la investigación y que se generan dentro de un grupo en particular, que se preocupa, por ejemplo, en ser el primero en publicar artículos sobre un tema específico. Otros, con otra óptica, podrían tener interés en ostentar el mayor número de artículos publicados en una determinada área del conocimiento.

  4. “Bendig tu…qui fis me fenna”: donne, libri e letteratura nel Medioevo giudeo-provenzale

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    Erica Baricci

    2014-04-01

    Women were not "silent" at all in the Middle Ages, but the feminine way to compose texts at that time was oral, being made in the native Jewish-Languages, while Hebrew – known almost only by men - was the language of the written Literature. In this essay we will deal with the (self-representation of women in the Judaeo-Provencal medieval literary corpus. First, we will analyze some texts, explicitly composed for women, in order to understand the feminine perspective and literary liking as a public. Second, we will deal with an example of women literary creativeness, i.e. a particular Jewish blessing, transmitted in three extant Jewish prayerbooks (XV century, which recites: “Bless you God, for I was born a woman”. This probably refers to a local tradition of Provencal Jewish women who created it during the Middle Ages.

  5. Le silence, ce cri qui résonne dans l’écriture de Viviane Forrester

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    Amelia Peral Crespo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Holocaust Literature is tied to Silence from its beginning as the writing to silence. Write about the Holocaust and relate the experiences lived in first person or transmit them to the coming generations means leaving the silence which, for years, was the ideal refuge. This research focuses on the literary production of Viviane Forrester. The different expressions of silence that characterize her writings are analyzed. Silence is the cry that underlies in the most profound of the human being that return from the concentration camps, as Lazarus from the dead. It is a silence that grows to a cry because Forrester’s writing, almost in parallel to the fragmentary writing of Blanchot, an-nounces livre à venir, expressing the cry in silence without the ending of the word

  6. La empresa troyana y la pregunta por el quién en el pensamiento de Hannah Arendt

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    Pinilla Cañadas, Scheherezade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer all those scholars who maintain that Hannah Arendt is a political thinker of Hellenic nostalgia. From such a perspective, it is easy to conclude not only that Arendt´s thought is irrelevant to contemporary concerns but that she is an elitist reactionary when it comes to assessing the prospects of representative democracies. It is to be considered here that this reading is wrong and one-sided, and that the major work upon which it is based, The Human Condition, needs to be studied in a nuanced way, as engaging in multiple complex dialogue with philosophic-political tradition. To this end, this paper begins by briefly explicating not at all her dependency upon Heidegger, but rather a “radical conversation” with him. This conversation, even when only partially explored, casts considerable light on Arendt´s entire philosophical project. Secondly, this paper supports the view that Homer offers an ideal vantage point from which to tackle what Miguel Abensour has called “a political conception of heroism.” More specifically, the thesis which is to be defended here is that Iliad, and particularly the catalogue of ships in Book 2, could be understood as the origin of the Arendtian account of plurality.Este artículo pretende dar respuesta a toda esa crítica que sostiene que Hannah Arendt es una pensadora política con nostalgia de la pólis. Desde esta perspectiva, no resulta muy difícil concluir, no sólo que el pensamiento de Arendt es irrelevante en relación con los problemas contemporáneos; sino que estamos ante una auténtica reaccionaria cuando se trata de analizar las grandes cuestiones de las democracias representativas. Aquí se entiende que esta lectura es errónea y parcial y también que la obra sobre la que dicha interpretación se articula, La condición humana, debe ser estudiada de un modo mucho más sutil; que pasaría por un diálogo múltiple y complejo con la tradición filosófico-política. A tal fin, se hace una breve exposición, no tanto de su dependencia con Heidegger, cuanto de su “conversación radical” con él. Esta conversación (si bien sólo se estudia parcialmente arroja mucha luz sobre el proyecto filosófico de Hannah Arendt en su conjunto. En segundo lugar, en este trabajo se postula que Homero ofrece una perspectiva inmejorable a la hora de analizar lo que Miguel Abensour ha denominado “una concepción política del heroísmo.” De manera más específica, la tesis que aquí se defiende es que la Ilíada, y particularmente el catálogo de las naves del Canto II, podrían ser interpretados como el origen del concepto arendtiano de pluralidad.

  7. ¿Quién habla de las mujeres en las noticias donde ellas son las protagonistas?

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    Ana Tamarit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de las fuentes que los periodistas utilizan en las informaciones donde las mujeres son protagonistas de las noticias. La investigación -cuantitativa y cualitativa- se ha realizado en los periódicos de ámbito nacional y local de Castilla y León. Con los resultados obtenidos observamos cómo en los periódicos las noticias que hablan de las mujeres en la mayoría de las ocasiones no se firman. Comprobamos cuáles son las fuentes más utilizadas para la elaboración de esas noticias y las diferentes formas de citar a la fuente cuando se trata de un hombre o de una mujer.

  8. Facteurs individuels et collectifs qui influencent les aspirations et le processus de choix d'études universitaires au Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Sanzana, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present thesis is to shed light on the process of access to universities in Chile. We examined and analyzed the individual and collective factors that have an influence over final year high school students when confronted to the aspirations and the decision of choosing a degree, in the context of unequal massification of undergraduate studies. The first empiric research confirms the critical influence of cultural capital over these aspirations. The second research explores ...

  9. Ecce Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi. Sobre los símbolos de Jesucristo en la Edad Media

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    Torres Jiménez, Raquel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the symbolic meanings of Agnus Dei in the Middle Ages, its uses, reception and evolution, from the perspective of both religious and cultural history. It makes use of the analysis of the Church Fathers’ texts, Christian medieval literature, theological discourse, biblical exegesis in the medieval context, iconography, objects from churches, as well as the analysis of liturgy and mysticism. The text gives priority to an integral view of the symbol, which, beyond moral analogies, is able to explain the whole history of salvation: Agnus Dei evokes how the salvific facts of the past become present in the Eucharist and extend triumphantly into the future.El artículo trata de los significados simbólicos del Agnus Dei en la Edad Media, sus usos, recepciones y evolución, desde la perspectiva de la historia religiosa y de la historia cultural. Se sirve del análisis de textos de los Padres de la Iglesia, literatura cristiana medieval, discursos teológicos, exégesis bíblica en el contexto medieval, iconografía, objetos de iglesias, liturgia, mística. Se privilegia la visión integral de este símbolo, que, más allá de analogías morales, tiene capacidad para explicar toda la historia de la salvación: el Agnus Dei evoca cómo los hechos salvíficos del pasado se hacen presentes en la eucaristía y se proyectan triunfalmente hacia el futuro.

  10. ¿Quién figura en las noticias? Proyecto de Monitoreo Global de Medios 2015. Informe Nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Balanza, Teresa; Simelio Solà, Nùria

    2015-01-01

    El Proyecto de Monitoreo Global de Medios (GMMP) es la investigación mundial más amplia y de mayor trayectoria que aborda el tema de género en los medios de comunicación. Se inició en 1995 cuando voluntarios y voluntarias en 71 países de todo el mundo monitorearon la presencia de las mujeres en los espacios informativos de radio, televisión y prensa escrita nacionales. Este quinto GMMP revela que el mundo del que se informa en las noticias es fundamentalmente masculino. Veinte años después de...

  11. Des voyages qui n’en sont plus: le cas d’Isabelle Eberhardt et de Lafcadio Hearn

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Les dues personalitats fora del comú que estan aquí reunides, Isabelle Eberhardt francòfona nascuda a Ginebra i morta a Algèria (1877-1904) i Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) anglòfon nascut a l’illa greca de Leucade i mort al Japó, foren durant molt de temps viatgers errants però finalment es van fixar fins a la seva mort en els seus països de predilecció. Per a ella era el sud d’Algèria, oasis i desert, per a ell, una ciutat petita fidel al Japó antic. Malgrat que van descobrir ...

  12. ¿Qué requerimientos tecnológicos necesito para estudiar y quién me brinda soporte?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El vídeo informa sobre los requerimientos tecnológicos básicos que se deben tener en cuenta, para el acceso a las aulas virtuales; contiene información sobre las diferentes sedes, horarios, los principales recursos y servicios que se ofrecen a los usuarios. A través de este medio audiovisual el usuario podrá conocer a grandes rasgos cómo utilizar y acceder al soporte técnico que le brinda la Facultad de Estudios en Ambientes Virtuales.

  13. La ville fonctionnelle et les modèles urbains qui lui ont succédé

    OpenAIRE

    Wusten, Herman van der

    2016-01-01

    Dans le discours public et les pratiques de la gestion urbaine, plusieurs modèles apportent des réponses à la question de savoir comment faire évoluer la/notre ville. Cet article présente une typologie d’une douzaine de ces modèles selon leur portée et leur approche du phénomène urbain. L’origine et la diffusion des modèles sont décrits depuis la ville fonctionnelle de Le Corbusier/CIAM.

  14. El profesional de educación física ¿quién es?

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    NELLY TERESA MARTÍNEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Es costumbre separar la formación de maestros de la formación personal, así como también es frecuente plantear que  la formación personal se da más en el contexto familiar,  social, del grupo, de la iglesia, del trabajo, etc.,  que en el ambiente escolar o institución educativa,  a la cual se le atribuye, preferencialmente, la formación  pre-profesional o  profesional y además  como altamente determinante.  Estas situaciones excluyentes y/o dicotómicas han llevado  a pensar la realidad de la educación, desarticulada  del contexto y de la experiencia de los sujetos,  al extremo que los curricula para la formación de maestros.  A pesar de las reflexiones hechas en este sentido,  en la actualidad, siguen siendo en su mayoría yuxtaposiciones  de las ciencias humanas o exactas, matizadas por la dimensión  artística, técnica y tecnológica en donde la preparación anterior  a la selección de una carrera se constituye en requisito  académico, porque además de no ser un indicador preciso  de las disposiciones del futuro estudiante, es muchas veces  sólo eso, un requisito de formalidad, pues las influencias  políticas y personales, suelen hacerse presentes en la selección  de estudiantes universitarios cualquiera sea la universidad  o modalidad profesional.

  15. 'Letres qui van per tal afar' : un nouveau salut Occitano-Catalan et la fortune du genre en catalogne (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uulders, Hedzer

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new occitan-catalan salut or love-letter in verse enables a new investigation into this neglected field of medieval Catalan literature. This first article offers a brief survey of the attention the genre has received so far in order to define the problems it raises; it then

  16. 'Letres qui van per tal afar' : un nouveau salut Occitano-Catalan et la fortune du genre en catalogne (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uulders, Hedzer

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new Occitano-Catalan salut has made it possible to resume research into this neglected field of medieval Catalan literature. This second and final article is an attempt to place the salut in its historical and literary context by evaluating the terms used to designate the g

  17. “Bendig tu…qui fis me fenna”: donne, libri e letteratura nel Medioevo giudeo-provenzale

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Baricci

    2014-01-01

    In the Medieval Hebrew Literature, we have no evidence about women as authors, except for Dunash ibn Labrat’s wife (X cent.) and Qasmuna bat Isma’il (XII cent.).Women were not "silent" at all in the Middle Ages, but the feminine way to compose texts at that time was oral, being made in the native Jewish-Languages, while Hebrew – known almost only by men - was the language of the written Literature. In this essay we will deal with the (self-)representation of women in the Judaeo-Provencal medi...

  18. Amos y esclavos: ¿Quién habla en Sab de Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda?

    OpenAIRE

    Girona Fibla, Nuria; Universitat de València, España

    2013-01-01

    Sab (1841), de Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, compone un fuera de lugar conflictivo y ambiguo que, por un lado, proyecta un discurso hegemónico de refuerzo de la diferencia y, por otro, diseña un posible espacio alternativo que puede rastrearse en las miradas encontradas sobre sus personajes, en la particular apropiación de modelos literarios metropolitanos y coloniales, y códigos de género de época o en el enfrentado juego de alianzas que sostiene. Un espacio que también mide los desajustes ...

  19. ¿Y quién dijo que el camino sería fácil?

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Ortega, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Antes del gran día, yo era la única que creía en mi victoria además de mis papás. Luego, esa autoconfianza se derrumbó. Era un domingo, uno de esos días en los que deseamos chocolate caliente y entre las cobijas, ver televisión. Como algo normal en abril, el cielo estaba oscuro. Sentía nervios. Ese día eran las pruebas del  saber ICFES, las que finalmente decidirían mi futuro. El 24 de Abril de 2010, a las 7 de la mañana, estaba en Cenproes, lista para presentar mi ICFES muy temerosa por...

  20. ¿A quién beneficia el comercio paralelo de medicamentos en la Unión Europea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa-Font

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El comercio paralelo constituye un movimiento legal (arbitraje comercial de productos de un país donde éstos se han puesto en circulación a otro país sin la autorización y la garantía del que posee los derechos de propiedad intelectual del producto. Este fenómeno se deriva de la aplicación del principio de subsidiariedad que lleva asociado la existencia de diferentes sistemas de regulación de precios y el de libre movilidad de bienes. En este artículo examinamos las tendencias de precios y penetración de medicamentos paralelamente importados respecto al precio del producto en el país de destino (beneficios de una mayor competencia en 2002. En segundo lugar, establecemos una descomposición empírica de los efectos del comercio paralelo de medicamentos en los tres mercados principales de la Unión Europea en los diferentes agentes de la cadena del medicamento. Los resultados no siguieren pruebas de un efecto competitivo del comercio paralelo. Por otra parte, se observa que los principales beneficiarios son los propios importadores paralelos en la medida que el comercio paralelo genera ahorros muy limitados en la factura de los sistemas de salud, que difícilmente superan los perjuicios en la innovación farmacéutica.

  1. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  2. Non bene olet qui bene semper olet! Incenso e aromi e fenomenologia dell’eros presso i Greci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Petrucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo greco i profumi sono sempre stati correlati al concetto di ἡδονή, termine che designa, in senso lato, la voluttà e la dedizione alle mollezze e ai piaceri dell’esistenza. Le essenze richiamano uno stile di vita raffinato, talvolta effimero e superficiale, ma sempre seducente e appetibile. L’assenza di ogni fragranza rappresenta invece il rifiuto di una realtà impalpabile ed eterea, rifiuto che va di pari passo con la condanna delle varie artes del lusso. Nell’ambito dei sentimenti e dell’attrazione amorosa la forza magnetica degli aromi costituisce un elemento essenziale dell’eros, poiché la donna -sia essa sposa legittima, o amante spregiudicata- acquista la charis attraverso il profumo, che ne esalta il fascino ren­dendola oltremodo sensuale. Generalmente considerati sinonimo di perversione, gli aromi non sono dunque completamente banditi dalla vita quotidiana, anche se il loro impiego è pericoloso poiché ogni forma di seduzione, seppur legittima, reca in sé il principio di una minaccia di corruzione. In the greek world aromas and perfumes have been always correlated to the conception of ἡδονή, word which indicates, in a broad sense, delight and devotion to the looseness and luxury of the existence. Essences remind a life-style refined, sometimes ephemeral and superficial, but always tempting and pleasing. The absence of perfumes represents, on the other hand, a refusing of a impalpable and ethereal reality, and it is, at the same time, a condemnation to various kinds of luxury. In the world of feelings and erotic attraction the strong power of aromas is an essential thing because women -lawful brides or open-minded lover- get the charis with perfume, that exalt female glamour. However essences are generally judged proof of perversion, they aren’t totally excluded, even if it could be dangerous because every kind of seduction can easily becoming a threat of corruption.

  3. Vejez e imaginarios sobre ciudadanía : ¿Quiénes tienen derecho a ser sostenidos socialmente?

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Rocío; Corsiglia Mura, Lucía

    2014-01-01

    Nos interesa aquí detenernos especialmente en las actuales políticas previsionales, como punto desde el cual poner en diálogo algunas de las aristas de las actuales transformaciones de la intervención estatal. ¿En qué marcos de discusión se inserta esta renovada política previsional que, en nuestro país, ha dado algunos giros copernicanos en los últimos años? Reconocemos diferentes ordenadores posibles de esta pregunta. En este trabajo, pretendemos pararnos especialmente en la intersección en...

  4. Ces poisons qui tuent dans les entreprises Un cancer sur dix serait d'origine professionnelle chez les hommes

    CERN Document Server

    Noël, Florence

    2005-01-01

    Geneva launched an expertise of all the buildings built before 1991. Ill, a former employee of CERN testifies. On their side, several thousands of victims of asbestos demonstrated on Saturday in Paris

  5. Martine Monacelli et Michel Prum. Ces hommes qui épousèrent la cause des femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric REGARD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif compte dix chapitres, consacrés chacun à l’un des « pionniers » hommes du féminisme. Les militants ou sympathisants sont  pour certains très célèbres, mais pour d’autres pratiquement inconnus, William Godwin, John Stuart Mill, William Thompson et Edward Carpenter côtoyant William Johnson Fox, George Lansbury, Israel Zangwill, Frederick Pethic-Lawrence, Frederick Billington-Greig ou encore Victor Duval. Une bibliographie sélective complète l’ouvrage, malheureusement dépou...

  6. Diffusion welding: a technology which is in favour; Soudage par diffusion. Une technologie qui a le vent en poupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macel, D. [Intitut de Soudure, 57 - Yutz (France)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to show the implication of the experimental parameters (welding temperature, temperature holding time, lining pressure, surface states, atmosphere) on the bonds quality. On the other hand, the feasibility of an homogeneous bond has been shown on two materials prepared by the Haynes firm: the HR-120 (iron-nickel-chromium alloy which has good properties at high temperature: 1100 C) and the HR-230 (other iron-nickel-chromium alloy which has a very good resistance at high temperature: until 1150 C and at oxidation too). The study of welding specimens by metallographic analysis allows to conclude to the establishment of healthy bonds, particularly if the experimental parameters are scrupulously respected. (O.M.)

  7. ¿Quién le teme a las diásporas y por qué?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sheffer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La consideración sistemática, comprehensiva, teórica y analítica del diasporismo y las diás- poras es relativamente reciente. Sus primeros análisis sistemáticos comenzaron a producirse en la década de 1980, de modo que existen todavía lagunas significativas en su investigación y análisis así como en la formulación de un panorama general del diasporismo y las diásporas. En consecuencia, existen también dificultades en cuanto a una plena comprensión abarcadora del fenómeno. Al pasar revista a la literatura existente sobre diasporismo y diásporas, se evidencia que la comprensión de las diásporas en general, y particularmente de, por una parte, su reciente involucramiento en política, terrorismo y actividades criminales en los países receptores y, por la otra, sus contribuciones culturales, sociales, políticas y económicas a dichos países y a sus patrias de origen, está muy lejos de ser exhaustiva. Con el objeto de dar cuenta de modo más preciso sobre las particularidades del fenómeno, en este artículo se describe y analiza el fenómeno diaspórico en toda su amplitud, dejando a un lado las miradas convencionales que han obstaculizado y restringido significativamente el alcance del debate sobre el fenómeno diaspórico etno-nacional-religioso en general, y sobre las contribuciones o amenazas generadas por dichas diásporas en sus países receptores.

  8. "Qué pertenece a quién": Procesos de patrimonialización y Pueblos Originarios en Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Crespo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mientras en el pasado, el relato histórico y la identidad nacional/provincial se configuró en base a la negación y/o rechazo de la diferencia y se camufló la desigualdad bajo la apelación a una unidad cultural, particular y homogénea como lo fue el criollismo; hoy los restos arqueológicos del pasado indígena son re-categorizados en la legislación de la provincia de Río Negro como patrimonio cultural de la misma. Frente a la complejidad que reviste tal situación, me propongo analizar las ambigüedades y contradicciones que se desprenden de esta clasificación en el ámbito legislativo provincial y los conflictos que se tejen en torno a esta activación patrimonial entre los agentes estatales y el pueblo mapuche. Intento demostrar que estas contradicciones son producto de -y moldean- la dinámica que ha adquirido en años recientes la relación entre el pueblo mapuche y los agentes estatales, a la vez que de ciertas directrices internacionales.In the past, the national/provincial&'s history and identity was shaped by refusing and/or rejecting differences, while inequity was hidden by claiming for a particular and homogeneous cultural unity: &"the criollismo&". Nowadays, the archaeological rests of indigenous past are re-categorized in Rio Negro`s legislation as a province`s cultural heritage. Considering the complexity of these circumstances, the purpose of this article is (to analyse the contradictions and ambiguousness released by this classification at the legislative context and the conflicts that this heritage activation weaves between the state`s agents and mapuche`s people. I will try to demonstrate that this contradictions are the product of -and also provide- the relationship between mapuche`s people, state`s agents and certain international directrices in recent years.

  9. Paper-Based Analytical Devices Relying on Visible-Light-Enhanced Glucose/Air Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-11-01

    A strategy that combines visible-light-enhanced biofuel cells (BFCs) and electrochemical immunosensor into paper-based analytical devices was proposed for sensitive detection of the carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The gold nanoparticle modified paper electrode with large surface area and good conductibility was applied as an effective matrix for primary antibodies. The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) modified gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were used as bioanodic biocatalyst and signal magnification label. Poly(terthiophene) (pTTh), a photoresponsive conducting polymer, served as catalyst in cathode for the reduction of oxygen upon illumination by visible light. In the bioanode, electrons were generated through the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GDH. The amount of electrons is determined by the amount of GDH, which finally depended on the amount of CA15-3. In the cathode, electrons from the bioanode could combine with the generated holes in the HOMO energy level of cathode catalysts pTTh. Meanwhile, the high energy level photoexcited electrons were generated in the LUMO energy level and involved in the oxygen reduction reaction, finally resulting in an increasing current and a decreasing overpotential. According to the current signal, simple and efficient detection of CA15-3 was achieved.

  10. Mouse V1 population correlates of visual detection rely on heterogeneity within neuronal response patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Montijn; P.M. Goltstein; C.M.A. Pennartz

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the primary sensory cortex for the detection, discrimination and awareness of visual stimuli, but it is unknown how neuronal populations in this area process detected and undetected stimuli differently. Critical differences may reside in the mean

  11. Neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol rely on estrogen receptor membrane initiated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eFiocchetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 exerts protective effects in the central nervous system besides its crucial role in many physiological and pathological events. E2 effects are not restricted to the brain areas related with the control of the reproductive function, but rather are widespread throughout the developing and the adult brain. E2 actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ belonging to the nuclear receptor super family. As members of the ligand-regulated transcription factor family, the actions of ERs in the brain were thought to mediate only the E2 long-term transcriptional effects. However, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating the presence of rapid, membrane initiated E2 effects in the brain which result independent from ER transcriptional activities and involved in E2-induced neuroprotection. Aim of this review is to focus on the rapid effects of E2 in the brain taking into account the specific contribution of the signaling pathway of ERβ subtype in neuroprotective actions of E2.

  12. Galileo IOV Electrical Power Subsystem Relies On Li-Ion Batter Charge Management Controlled By Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, N.

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of GALILEO In-Orbit Validation program which is composed of 4 satellites, Thales Alenia Space France has designed, developed and tested the Electrical Power Subsystem. Besides some classical design choices like: -50V regulated main power bus provided by the PCDU manufactured by Terma (DK), -Solar array, manufactured by Dutch-Space (NL), using Ga-As triple junction technology from Azur Space Power Solar GmbH, -SAFT (FR) Lithium-ion Battery for which cell package balancing function is required, -Solar Array Drive Mechanism, provided by RUAG Space Switzerland, to transfer the power. This subsystem features a fully autonomous, failure tolerant, battery charge management able to operate even after a complete unavailability of the on-board software. The battery charge management is implemented such that priority is always given to satisfy the satellite main bus needs in order to maintain the main bus regulation under MEA control. This battery charge management principle provides very high reliability and operational robustness. So, the paper describes : -the battery charge management concept using a combination of PCDU hardware and relevant battery lines monitoring, -the functional aspect of the single point failure free S4R (Sequential Switching Shunt Switch Regulator) and associated performances, -the failure modes isolated and passivated by this architecture. The paper will address as well the autonomous balancing function characteristics and performances.

  13. Polymerase gamma mutator mice rely on increased glycolytic flux for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ayesha; Safdar, Adeel; Kitaoka, Yu; Ma, Xiaoxing; Marquez, Olivia S; Akhtar, Mahmood; Nazli, Aisha; Suri, Rahul; Turnbull, John; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have illustrated that the polymerase gamma mutator (PolG) mice have reduced mitochondrial content secondary to systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, and subsequently a lower capacity to perform aerobic respiration and endurance exercise. We sought to delineate the extent of glycolysis as a means of energy production in the PolG mice in the absence of optimal mitochondrial function. PolG mice display an enhanced reliance on glycolysis as compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is evident by the resting hypoglycemia, higher PFK content, and elevated plasma lactate levels in the PolG mice. In vitro experiments provide further proof that PolG derived dermal fibroblasts have a higher rate of, and capacity for, glycolysis. PolG mice also have enhanced capacity to perform hepatic gluconeogenesis that is likely enhancing the Cori cycle capacity. Copyright © 2015 © Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving listening comprehension skills relying on metacognitive strategies - focus on vocabulary and specific l2 instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotijević-Tišma Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the application of an instructional method specifically focused on the expansion of metacognitive awareness and its effect on Serbian EFL students’ listening comprehension. The current study is a follow-up research of a similar study by Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010. However, we sought to expand the previous research by investigating the relationship between the students’ current level of L2 (target language vocabulary and listening test scores. Our study likewise differed in the sample of participants, the target language, teaching and testing material used, and the duration of the very experiment. To answer the proposed research questions we conducted an experiment with 57 Serbian secondary school EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners divided into experimental (n=27 and control group (n=30. The results of the pre- and post-tests of the two groups showed the beneficial effects of developing metacognitive strategies and the strong positive correlation between the level of vocabulary and listening comprehension. The paper underlines important pedagogical implications especially regarding the enhancement of metacognitive awareness and vocabulary proficiency of students in order to improve performance on listening comprehension tasks.

  15. Even simple forms of social learning rely on intention attribution in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith; Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; van Schaik, Carel

    2012-05-01

    Intention attribution guides the cognitively most demanding forms of social learning, such as imitation, thereby scaffolding cumulative cultural evolution. However, it is not thought to be necessary for more basic forms of social learning. Here we present evidence that in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) even most basic forms of social learning such as enhancement depend on intention attribution. Marmosets perceived the behavior of a conspecific and a conspecific-like robot, but not that of a moving black box, as goal directed. Their subsequent choice behavior was shaped by social facilitation and stimulus enhancement, that is, by very simple forms of social learning, but only when exposed to the conspecific and robot, which they previously had perceived as intentional agents. We discuss the implications of this finding for contemporary debates about social learning, including emulation learning and ghost control studies, the necessity of goal-directed copying for cumulative cultural evolution, and the limits of current classification systems of social learning for the evolution of social and asocial learning.

  16. Cochrane and its prospects in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Relying on Cochrane Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe Cochrane and its products: Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs and other Cochrane evidence. Cochrane is a unique, international, non-profit organisation that offers health care providers, health care consumers and other decision makers unbiased and highly reliable information on health, which is pivotal for conscientious and responsible decision making in overall healthcare. Cochrane offers the highest ranked evidence in Evidence Based Medicine (EBM – systematic reviews. Currently, CSRs are freely available in BH, and therefore, they ought to be widely used, and understood. We will present the new Cochrane Strategy to 2020, which was the main topic of the 6th Croatian Cochrane Symposium (CroCoS, as well as explore prospects for spreading Cochrane activities to Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH, through collaboration with Cochrane Croatia. BH has no officially organized Cochrane activity, as yet. We hope that this article will raise awareness about Cochrane in BH, help promote its activities, and deepen the existing collaboration with Cochrane Croatia. There are already some changes being introduced concerning Cochrane – at least, in one half, the Federation of BH (FBH. Two documents symbolising official recognition of policy changes towards Cochrane have recently been published in the Official Gazette of FBH. Conclusion. Since founding a BH Cochrane Branch would be costly and difficult to achieve in a complicated environment, such as the one we have, BH could use the good will, experience, knowledge, and translated educational, training and web materials of Cochrane Croatia, particularly given the language similarities, to promote evidence based medicine in BH.

  17. We rely more on mobiles and portable devices but remember fewer things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    According to a survey released on Friday,the boom in mobiles and portable devices that store reams of personal information has created a generation incapable of memorizing simple things.A quarter of those polled said they couldn’t remember their landline number,while two-thirds couldn’recall the birthdays of more than three friends or family members.

  18. Stage-specific functions of Semaphorin7A during adult hippocampal neurogenesis rely on distinct receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloets, Bart C; Lemstra, Suzanne; Schellino, Roberta; Broekhoven, Mark H; Parkash, Jyoti; Hellemons, Anita J C G M; Mao, Tianyi; Giacobini, Paolo; van Praag, Henriette; De Marchis, Silvia; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2017-03-10

    The guidance protein Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) is required for the proper development of the immune and nervous systems. Despite strong expression in the mature brain, the role of Sema7A in the adult remains poorly defined. Here we show that Sema7A utilizes different cell surface receptors to control the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), one of the select regions of the mature brain where neurogenesis occurs. PlexinC1 is selectively expressed in early neural progenitors in the adult mouse DG and mediates the inhibitory effects of Sema7A on progenitor proliferation. Subsequently, during differentiation of adult-born DG granule cells, Sema7A promotes dendrite growth, complexity and spine development through β1-subunit-containing integrin receptors. Our data identify Sema7A as a key regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, providing an example of how differential receptor usage spatiotemporally controls and diversifies the effects of guidance cues in the adult brain.

  19. The chronic pain conundrum: should we CHANGE from relying on past history to assessing prognostic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Collett, Beverly; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Margarit, Cesar; Mavrocordatos, Philippe; Morlion, Bart; Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Nicolaou, Andrew; Pérez Hernández, Concepción; Sichere, Patrick; Varrassi, Giustino

    2012-02-01

    Despite limited empirical support, chronic pain has traditionally been defined mainly on the basis of its duration, which takes no account of the causative mechanisms or its clinical significance. For this commentary on current pain management practice, the CHANGE PAIN Advisory Board considered the evidence for adopting a prognostic definition of chronic pain. The rationale underlying this approach is to take psychological and behavioural factors into account, as well as the multidimensional nature of pain. Measures of pain intensity, interference with everyday activities, role disability, depression, duration and number of pain sites are used to calculate a risk score, which indicates the likelihood of a patient having pain in the future. The consistency of a prognostic definition with the concept of integrated patient care was also considered. When this method was compared with the number of pain days experienced over the previous 6 months--in patients with back pain, headache or orofacial pain--it was a better predictor of clinically significant pain 6 months later for all three pain conditions. Further evidence supporting this approach is that several factors other than the duration of pain have been shown to be important prognostic indicators, including unemployment, functional disability, anxiety and self-rated health. The use of a multifactorial risk score may also suggest specific measures to improve outcomes, such as addressing emotional distress. These measures should be undertaken as part of an integrated pain management strategy; chronic pain is a biopsychosocial phenomenon and all aspects of the patient's pain must be dealt with appropriately and simultaneously for treatment to be effective. The implementation of a prognostic definition and wider adoption of integrated care could bring significant advantages. However, these measures require improved training in pain management and structural revision of specialist facilities, for which political support is essential.

  20. CERN birthplace of the World Wide Web relies on Day's Communiqué

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In close collaboration with CERN, Day developed a platform to enable interested research groups to integrate disparate data sources and to author content based on individual needs... Days Virtual Repository - The ContentBus - allows the integration of data sources and provides for the presentation of all work processes at CERN, from pure text to complex research data. With data procured in real time from the original location, it avoids data redundancy, insufficient scalability and unneccessary allocation of resources for constant data reconcilliation and additional database licenses.

  1. Detecting Bias in Meta-Analyses of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two interrelated purposes. The first is to explain how various forms of bias, if introduced during any stage of a meta-analysis, can provide the consumer with a misimpression of the state of a research literature. Five of the most important bias-producing aspects of a meta-analysis are presented and discussed. Second, armed with…

  2. Viroids: from genotype to phenotype just relying on RNA sequence and structural motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eFlores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of two unique physical properties, small size and circularity, viroid RNAs do not code for proteins and thus depend on RNA sequence/structural motifs for interacting with host proteins that mediate their invasion, replication, spread, and circumvention of defensive barriers. Viroid genomes fold up on themselves adopting collapsed secondary structures wherein stretches of nucleotides stabilized by Watson-Crick pairs are flanked by apparently unstructured loops. However, compelling data show that they are instead stabilized by alternative non-canonical pairs and that specific loops in the rod-like secondary structure, characteristic of Potato spindle tuber viroid and most other members of the family Pospiviroidae, are critical for replication and systemic trafficking. In contrast, rather than folding into a rod-like secondary structure, most members of the family Avsunvioidae adopt multibranched conformations occasionally stabilized by kissing loop interactions critical for viroid viability in vivo. Besides these most stable secondary structures, viroid RNAs alternatively adopt during replication transient metastable conformations containing elements of local higher-order structure, prominent among which are the hammerhead ribozymes catalyzing a key replicative step in the family Avsunvioidae, and certain conserved hairpins that also mediate replication steps in the family Pospiviroidae. Therefore, different RNA structures ⎯either global or local ⎯ determine different functions, thus highlighting the need for in-depth structural studies on viroid RNAs.

  3. An Esterification Kinetics Experiment that Relies on the Sense of Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment involves an esterification synthesis to study reaction kinetics where students explore these topics utilizing the sense of smell rather than the traditional approach of using spectroscopic methods. Students study the effects of various factors including the concentration of the carboxylic acid and the amounts of the catalyst or…

  4. Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Cogdell, Richard; Ashraf, Khuram; Stevens, Amy L; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    During the first steps of photosynthesis, the energy of impinging solar photons is transformed into electronic excitation energy of the light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. The subsequent energy transfer to the reaction center is understood in terms of exciton quasiparticles which move on a grid of biomolecular sites on typical time scales less than 100 femtoseconds (fs). Since the early days of quantum mechanics, this energy transfer is described as an incoherent Forster hopping with classical site occupation probabilities, but with quantum mechanically determined rate constants. This orthodox picture has been challenged by ultrafast optical spectroscopy experiments with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein in which interference oscillatory signals up to 1.5 picoseconds were reported and interpreted as direct evidence of exceptionally long-lived electronic quantum coherence. Here, we show that the optical 2D photon echo spectra of this complex at ambient temperature in aqueous solution do not provide evidenc...

  5. 76 FR 69545 - Conditions and Requirements for Relying on Component Part Testing or Certification, or Another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... supply chain to include the manufacturers of the subcomponents used in component parts. (Response 6... design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts. The final rule on ``Testing... finished product on the finished product certifier. Another commenter liked the strong chain of custody and...

  6. Breast cancer stem cells rely on fermentative glycolysis and are sensitive to 2-deoxyglucose treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, D; Rossi, C; Barcaroli, D; Volpe, S; Consalvo, A; Zucchelli, M; De Cola, A; Scavo, E; Carollo, R; D'Agostino, D; Forlì, F; D'Aguanno, S; Todaro, M; Stassi, G; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V; Urbani, A

    2014-07-17

    A number of studies suggest that cancer stem cells are essential for tumour growth, and failure to target these cells can result in tumour relapse. As this population of cells has been shown to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, it is essential to understand their biology and identify new therapeutic approaches. Targeting cancer metabolism is a potential alternative strategy to counteract tumour growth and recurrence. Here we applied a proteomic and targeted metabolomic analysis in order to point out the main metabolic differences between breast cancer cells grown as spheres and thus enriched in cancer stem cells were compared with the same cells grown in adherent differentiating conditions. This integrated approach allowed us to identify a metabolic phenotype associated with the stem-like condition and shows that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation towards fermentative glycolysis. Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evidences for increased activities of key enzymes of anaerobic glucose fate such as pyruvate kinase M2 isoform, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phopshate dehydrogenase in cancer stem cells as well as different redox status. Moreover, we show that treatment with 2-deoxyglucose, a well known inhibitor of glycolysis, inhibits BCSC proliferation when used alone and shows a synergic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of glycolysis may be a potentially effective strategy to target BCSCs.

  7. Usefulness and dangers of relying on grant acknowledgments in an observatory bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Sherry; Rots, Arnold

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a quantitative assessment of how well grant and/or program acknowledgments reflect the science impact of Chandra observing, archive, and theory programs and to assess whether observatory acknowledgments alone are a good indicator for inclusion in an observatory bibliography. For grant citations we find that curators will often need to determine the correct grant being cited and they will need to assess relationship between the content of a paper and the grant proposal being cited for statistics to be meaningful. We also find a significant number of papers can be attributed to observing programs through grant links only and that performing full-text searches against the ADS for grant numbers can lead to additional articles for inclusion in the bibliography. When looking at acknowledgment sections as a whole, we find that using an observatory acknowledgment as the sole source for determining inclusion in a bibliography will greatly underestimate the number of science papers attributable to the observatory.

  8. Damage-induced DNA replication stalling relies on MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köpper, Frederik; Bierwirth, Cathrin; Schön, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage can obstruct replication forks, resulting in replicative stress. By siRNA screening, we identified kinases involved in the accumulation of phosphohistone 2AX (γH2AX) upon UV irradiation-induced replication stress. Surprisingly, the strongest reduction of phosphohistone 2AX followed...... replication impaired by gemcitabine or by Chk1 inhibition. This rescue strictly depended on translesion DNA polymerases. In conclusion, instead of being an unavoidable consequence of DNA damage, alterations of replication speed and origin firing depend on MK2-mediated signaling....... knockdown of the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a kinase currently implicated in p38 stress signaling and G2 arrest. Depletion or inhibition of MK2 also protected cells from DNA damage-induced cell death, and mice deficient for MK2 displayed decreased apoptosis in the skin upon UV irradiation...

  9. Brucella Intracellular Life Relies on the Transmembrane Protein CD98 Heavy Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keriel, Anne; Botella, Eric; Estrach, Soline; Bragagnolo, Gabriel; Vergunst, Annette C; Feral, Chloe C; O'Callaghan, David

    2015-06-01

    Brucella are intracellular bacterial pathogens that use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to escape host defenses and create a niche in which they can multiply. Although the importance of Brucella T4SS is clear, little is known about its interactions with host cell structures. In this study, we identified the eukaryotic protein CD98hc as a partner for Brucella T4SS subunit VirB2. This transmembrane glycoprotein is involved in amino acid transport, modulation of integrin signaling, and cell-to-cell fusion. Knockdown of CD98hc expression in HeLa cells demonstrated that it is essential for Brucella infection. Using knockout dermal fibroblasts, we confirmed its role for Brucella but found that it is not required for Salmonella infection. CD98hc transiently accumulates around the bacteria during the early phases of infection and is required for both optimal bacterial uptake and intracellular multiplication of Brucella. These results provide new insights into the complex interplay between Brucella and its host.

  10. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad

    2017-03-27

    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake.

  11. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J.; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one’s tasks and goals to one’s actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects’ functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer’s disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking versus exaggerating deficits, overestimation and underestimation scores were analysed separately, controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume and extent of actual functional decline. Atrophy related to overestimating one’s functioning included bilateral, right greater than left frontal and subcortical regions, including dorsal superior and middle frontal gyri, lateral and medial orbitofrontal gyri, right anterior insula, putamen, thalamus, and caudate, and midbrain and pons. Thus, our patients’ tendency to under-represent their functional decline was related to degeneration of domain-general dorsal frontal regions involved in attention, as well as orbitofrontal and subcortical regions likely involved in assigning a reward value to self-related processing and maintaining accurate self-knowledge. The anatomic correlates of underestimation (right rostral anterior cingulate cortex, uncorrected significance level) were distinct from overestimation and had a substantially smaller effect size. This suggests that underestimation or ‘tarnishing’ may be influenced by non-structural neurobiological and sociocultural factors, and should not be considered to be on a continuum with overestimation or ‘polishing’ of functional capacity, which appears to be more directly mediated by neural circuit dysfunction. PMID:24951639

  12. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    threat of assured retaliation to convince an enemy not to attack. Some people have the misconception that deterrence did not come into existence until...posture. Foreign Perspective The security environment has changed dramatically in the five years since the NPR’s publication —but not for the better, as...a long tradition in the former Soviet Union and continues in mod- ern Russia. Prior to the US-led “reset” in US-Russia relations in 2009, Russian

  13. Building Traversing NAT IPv6 Tunnel Gateway System Relies on Netfilter/Iptable Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG wei; HAN He-qin; SUN wei

    2006-01-01

    The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is doomed to be a long process. The network Address translation (NAT) technology is used very popularly in IPv4 network to make up the shortage of network address. It is a desiderated problem to make the users behind NAT gateway to access to IPv6 networks. By studying the transition technology from IPv4 to IPv6 and introducing NAT technology in IPv6, a scenario is put forward through 6to4 tunnel The scenario is implemented and the gateway system's performance is analyzed.

  14. Enhancing memory performance after organic brain disease relies on retrieval processes rather than encoding or consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Gehrmann, Annika; Modden, Claudia; Eling, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory performance is still a controversial topic, and rehabilitation studies have not analyzed to which stage of memory processing (encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) enhancement may be attributed. We first examined the efficacy of a computer training program for stroke patients, based on a previous study (Hildebrandt, Clausing, Janssen, & Modden, 2007a) for memory-impaired patients of a rehabilitation unit and compared it with the standard group treatment. In a second randomized controlled experiment, we trained two groups of 15 patients with mild to moderate memory disorders, caused by organic brain lesions, with the same two treatment approaches. We used several standard tests to analyze improvement of memory functions, focusing on separate parameters for encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. We developed for that purpose a new word-list learning test, which allowed assessment of response to novelty and a systematic comparison of free recall after learning of semantically structured and nonstructured word lists. The first treatment experiment showed significant improvement of verbal learning for patients treated with the computer software program. The second experiment showed that memory improvement was based exclusively on retrieval processes, whereas no specific change was found for encoding and consolidation. However, the two groups of the second experiment showed no significant differences for the treatment, although the absolute scores pointed in the same direction as in the first experiment.

  15. Taian Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd:Seize Opportunities Relying on Self-Intellectual Innovatio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherry Liu

    2011-01-01

    Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,"letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside" by upholding concepts of "Being friends, partners and collaborators".

  16. Relying on Your Own Best Judgment: Imputing Values to Missing Information in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard D.; And Others

    Processes involved in making estimates of the value of missing information that could help in a decision making process were studied. Hypothetical purchases of ground beef were selected for the study as such purchases have the desirable property of quantifying both the price and quality. A total of 150 students at the University of Iowa rated the…

  17. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Additionally, in November 2015, the Secretary of Defense directed a review of DOD’s organizational structures and is considering a number of actions... changes have occurred since the 2011 Unified Command Plan was published. Page 2 GAO-16-652R Defense Headquarters sufficiently reliable for the...commands. • We found that the combatant commands utilize subordinate commands to execute assigned missions. The organizational construct DOD created

  18. Direct conversion of root primordium into shoot meristem relies on timing of stem cell niche development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosspopoff, Olga; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Saffar, Julie; Lecorgne, Lena; Gey, Delphine; Caillieux, Erwann; Colot, Vincent; Roudier, François; Hilson, Pierre; Berthomé, Richard; Da Costa, Marco; Rech, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells, and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched. It is engaged as soon as cell divisions resume because their position and orientation differ in the converting organ compared with the undisturbed emerging LRP. By alternating auxin and cytokinin treatments, we showed that the root and shoot organogenetic programs are remarkably plastic, as the status of the same plant stem cell niche can be reversed repeatedly within a set developmental window. Thus, the networks at play in the meristem of a root can morph in the span of a couple of cell division cycles into those of a shoot, and back, through transdifferentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Kelly, Sean P; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-08-07

    The kinetic energy of flying insect prey is a formidable challenge for orb-weaving spiders. These spiders construct two-dimensional, round webs from a combination of stiff, strong radial silk and highly elastic, glue-coated capture spirals. Orb webs must first stop the flight of insect prey and then retain those insects long enough to be subdued by the spiders. Consequently, spider silks rank among the toughest known biomaterials. The large number of silk threads composing a web suggests that aerodynamic dissipation may also play an important role in stopping prey. Here, we quantify energy dissipation in orb webs spun by diverse species of spiders using data derived from high-speed videos of web deformation under prey impact. By integrating video data with material testing of silks, we compare the relative contributions of radial silk, the capture spiral and aerodynamic dissipation. Radial silk dominated energy absorption in all webs, with the potential to account for approximately 100 per cent of the work of stopping prey in larger webs. The most generous estimates for the roles of capture spirals and aerodynamic dissipation show that they rarely contribute more than 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the total work of stopping prey, respectively, and then only for smaller orb webs. The reliance of spider orb webs upon internal energy absorption by radial threads for prey capture suggests that the material properties of the capture spirals are largely unconstrained by the selective pressures of stopping prey and can instead evolve freely in response to alternative functional constraints such as adhering to prey.

  20. Something To Rely On : The Influence of Stable and Fleeting Drivers on Moral Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. van Houwelingen (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In virtually any situation we are bound to encounter short-lived influences that lure us to act in a certain way. The influence of such ‘fleeting drivers’ may or may not be in line our long-term goals and commitments (‘stable drivers’). Moral behaviour in particular oft

  1. Desiccation tolerance in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer relies on muscle mediated structural reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Life unfolds within a framework of constraining abiotic factors, yet some organisms are adapted to handle large fluctuations in physical and chemical parameters. Tardigrades are microscopic ecdysozoans well known for their ability to endure hostile conditions, such as complete desiccation--a phenomenon called anhydrobiosis. During dehydration, anhydrobiotic animals undergo a series of anatomical changes. Whether this reorganization is an essential regulated event mediated by active controlled processes, or merely a passive result of the dehydration process, has not been clearly determined. Here, we investigate parameters pivotal to the formation of the so-called "tun", a state that in tardigrades and rotifers marks the entrance into anhydrobiosis. Estimation of body volume in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer reveals an 87 % reduction in volume from the hydrated active state to the dehydrated tun state, underlining the structural stress associated with entering anhydrobiosis. Survival experiments with pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial energy production and muscle contractions show that i) mitochondrial energy production is a prerequisite for surviving desiccation, ii) uncoupling the mitochondria abolishes tun formation, and iii) inhibiting the musculature impairs the ability to form viable tuns. We moreover provide a comparative analysis of the structural changes involved in tun formation, using a combination of cytochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D reconstructions as well as scanning electron microscopy. Our data reveal that the musculature mediates a structural reorganization vital for anhydrobiotic survival, and furthermore that maintaining structural integrity is essential for resumption of life following rehydration.

  2. Desiccation tolerance in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer relies on muscle mediated structural reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Agerlin Halberg

    Full Text Available Life unfolds within a framework of constraining abiotic factors, yet some organisms are adapted to handle large fluctuations in physical and chemical parameters. Tardigrades are microscopic ecdysozoans well known for their ability to endure hostile conditions, such as complete desiccation--a phenomenon called anhydrobiosis. During dehydration, anhydrobiotic animals undergo a series of anatomical changes. Whether this reorganization is an essential regulated event mediated by active controlled processes, or merely a passive result of the dehydration process, has not been clearly determined. Here, we investigate parameters pivotal to the formation of the so-called "tun", a state that in tardigrades and rotifers marks the entrance into anhydrobiosis. Estimation of body volume in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer reveals an 87 % reduction in volume from the hydrated active state to the dehydrated tun state, underlining the structural stress associated with entering anhydrobiosis. Survival experiments with pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial energy production and muscle contractions show that i mitochondrial energy production is a prerequisite for surviving desiccation, ii uncoupling the mitochondria abolishes tun formation, and iii inhibiting the musculature impairs the ability to form viable tuns. We moreover provide a comparative analysis of the structural changes involved in tun formation, using a combination of cytochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D reconstructions as well as scanning electron microscopy. Our data reveal that the musculature mediates a structural reorganization vital for anhydrobiotic survival, and furthermore that maintaining structural integrity is essential for resumption of life following rehydration.

  3. Processing of Neutrophil α-Defensins Does Not Rely on Serine Proteases In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Nickles, Katrin; Cowland, Jack;

    2015-01-01

    in promyelocytes: Neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase 3 (PR3), all of which are able to process recombinant proHNP into HNP in vitro. We investigated whether serine proteases are in fact responsible for processing of proHNP in human bone marrow cells and in human and murine myeloid cell...... lines. Subcellular fractionation of the human promyelocytic cell line PLB-985 demonstrated proHNP processing to commence in fractions containing endoplasmic reticulum. Processing of 35S-proHNP was insensitive to serine protease inhibitors. Simultaneous knockdown of NE, CG, and PR3 did not decrease pro...

  4. Enabling Eco-Friendly Choices by Relying on the Proportional-Thinking Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleotilde Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological (eco taxes are promising mechanisms to enable eco-friendly decisions, but few people prefer them. In this study, we present a way in which eco-tax options may be communicated to general public to encourage their payment. Our implementation (called “information presentation” takes advantage of the non-linear relationship between eco-tax payments and CO2 emissions and the human reliance on the proportional-thinking heuristic. According to the proportional-thinking heuristic, people are likely to prefer a small eco-tax increase and judge larger eco-tax increases to cause proportionally greater CO2 emissions reductions. In an online study, participants were asked to choose between eco-tax increases in two problems: In one, a smaller eco-tax increase resulted in greater CO2 emissions reduction, while in the other, a smaller tax increase resulted in lesser CO2 emissions reduction. Although the larger eco-tax increase did not reduce CO2 emissions the most, across both problems, people judged larger eco-tax increases to cause proportionally greater reductions in CO2 emissions and preferred smaller tax increases. Thus, eco-tax policies would benefit by presenting information in terms of eco-tax increases, such that smaller eco-tax increases (which are more attractive and are likely to be chosen by people cause greater CO2 emissions reductions.

  5. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2014-08-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects' functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer's disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking versus exaggerating deficits, overestimation and underestimation scores were analysed separately, controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume and extent of actual functional decline. Atrophy related to overestimating one's functioning included bilateral, right greater than left frontal and subcortical regions, including dorsal superior and middle frontal gyri, lateral and medial orbitofrontal gyri, right anterior insula, putamen, thalamus, and caudate, and midbrain and pons. Thus, our patients' tendency to under-represent their functional decline was related to degeneration of domain-general dorsal frontal regions involved in attention, as well as orbitofrontal and subcortical regions likely involved in assigning a reward value to self-related processing and maintaining accurate self-knowledge. The anatomic correlates of underestimation (right rostral anterior cingulate cortex, uncorrected significance level) were distinct from overestimation and had a substantially smaller effect size. This suggests that underestimation or 'tarnishing' may be influenced by non-structural neurobiological and sociocultural factors, and should not be considered to be on a continuum with overestimation or 'polishing' of functional capacity, which appears to be more directly mediated by neural circuit dysfunction.

  6. A tumour suppressor network relying on the polyamine-hypusine axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuoppo, Claudio; Miething, Cornelius; Lindqvist, Lisa; Reyes, José; Ruse, Cristian; Appelmann, Iris; Yoon, Seungtai; Krasnitz, Alexander; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pappin, Darryl; Pelletier, Jerry; Lowe, Scott W

    2012-07-12

    Tumour suppressor genes encode a broad class of molecules whose mutational attenuation contributes to malignant progression. In the canonical situation, the tumour suppressor is completely inactivated through a two-hit process involving a point mutation in one allele and chromosomal deletion of the other. Here, to identify tumour suppressor genes in lymphoma, we screen a short hairpin RNA library targeting genes deleted in human lymphomas. We functionally identify those genes whose suppression promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse lymphoma model. Of the nine tumour suppressors we identified, eight correspond to genes occurring in three physically linked 'clusters', suggesting that the common occurrence of large chromosomal deletions in human tumours reflects selective pressure to attenuate multiple genes. Among the new tumour suppressors are adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), two genes associated with hypusine, a unique amino acid produced as a product of polyamine metabolism through a highly conserved pathway. Through a secondary screen surveying the impact of all polyamine enzymes on tumorigenesis, we establish the polyamine-hypusine axis as a new tumour suppressor network regulating apoptosis. Unexpectedly, heterozygous deletions encompassing AMD1 and eIF5A often occur together in human lymphomas and co-suppression of both genes promotes lymphomagenesis in mice. Thus, some tumour suppressor functions can be disabled through a two-step process targeting different genes acting in the same pathway.

  7. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Cellular mechanotransduction relies on tension-induced and chaperone-assisted autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Anna; Eppler, Felix J; Tapia, Victor E; van der Ven, Peter F M; Hampe, Nico; Hersch, Nils; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Stadel, Daniela; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul; Behrends, Christian; Fürst, Dieter O; Volkmer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kolanus, Waldemar; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2013-03-04

    Mechanical tension is an ever-present physiological stimulus essential for the development and homeostasis of locomotory, cardiovascular, respiratory, and urogenital systems. Tension sensing contributes to stem cell differentiation, immune cell recruitment, and tumorigenesis. Yet, how mechanical signals are transduced inside cells remains poorly understood. Here, we identify chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) as a tension-induced autophagy pathway essential for mechanotransduction in muscle and immune cells. The CASA complex, comprised of the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and HspB8 and the cochaperone BAG3, senses the mechanical unfolding of the actin-crosslinking protein filamin. Together with the chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase CHIP, the complex initiates the ubiquitin-dependent autophagic sorting of damaged filamin to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation during CASA depends on an interaction of BAG3 with synaptopodin-2 (SYNPO2). This interaction is mediated by the BAG3 WW domain and facilitates cooperation with an autophagosome membrane fusion complex. BAG3 also utilizes its WW domain to engage in YAP/TAZ signaling. Via this pathway, BAG3 stimulates filamin transcription to maintain actin anchoring and crosslinking under mechanical tension. By integrating tension sensing, autophagosome formation, and transcription regulation during mechanotransduction, the CASA machinery ensures tissue homeostasis and regulates fundamental cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetoli, Miluscia; Vooijs, Riet; ten Bookum, Wilma; Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2008-04-01

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants.

  10. A tumour suppressor network relying on the polyamine–hypusine axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuoppo, Claudio; Miething, Cornelius; Lindqvist, Lisa; Reyes, José; Ruse, Cristian; Appelmann, Iris; Yoon, Seungtai; Krasnitz, Alexander; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pappin, Darryl; Pelletier, Jerry; Lowe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour suppressor genes encode a broad class of molecules whose mutational attenuation contributes to malignant progression. In the canonical situation, the tumour suppressor is completely inactivated through a two-hit process involving a point mutation in one allele and chromosomal deletion of the other1. Here, to identify tumour suppressor genes in lymphoma, we screen a short hairpin RNA library targeting genes deleted in human lymphomas. We functionally identify those genes whose suppression promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse lymphoma model. Of the nine tumour suppressors we identified, eight correspond to genes occurring in three physically linked ‘clusters’, suggesting that the common occurrence of large chromosomal deletions in human tumours reflects selective pressure to attenuate multiple genes. Among the new tumour suppressors are adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), two genes associated with hypusine, a unique amino acid produced as a product of polyamine metabolism through a highly conserved pathway2. Through a secondary screen surveying the impact of all polyamine enzymes on tumorigenesis, we establish the polyamine–hypusine axis as a new tumour suppressor network regulating apoptosis. Unexpectedly, heterozygous deletions encompassing AMD1 and eIF5A often occur together in human lymphomas and co-suppression of both genes promotes lymphomagenesis in mice. Thus, some tumour suppressor functions can be disabled through a two-step process targeting different genes acting in the same pathway. PMID:22722845

  11. Radiation of the Nod-independent Aeschynomene relies on multiple allopolyploid speciation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Cardi, C; Rodier-Goud, M; Brown, Spencer C; Boursot, Marc; D'Hont, Angélique; Dreyfus, Bernard; Giraud, Eric

    2014-03-01

    • The semi-aquatic legumes belonging to the genus Aeschynomene constitute a premium system for investigating the origin and evolution of unusual symbiotic features such as stem nodulation and the presence of a Nod-independent infection process. This latter apparently arose in a single Aeschynomene lineage. But how this unique Nod-independent group then radiated is not yet known. • We have investigated the role of polyploidy in Aeschynomene speciation via a case study of the pantropical A. indica and then extended the analysis to the other Nod-independent species. For this, we combined SSR genotyping, genome characterization through flow cytometry, chromosome counting, FISH and GISH experiments, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and artificial hybridizations. • These analyses demonstrate the existence of an A. indica polyploid species complex comprising A. evenia (C. Wright) (2n = 2x = 20), A. indica L. s.s. (2n = 4x = 40) and a new hexaploid form (2n = 6x = 60). This latter contains the two genomes present in the tetraploid (A. evenia and A. scabra) and another unidentified genome. Two other species, A. pratensis and A. virginica, are also shown to be of allopolyploid origin. • This work reveals multiple hybridization/polyploidization events, thus highlighting a prominent role of allopolyploidy in the radiation of the Nod-independent Aeschynomene.

  12. A Distinguisher-Based Attack of a Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Relying on Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, Valérie; Tillich, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Bogdanov and Lee suggested a homomorphic public-key encryption scheme based on error correcting codes. The underlying public code is a modified Reed-Solomon code obtained from inserting a zero submatrix in the Vandermonde generating matrix defining it. The columns that define this submatrix are kept secret and form a set $L$. We give here a distinguisher that detects if one or several columns belong to $L$ or not. This distinguisher is obtained by considering the code generated by component-wise products of codewords of the public code (the so called "square code"). This operation is applied to punctured versions of this square code obtained by picking a subset $I$ of the whole set of columns. It turns out that the dimension of the punctured square code is directly related to the cardinality of the intersection of $I$ with $L$. This allows an attack which recovers the full set $L$ and which can then decrypt any ciphertext.

  13. Chromatin determinants of the inner-centromere rely on replication factors with functions that impart cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takuya; Kawasumi, Ryotaro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Hori, Tetsuya; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Losada, Ana; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Branzei, Dana

    2016-10-18

    Replication fork-associated factors promote genome integrity and protect against cancer. Mutations in the DDX11 helicase and the ESCO2 acetyltransferase also cause related developmental disorders classified as cohesinopathies. Here we generated vertebrate model cell lines of these disorders and cohesinopathies-related genes. We found that vertebrate DDX11 and Tim-Tipin are individually needed to compensate for ESCO2 loss in chromosome segregation, with DDX11 also playing complementary roles with ESCO2 in centromeric cohesion. Our study reveals that overt centromeric cohesion loss does not necessarily precede chromosome missegregation, while both these problems correlate with, and possibly originate from, inner-centromere defects involving reduced phosphorylation of histone H3T3 (pH3T3) in the region. Interestingly, the mitotic pH3T3 mark was defective in all analyzed replication-related mutants with functions in cohesion. The results pinpoint mitotic pH3T3 as a postreplicative chromatin mark that is sensitive to replication stress and conducts with different kinetics to robust centromeric cohesion and correct chromosome segregation.

  14. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  15. DIGITAL BOOKS RELY ON SOCIAL READING TO FIND NEW SUCCESS PROPOSALS AND FORMATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta García Orosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital reading development has reached turning point. In view of the recent data, the edition of electronic books has dropped for the second consecutive year in 2014, while paper books production has increased (MECD, 2015. The last report from the Fundación Telefónica (2015 points out that six out ten Spanish people prefer printed books instead of the digital ones. This article presents the symptoms of a possible change of tendency in digital books. There is a need for a new digital ecosystem of digital texts production and reception. Its major focus should be the social reading, understood as a space for reception, interpretation, and creation.

  16. Hantavirus infection mimicking leptospirosis: how long are we going to rely on clinical suspicion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, Niroshana Jathum; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Bandaranayaka, Anoma Kumari; Priyankara, Sumudu; Vinetz, Joshep M

    2014-08-13

    Hantavirus infections and leptospirosis can have similar clinical and epidemiological features. We present here a case study of a young farmer with fever during the post-flood leptospirosis outbreak in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, in 2011. He presented with a classical clinical picture of leptospirosis and was managed and notified as a case of leptospirosis. Retrospective analysis of a stored serum sample confirmed acute hantavirus infection. Diagnosis of newly identified or emerging infectious diseases such as hantavirus infection is challenging due to the lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries. This case highlights the need for improving diagnostic facilities, educating medical staff, and conducting population-based prospective studies on hantavirus infections in Sri Lanka.

  17. Why auditors increasingly rely on analytical procedures : an empirical approach in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Carlos; Santos, Paula; Martins, António Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Congresso realizado em Lisboa de 10-11 de outubro de 2013 The increasing sophistication and quantity of transactions considered to be financial facts included in accounting records and financial statements raises additional issues in terms of financial auditing. Finding more corroborating evidence for the claims made in balances, transaction classes and disclosures is naturally made more difficult by the fact that accounting information and financial reports are increasingly complex bo...

  18. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  19. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  20. Polymodal Responses in C. elegans Phasmid Neurons Rely on Multiple Intracellular and Intercellular Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenjuan; Cheng, Hankui; Li, Shitian; Yue, Xiaomin; Xue, Yadan; Chen, Sixi; Kang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Animals utilize specialized sensory neurons enabling the detection of a wide range of environmental stimuli from the presence of toxic chemicals to that of touch. However, how these neurons discriminate between different kinds of stimuli remains poorly understood. By combining in vivo calcium imaging and molecular genetic manipulation, here we investigate the response patterns and the underlying mechanisms of the C. elegans phasmid neurons PHA/PHB to a variety of sensory stimuli. Our observations demonstrate that PHA/PHB neurons are polymodal sensory neurons which sense harmful chemicals, hyperosmotic solutions and mechanical stimulation. A repulsive concentration of IAA induces calcium elevations in PHA/PHB and both OSM-9 and TAX-4 are essential for IAA-sensing in PHA/PHB. Nevertheless, the PHA/PHB neurons are inhibited by copper and post-synaptically activated by copper removal. Neuropeptide is likely involved in copper removal-induced calcium elevations in PHA/PHB. Furthermore, mechanical stimulation activates PHA/PHB in an OSM-9-dependent manner. Our work demonstrates how PHA/PHB neurons respond to multiple environmental stimuli and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms of polymodal signaling, such as nociception, in more complex organisms. PMID:28195191

  1. Motor learning and cross-limb transfer rely upon distinct neural adaptation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Performance benefits conferred in the untrained limb after unilateral motor practice are termed cross-limb transfer. Although the effect is robust, the neural mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study we used noninvasive brain stimulation to reveal that the neural adaptations that mediate motor learning in the trained limb are distinct from those that underlie cross-limb transfer to the opposite limb. Thirty-six participants practiced a ballistic motor task with their right index finger (150 trials), followed by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the trained (contralateral) primary motor cortex (cM1 group), the untrained (ipsilateral) M1 (iM1 group), or the vertex (sham group). After stimulation, another 150 training trials were undertaken. Motor performance and corticospinal excitability were assessed before motor training, pre- and post-iTBS, and after the second training bout. For all groups, training significantly increased performance and excitability of the trained hand, and performance, but not excitability, of the untrained hand, indicating transfer at the level of task performance. The typical facilitatory effect of iTBS on MEPs was reversed for cM1, suggesting homeostatic metaplasticity, and prior performance gains in the trained hand were degraded, suggesting that iTBS interfered with learning. In stark contrast, iM1 iTBS facilitated both performance and excitability for the untrained hand. Importantly, the effects of cM1 and iM1 iTBS on behavior were exclusive to the hand contralateral to stimulation, suggesting that adaptations within the untrained M1 contribute to cross-limb transfer. However, the neural processes that mediate learning in the trained hemisphere vs. transfer in the untrained hemisphere appear distinct.

  2. Something To Rely On : The Influence of Stable and Fleeting Drivers on Moral Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. van Houwelingen (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In virtually any situation we are bound to encounter short-lived influences that lure us to act in a certain way. The influence of such ‘fleeting drivers’ may or may not be in line our long-term goals and commitments (‘stable drivers’). Moral behaviour in particular oft

  3. Cognitive agents - a procedural perspective relying on the predictability of Object-Action-Complexes (OACs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Agostino, A.; Krüger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Embodied cognition suggests that complex cognitive traits can only arise when agents have a body situated in the world. The aspects of embodiment and situatedness are being discussed here from the perspective of linear systems theory. This perspective treats bodies as dynamic, temporally variable...... entities, which can be extended (or curtailed) at their boundaries. We show how acting agents can, for example, actively extend their body for some time by incorporating predictably behaving parts of the world and how this affects the transfer functions. We suggest that primates have mastered...... and behaviour. Hence, in this article we have tried to show how predictability can be used to augment the agent's body and to acquire knowledge about the external world, possibly leading to more advanced cognitive traits....

  4. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnetoli, Miluscia [Section of Plant Ecology and Physiology, Department of Plant Biology, University of Florence, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com; Vooijs, Riet; Bookum, Wilma ten [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Section of Plant Ecology and Physiology, Department of Plant Biology, University of Florence, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A.C. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants. - Neither decreased uptake nor phytochelatins seem to play a role in the As tolerance in Silene paradoxa.

  5. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...

  6. Intra-ER sorting of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3 relies on its luminal domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Fakieh

    2013-06-01

    Pex3 is an evolutionarily conserved type III peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome formation. It is inserted into the ER membrane and sorted via an ER subdomain (the peroxisomal ER, or pER to peroxisomes. By constructing chimeras between Pex3 and the type III ER membrane protein Sec66, we have been able to separate the signals that mediate insertion of Pex3 into the ER from those that mediate sorting within the ER to the pER subdomain. The N-terminal 17-amino acid segment of Pex3 contains two signals that are each sufficient for sorting to the pER: a chimeric protein containing the N-terminal domain of Pex3 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of Sec66 sorts to the pER in wild type cells, and does not colocalise with peroxisomes. Subsequent transport to existing peroxisomes requires the Pex3 transmembrane segment. When expressed in Drosophila S2R+ cells, ScPex3 targeting to peroxisomes is dependent on the intra-ER sorting signals in the N-terminal segment. The N-terminal segments of both human and Drosophila Pex3 contain intra-ER sorting information and can replace that of ScPex3. Our analysis has uncovered the signals within Pex3 required for the various steps of its transport to peroxisomes. Our generation of versions of Pex3 that are blocked at each stage along its transport pathway provides a tool to dissect the mechanism, as well as the molecular machinery required at each step of the pathway.

  7. Persistent cell migration and adhesion rely on retrograde transport of β(1) integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah; Gomes-Santos, Carina S; Bardin, Sabine; Maiuri, Paolo; Maurin, Mathieu; Iranzo, Julian; Gautreau, Alexis; Lamaze, Christophe; Caswell, Patrick; Goud, Bruno; Johannes, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Integrins have key functions in cell adhesion and migration. How integrins are dynamically relocalized to the leading edge in highly polarized migratory cells has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that β1 integrin (known as PAT-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans), but not β3, is transported from the plasma membrane to the trans-Golgi network, to be resecreted in a polarized manner. This retrograde trafficking is restricted to the non-ligand-bound conformation of β1 integrin. Retrograde trafficking inhibition abrogates several β1-integrin-specific functions such as cell adhesion in early embryonic development of mice, and persistent cell migration in the developing posterior gonad arm of C. elegans. Our results establish a paradigm according to which retrograde trafficking, and not endosomal recycling, is the key driver for β1 integrin function in highly polarized cells. These data more generally suggest that the retrograde route is used to relocalize plasma membrane machinery from previous sites of function to the leading edge of migratory cells.

  8. The achievement gap: Should we rely on SAT scores to tell us anything about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Whittington

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of students taking the SAT have declined to identify their race/ethnicity. I examined the impact of non-respondents on the validity of reported racial/ethnic differences and year-to-year changes in test performance. Using an analysis reported by Wainer (1988 and SAT data from 1996 to 2003, I confirmed Wainer’s findings that non-respondents prevent accurate estimations of group differences based on SAT data. I then explored the impact of College Board press release information on news reports about the achievement gap. I found frequent reports of racial/ethnic differences in SAT scores and year-to-year changes in scores but negligible consideration of non-respondents. Press releases and media reports should include information about non-respondents and their impact on accuracy of reported differences based on race/ethnicity.

  9. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  10. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Kwapich, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant's approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes.

  11. A College That Relied on NeXT Computers Plans To Switch to Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Allegheny College (Pennsylvania), which uses NeXT computers, was dismayed when the technically superior operating system was orphaned but are now delighted that the company has been bought by Apple Computer and will make the operating system standard on Apple computers. The object-oriented operating system allows relatively unsophisticated users…

  12. Short-term Internet search using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Luo, Liang; Zhang, Yifen; Dong, Guangheng

    2017-01-01

    The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner. Un-learned questions were randomly presented at the recalling stage in order to elicited search impulse. Comparing to the pre-test, subjects in the post-test reported higher impulse to use search engines to answer un-learned questions. Consistently, subjects showed higher brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the post-test than in the pre-test. In addition, there were significant positive correlations self-reported search impulse and brain responses in the frontal areas. The results suggest that a simple six-day's Internet search training can make people dependent on the search tools when facing unknown issues. People are easily dependent on the Internet search engines.

  13. Investigating the Acquisition of Software Systems that Rely on Open Architecture and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Copyright (c) 1996-2008, Daniel Stenberg <daniel@haxx.se>. 16. PostgreSQL Database Management System 17. FreeType. Copyright (c) 2007 The FreeType...may not be open for access, review, modification, or possible redis - tribution [10]. If proprietary, they often cannot be redistributed, and so such

  14. Potential pitfalls of relying on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production to identify Salmonella in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to stress, uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that several strains of Salmonella can be affected by environmental changes, resulting in H2S-negative colonies. This is a major concern, as H2S productio...

  15. Future Prospects: Scientific Quality Relies on the Critical Reviews from Our Peers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Liu

    2009-01-01

    @@ From Executive Editor to Editor-in-Chief is a big jump for me, and means many more responsibilities.I could feel the pressure on my shoulders;from the hopes of my predecessors,my colleagues, and the board members. As a journal with a 57-year history,JIPB has built its credit over the years,publishing many original works in both Chinese and English.However,in the international scientific community,JIPB is still a minor player, especially under the current not-so-healthy impact factor-driven publishing environment.

  16. Evaluating Parental Disagreement in ADHD Diagnosis: Can We Rely on a Single Report From Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caye, Arthur; Machado, Julia D; Rohde, Luís A

    2017-05-01

    Few studies assessed factors associated with the agreement/disagreement between fathers and mothers when rating ADHD symptoms of their offspring. Teachers and both parents assessed a referred sample of 98 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years ( M age = 9.79, SD = 2.59) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP-IV) rating scale. The agreement was assessed for each of the items of the scale and correlated with variables measuring children's features, socioeconomic adversity, family functioning, and parental psychopathology. Mean agreement between parents was moderate for the inattentive and good for the hyperactive-impulsive construct. Mothers tended to report more symptoms than fathers. The agreement was lower in those families where parents had discrepant educational levels. Our findings suggest a significant cross-informant disagreement between parents on symptoms of ADHD. Discrepant parental education has a relevant role in explaining parental disagreement in reporting ADHD symptoms.

  17. How do groundwater-dependent lakes react if the aquifer they rely on is being pumped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainu, Marko; Terasmaa, Jaanus

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a valuable source of drinking water, but at the same time it is the primary contributor to the existence of many surface water bodies. If the latter truth is overlooked in water resources management, and ground- and surface water are not considered as a single resource, then the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems will become under threat. The necessity for implementing an integrated management of ground- and surface water has also been stressed in the EU Water Framework Directive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of increased groundwater abstraction to groundwater and lake levels; and to evaluate the effect of increased groundwater abstraction to the seepage patterns in one example lake. The Kurtna Lake District in northeastern Estonia contains almost 40 small lakes which are situated in and around the Kurtna Kame Field and constitute an EU Special Area of Conservation. The sands that form the kame field contain a Quaternary groundwater aquifer. Water has been pumped from the aquifer for household use with varying rates since the 1970s, but starting from the summer of 2012 the average pumping rate was increased by 51% compared to the year before. During the current study the water levels of five lakes were monitored regularly from May 2012 to June 2013 - before and after the increase in the pumping rate. The water levels dropped 0.3 to 0.7 m during the year in three closed-basin lakes closest to the abstraction wells, but did not change neither in a flow-through lake nor in a closed-basin lake situated 1.6 km from the wells. Groundwater level in the aquifer (monitored by the Estonian Geological Survey) dropped up to 0.8 m near the abstraction wells in the course of the year, but did not change further from the wells. The estimates of average annual groundwater recharge were derived for the twelve months before both June 2012 and June 2013. Although the recharge rate was lower in the first year, the water-level drop was nevertheless caused by the higher pumping rate, because the effects of lower recharge would have affected the whole aquifer, not just a part of it. At the beginning of June 2012 and June 2013 also lake-bed seepage was directly measured in the bottom of one of the lakes (Lake Martiska). Seepage measurements in the first year showed that outseepage from L. Martiska occurred in the northern part of the lake, which is situated closest to the abstraction wells. For the second year the area of outseepage had widened towards the western shore of the lake. Therefore the increased abstraction rate had initiated the shrinking of these lakes near the abstraction wells that were hydraulically connected to the aquifer. The results of the rare opportunity to analyse lake-groundwater interactions both before and after increased human intervention provide a cautionary example of what may happen to and in groundwater-dependent lakes if the surface water-groundwater interactions are not fully clarified before the intervention.

  18. A Semantic Representation of Adult Learner's Self Awareness relying On Learner's Developing Conceptions of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning...... strongly depends on meetings of awarenesses (or self realisations) which we see as achieved through the experiences that mentors and learners undertake jointly. Self realisation is a type of self organisation process and always organises itself. In fact, self realisation is always going to be continued...

  19. Why science? to know, to understand, and to rely on results

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to describe, for readers uneducated in science, the development of humanity's desire to know and understand the world around us through the various stages of its development to the present, when science is almost universally recognized - at least in the Western world - as the most reliable way of knowing. The book describes the history of the large-scale exploration of the surface of the earth by sea, beginning with the Vikings and the Chinese, and of the unknown interiors of the American and African continents by foot and horseback. After the invention of the telescope, visual exploration of the surfaces of the Moon and Mars were made possible, and finally a visit to the Moon. The book then turns to our legacy from the ancient Greeks of wanting to understand rather than just know, and why the scientific way of understanding is valued. For concreteness, it relates the lives and accomplishments of six great scientists, four from the nineteenth century and two from the twentieth. Finally, the boo...

  20. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both......AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...

  1. 77 FR 39561 - Advanced Braking Technologies That Rely on Forward-Looking Sensors; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... test scenarios: driving over a 1-inch thick steel plate lying flat on the pavement (a plate often used..., NHTSA intends to use a rigid mechanical link between the surrogate vehicle and the towing vehicle to...

  2. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  3. The "contemporary synthesis": when politically inclusive genomic science relies on biological notions of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwiley, Duana

    2014-12-01

    This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.

  4. Persistent identifiers for web service requests relying on a provenance ontology design pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley; Si, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Delivering provenance information for datasets produced from static inputs is relatively straightforward: we represent the processing actions and data flow using provenance ontologies and link to stored copies of the inputs stored in repositories. If appropriate detail is given, the provenance information can then describe what actions have occurred (transparency) and enable reproducibility. When web service-generated data is used by a process to create a dataset instead of a static inputs, we need to use sophisticated provenance representations of the web service request as we can no longer just link to data stored in a repository. A graph-based provenance representation, such as the W3C's PROV standard, can be used to model the web service request as a single conceptual dataset and also as a small workflow with a number of components within the same provenance report. This dual representation does more than just allow simplified or detailed views of a dataset's production to be used where appropriate. It also allow persistent identifiers to be assigned to instances of a web service requests, thus enabling one form of dynamic data citation, and for those identifiers to resolve to whatever level of detail implementers think appropriate in order for that web service request to be reproduced. In this presentation we detail our reasoning in representing web service requests as small workflows. In outline, this stems from the idea that web service requests are perdurant things and in order to most easily persist knowledge of them for provenance, we should represent them as a nexus of relationships between endurant things, such as datasets and knowledge of particular system types, as these endurant things are far easier to persist. We also describe the ontology design pattern that we use to represent workflows in general and how we apply it to different types of web service requests. We give examples of specific web service requests instances that were made by systems at Australia's National Computing Infrastructure and show how one can 'click' through provenance interfaces to see the dual representations of the requests using provenance management tooling we have built.

  5. Thought on Establishment of the Base of Agricultural Headquarters Rely on the Brand-agriculture Exhibition——Case Study on Seeds Industry Headquarter Bases in Fengtai District%对依托品牌农业会展打造农业总部基地的思考——以打造北京丰台种业总部基地为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊哲

    2012-01-01

    In order to use the superior resources of urban and rural areas to develop modern agriculture, especially the modern seeds industry, we should used the idea of headquarters economy and the influence of Beijing seeds congress brand effect, established seeds industry headquarter bases in Fengtai District, formed the model of seeds industry headquarter bases, so that we could accelerate the construction of the capital of seeds industry in Beijing. The results showed that compared with the disadvantages the advantages of rely on the brand effect of Beijing seeds congress to establish seeds industry headquarter bases in Fengtai district were more, and many disadvantages could turned into advantages by efforts, such as small scale of seeds enterprise, high cost of entering, strong regional of seeds production and sales, etc. These Problems could be solved by enterprise annexing, improving management and enlarging the influence of exhibition. In order to accelerate seeds industry headquarter bases in Fengtai District, we should pay attention to definite the regional range and function orientation of seeds industry headquarter bases in Fengtai District, develop leading enterprise, introduced the seeds enterprises headquarter, strengthen the power of policy support.%为了充分有效地和用城乡优势资源发展现代农业特别是现代种业,运用总部经济的发展理念,并借助具有20年历史和影响的北京种子大会的品牌效应,打造丰台种业总部基地,形成企业内部在空间上分离且耦合的总部种业发展模式,以加快北京的“种业之都”建设.研究表明:依托北京种子大会品牌打造丰台种业总部基地发展总部种业的有利条件多于不利条件的,而且许多不利条件都可以通过自身努力转化为有利条件,如种业企业规模小、入驻成本高、种子生产销售区域性强等,都可以通过引导种业企业购并、改善经营管理和进一步扩大展会影响面等予以

  6. Operational Roles, Aircrew Systems and Human Factors in Future High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    des expsriences des conflits pricdente. 11 cat apparu en particulier quo lea avions d’attaaue au aol leo plus officaces dtalent caux qui evaiont one...donnies. Ces dchanges sont gfr~s par un caiculateur principal qui est double, pour une fonction de gestion , d’une unit secondaire de gestion . Outre le...calculateur principal et lIunitE secondaire de gestion , les Equipements suivants sont relies aux DIGIBUS: centrale a~rodynamique, centrale i inertie, poste

  7. Training college students' creative team rely-ing on the opening laboratory%依托实验室开放加强大学生创新团队的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿欣

    2015-01-01

    实验室开放对大学生团队建设提供了肥沃的土壤。本文结合我校实验室开放的现状,针对大学生创新团队的活动,从团队的建设与管理、团队活动项目的设置等方面进行了总结与分析,为大学生创新团队的活动提供了新的思路。%Open laboratory provides fertile soil on the team construction of College students. In light of the current situation of our laboratory, according to the college students' innovation team activities, from construction and management, team project settings are summarized and analyzed, and provides a new idea for college students' innovative team activities.

  8. Filtrage Lineaire par Morceaux Avec Petit Bruit d’Observation (Piecewise Linear Filtering with Small Observation Noise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-19

    lin~aire et d’une 6quationl de Ri:-cati. Ce filtre a &6* propos6 dans les ann~es so ,ixantes par R.E. Kalman et R.S.. Bucy [16]. Pour les besoins des... filtre de Kalman 6tendu (cf.( 141) est I’algorithme Ie, plus fr6quemment utilis6 par les inglnietirs notarrnment dans Ie domaine de I’a&ospatiale...Cependant, ses r~sultats peuvent 6tre tr~s mauvais. Danis [331, on trouve des exemples ofi le filtre de Kalman e’tendu est ineficace. Dans Ie domaine thi

  9. Mycobacterium leprae intracellular survival relies on cholesterol accumulation in infected macrophages: a potential target for new drugs for leprosy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Katherine A; Oliveira, Viviane C G; Berrêdo-Pinho, Marcia; Amaral, Julio J; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Melo, Rossana C N; Acosta, Chyntia C D; Moura, Danielle F; Olmo, Roberta; Han, Jun; Rosa, Patricia S; Almeida, Patrícia E; Finlay, B Brett; Borchers, Christoph H; Sarno, Euzenir N; Bozza, Patricia T; Atella, Georgia C; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that Mycobacterium leprae (ML) is able to induce lipid droplet formation in infected macrophages. We herein confirm that cholesterol (Cho) is one of the host lipid molecules that accumulate in ML-infected macrophages and investigate the effects of ML on cellular Cho metabolism responsible for its accumulation. The expression levels of LDL receptors (LDL-R, CD36, SRA-1, SR-B1, and LRP-1) and enzymes involved in Cho biosynthesis were investigated by qRT-PCR and/or Western blot and shown to be higher in lepromatous leprosy (LL) tissues when compared to borderline tuberculoid (BT) lesions. Moreover, higher levels of the active form of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional factors, key regulators of the biosynthesis and uptake of cellular Cho, were found in LL skin biopsies. Functional in vitro assays confirmed the higher capacity of ML-infected macrophages to synthesize Cho and sequester exogenous LDL-Cho. Notably, Cho colocalized to ML-containing phagosomes, and Cho metabolism impairment, through either de novo synthesis inhibition by statins or depletion of exogenous Cho, decreased intracellular bacterial survival. These findings highlight the importance of metabolic integration between the host and bacteria to leprosy pathophysiology, opening new avenues for novel therapeutic strategies to leprosy. PMID:24552180

  10. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washio, T; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M

    1998-01-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes...

  12. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-01-01

    .... To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31...

  13. Gephyrin-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptor clustering relies on a common binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Hans-Michael; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Tretter, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Gephyrin is the major protein determinant for the clustering of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. Earlier analyses revealed that gephyrin tightly binds to residues 398-410 of the glycine receptor β subunit (GlyR β) and, as demonstrated only recently, also interacts with GABA(A) receptors (GABA......(A)Rs) containing the α1, α2, and α3 subunits. Here, we dissect the molecular basis underlying the interactions between gephyrin and GABA(A)Rs containing these α-subunits and compare them to the crystal structure of the gephyrin-GlyR β complex. Biophysical and biochemical assays revealed that, in contrast to its...... that are central for gephyrin binding. Consistent with the biochemical data, mutations of the corresponding residues within the cytoplasmic domain of α2 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs attenuated clustering of these receptors at postsynaptic sites in hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our experiments provide key...

  14. Catalytic ozonation of oxalate with a cerium supported palladium oxide: An efficient degradation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The cerium supported palladium oxide (PdO/CeO 2) at a low palladium loading was found very effective in catalytic ozonation of oxalate, a probe compound that is difficult to be efficiently degraded in water with hydroxyl radical oxidation and one of the major byproducts in ozonation of organic matter. The oxalate was degraded into CO 2 during the catalytic ozonation. The molar ratio of oxalate degraded to ozone consumption increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreasing ozone dosage and pH under the conditions of this study. The maximum molar ratio reached around 1, meaning that the catalyst was highly active and selective for oxalate degradation in water. The catalytic ozonation, which showed relatively stable activity, does not promote hydroxyl radical generation from ozone. Analysis with ATR-FTIR and in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that 1) oxalate was adsorbed on CeO 2 of the catalyst forming surface complexes, and 2) O 3 was adsorbed on PdO of the catalyst and further decomposed to surface atomic oxygen (*O), surface peroxide (*O 2), and O 2 gas in sequence. The results indicate that the high activity of the catalyst is related to the synergetic function of PdO and CeO 2 in that the surface atomic oxygen readily reacts with the surface cerium-oxalate complex. This kind of catalytic ozonation would be potentially effective for the degradation of polar refractory organic pollutants and hydrophilic natural organic matter. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin-severing function of villin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements ...

  16. Do Adults with Cochlear Implants Rely on Different Acoustic Cues for Phoneme Perception than Adults with Normal Hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but…

  17. Early CT perfusion mismatch in acute stroke is not time-dependent but relies on collateralization grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarten, Louisa von; Straube, Andreas [University of Munich Hospitals, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Beyer, Sebastian E.; Baumann, Alena B.; Bollwein, Christine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Factors that determine the extent of the penumbra in the initial diagnostic workup using whole brain CT Perfusion (WB-CTP) remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine a possible dependency of the initial mismatch size between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from time after symptom onset, leptomeningeal collateralization, and occlusion localization in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. Out of an existing cohort of 992 consecutive patients receiving multiparametric CT scans including WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we included patients who had (1) a witnessed time of symptom onset, (2) an infarction of the MCA territory as documented by follow-up imaging, and (3) an initial CBF volume of >10 ml. CBF and CBV lesion sizes, collateralization grade, and the site of occlusion were determined. We included 103 patients. Univariate analysis showed that time from symptom onset (168 +/- 91.2 min) did not correlate with relative or absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.458 and p = 0.921). Higher collateralization gradings were associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions were associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis confirmed that ICA occlusion was associated with large absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.005), and high collateral grade was associated with small absolute mismatch volumes (p = 0.017). There is no significant correlation between initial CTP mismatch and time after symptom onset. Predictors of mismatch size include the extent of the collaterals and a proximal location of the occlusion. (orig.)

  18. Marketing communications in industrial B2b markets enhancing the value of the corporate brand relying on common added values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Monrabal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, industrial Business-to-Business (B2B markets are mainly characterized by a highly trained customer for making rational decisions in a highly competitive and global market, requiring more than ever organizations to approach their markets with a single and consistent message. Such demanding scenario requires to define a corporate brand transmitting in one message all the advantages that a Customer may appreciate in the long-term, based not only on what the company stands for in the market, but also the benefits of all its products throughout its portfolio. Such elements are referred as Common Added Values (CAVs, being some general examples the technology, quality, innovation and reliability; the capacity, infrastructure and distribution network; after-sales service policies, support and training; or the price and financial policies. This paper tries to explain the source of this need, describing the main differences between a brand communications model focused on the product or including the main B2B corporate values; and highlighting the main CAVs, to get an industry player either small or large, can succeed in generating brand equity through an integrated marketing communications strategy.

  19. Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis growth in vitro culture relies more on folic acid availability than Leihsmania (Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Niño

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We compared the in vitro growth of promastigotes from two Leishmania species in TC-100 and Schneider media. Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis replication rates were similar in both tissue culture media and reached maximum rates by 48 h. In contrast Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis growth was significantly greater in TC-100 but maximum rates were achieved by 96 h. Folic acid appears to be the limiting factor and supplementation of Schneider media with this nutrient improved L. (V. braziliensis replication rates and decreased the time of maximum replication to 48 h.

  20. Organizational Strategic Planning and Execution: Should Governmental Organizations Rely on Strategic Planning for the Success of the Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Competition that it faces. 16 The analysis of internal factors will include (IV) the company’s marketing mix ; (V) the internal resources; and (VI) a variety...Government; Economy; Socio-Demography; Technology) III Industry & Competition IV Marketing Mix (Outputs) A B C V Internal Resource

  1. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae.

  2. Zebrafish second heart field development relies on progenitor specification in anterior lateral plate mesoderm and nkx2.5 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner-Ataman, Burcu; Paffett-Lugassy, Noelle; Adams, Meghan S; Nevis, Kathleen R; Jahangiri, Leila; Obregon, Pablo; Kikuchi, Kazu; Poss, Kenneth D; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors perform essential functions during mammalian cardiogenesis. We recently identified a population of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in zebrafish expressing latent TGFβ-binding protein 3 (ltbp3) that exhibits several defining characteristics of the anterior SHF in mammals. However, ltbp3 transcripts are conspicuously absent in anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), where SHF progenitors are specified in higher vertebrates. Instead, ltbp3 expression initiates at the arterial pole of the developing heart tube. Because the mechanisms of cardiac development are conserved evolutionarily, we hypothesized that zebrafish SHF specification also occurs in the ALPM. To test this hypothesis, we Cre/loxP lineage traced gata4(+) and nkx2.5(+) ALPM populations predicted to contain SHF progenitors, based on evolutionary conservation of ALPM patterning. Traced cells were identified in SHF-derived distal ventricular myocardium and in three lineages in the outflow tract (OFT). We confirmed the extent of contributions made by ALPM nkx2.5(+) cells using Kaede photoconversion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish SHF progenitors are specified within the ALPM and express nkx2.5. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that Nkx2.5 plays a conserved and essential role during zebrafish SHF development. Embryos injected with an nkx2.5 morpholino exhibited SHF phenotypes caused by compromised progenitor cell proliferation. Co-injecting low doses of nkx2.5 and ltbp3 morpholinos revealed a genetic interaction between these factors. Taken together, our data highlight two conserved features of zebrafish SHF development, reveal a novel genetic relationship between nkx2.5 and ltbp3, and underscore the utility of this model organism for deciphering SHF biology.

  3. Diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma of lung: Don′t rely on fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing hemangioma is a rare variety of benign pulmonary neoplasm. It usually presents as asymptomatic, solitary, peripheral, circumscribed lesions in middle-aged women. Here, we describe a 46-year-old woman presenting to us for evaluation of right parahilar lung mass. Previous chest radiography done 10 years back showed a lung mass of almost similar size. Computed Tomography (CT-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was suggestive of adenocarcinoma of lung. A well-circumscribed, capsulated, ovoid mass measuring 5.6 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm, adjacent to the transverse fissure of the right lung was excised by lateral thoracotomy. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry was suggestive of sclerosing hemangioma of lung. A pathologist must consider the clinicoradiological features before coming to a final diagnosis of lung malignancy from FNAC. Whenever there is any confusion regarding lung mass, thoracotomy must be done for arriving at an exact diagnosis from histopathology.

  4. Decoding temporal structure in music and speech relies on shared brain resources but elicits different fine-scale spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2011-07-01

    Music and speech are complex sound streams with hierarchical rules of temporal organization that become elaborated over time. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity patterns in 20 right-handed nonmusicians as they listened to natural and temporally reordered musical and speech stimuli matched for familiarity, emotion, and valence. Heart rate variability and mean respiration rates were simultaneously measured and were found not to differ between musical and speech stimuli. Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct spatial patterns of brain responses in the 2 domains. Distributed neuronal populations that included the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior and anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and the auditory brainstem classified temporal structure manipulations in music and speech with significant levels of accuracy. While agreeing with previous findings that music and speech processing share neural substrates, this work shows that temporal structure in the 2 domains is encoded differently, highlighting a fundamental dissimilarity in how the same neural resources are deployed.

  5. Can We Rely on Predicted Basal Metabolic Rate in Patients With Intestinal Failure on Home Parenteral Nutrition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Skallerup; Pedersen, Louis Nygaard; Olesen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    evaluated the accuracy of predicted BMR in clinically stable patients with IF dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). METHODS: In total, 103 patients with IF were included. We used indirect calorimetry for assessment of BMR and calculated predicted BMR using different equations based on anthropometric......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal failure (IF) is a serious and common complication of short bowel syndrome with patients depending on parental nutrition (PN) support. Effective nutrition management requires an accurate estimation of the patient's basal metabolic rate (BMR) to avoid underfeeding...

  6. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Claude H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2. The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stimulated with PAR-2 agonists (tryptase, trypsin and SLIGKV was assessed. The specificity of the tryptase effect was evaluated with a specific inhibitor, APC-366. Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression and functionality of PAR-2 receptor and to assess the expression of COX-2. COX-2 activity was evaluated with a commercial activity assay kit and by measurement of PGF2α production. Proliferation assays were also performed in presence of different prostaglandins (PGs. Results Tryptase increased L6 myoblast proliferation by 35% above control group and this effect was completely inhibited by APC-366. We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. COX-2 activity was increased following stimulation with PAR-2 agonist but its expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. Finally, 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15Δ-PGJ2, a product of COX-2-derived prostaglandin D2, stimulated myoblast proliferation, but not PGE2 and PGF2α. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and this effect is part of a signaling cascade dependent on PAR-2 activation and on the downstream activation of COX-2.

  7. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

    OpenAIRE

    Côté Claude H; Tremblay Marie-Hélène; Duchesne Elise

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal m...

  8. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  9. Terminal axonal arborization and synaptic bouton formation critically rely on abp1 and the arp2/3 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koch

    Full Text Available Neuronal network formation depends on properly timed and localized generation of presynaptic as well as postsynaptic structures. Although of utmost importance for understanding development and plasticity of the nervous system and neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanisms that ensure the fine-control needed for coordinated establishment of pre- and postsynapses are still largely unknown. We show that the F-actin-binding protein Abp1 is prominently expressed in the Drosophila nervous system and reveal that Abp1 is an important regulator in shaping glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs of flies. STED microscopy shows that Abp1 accumulations can be found in close proximity of synaptic vesicles and at the cell cortex in nerve terminals. Abp1 knock-out larvae have locomotion defects and underdeveloped NMJs that are characterized by a reduced number of both type Ib synaptic boutons and branches of motornerve terminals. Abp1 is able to indirectly trigger Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation and interacts with both WASP and Scar. Consistently, Arp2 and Arp3 loss-of-function also resulted in impairments of bouton formation and arborization at NMJs, i.e. fully phenocopied abp1 knock-out. Interestingly, neuron- and muscle-specific rescue experiments revealed that synaptic bouton formation critically depends on presynaptic Abp1, whereas the NMJ branching defects can be compensated for by restoring Abp1 functions at either side. In line with this presynaptic importance of Abp1, also presynaptic Arp2 and Arp3 are crucial for the formation of type Ib synaptic boutons. Interestingly, presynaptic Abp1 functions in NMJ formation were fully dependent on the Arp2/3 complex, as revealed by suppression of Abp1-induced synaptic bouton formation and branching of axon terminals upon presynaptic Arp2 RNAi. These data reveal that Abp1 and Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin cytoskeletal dynamics drive both synaptic bouton formation and NMJ branching. Our data furthermore shed light on an intense bidirectional functional crosstalk between pre- and postsynapses during the development of synaptic contacts.

  10. Instructive Bilingualism: Can Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment Rely on One Language in Learning a Second One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Only a decade ago, a very few researchers considered the study of language disorders in bilingual population worth pursuing. It was mostly argued that there were enough challenges in studying bilingualism, and even more challenges in the study of specific language impairment (SLI). So why complicate things and combine the two domains?

  11. Paper-based biosensor relying on flower-like reduced graphene guided enzymatically deposition of polyaniline for Pb(2+) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2016-06-15

    A multi-amplified paper-based electrochemical strategy using Pb(2+) dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit for Pb(2+) detection was developed. In this work, flower-like reduced graphene (FrGO) was prepared utilizing flower-like ZnO as template, which was first one step grown on the gold nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE). After being treated with acid and then modified with Au, a novel sensor platform named Au/FrGO/Au-PWE with large specific surface area and good electrical conductivity was fabricated. The Mn2O3 nanoparticle-assembled hierarchical hollow spheres (H-Mn2O3) was served as nanocarrier to immobilize GOx, HRP and signal strand (S3), resulting to the formation of S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations. In the presence of Pb(2+), the DNAzyme (S1) was activated and the substrate strand (S2) was cleaved. After the incubation with S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx in 0.1M HAc-NaAc solution (pH 4.3) containing 30 mM aniline and 15 mM glucose, a readily measurable "turn-on" electrochemical signal could be measured. On the basis of the signal amplification strategy of Au/FrGO/Au-PWE sensing platform and S3/H-Mn2O3/HRP/GOx bioconjugations, the developed biosensor exhibited a good linear response toward over a wide range of concentration from 0.005 to 2000 nM.

  12. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  13. Design of a Simple and Modular 2-DOF Ankle Physiotherapy Device Relying on a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Robotic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Syrseloudis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new 2-DOF robotic platform with hybrid parallel-serial structure and to undertake its parametric design so that it can follow the whole range of ankle related foot movements. This robot can serve as a human ankle rehabilitation device. The existing ankle rehabilitation devices present typically one or more of the following shortcomings: redundancy, large size, or high cost, hence the need for a device that could offer simplicity, modularity, and low cost of construction and maintenance. In addition, our targeted device must be safe during operation, disallow undesirable movements of the foot, while adaptable to any human foot. Our detailed study of foot kinematics has led us to a new hybrid architecture, which strikes a balance among all aforementioned goals. It consists of a passive serial kinematics chain with two adjustable screws so that the axes of the chain match the two main ankle-axes of typical feet. An active parallel chain, which consists of two prismatic actuators, provides the movement of the platform. Thus, the platform can follow the foot movements, thanks to the passive chain, and also possesses the advantages of parallel robots, including rigidity, high stiffness and force capabilities. The lack of redundancy yields a simpler device with lower size and cost. The paper describes the kinematics modelling of the platform and analyses the force and velocity transmission. The parametric design of the platform is carried out; our simulations confirm the platform's suitability for ankle rehabilitation.

  14. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  15. Participatory learning and knowledge assessment with a game-based method relying on student-generated questions

    CERN Document Server

    Abad, Enrique; Gil, Julia

    2015-01-01

    A game based on student-generated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was used to promote participatory learning and as a knowledge assessment tool in the framework of an elementary course in Photonics. Under the instructor's guidance, students were asked to author MCQs, including both question stems and four possible answers (three distractors and one correct answer). They were told that good enough questions would enter a repository from which MCQs for the final exam could be drawn. The student-generated MCQs were then reviewed by the instructor, who discarded unsuitable questions and made amendments to ensure quality standards. The resulting repository (with the key to the correct answers) was made available to the students, whereupon a subset of questions were selected by the instructor to set the MCQ test for the final exam (consisting of a MCQ test based on student-generated questions and a problem-solving part set entirely by the instructor). The MCQ repository was large enough to ensure that rote learnin...

  16. Proximal fibular stress fractures in children and adolescents, what should we rely on? Lessons learned from a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina, Carlos Aguiar Ramos; Balacó, Inês; Serrano, Pedro Ruas; Matos, Gabriel

    2015-02-16

    Fibula fractures are the third most common stress fractures in children and adolescents. The triad of localised periosteal reaction, endosteal thickening and radiolucent cortical lines, localised in the distal third of the fibula along with a typical clinical history is in most cases sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Proximal fibula stress lesions are a very rare finding, with few reports in the literature. Stress fractures in this location demand careful investigation before a definitive diagnosis can be made. In the presence of non-specific MRI findings, stress fracture should be a diagnosis of exclusion. The authors report a case referred to their department by a sports medicine physician with a suspicion of stress fracture of the proximal fibula without characteristic imaging findings, which was ultimately confirmed as a stress lesion only by biopsy.

  17. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the margin stock as collateral,” contained in paragraph (2)(iv) of the definition of indirectly... because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  18. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin-severing function of villin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelmann, Florent; Chamaillard, Mathias; El-Marjou, Fatima; Simon, Anthony; Netter, Jeanne; Vignjevic, Danijela; Nichols, Buford L; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Grandjean, Teddy; Louvard, Daniel; Revenu, Céline; Robine, Sylvie

    2013-04-09

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we address how polarized enterocytes harboring actin-rich apical microvilli undergo extensive cell remodeling to drive injury repair. Using live imaging technologies, we demonstrate that enterocytes in vitro and in vivo rapidly depolarize their microvilli at the wound edge. Through its F-actin-severing activity, the microvillar actin-binding protein villin drives both apical microvilli disassembly in vitro and in vivo and promotes lamellipodial extension. Photoactivation experiments indicate that microvillar actin is mobilized at the lamellipodium, allowing optimal migration. Finally, efficient repair of colonic mechanical injuries requires villin severing of F-actin, emphasizing the importance of villin function in intestinal homeostasis. Thus, villin severs F-actin to ensure microvillus depolarization and enterocyte remodeling upon injury. This work highlights the importance of specialized apical pole disassembly for the repolarization of epithelial cells initiating migration.

  19. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bruneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks". METHODS: In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test. RESULTS: Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97. The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia. CONCLUSIONS: In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  20. Evaluation Techniques of Creating Coherence in Poems of Kaiser Aminpour Relying on the Theory of Halliday’s Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sattari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOne of the linguistics theories that are utilized in present age in the analysis of literary texts is the theory of Halliday’s linguistics which is called theory of systemic - functional linguistics. Halliday’s theory in the second half of the twentieth century, in contrast to the "generative linguistics" approach, which is based on formal language like a mental and individual phenomenon.    Hallidayan called the semantic, literal, syntax and logical relationship of words as coherence of a text and believes that the coherence of the text, includes all the semantic relations by which, every piece of speech or writing can serve as text. Hence, cohesion, referred to relations that relates all elements of a sentence to the elements of other sentences. From Hallidayan's  point of view, elements of coherence of a text are divided into two parts: grammatical and lexical. Grammatical cohesion includes factors such as referrals, replacements, removals and relevancy, and lexical coherence includes repetition and collocation in literary language.   Kaiser is one of the contemporary famous poets that have composed many poets in different molds of poetry. Kaiser Manipur's poems benefit the integration due to the poet's fluency in Persian and his familiarity with the vocabulary and grammatical and lexical capacities of Persian literature. In this research, we have studied the cohesion in Kaiser Manipur's poems from two views of lexical and grammatical by using Holidaying theory of coherence as well as the techniques that the poet has applied to reach the cohesion in his poems.    The method of research in the present paper is descriptive-analytical and all the information and data has been collected from the sources of library and electronic. In this paper, we first briefly discussed the Holidaying coherence theory, and then, with a special approach to this theory, the most important techniques that Kaiser Manipur has benefited to create the coherence in his poems and poetry, analyzed and investigated.   The Research results indicate that the poems of Kaiser Manipur have a specific integration due to the poet's fluency in Persian and his familiarity with the vocabulary and grammatical and lexical capacities of Persian literature. Hence, techniques of creating coherence in two aspects of grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion in Kaiser Manipur's poetry are considerable. Grammatical coherence in his poems is achieved through techniques such as references, omission, and relevance. And the techniques of lexica coherence in his poems are: using phonemes, repeating the words, pun, repeated sentence, the balance, the heart of the matter, proportion, contrast, sequence and so on.    Kaiser Aminpour has widely used the techniques of lexical and grammatical coherence in his poems, so that in most of his poems we can see several techniques used together in a way to reach the mentioned coherence. Hence, we can say he is a poet who knows his language as well as words and has the complete power of selection and combination of words and sentences. And his poems are very coherent and the sentences and phrases are intertwined and related to each other in his poetry.Keywords: Kaiser Aminpour, Hallidayan, functional linguistics, grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion.References 1.      Abdollahi, Manije (2005. Vertical link and semantic cohesion in the ghazals of Hafez. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Shiraz, (Vol. 22. No 3(44. P.p: 124- 134. [In Persian].2.      Afrashi, Azita (1999. A look to the issue of collocation of words. Language and Literature, No 7 & 8. p.p: 73- 83. [In Persian].3.      Aghahosseini, H. & Gholami, Mojahed. (2010. Indian poetry style aesthetic effects on the resistance poetry of Kaiser Aminpour's poetry. Journal of resistance literature at Kerman Shahid Bahonar University. Year, 1. No, 2. P.p: 1- 29. [In Persian]. 4.      Ahmadzadeh, Mostafa. (2008. Linguistic interpretation of Surah Al-Asr. Islamic Studies: Quran and Hadith Sciences. Year 40. No, 3/18. P.p: 11-35. [In Persian].5.       Alavi-moghaddam, M. (1998. Contemporary literary criticism theories (formalism and structuralism. Tehran: Samt. [In Persian].6.      Aminpour, Kaisar (2011. Complete collection of kaisar Aminpour's poems. 8th ed., Tehran: Morvarid. [In Persian].Abdollahi, M. (2005.  7.      Behjo, Zohre (1998. Encoding scheme of methods of coherence in Persian language. Farhang, No 25 & 26. P.p: 189- 212. [In Persian].8.      Fotohi, M. (2008. Three voices, three colors, three styles of Aminpour’s poem. Literature Studies, University of Guilan. No 5. P.p: 9-30. [In Persian].9.      Ghobadi, H. & Rezaei-Jamkarani, A. (2011. Review, analysis and criticism of four Persian odes based on the teachings of systemic-functional linguistics. Journal of Persian Language and Literature. No 20. P.p: 69- 93. [In Persian].10.  Gholamhosseinzade, GH. & Norouzi, H. (2010.  Role of Phonetic repeating in lexical Cohesion in prosodic Persian poetry. Journal of Literature and Language University of Kerman. No, 27. P.p: 251- 281. [In Persian].11.  Halliday, M. A. K & Hasan, R. (1976 Cohesion in English. London: Longman, [In English].12.  Halliday, M. A. K. (1985. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. [In English].13.  Jahangiri, N. & Zakipour, Sh. (2005. Lexical cohesion in Persian short stories for children. Literary Notes (Journal of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. No 151. P.p: 1-20. [In Persian].14.  Khanjan, A. & Mirza, Z. (2006. Introduction to the functional poetry (linguistic approaches. Journal of Persian Language and Literature. No 7. P.p: 83- 101. [In Persian].15.  Lotfipour-saedi, K. (1992. An introduction to the principles and methods of translation. Tehran: Academic publishing. [In Persian].16.  Martine, A. (2001. Phonetic transformation balance. (H. Milanian Trans. Terhan: Hermes. [In Persian].17.  Moein od-Dini, F. (2003.  Techniques to create coherence in kalila and demna. Farhang, No 47 & 47. P.p: 303- 326. [In Persian].18.  Mohajer, M. & Nabavi, M. (1997. Towards the linguistic poetry: the functional approach. Tehran: Markaz. [In Persian].19.  Natel Khanlari, P. (2007. Persian poetry weight. 7th ed., Tehran: toos. [In Persian].20.  Panahi, S. (2002. The process of collocation and collocation compounds in Persian language. Journal of Academy. No19. P.p: 199- 211. [In Persian].21.  Rastgoo, M. (2004. Speak art layout (art of badie. Tehran: Samt. [In Persian].22.  Rouhani, M. (2011.  Study of Repeats' Functions in Contemporary Poetry (based on poetry of Sepehri, Shamloo and Forough. Journal of Boostan Adab (university of Shiraz. Year 3. No 2/8. P.p: 145- 168. [In Persian].23.  Safavi, K. (2008. Introduction to Semantics. 3rd ed., Tehran: Sore-ye Mehr. [In Persian]. 24.  Safavi, K. (1994. From linguistics to literature. (Vol: 1. Tehran: Cheshme. [In Persian].25.  Salehi, F. (2007.  Semantics and functional grammar of Halliday. Literature Book of the Month. No 8. P.p: 32-41. [In Persian].26.  Sarli, N. & Ishani, T. (2011.  Coherence and Coordination of cohesion Theory and its Application in a Minimal Story Persian (The Story of the Ladder. Journal of Language Scholarships (university of az-Zahra. Year 2. No 4. P.p: 51- 77. [In Persian].27.  Shabanloo, A. & Maleksabet, M. & Jalali, Y. (2008.  Grammatical cohesion process in the long poem of am'aq Bukhari. Journal of Gawhar-i Guya. No 5. P.p: 165- 188. [In Persian].28.  Shafi’ee kadkani, M. (2005. Music of Lyrics. (8th ed., Tehran: Agah. [In Persian].29.  Shamisa, S. (2007. Figures of speech: a new look to Ba'die. 2nd ed., Tehran: Mitra. [In Persian].30.  Vafaei, A. & Alinoori, Z. (2010. Artistic symmetry in two axes of succession and Companion in poems of Kaiser Aminpour. Journal of Persian Language and Literature. Year 2. No 6. P: 99- 118. [In Persian].31.  Velek, R. & Varen, A. (2003. Theory of Literatur. (Z. Movahhed & P. Mohajer Trans. Tehran: Elmi- Farhangi. [In Persian].Yahaghi, M. & Fallahi, M. (2010.  Saadi's and Bidel Dehlavi's sonnets text cohesion, evaluation and comparison of ten sonnets of Sa'di, and ten sonnets of Bidel. Journal of Literature and Language University of Kerman. No 27. P: 327- 346. [In Persian].

  1. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Dale M; Kitaysky, Alexander; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world's largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting) occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m). Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1) flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2) resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3) foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3%) compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%). The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min) was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min). Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight). Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red-legged kittiwakes to climate change in the Bering Sea.

  2. Thiol-Based Peroxidases and Ascorbate Peroxidases: Why Plants Rely on Multiple Peroxidase Systems in the Photosynthesizing Chloroplast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a highly robust process allowing for rapid adjustment to changing environmental conditions. The efficient acclimation depends on balanced redox metabolism and control of reactive oxygen species release which triggers signaling cascades and potentially detrimental oxidation reactions. Thiol peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase type, and ascorbate peroxidases are the main peroxide detoxifying enzymes of the chloroplast. They use different electron donors and are linked to distinct redox networks. In addition, the peroxiredoxins serve functions in redox regulation and retrograde signaling. The complexity of plastid peroxidases is discussed in context of suborganellar localization, substrate preference, metabolic coupling, protein abundance, activity regulation, interactions, signaling functions, and the conditional requirement for high antioxidant capacity. Thus the review provides an opinion on the advantage of linking detoxification of peroxides to different enzymatic systems and implementing mechanisms for their inactivation to enforce signal propagation within and from the chloroplast.

  3. Relying on satiety cues in food consumption : studies on the role of social context, appearance focus, and mindfulness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.

    2013-01-01

    Dit proefschrift richt zich op de vraag hoe een consumptiemoment de hoeveelheid consumptie op een later moment kan beïnvloeden. Gedurende de dag eten consumenten op verschillende momenten. Specifiek richt dit proefschrift zich op de vraag hoe de sociale context van een consumptie-episode latere cons

  4. Embracing Advancement: You Can't Rely on Outside Funding. How to Build a Strong Internal Fundraising Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the past 7 years of working at and in community colleges, the author has seen two distinct trends: (1) Community colleges appear to be ushering in a new era of advancement; and (2) Community colleges themselves are often the biggest impediment to successful advancement efforts. Despite millions of grateful learners and business and community…

  5. How to Quickly Cast off Poverty in Poverty-stricken Mountainous Areas Relying on the "Whole Village Advancement" Model?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongna; YANG; Jijun; TANG; Xiaoling; YU

    2013-01-01

    We carry out a field survey on the implementation of the"Whole Village Advancement"poverty alleviation model in Lisizhuang Village,Shunping County,Hebei Province.Based on the"Whole Village Advancement"poverty alleviation model,we put forth the following recommendations:(i)Oriented by the market,fostering the function of"blood-refreshing";(ii)Strengthening the new ideas of using projects to attract investment;(iii)Implementing the new strategy of"driven by the able person";(iv)Improving the farmers’quality;(v)Adhering to the diversification of financing channels.

  6. Tonoplast targeting of VHA-a3 relies on a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent vacuolar trafficking route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiang-Nan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha

    2017-04-01

    Vacuolar trafficking routes and their regulators have recently drawn lots of attention in plant cell biology. A recent study reported the discovery of a plant-specific vacuolar trafficking route, i.e., a direct ER-to-vacuole route, through analysis of VHA-a3 subcellular targeting, a key component for the tonoplast V-ATPases. Our recent findings showed that VHA-a3 targets to the tonoplast through a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent pathway, shedding new lights on the unconventional vacuolar trafficking route in plant cells. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Motor learning relies on integrated sensory inputs in ADHD, but over-selectively on proprioception in autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Pekny, Sarah E; Marko, Mollie K; Haswell, Courtney C; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2012-04-01

    The brain builds an association between action and sensory feedback to predict the sensory consequence of self-generated motor commands. This internal model of action is central to our ability to adapt movements and may also play a role in our ability to learn from observing others. Recently, we reported that the spatial generalization patterns that accompany adaptation of reaching movements were distinct in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared with typically developing (TD) children. To test whether the generalization patterns are specific to ASD, here, we compared the patterns of adaptation with those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consistent with our previous observations, we found that in ASD, the motor memory showed greater than normal generalization in proprioceptive coordinates compared with both TD children and children with ADHD; children with ASD also showed slower rates of adaptation compared with both control groups. Children with ADHD did not show this excessive generalization to the proprioceptive target, but they did show excessive variability in the speed of movements with an increase in the exponential distribution of responses (τ) as compared with both TD children and children with ASD. The results suggest that slower rate of adaptation and anomalous bias towards proprioceptive feedback during motor learning are characteristics of autism, whereas increased variability in execution is a characteristic of ADHD.

  8. One of Brazil's Largest Clothing Manufacturers Relies on Gerber Equipment to Support Aggresive Growth Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Gerber Technology announces that one of Brazil's largest and most recognized apparel companies,Cia.Hering,has chosen Gerber to expand its facilities in the state of Santa Catarina and equip its newest factories in the states of Goias and Rio Grande do Norte with design and manufacturing solutions valued at $1.4 million.

  9. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: Can we rely on published qPCR results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.R.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Bustin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. B

  10. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: can we rely on published qPCR results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J R; van Kempen, L C; Nagtegaal, I D; Bustin, S A

    2014-06-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. But how reliable are the published results? Since the validity of gene expression data is greatly dependent on appropriate normalisation to compensate for sample-to-sample and run-to-run variation, we have evaluated the adequacy of normalisation procedures in qPCR-based experiments. Consequently, we assessed all colorectal cancer publications that made use of qPCR from 2006 until August 2013 for the number of reference genes used and whether they had been validated. Using even these minimal evaluation criteria, the validity of only three percent (6/179) of the publications can be adequately assessed. We describe common errors, and conclude that the current state of reporting on qPCR in colorectal cancer research is disquieting. Extrapolated to the study of cancer in general, it is clear that the majority of studies using qPCR cannot be reliably assessed and that at best, the results of these studies may or may not be valid and at worst, pervasive incorrect normalisation is resulting in the wholesale publication of incorrect conclusions. This survey demonstrates that the existence of guidelines, such as MIQE, is necessary but not sufficient to address this problem and suggests that the scientific community should examine its responsibility and be aware of the implications of these findings for current and future research.

  11. Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy with Resection of the Splenic Vessels. Should One Rely on the Short Gastric Arteries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Ivanovich Egorov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Knowing the collaterals is essential for a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. Objective To ascertain the sources of the blood supply to the spleen after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. Methods Perfusion of the cadaveric left gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries with methylene blue after occlusion of all the arteries except the short gastric arteries (n=10. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasound was used for the evaluation of the hilar arterial blood flow at distal pancreatectomy (n=23 after 1 clamping of the splenic artery alone, 2 clamping of the splenic and left gastroepiploic arteries and 3 clamping of the splenic and short gastric arteries. CT angiography of the gastric and splenic vessels before and after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (n=10. Results Perfusion of the cadaveric arteries revealed no effective direct or indirect (through the submucous gastric arterial network communication between the left gastric and the branches of the short gastric arteries. In no case did intraoperative color Doppler ultrasound detect any hilar arterial blood flow after the clamping of the splenic and left gastroepiploic arteries. The clamping of the short gastric arteries did not change the flow parameters. In none of the cases did a post-spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels CT angiography delineate the short gastric vessels supplying the spleen. In all cases, the gastroepiploic arcade was the main arterial pathway feeding the spleen. Conclusion Experimental, intra- and postoperative instrumental investigations did not show the short gastric arteries to be engaged in the blood supply to the spleen after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. In all cases, the left gastroepiploic artery was the main collateral vessel.

  12. IL-7-Induced Proliferation of Human Naive CD4 T-Cells Relies on Continued Thymic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana L.; Albuquerque, Adriana S.; Matoso, Paula; Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Bénédicte; Cheynier, Rémi; Ligeiro, Dário; Abecasis, Miguel; Anjos, Rui; Barata, João T.; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.

    2017-01-01

    Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31− subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels. Conversely, a significant contraction of the CD31+ naive subset was observed in the absence of thymic activity. This was associated with impaired responses of purified naive CD4 T-cells to IL-7, namely, in vitro proliferation and upregulation of CD31 expression, which likely potentiated the decline in recent thymic emigrants. Additionally, we found no apparent constraint in the differentiation of naive cells into the memory compartment in individuals completely lacking thymic activity despite upregulation of DUSP6, a phosphatase associated with increased TCR threshold. Of note, thymectomized individuals featuring some degree of thymopoiesis were able to preserve the size and diversity of the naive CD4 compartment, further arguing against complete thymectomy in infancy. Overall, our data suggest that robust peripheral mechanisms ensure the homeostasis of CD31− naive CD4 pool and point to the requirement of continuous thymic activity to the maintenance of IL-7-driven homeostatic proliferation of CD31+ naive CD4 T-cells, which is essential to secure T-cell diversity throughout life. PMID:28154568

  13. Vaginal dose assessment in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Can we really rely on dose-point evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limkin, Elaine Johanna; Dumas, Isabelle; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Chargari, Cyrus; Maroun, Pierre; Annède, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Seisen, Thomas; Doyeux, Kaya; Tailleur, Anne; Martinetti, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Haie-Meder, Christine; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Although dose-volume parameters in image-guided brachytherapy have become a standard, the use of posterior-inferior border of the pubic symphysis (PIBS) points has been recently proposed in the reporting of vaginal doses. The aim was to evaluate their pertinence. Nineteen patients who received image-guided brachytherapy after concurrent radiochemotherapy were included. Per treatment, CT scans were performed at Days 2 and 3, with reporting of the initial dwell positions and times. Doses delivered to the PIBS points were evaluated on each plan, considering that they were representative of one-third of the treatment. The movements of the applicator according to the PIBS point were analysed. Mean prescribed doses at PIBS -2, PIBS, PIBS +2 were, respectively, 2.23 ± 1.4, 6.39 ± 6.6, and 31.85 ± 36.06 Gy. Significant differences were observed between the 5 patients with vaginal involvement and the remaining 14 at the level of PIBS +2 and PIBS: +47.60 Gy and +7.46 Gy, respectively (p = 0.023 and 0.03). The variations between delivered and prescribed doses at PIBS points were not significant. However, at International commission on radiation units and measurements rectovaginal point, the delivered dose was decreased by 1.43 ± 2.49 Gy from the planned dose (p = 0.019). The delivered doses at the four points were strongly correlated with the prescribed doses with R(2) ranging from 0.93 to 0.95. The movements of the applicator in regard of the PIBS point assessed with the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine coordinates were insignificant. The doses evaluated at PIBS points are not impacted by intrafractional movements. PIBS and PIBS +2 dose points allow distinguishing the plans of patients with vaginal infiltration. Further studies are needed to correlate these parameters with vaginal morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. So you want to work? What employers say about job skills, recruitment and hiring employees who rely on AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Potts, Blyden B; Carey, Allison C

    2007-06-01

    In order to better understand employer perspectives with respect to hiring and working with people who use AAC and the kinds of employment barriers they believe exist for these individuals, a study into the job requirements, recruitment processes, and hiring processes of 27 employers in the United States was conducted. Interviews with the 27 employers focused on 48 jobs in 25 unique categories, many of which had previously been identified as desirable by 38 adults who used AAC (some of whom were employed and some of whom were seeking employment). Findings suggest that, while level of education is still important to employers, skills such as time management, problem solving, communication, use of an understandable and standard voice, and basic technology may be even more so. The study also found that having an effective job-related network is important, as is the ability to provide credible references and do well during in-person interviews with potential employers.

  15. Autoimmunity conferred by chs3-2D relies on CSA1, its adjacent TNL-encoding neighbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhu, Chipan; Cevik, Volkan; Johnson, Kaeli; Liu, Yanan; Sohn, Kee; Jones, Jonathan D; Holub, Eric B; Li, Xin

    2015-03-05

    Plant innate immunity depends on the function of a large number of intracellular immune receptor proteins, the majority of which are structurally similar to mammalian nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) proteins. CHILLING SENSITIVE 3 (CHS3) encodes an atypical Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR)-type NLR protein with an additional Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain at its C-terminus. The gain-of-function mutant allele chs3-2D exhibits severe dwarfism and constitutively activated defense responses, including enhanced resistance to virulent pathogens, high defence marker gene expression, and salicylic acid accumulation. To search for novel regulators involved in CHS3-mediated immune signaling, we conducted suppressor screens in the chs3-2D and chs3-2D pad4-1 genetic backgrounds. Alleles of sag101 and eds1-90 were isolated as complete suppressors of chs3-2D, and alleles of sgt1b were isolated as partial suppressors of chs3-2D pad4-1. These mutants suggest that SAG101, EDS1-90, and SGT1b are all positive regulators of CHS3-mediated defense signaling. Additionally, the TIR-type NLR-encoding CSA1 locus located genomically adjacent to CHS3 was found to be fully required for chs3-2D-mediated autoimmunity. CSA1 is located 3.9 kb upstream of CHS3 and is transcribed in the opposite direction. Altogether, these data illustrate the distinct genetic requirements for CHS3-mediated defense signaling.

  16. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin–severing function of villin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelmann, Florent; Chamaillard, Mathias; El-Marjou, Fatima; Simon, Anthony; Netter, Jeanne; Vignjevic, Danijela; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Grandjean, Teddy; Louvard, Daniel; Revenu, Céline; Robine, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we address how polarized enterocytes harboring actin-rich apical microvilli undergo extensive cell remodeling to drive injury repair. Using live imaging technologies, we demonstrate that enterocytes in vitro and in vivo rapidly depolarize their microvilli at the wound edge. Through its F-actin–severing activity, the microvillar actin-binding protein villin drives both apical microvilli disassembly in vitro and in vivo and promotes lamellipodial extension. Photoactivation experiments indicate that microvillar actin is mobilized at the lamellipodium, allowing optimal migration. Finally, efficient repair of colonic mechanical injuries requires villin severing of F-actin, emphasizing the importance of villin function in intestinal homeostasis. Thus, villin severs F-actin to ensure microvillus depolarization and enterocyte remodeling upon injury. This work highlights the importance of specialized apical pole disassembly for the repolarization of epithelial cells initiating migration. PMID:23520048

  17. Bridge-induced chromosome translocation in yeast relies upon a Rad54/Rdh54-dependent, Pol32-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tosato

    Full Text Available While in mammalian cells the genetic determinism of chromosomal translocation remains unclear, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an ideal model system to generate ad hoc translocations and analyze their cellular and molecular outcome. A linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by perfect homologies to two chromosomes triggers a bridge-induced translocation (BIT in budding yeast, with variable efficiency. A postulated two-step process to produce BIT translocants is based on the cooperation between the Homologous Recombination System (HRS and Break-Induced Replication (BIR; however, a clear indication of the molecular factors underlying the genetic mechanism is still missing. In this work we provide evidence that BIT translocation is elicited by the Rad54 helicase and completed by a Pol32-independent replication pathway. Our results demonstrate also that Rdh54 is involved in the stability of the translocants, suggesting a mitotic role in chromosome pairing and segregation. Moreover, when RAD54 is over-expressed, an ensemble of secondary rearrangements between repeated DNA tracts arise after the initial translocation event, leading to severe aneuploidy with loss of genetic material, which prompts the identification of fragile sites within the yeast genome.

  18. Retrieving Targeted Results from a Static File Repository using a Keyword matching Mechanism relying on a Cluster-based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina ZURINI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the web based solutions designed for learning contain, among the compulsory functions, the uploading of didactic materials of the person doing the examining (on a regular basis this being the professor and the possibility of accessing these by the examinee (on a regular basis this being the student, within this paper we have chosen to set the goal of finding a resolution that will enable the access of content relevant to the person being examined. Hereby we have suggested a prototype which will capacitate the singling out and grouping of documents depending on the keywords, which will be followed by a visual search depending on the distance between two documents, by the recurrence of the closest k documents to the one being the element of interest - reaching the optimal alternative in case of a performance oriented point of view. The algorithm needed for the extraction of this data is presented within the paper. An optimization model is proposed in order to reduce the time consuming component in regards to the minimization of differences in the quality of the documents resulted in the automatic search using a k Nearest Neighbour grid search engine.

  19. Brain, not brawn : tiny Bruin Instruments relies on innovation to win a global niche for its chemical pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Bruin Instruments is a chemical pump manufacturer based in Alberta. The company has designed low pressure pumps for shale gas operations and has also developed low volume chemical injection pumps to reduce the use of expensive chemicals in field pumps. The company uses nitriting main rods in their pumps to improve durability, and has added clear plastic lids to their chemical pump mechanisms to allow operators to monitor liquid flow without removing the lid. The company is now investigating methods of applying solar technology to its pumps, and is in the process of developing a controller that combines solar control and regulation functions in a single device. The company's manufacturing and repairs operations now account for 80 per cent of its revenue. Its line of pumps will soon be carried by suppliers in the United States. While the recent economic downturn has led to cutbacks, Bruin Instruments has made a long-term commitment to expanding its international clientele. 2 figs.

  20. How to reduce resistance to movement of alkane liquid drops across tilted surfaces without relying on surface roughening and perfluorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2012-12-21

    Alkylsilane-derived monolayer-covered surfaces generally display a reasonably good level of hydrophobicity but poor oleophobicity. Here, we demonstrate that the physical attributes of alkylsilane-derived surfaces (liquid-like or solid-like) are dependent on the alkyl chain length and density, and these factors subsequently have significant influence upon the dynamic dewetting behavior toward alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), where n = 7-16). In this study, we prepared and characterized hybrid films through a simple sol-gel process based on the cohydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture of a range of alkyltriethoxysilanes (C(n)H(2n+1)Si(OEt)(3), where n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Surprisingly, when the carbon number (C(n)) of alkyl chain was 10 and below, the produced hybrid films were all smooth, highly transparent, and showed negligible contact angle (CA) hysteresis. On these hybrid surfaces, 5 μL drops of alkanes (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, and n-decane) could move easily at low tilt angles (oleophobicity. Therefore, the critical C(n) of alkyl chain used for determining final dynamic dewetting behavior against alkane liquids was 12. Furthermore, our hybrid surfaces exhibited excellent antifingerprint properties, particularly demonstrating low adhesion and easy removal from the surface.

  1. Restoration of the Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum in The Netherlands : Can we rely on soil seed banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus, G; Verhagen, R; Bekker, RM; Grootjans, AP; Bruelheide, H.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation and soil seed banks of a threatened Atlantic fen meadow community were studied using recent phytosociological records and seedling emergence from soil samples. Similarly managed but differently degraded stands that suffered different levels of species impoverishment were compared. The act

  2. A CORF computational model of a simple cell that relies on LGN input outperforms the Gabor function model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local contour information from a visual scene. The 2D Gabor function (GF) model has gained particular popularity as a computational model of a simple cell. However, it short-cuts the LGN, it cannot reproduce a number of properties of real

  3. Lactoperoxidase folding and catalysis relies on the stabilization of the alpha-helix rich core domain: a thermal unfolding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Barbara; Leal, Sónia S; Ghibaudi, Elena M; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2007-09-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) belongs to the mammalian peroxidase family and catalyzes the oxidation of halides, pseudo-halides and a number of aromatic substrates at the expense of hydrogen peroxide. Despite the complex physiological role of LPO and its potential involvement in carcinogenic mechanisms, cystic fibrosis and inflammatory processes, little is known on the folding and structural stability of this protein. We have undertaken an investigation of the conformational dynamics and catalytic properties of LPO during thermal unfolding, using complementary biophysical techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, electron spin resonance, optical absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies) together with biological activity assays. LPO is a particularly stable protein, capable of maintaining catalysis and structural integrity up to a high temperature, undergoing irreversible unfolding at 70 degrees C. We have observed that the first stages of the thermal denaturation involve a minor conformational change occurring at 40 degrees C, possibly at the level of the protein beta-sheets, which nevertheless does not result in an unfolding transition. Only at higher temperature, the protein hydrophobic core, which is rich in alpha-helices, unfolds with concomitant disruption of the catalytic heme pocket and activity loss. Evidences concerning the stabilizing role of the disulfide bridges and the covalently bound heme cofactor are shown and discussed in the context of understanding the structural stability determinants in a relatively large protein.

  4. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  5. Transcription of the major neurospora crassa microRNA-like small RNAs relies on RNA polymerase III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Yang

    Full Text Available Most plant and animal microRNAs (miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II. We previously discovered miRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and uncovered at least four different pathways for milRNA production. To understand the evolutionary origin of milRNAs, we determined the roles of polymerases II and III (Pol II and Pol III in milRNA transcription. Our results show that Pol III is responsible for the transcription of the major milRNAs produced in this organism. The inhibition of Pol III activity by an inhibitor or by gene silencing abolishes the production of most abundant milRNAs and pri-milRNAs. In addition, Pol III associates with these milRNA producing loci. Even though silencing of Pol II does not affect the synthesis of the most abundant milRNAs, Pol II or both Pol II and Pol III are associated with some milRNA-producing loci, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two polymerases for some milRNA transcription. Furthermore, we show that one of the Pol III-transcribed milRNAs is derived from a tRNA precursor, and its biogenesis requires RNase Z, which cleaves the tRNA moiety to generate pre-milRNA. Our study identifies the transcriptional machinery responsible for the synthesis of fungal milRNAs and sheds light on the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic small RNAs.

  6. Immigrant and Refugee Students across "Receiving" Nations: To What Extent Can Educators Rely on PISA for Answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Massive population shift is a current global reality--especially given some of the latest development on European shores; some are calling it a humanitarian crisis. Although the United States (US) receives a large number of immigrants (documented and not) and about 70,000 refugees each year, it is certainly not the only nation to do so.…

  7. Postprandial insulin action relies on meal composition and hepatic parasympathetics: dependency on glucose and amino acids: Meal, parasympathetics & insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo A; Gaspar, Joana M; Lamarão, Iva; Lautt, W Wayne; Macedo, M Paula

    2016-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) increases following a meal. Meal composition affects postprandial glucose disposal but still remains unclear which nutrients and mechanisms are involved. We hypothesized that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids stimulate hepatic parasympathetic nerves, potentiating insulin action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 h fasted and anesthetized. Two series of experiments were performed. (A) IS was assessed before and after liquid test meal administration (10 ml.kg(-1), intraenteric): glucose + amino acids + lipids (GAL, n=6); glucose (n=5); amino acids (n=5); lipids (n=3); glucose + amino acids (GA, n=9); amino acids + lipids (n=3); and glucose + lipids (n=4). (B) Separately, fasted animals were submitted to hepatic parasympathetic denervation (DEN); IS was assessed before and after GAL (n=4) or GA administration (n=4). (A) Both GAL and GA induced significant insulin sensitization. GAL increased IS from 97.9±6.2 mg glucose/kg bw (fasting) to 225.4±18.3 mg glucose/kg bw (Pamino acids trigger a vagal reflex that involves hepatic parasympathetic nerves.

  8. Indonésie : renaissance de la société civile ou sauve-qui-peut général ?

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Depuis l'annonce, par le président B. J. Habibie, de la tenue d'élections libres en mai 1999, une myriade de nouvelles formations politiques ont vu le jour à Jakarta. Groupuscules porteurs de revendications particularistes, comme le Parti des personnes âgées, ou cénacles d'intellectuels soucieux de redonner vie à un débat public national, comme le Groupement pour la justice et l'unité nationale, la plupart de ces quelque quatre-vingt-dix nouvelles organisations ne franchiront vraisemblablemen...

  9. Qui est Madame Bovary?%谁是包法利夫人——福楼拜小说人物文本内外形象综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俞霞

    2008-01-01

    福楼拜的《包法利夫人》自诞生起一直吸引着学者、文人及普通大众的阅读兴趣。如果说一百五十年前的那场诉讼刺激了随后小说的发行,一百五十年之后,单凭小说中几段女主人公的风流韵事已无法保证小说的可读性。然而,无论是作品文字本身,还是小说然而,无论是作品文字本身,还是小说塑造的种种人物,都在二十世纪读者的阅读中展现了更多层次的魅力。

  10. La qualification des dirigeants de santé : « Une activité professionnelle qui est encore très peu connue en gestion ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alvear Vega

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available L’ « activité de qualification » du dirigeant de santé est étudiée à partir d’une entrée complémentaire de celle de la Théorie Managériale. Elle est comprise d’un point de vue microsocial, relatif à la Théorie de l’Activité et de la Théorie Cognitive de l’Apprentissage. Elle s’appuie méthodologiquement sur le courant théorique de la pragmatique discursive, dans un type d’organisation bien déterminé : l’hôpital de la ville de Curicó au Chili. Nous avons conclu que les « activités de qualification » sont des requalifications pour les autres ; elles sont comprises comme des « propositions explicites » faites par le dirigeant, dans l’intention d’influencer et d’agir sur la construction du sens faite par autrui et en permettant au dirigeant de construire un « apprentissage interprétatif ».

  11. Israel y Atenas o ¿a quién pertenece la razón anamnética? Sobre la unidad en la diversidad multicultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habermas, Jürgen

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Frente a quienes afirman que la «razón anamnétíca» es una cultura ausente del pensamiento occidental, Habermas defiende en este artículo que es la «razón comunicativa» su natural heredera. Habermas reconoce que a esa cultura que viene de Jerusalén debe la filosofía europea la Inspiración de sus topoi más sobresalientes: los de sujeto, autonomía, liberación, historia... Pero en tiempos postmetafísicos sólo la pragmática universal de su «razón comunicativa» puede hacerse con el potencial semántico inserto en la cultura del monoteísmo judío.

  12. Je suis celui qui parle. L’interruption de la lecture dans Le Bavard de L.-R. Des Forêts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Servais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available On s’interroge dans cet article sur le mode d’adresse mis en place dans Le Bavard. Un bavard, c’est-à-dire, à bien des égards, un écrivain, peut-il s’adresser à l’autre, et à quelles conditions ? Cette adresse est déterminée par un rapport au langage, que nous explorons. En nous intéressant d’abord au rapport à l’autre mis en place par le bavard lui-même, puis à la manière dont ce rapport à l’autre infléchit, obscurcit le texte et s’y figure, pour ensuite en venir à la position du lecteur empirique. En somme, Le Bavard ferait de nous des lecteurs parce qu’il interrompt la croyance à l’œuvre dans la lecture.The present article questions the mode of address used in Le Bavard. Can a “bavard”, a prattler, that, in several respects is a writer, address another, and in what circumstances? This address is determined by a relation to language, which is also the object of our investigation. We will first explore the relationship to the other established by the “bavard” himself, then the way in which this very relationship warps and obscures the text as it is reflected in it, and finally the position of the empirical reader. At the end of the day it is argued that Le Bavard turns us into readers because the text disrupts the belief that underlies the act of reading.En este artículo interrogamos el tipo de interpelación utilizado en Le Bavard (El Hablador. ¿Un hablador, es decir, desde otro punto de vista, un escritor, puede dirigirse al otro, y bajo qué condiciones ? Esta interpelación está determinada por la relación al lenguaje, el cual exploramos interesándonos primero en la relación con el otro puesta en práctica por el hablador mismo, luego a la manera en la que esta relación con el otro se desvía, oscurece el texto y se ve reflejado en él, para concluir con la posición del lector empírico. En suma, Le Bavard haría de nosotros unos lectores porque interrumpe la creencia en la obra durante la lectura.

  13. ¿A quiénes afecta el desempleo? Análisis de la tasa de incidencia en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe García

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate represents a composite indicator that takes account of both thenumber of unemployed people and the average duration of employment. The analysis of this rate allows to portrait a more complete profile of those individuals who are more likely to either become unemployed or stay in such a situation. We find significant differences in the analysis of the unemployment rate and the incidence rate in Colombia, which suggests the importance of addressing certain elements underlying unemployment duration when appraising unemployment typology and policies aimed to overcome it.

  14. An Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of the Proposed Channel Realignment Area at Big Stone-Whetstone Flood Control Project, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Forest. With Nancy L. Woolworth . For the United States3 Forest Service. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Fall, 1979. Site Supervisor: Site Survey of the Stanton and...Survey of the Bureau of Reclamation Irrigation Project Near Pollock and Herreid, Campbell County, South Dakota. With Nancy L. Woolworth . Summer, 1978...the Historic and Prehistoric Resources of theChipewa Natlonal Forest. W-ith Nancy L. Woolworth . Yore United-9tates Forest Service. Aerial Infrared

  15. ¿Quién imagina la independencia? A propósito de la celebración del bicentenario en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se pregunta por tres aspectos relacionados con las políticas de la ignorancia y los silenciamientos que operan en las retóricas y agendas celebracionistas del Bicentenario de la Independencia en Colombia. El primer aspecto subraya que la colonialidad no terminó en el siglo XIX, sino que se mantiene fuertemente hasta hoy. El segundo, que se hace indispensable una deselitización de las genealogías de la colombianidad, incluyendo lo que aparece como Independencia. Finalmente se comprende cómo este tipo de eventos responden más a las preocupaciones e historicidad de quienes celebran, que a aquello supuestamente celebrado.

  16. Class Acts: How Teachers Awaken Potential = Docentes al habla: Revelar a los alumnos el tesoro de su potencial = Performances d'enseignants: Comment eveiller un potential qui dort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication presents portraits of nine teachers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Jordan, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, and Trinidad and Tobago who are opening up young minds and nurturing their potential. The portraits describe how these teachers created an educational situation in which students could thrive and grow. Some of the…

  17. Systeme des fautes et correction phonetique des Anglais qui apprennent le francais (System of Errors and Phonetic Correction of English Speakers Learning French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Claire

    1975-01-01

    This article provides the results of an investigation of the system of pronunciation faults of English speakers learning French, and describes means of correction based on the verbo-tonal system. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  18. Ces émotions linguistiques qui nous collent: Les mots émotifs de la langue maternelle, entre fidélité et trahison en traduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kotob, Hayssam

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Quand on dit j'ai trouvé le mot qu'il faut! Ou je ne trouve pas le mot. Est-ce que parce que la langue française manque de mots? Ou une langue exprime le monde mieux qu'une autre? Si les linguistes sont unanimes qu'il n'y a pas de langues supérieures et que toutes les langues sont capables d'exprimer le monde, les auteurs continuenet à trahir les langues avec lesquelles ils ont choisi de s'exprimer.

  19. LA MUNICIPALITE DE BISTRIŢA - UN POSSIBLE MODELE DE SURMONTER LES RISQUES QUI MENACENT LE CENTRE-VILLE HISTORIQUE ET DE VALORISATION TOURISTIQUE DE CELUI-CI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. PĂCURAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Municipality of Bistriţa – a potential model for surpassing urban risks and for the touristic capitalisation of its historic center. Situated on the trail of an important trade route, exploiting from an early age its rich natural surroundings, Bistriţa has developed as a typical Transylvanian city. Its historic center, built during the XIV-XVII centuries, compact and uniform, is a valuable urban and architectural heritage and was declared a protected architectural area. In time, especially during 1948-1990, a series of urban risks affected Bistriţa’s historic center, due to the carelessness and ignorance towards the past and the area’s identity, which are highlighted in this study. After 1990, a beneficial process of restoring this heritage began, along with the awareness and the sense of ownership of the local community regarding its value and along with its capitalisation through tourism.

  20. Faire front contre les assassins de l'Histoire, "L'avenir appartient à celui qui a la plus longue mémoire" Friedrich Nietzche

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site internet du blog des Musées d'art et d'histoire (http://blog.mahgeneve.ch): "Les images d'actes de vandalisme perpétrés dans les musées du nord de l'Irak, quelques mois seulement après que l'on a vu brûler les manuscrits de Tombouctou (Mali), ont semé la consternation dans le monde entier. C'était leur but ; il a été parfaitement atteint.".