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Sample records for limb kinematics analysis

  1. Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Tawakal Hasnain Baluch; Adnan Masood; Javaid Iqbal; Umer Izhar; Umar Shahbaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.

  2. A Descriptive Study of Lower Limb Torsional Kinematic Profiles in Children With Spastic Diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Ilharreborde, Brice; Megrot, Fabrice; Mallet, Cindy; Azarpira, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan; Presedo, Ana; Penneçot, Georges F

    2015-09-01

    Lower limb rotational anomalies in spastic diplegic children with cerebral palsy (CP) are common and difficult to identify through physical examination alone. The identification and treatment of the overall rotational disorders must be considered to restore physiological lever-arms lengths and lever-arms orientation.The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of lower limb rotational malalignment and to describe the distribution of the different kinematic torsional profiles in children with spastic diplegia. Instrumented gait analysis data from 188 children with spastic diplegia were retrospectively reviewed. None of the patients had undergone surgery previously or received botulinum toxin treatment within 6 months before the review. Kinematic data, collected at the midstance phase, included: pelvic, hip, and ankle rotation and foot progression angle. The prevalence of kinematic rotational deviations was 98.4%. Sixty-one percent of the children walked with an internal foot progression angle and 21% exhibited external alignment. The pelvis was internally rotated in 41% of the cases and externally in another 27%. Hip rotation was internal in 29% and external in 27% of the cases. Ankle rotation was internal in 55% and external in 16% of the cases. Lower limb rotational anomalies involved more than one level in 77% of the limbs. A kinematic compensatory deviation was identified in at least one level in 48% of the limbs. Kinematic rotational anomalies were identified in nearly all the 188 children in the study. The multilevel involvement of lower limb malalignment was not systematically associated with compensatory mechanisms between the levels. Ankle rotational anomalies were the most frequent cause of lower limb torsional deviations followed by pelvic malalignment. Level IV.

  3. Global sensitivity analysis of the joint kinematics during gait to the parameters of a lower limb multi-body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habachi, Aimad; Moissenet, Florent; Duprey, Sonia; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2015-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a typical part of biomechanical models evaluation. For lower limb multi-body models, sensitivity analyses have been mainly performed on musculoskeletal parameters, more rarely on the parameters of the joint models. This study deals with a global sensitivity analysis achieved on a lower limb multi-body model that introduces anatomical constraints at the ankle, tibiofemoral, and patellofemoral joints. The aim of the study was to take into account the uncertainty of parameters (e.g. 2.5 cm on the positions of the skin markers embedded in the segments, 5° on the orientation of hinge axis, 2.5 mm on the origin and insertion of ligaments) using statistical distributions and propagate it through a multi-body optimisation method used for the computation of joint kinematics from skin markers during gait. This will allow us to identify the most influential parameters on the minimum of the objective function of the multi-body optimisation (i.e. the sum of the squared distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions) and on the joint angles and displacements. To quantify this influence, a Fourier-based algorithm of global sensitivity analysis coupled with a Latin hypercube sampling is used. This sensitivity analysis shows that some parameters of the motor constraints, that is to say the distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions, and the kinematic constraints are highly influencing the joint kinematics obtained from the lower limb multi-body model, for example, positions of the skin markers embedded in the shank and pelvis, parameters of the patellofemoral hinge axis, and parameters of the ankle and tibiofemoral ligaments. The resulting standard deviations on the joint angles and displacements reach 36° and 12 mm. Therefore, personalisation, customisation or identification of these most sensitive parameters of the lower limb multi-body models may be considered as essential.

  4. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  5. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  6. [Kinematics Modeling and Analysis of Central-driven Robot for Upper Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping

    2015-12-01

    The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.

  7. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase equations is developed to avoid matrix inversion. The allocation of constant transformations allows the position and orientation end-coordinate systems to be aligned with each other. Also, the redefinition of the DH transformations and the use of constraints allow decoupling the shared DOF between the legs and the torso. Finally, a geometric approach to avoid the singularities during the walking process is indicated. Numerical data is presented along with an experimental implementation to prove the validity of the analytical results.

  8. Effect of Hemipelvectomy Amputation on Kinematics and Muscle Force Generation of Lower Limb While Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Sharifmoradi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion The kinematics pattern of the patient’s lower limb during gait is different. Kinematic changes are associated with a significant increase in lower limb muscle generation that can have a degenerative effect on the knee joint. So the importance of this subject should be considered by rehabilitation experts.

  9. The relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Murley, George S; Butterworth, Paul; Levinger, Pazit; Menz, Hylton B; Landorf, Karl B

    2013-07-01

    Variations in foot posture, such as pes planus (low-arched foot) or pes cavus (high-arched foot), are thought to be an intrinsic risk factor for injury due to altered motion of the lower extremity. Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking. A systematic database search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and Inspec was undertaken in March 2012. Two independent reviewers applied predetermined inclusion criteria to selected articles for review and selected articles were assessed for quality. Articles were then grouped into two broad categories: (i) those comparing mean kinematic parameters between different foot postures, and (ii) those examining associations between foot posture and kinematics using correlation analysis. A final selection of 12 articles was reviewed. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Selected articles primarily focused on comparing planus and normal foot postures. Five articles compared kinematic parameters between different foot postures - there was some evidence for increased motion in planus feet, but this was limited by small effect sizes. Seven articles investigated associations between foot posture and kinematics - there was evidence that increasing planus foot posture was positively associated with increased frontal plane motion of the rearfoot. The body of literature provides some evidence of a relationship between pes planus and increased lower limb motion during gait, however this was not conclusive due to heterogeneity between studies and small effect sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of upper limb kinematics four years after subacute robot-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Francisco, Gerard E; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Émilie

    2018-04-25

    To assess functional status and robot-based kinematic measures four years after subacute robot-assisted rehabilitation in hemiparesis. Twenty-two patients with stroke-induced hemiparesis underwent a ≥3-month upper limb combined program of robot-assisted and occupational therapy from two months post-stroke, and received community-based therapy after discharge. Four years later, 19 (86%) participated in this follow-up study. Assessments 2, 5 and 54 months post-stroke included Fugl-Meyer (FM), Modified Frenchay Scale (MFS, at Month 54) and robot-based kinematic measures of targeting tasks in three directions, north, paretic and non-paretic: distance covered, velocity, accuracy (root mean square (RMS) error from straight line) and smoothness (number of velocity peaks; upward changes in accuracy and smoothness represent worsening). Analysis was stratified by FM score at two months: ≥17 (Group 1) or Kinematic changes (three directions pooled) were: distance -1[-17;2]% (ns); velocity, -8[-32;28]% (ns); accuracy, +6[-13;98]% (ns); smoothness, +44[-6;126]% (p robot-assisted upper limb training during subacute post-stroke phase, movement kinematics deteriorated despite community-based therapy, especially in more severely impaired patients. EudraCT 2016-005121-36. Registration: 2016-12-20. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 2009-11-24.

  11. Design and kinematic analysis of a novel upper limb exoskeleton for rehabilitation of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiaee, Amin; Soltani-Zarrin, Rana; Langari, Reza; Tafreshi, Reza

    2017-07-01

    This paper details the design process and features of a novel upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton named CLEVER (Compact, Low-weight, Ergonomic, Virtual/Augmented Reality Enhanced Rehabilitation) ARM. The research effort is focused on designing a lightweight and ergonomic upper-limb rehabilitation exoskeleton capable of producing diverse and perceptually rich training scenarios. To this end, the knowledge available in the literature of rehabilitation robotics is used along with formal conceptual design techniques. This paper briefly reviews the systematic approach used for design of the exoskeleton, and elaborates on the specific details of the proposed design concept and its advantages over other design possibilities. The kinematic structure of CLEVER ARM has eight degrees of freedom supporting the motion of shoulder girdle, glenohumeral joint, elbow and wrist. Six degrees of freedom of the exoskeleton are active, and the two degrees of freedom supporting the wrist motion are passive. Kinematics of the proposed design is studied analytically and experimentally with the aid of a 3D printed prototype. The paper is concluded by some remarks on the optimization of the design, motorization of device, and the fabrication challenges.

  12. Inverse Kinematics for Upper Limb Compound Movement Estimation in Exoskeleton-Assisted Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types.

  13. Inverse Kinematics for Upper Limb Compound Movement Estimation in Exoskeleton-Assisted Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types. PMID:27403420

  14. Inverse Kinematics for Upper Limb Compound Movement Estimation in Exoskeleton-Assisted Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury. The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension. Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage. The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types.

  15. Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of a 3-DOF Upper-Limb Exoskeleton with an Internally Rotated Elbow Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parameters of the 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton were determined, and the differences and singularities of the two exoskeletons were analyzed. The workspace, the joint torques and the power consumption of two exoskeletons were analyzed by kinematics and dynamics, and an exoskeleton prototype experiment was performed. The results showed that, compared with a typical anthropomorphic upper-limb exoskeleton, the non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton had the same actual workspace; eliminated singularities within the workspace; improved the elbow joint force situation; and the maximum elbow joint torque, elbow external-flexion/internal-extension and shoulder flexion/extension power consumption were significantly reduced. The proposed non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton can be applied to a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton in industrial settings.

  16. Locomotion mode identification for lower limbs using neuromuscular and joint kinematic signals.

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    Afzal, Taimoor; White, Gannon; Wright, Andrew B; Iqbal, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recent development in lower limb prosthetics has seen an emergence of powered prosthesis that have the capability to operate in different locomotion modes. However, these devices cannot transition seamlessly between modes such as level walking, stair ascent and descent and up slope and down slope walking. They require some form of user input that defines the human intent. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotion mode detection system and evaluate its performance for different sensor configurations and to study the effect of locomotion mode detection with and without electromyography (EMG) signals while using kinematic data from hip joint of non-dominant/impaired limb and an accelerometer. Data was collected from four able bodied subjects that completed two circuits that contained standing, level-walking, ramp ascent and descent and stair ascent and descent. By using only the kinematic data from the hip joint and accelerometer data the system was able to identify the transitions, stance and swing phases with similar performance as compared to using only EMG and accelerometer data. However, significant improvement in classification error was observed when EMG, kinematic and accelerometer data were used together to identify the locomotion modes. The higher recognition rates when using the kinematic data along with EMG shows that the joint kinematics could be beneficial in intent recognition systems of locomotion modes.

  17. Kinematic measures for upper limb motor assessment during robot-mediated training in patients with severe sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    Kinematic assessments are increasingly used as motor outcome measures during upper limb robot-assisted training, in addition to clinical scales. However, their relevance has not been evaluated much. Thirty-eight patients with severe sub-acute stroke (age 56 ± 17 [19-87] years; time since stroke, 55 ± 22 days) carried out 16 sessions (average 3/week, 35 ± 15 days) of upper limb robot-assisted training combined with standard therapy. Pre/post motor performance was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Motor Status Scale (MSS) and kinematic measures. Motor outcomes were compared and relationships between clinical and kinematic outcomes were analyzed. All clinical and kinematic outcomes improved after training (p kinematic measures were strongly correlated with clinical scores. Correlations between clinical and kinematic changes were moderate (r = -0.65 for change in FM Proximal score and change in accuracy measure). However, smoothness and accuracy indicators were shown to be responsive measures. This study demonstrated that baseline kinematic measures and their pre/post training changes were significantly correlated with clinical motor outcome measures. However, even if kinematic measures are valid for the evaluation of motor impairment we cannot propose to substitute common clinical measures of motor function which also evaluate functional abilities of the upper limb.

  18. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower limbs during forward ice hockey skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn, Tegan; Turcotte, René; Pearsall, David J; Loh, Jonathan

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe lower limb kinematics in three dimensions during the forward skating stride in hockey players and to contrast skating techniques between low- and high-calibre skaters. Participant motions were recorded with four synchronized digital video cameras while wearing reflective marker triads on the thighs, shanks, and skates. Participants skated on a specialized treadmill with a polyethylene slat bed at a self-selected speed for 1 min. Each participant completed three 1-min skating trials separated by 5 min of rest. Joint and limb segment angles were calculated within the local (anatomical) and global reference planes. Similar gross movement patterns and stride rates were observed; however, high-calibre participants showed a greater range and rate of joint motion in both the sagittal and frontal planes, contributing to greater stride length for high-calibre players. Furthermore, consequent postural differences led to greater lateral excursion during the power stroke in high-calibre skaters. In conclusion, specific kinematic differences in both joint and limb segment angle movement patterns were observed between low- and high-calibre skaters.

  19. Kinematics analysis of a robotic zipper prototype for miniaturisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharom, M.Z.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanism and kinematics analysis of a robotic zipper prototype. This generic version of the robotic zipper is dedicated to automatically open and close the zipper which could be beneficial to elderly, people with physical disability, upper limb reduction deficiencies (ULRD),

  20. Differences in kinematics of the support limb depends on specific movement tasks of take-off

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    Vladimír Hojka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many sport activities are a sequence of jumps (running, jumping, hurdling etc.. Each jump flight phase is the result of the execution of the previous support phase. Objective: The goal of the research was to identify differences in adjustment of the support lower limb and differences in take-off kinematics in specific take-off movement task. Methods: 14 male athletes (22.6 ± 4.4 years; 182.4 ± 5.3 cm; 74.7 ± 6.2 kg took part in a laboratory experiment. Each athlete performed five different take-off movements (running, acceleration running - second step, long jump take-off, high jump take-off and take-off to the hurdle. System Qualisys was used to analyze the kinematics of the support limb. Dynamics of the support phase was monitored via force plate. ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used to measure the significance of the differences between different take off tasks. Results: Dynamic characteristic showed significant differences in take-off (p < .001. This variability is caused by differences in kinematic parameters at the instant of touch-down, minimum joint angles and take-off. The most important finding was different variability in range of motion in eccentric or concentric phases of each jump. Vertically orientated jumps are terminated in a higher degree of extension. Horizontal take-off types are characterized by the highest ranges of motion especially in the ankle joint. Conclusions: The support lower limb compliance is adjusted to the required task, which is related to lower limb kinematics during the support phase. High range of motion in each joint refers to more compliant adjustment of the joint.

  1. Effect of Jump Interval Training on Kinematics of the Lower Limbs and Running Economy.

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    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Pupo, Juliano Dal; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Mochizuki, Luis; Moro, Antônio R P

    2018-02-01

    Ache-Dias, J, Pupo, JD, Dellagrana, RA, Teixeira, AS, Mochizuki, L, and Moro, ARP. Effect of jump interval training on kinematics of the lower limbs and running economy. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 416-422, 2017-This study analyzed the effects of the addition of jump interval training (JIT) to continuous endurance training (40-minute running at 70% of peak aerobic velocity, 3 times per week for 4 weeks) on kinematic variables and running economy (RE) during submaximal constant-load running. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized into control group (CG) or experimental group (EG) performed the endurance training. In addition, the EG performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4-6 bouts of continuous vertical jumping (30 seconds) with 5-minute intervals. The oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) during the submaximal test (performed at 9 km·h) was similar before (EG: 38.48 ± 2.75 ml·kg·min; CG: 36.45 ± 2.70 ml·kg·min) and after training (EG: 37.42 ± 2.54 ml·kg·min; CG: 35.81 ± 3.10 ml·kg·min). No effect of training, group, or interaction (p > 0.05) was found for RE. There was no interaction or group effect for the kinematic variables (p > 0.05). Most of the kinematic variables had a training effect for both groups (support time [p ≤ 0.05]; step rate [SR; p ≤ 0.05]; and step length [SL; p ≤ 0.05]). In addition, according to the practical significance analysis (percentage chances of a better/trivial/worse effect), important effects in leg stiffness (73/25/2), vertical stiffness (73/25/2), SR (71/27/2), and SL (64/33/3) were found for the EG. No significant relationship between RE and stiffness were found for EG and CG. In conclusion, the results suggest that JIT induces important changes in the kinematics of the lower limbs of recreational runners, but the changes do not affect RE.

  2. Lower-limb kinematics of single-leg squat performance in young adults.

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    Horan, Sean A; Watson, Steven L; Carty, Christopher P; Sartori, Massimo; Weeks, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the kinematic parameters that characterize good and poor single-leg squat (SLS) performance. A total of 22 healthy young adults free from musculoskeletal impairment were recruited for testing. For each SLS, both two-dimensional video and three-dimensional motion analysis data were collected. Pelvis, hip, and knee angles were calculated using a reliable and validated lower-limb (LL) biomechanical model. Two-dimensional video clips of SLSs were blindly assessed in random order by eight musculoskeletal physiotherapists using a 10-point ordinal scale. To facilitate between-group comparisons, SLS performances were stratified by tertiles corresponding to poor, intermediate, and good SLS performance. Mean ratings of SLS performance assessed by physiotherapists were 8.3 (SD 0.5), 6.8 (SD 0.7), and 4.0 (SD 0.8) for good, intermediate, and poor squats, respectively. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that people whose SLS performance was assessed as poor exhibited increased hip adduction, reduced knee flexion, and increased medio-lateral displacement of the knee joint centre compared to those whose SLS performance was assessed as good (p≤0.05). Overall, poor SLS performance is characterized by inadequate knee flexion and excessive frontal plane motion of the knee and hip. Future investigations of SLS performance should consider standardizing knee flexion angle to illuminate other influential kinematic parameters.

  3. Rebound boots change lower limb muscle activation and kinematics during different fitness exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Mateus; Dellagrana, Rodolfo André; Dos Santos, Juliane Cristine Lopes; Carpes, Felipe P; Gheller, Rodrigo Ghedini; da Silva, De Angelys de Ceselles Seixas; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate electromyography and kinematic parameters of the lower limbs using rebound boots (RB) and barefoot during a gym workout. This information can be helpful to practitioners to schedule rehabilitation and training programs. Ten women (25 ± 9 years) volunteered for the study; inclusion criteria were as follows: subjects must have experienced the use of RB and the analyzed exercises for at least 6 months, and have no previous injuries in the lower limbs. Seven exercises were performed for 30 s with the RB and subsequently barefoot. Data from muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and 2D kinematics were collected. The use of RB triggered postural changes, characterized by greater hip extension (in 4 of the exercises) and knee extension (in 6 of the exercises) for the landing. RB reduced activation mainly in LG (in 6 of the exercise) while no changes were observed for VL (except in exercise 1) and BF. RB change kinematics and muscle activation suggesting changes in the way the legs absorb and transmit force during jumps. LG was the main muscle affected by the use of RB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Brain Damage and Upper Limb Kinematics in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

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    Lisa Mailleux

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP virtually nothing is known on the relation between structural brain damage and upper limb (UL kinematics quantified with three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA. This explorative study aimed to (1 investigate differences in UL kinematics between children with different lesion timings, i.e., periventricular white matter (PWM vs. cortical and deep gray matter (CDGM lesions and (2 to explore the relation between UL kinematics and lesion location and extent within each lesion timing group.Methods: Forty-eight children (age 10.4 ± 2.7 year; 29 boys; 21 right-sided; 33 PWM; 15 CDGM underwent an UL 3DMA during a reach-to-grasp task. Spatiotemporal parameters [movement duration, (timing of maximum velocity, trajectory straightness], the Arm Profile Score (APS and Arm Variable Scores (AVS were extracted. The APS and AVS refer to the total amount of movement pathology and movement deviations of the wrist, elbow, shoulder, scapula and trunk respectively. Brain lesion location and extent were scored based on FLAIR-images using a semi-quantitative MRI-scale.Results: Children with CDGM lesions showed more aberrant spatiotemporal parameters (p < 0.03 and more movement pathology (APS, p = 0.003 compared to the PWM group, mostly characterized by increased wrist flexion (p = 0.01. In the CDGM group, moderate to high correlations were found between lesion location and extent and duration, timing of maximum velocity and trajectory straightness (r = 0.53–0.90. Lesion location and extent were further moderately correlated with distal UL movement pathology (wrist flexion/extension, elbow pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension; r = 0.50–0.65 and with the APS (r = 0.51–0.63. In the PWM group, only a few and low correlations were observed, mostly between damage to the PLIC and higher AVS of elbow flexion/extension, shoulder elevation and trunk rotation (r = 0.35–0.42. Regression analysis

  5. Assessment of three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper limb during simulated swimming using wearable inertial-magnetic measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Magalhães, Fabrício Anício; Di Michele, Rocco; Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the joint kinematics during swimming plays a fundamental role both in sports conditioning and in clinical contexts. Contrary to the traditional video analysis, wearable inertial-magnetic measurements units (IMMUs) allow to analyse both the underwater and aerial phases of the swimming stroke over the whole length of the swimming pool. Furthermore, the rapid calibration and short data processing required by IMMUs provide coaches and athletes with an immediate feedback on swimming kinematics during training. This study aimed to develop a protocol to assess the three-dimensional kinematics of the upper limbs during swimming using IMMUs. Kinematics were evaluated during simulated dry-land swimming trials performed in the laboratory by eight swimmers. A stereo-photogrammetric system was used as the gold standard. The results showed high coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) values, with median (first-third quartile) of 0.97 (0.93-0.95) and 0.99 (0.97-0.99) for simulated front-crawl and breaststroke, respectively. Furthermore, the joint angles were estimated with an accuracy increasing from distal to proximal joints, with wrist indices showing median CMC values always higher than 0.90. The present findings represent an important step towards the practical use of technology based on IMMUs for the kinematic analysis of swimming in applied contexts.

  6. Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During Common Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul Anthony; Smith, Laura Constance; Herrington, Lee

    2015-10-01

    Unilateral body-weight exercises are commonly used to strengthen the lower limbs during rehabilitation after injury, but data comparing the loading of the limbs during these tasks are limited. To compare joint kinetics and kinematics during 3 commonly used rehabilitation exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. A total of 9 men (age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.08 m, mass = 80.1 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Participants performed the single-legged squat, forward lunge, and reverse lunge with kinetic data captured via 2 force plates and 3-dimensional kinematic data collected using a motion-capture system. Peak ground reaction forces, maximum joint angles, and peak sagittal-joint moments. We observed greater eccentric and concentric peak vertical ground reaction forces during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P ≤ .001). Both lunge variations demonstrated greater knee and hip angles than did the single-legged squat (P .05). Greater dorsiflexion occurred during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P reverse lunge (P = .003) and the single-legged squat (P = .011). Knee-joint moments were greater in the single-legged squat than in the reverse lunge (P reverse lunge (P reverse lunge and then the forward lunge. In contrast, loading progressions for the knee and ankle should begin with the reverse lunge and progress to the forward lunge and then the single-legged squat.

  7. Kinematic measures for upper limb robot-assisted therapy following stroke and correlations with clinical outcome measures: A review.

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    Tran, Vi Do; Dario, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    This review classifies the kinematic measures used to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment following upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation and investigates their correlations with clinical outcome measures. An online literature search was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus and IEEE-Xplore databases. Kinematic parameters mentioned in the studies included were categorized into the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains. The correlations between these parameters and the clinical scales were summarized. Forty-nine kinematic parameters were identified from 67 articles involving 1750 patients. The most frequently used parameters were: movement speed, movement accuracy, peak speed, number of speed peaks, and movement distance and duration. According to the ICF domains, 44 kinematic parameters were categorized into Body Functions and Structure, 5 into Activities and no parameters were categorized into Participation and Personal and Environmental Factors. Thirteen articles investigated the correlations between kinematic parameters and clinical outcome measures. Some kinematic measures showed a significant correlation coefficient with clinical scores, but most were weak or moderate. The proposed classification of kinematic measures into ICF domains and their correlations with clinical scales could contribute to identifying the most relevant ones for an integrated assessment of upper limb robot-assisted rehabilitation treatments following stroke. Increasing the assessment frequency by means of kinematic parameters could optimize clinical assessment procedures and enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematic Analysis of Gait in the Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Branco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematic analysis of gait during pregnancy provides more information about the anatomical changes and contributes to exercise and rehabilitation prescription. The purposes were to quantify the lower limb kinematics of gait and to compare it between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and with a control group. A three-dimensional analysis was performed in twenty-two pregnant women and twelve nonpregnant. Repeated Measures and Manova tests were performed for comparisons between trimesters and between pregnant and controls. The walking speed, stride width, right-/left-step time, cycle time and time of support, and flight phases remain unchanged between trimesters and between pregnant and controls. Stride and right-/left-step lengths decreased between trimesters. Double limb support time increased between trimesters, and it increased when compared with controls. Joint kinematics showed a significant decrease of right-hip extension and adduction during stance phase between trimesters and when compared with controls. Also, an increase in left-knee flexion and a decrease in right-ankle plantarflexion were found between trimesters. The results suggested that pregnant women need to maintain greater stability of body and to become more efficient in locomotion. Further data from the beginning of pregnancy anthropometric data may contribute to the analysis.

  9. Comparison of quasi-static and dynamic squats: a three-dimensional kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic study of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julien; Hagemeister, Nicola; Aissaoui, Rachid; de Guise, Jacques A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have described 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limbs during quasi-static or dynamic squatting activities. One study compared these two squatting conditions but only at low speed on healthy subjects, and provided no information on kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. The purpose of the present study was to contrast simultaneous recordings of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs during quasi-stat ic and fast-dynamic squats in healthy and pathological subjects. Ten subjects were recruited: five healthy and five osteoarthritis subjects. A motion-capture system, force plate, and surface electrodes respectively recorded 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. Each subject performed a quasi-static squat and several fast-dynamic squats from 0° to 70° of knee flexion. The two squatting conditions were compared for positions where quasi-static and fast-dynamic knee flexion-extension angles were similar. Mean differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were 1.5° for rotations, 1.9 mm for translations, 2.1% of subjects' body weight for ground reaction forces, 6.6 Nm for torques, 11.2 mm for center of pressure, and 6.3% of maximum fast-dynamic electromyographic activities for EMG. Some significant differences (psquats were small. 69.5% of compared data were equivalent. In conclusion, this study showed that quasi-static and fast-dynamic squatting activities are comparable in terms of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG, although some reservations still remain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematics of Rotation in Joints of the Lower Limbs and Pelvis during Gait: Early Results—SB ACLR Approach versus DB ACLR Approach

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    Andrzej Czamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to find publications comparing rotation kinematics in large joints of the lower limbs and pelvis during gait in patients after single-bundle (SB reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR with double-bundle (DB ACLR of the knee. The aim of this study was to compare rotation kinematics in ankle, knee, and hip joints and the pelvis during gait in the 14th week after SB and DB ACLR. The subjects were males after SB (n=10 and DB (n=13 ACLR and a control group (n=15. The values of kinematic parameters were recorded during internal (IR and external (ER rotation in the joints during gait using the BTS SMART. The SB ACLR group obtained significantly higher values of ER in the involved knee comparing to DB ACLR and controls and excessive IR in the hip comparing to controls. In the DB ACLR group, excessive ER was noted in the involved leg's foot. Comparing with the DB ACLR and control groups, SB ACLR subjects had more substantial disorders of rotation kinematics in the lower limb joints. However, in both ACLR groups, 14 weeks of postoperative physiotherapy were not enough to fully restore rotation kinematics in joints of the lower limbs during gait.

  11. Upper-limb kinematic reconstruction during stroke robot-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-09-01

    The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.

  12. Aquatic treadmill water level influence on pelvic limb kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with surgically stabilised stifles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, G; Smalley, C; Brown, N; Bialczak, K; Carroll, D

    2018-02-01

    To compare pelvic limb joint kinematics and temporal gait characteristics during land-based and aquatic-based treadmill walking in dogs that have undergone surgical stabilisation for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Client-owned dogs with surgically stabilised stifles following cranial cruciate ligament deficiency performed three walking trials consisting of three consecutive gait cycles on an aquatic treadmill under four water levels. Hip, stifle and hock range of motion; peak extension; and peak flexion were assessed for the affected limb at each water level. Gait cycle time and stance phase percentage were also determined. Ten client-owned dogs of varying breeds were evaluated at a mean of 55·2 days postoperatively. Aquatic treadmill water level influenced pelvic limb kinematics and temporal gait outcomes. Increased stifle joint flexion was observed as treadmill water level increased, peaking when the water level was at the hip. Similarly, hip flexion increased at the hip water level. Stifle range of motion was greatest at stifle and hip water levels. Stance phase percentage was significantly decreased when water level was at the hip. Aquatic treadmill walking has become a common rehabilitation modality following surgical stabilisation of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. However, evidence-based best practice guidelines to enhance stifle kinematics do not exist. Our findings suggest that rehabilitation utilising a water level at or above the stifle will achieve the best stifle kinematics following surgical stifle stabilisation. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Using upper limb kinematics to assess cognitive deficits in people living with both HIV and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Kevin D; Rai, Roshan; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aim to explore ways to objectively assess cognitive deficits in the stroke and HIV/stroke populations, where cognitive and motor impairments can be hard to separate. Using an upper limb rehabilitation robot called the Haptic TheraDrive, we collect performance error scores and motor learning data on the impaired and unimpaired limb during a trajectory tracking task. We compare these data to clinical cognitive scores. The preliminary results suggest a possible relationship between unimpaired upper limb performance error and visuospatial/executive function cognitive domains, but more work needs to be done to further investigate this. The potential of using robot-assisted technologies to measure unimpaired limb kinematics as a tool to assess cognitive deficits would be useful to inform more effective rehabilitation strategies for HIV, stroke, and HIV/stroke populations.

  14. Multibody Kinematics Optimization for the Estimation of Upper and Lower Limb Human Joint Kinematics: A Systematized Methodological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begon, Mickaël; Andersen, Michael Skipper; Dumas, Raphaël

    2018-03-01

    Multibody kinematics optimization (MKO) aims to reduce soft tissue artefact (STA) and is a key step in musculoskeletal modeling. The objective of this review was to identify the numerical methods, their validation and performance for the estimation of the human joint kinematics using MKO. Seventy-four papers were extracted from a systematized search in five databases and cross-referencing. Model-derived kinematics were obtained using either constrained optimization or Kalman filtering to minimize the difference between measured (i.e., by skin markers, electromagnetic or inertial sensors) and model-derived positions and/or orientations. While hinge, universal, and spherical joints prevail, advanced models (e.g., parallel and four-bar mechanisms, elastic joint) have been introduced, mainly for the knee and shoulder joints. Models and methods were evaluated using: (i) simulated data based, however, on oversimplified STA and joint models; (ii) reconstruction residual errors, ranging from 4 mm to 40 mm; (iii) sensitivity analyses which highlighted the effect (up to 36 deg and 12 mm) of model geometrical parameters, joint models, and computational methods; (iv) comparison with other approaches (i.e., single body kinematics optimization and nonoptimized kinematics); (v) repeatability studies that showed low intra- and inter-observer variability; and (vi) validation against ground-truth bone kinematics (with errors between 1 deg and 22 deg for tibiofemoral rotations and between 3 deg and 10 deg for glenohumeral rotations). Moreover, MKO was applied to various movements (e.g., walking, running, arm elevation). Additional validations, especially for the upper limb, should be undertaken and we recommend a more systematic approach for the evaluation of MKO. In addition, further model development, scaling, and personalization methods are required to better estimate the secondary degrees-of-freedom (DoF).

  15. Upper Limb Kinematics in Stroke and Healthy Controls Using Target-to-Target Task in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Netha; Alt Murphy, Margit; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2018-01-01

    Kinematic analysis using virtual reality (VR) environment provides quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. This technique has rarely been used in evaluating motor function in stroke despite its availability in stroke rehabilitation. To determine the discriminative validity of VR-based kinematics during target-to-target pointing task in individuals with mild or moderate arm impairment following stroke and in healthy controls. Sixty-seven participants with moderate (32-57 points) or mild (58-65 points) stroke impairment as assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity were included from the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg-SALGOT cohort of non-selected individuals within the first year of stroke. The stroke groups and 43 healthy controls performed the target-to-target pointing task, where 32 circular targets appear one after the other and disappear when pointed at by the haptic handheld stylus in a three-dimensional VR environment. The kinematic parameters captured by the stylus included movement time, velocities, and smoothness of movement. The movement time, mean velocity, and peak velocity were discriminative between groups with moderate and mild stroke impairment and healthy controls. The movement time was longer and mean and peak velocity were lower for individuals with stroke. The number of velocity peaks, representing smoothness, was also discriminative and significantly higher in both stroke groups (mild, moderate) compared to controls. Movement trajectories in stroke more frequently showed clustering (spider's web) close to the target indicating deficits in movement precision. The target-to-target pointing task can provide valuable and specific information about sensorimotor impairment of the upper limb following stroke that might not be captured using traditional clinical scale. The trial was registered with register number NCT01115348 at clinicaltrials.gov, on May 4, 2010. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2

  16. Upper Limb Kinematics in Stroke and Healthy Controls Using Target-to-Target Task in Virtual Reality

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    Netha Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKinematic analysis using virtual reality (VR environment provides quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. This technique has rarely been used in evaluating motor function in stroke despite its availability in stroke rehabilitation.ObjectiveTo determine the discriminative validity of VR-based kinematics during target-to-target pointing task in individuals with mild or moderate arm impairment following stroke and in healthy controls.MethodsSixty-seven participants with moderate (32–57 points or mild (58–65 points stroke impairment as assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity were included from the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg—SALGOT cohort of non-selected individuals within the first year of stroke. The stroke groups and 43 healthy controls performed the target-to-target pointing task, where 32 circular targets appear one after the other and disappear when pointed at by the haptic handheld stylus in a three-dimensional VR environment. The kinematic parameters captured by the stylus included movement time, velocities, and smoothness of movement.ResultsThe movement time, mean velocity, and peak velocity were discriminative between groups with moderate and mild stroke impairment and healthy controls. The movement time was longer and mean and peak velocity were lower for individuals with stroke. The number of velocity peaks, representing smoothness, was also discriminative and significantly higher in both stroke groups (mild, moderate compared to controls. Movement trajectories in stroke more frequently showed clustering (spider’s web close to the target indicating deficits in movement precision.ConclusionThe target-to-target pointing task can provide valuable and specific information about sensorimotor impairment of the upper limb following stroke that might not be captured using traditional clinical scale.Trial registration detailsThe trial was registered with register number

  17. Hierarchical Kinematic Modelling and Optimal Design of a Novel Hexapod Robot with Integrated Limb Mechanism

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    Guiyang Xin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hexapod robot, hereafter named PH-Robot, with three degrees of freedom (3-DOF parallel leg mechanisms based on the concept of an integrated limb mechanism (ILM for the integration of legged locomotion and arm manipulation. The kinematic model plays an important role in the parametric optimal design and motion planning of robots. However, models of parallel mechanisms are often difficult to obtain because of the implicit relationship between the motions of actuated joints and the motion of a moving platform. In order to derive the kinematic equations of the proposed hexapod robot, an extended hierarchical kinematic modelling method is proposed. According to the kinematic model, the geometrical parameters of the leg are optimized utilizing a comprehensive objective function that considers both dexterity and payload. PH-Robot has distinct advantages in accuracy and load ability over a robot with serial leg mechanisms through the former's comparison of performance indices. The reachable workspace of the leg verifies its ability to walk and manipulate. The results of the trajectory tracking experiment demonstrate the correctness of the kinematic model of the hexapod robot.

  18. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint and its influence on postural control and lower limb kinematics in stroke patients

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    Sun Wook Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait. Changes in postural control parameters anteroposterior sway speed and total center of pressure distance differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. In addition, changes in gait kinematic parameters knee and ankle angles of initial contact differed significantly between stroke (paretic and non-paretic and control groups. Muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee and ankle impaired postural control and debilitates kinematic movement of ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs, and may place the fatigued stroke patients at greater risk for falls.

  19. Isotropy of an Upper Limb Exoskeleton and the Kinematics and Dynamics of the Human Arm

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    Joel C. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of human and robot into a single system offers remarkable opportunities for a new generation of assistive technology. Despite the recent prominence of upper limb exoskeletons in assistive applications, the human arm kinematics and dynamics are usually described in single or multiple arm movements that are not associated with any concrete activity of daily living (ADL. Moreover, the design of an exoskeleton, which is physically linked to the human body, must have a workspace that matches as close as possible with the workspace of the human body, while at the same time avoid singular configurations of the exoskeleton within the human workspace. The aims of the research reported in this manuscript are (1 to study the kinematics and the dynamics of the human arm during daily activities in a free and unconstrained environment, (2 to study the manipulability (isotropy of a 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF-powered exoskeleton arm given the kinematics and the dynamics of the human arm in ADLs. Kinematic data of the upper limb were acquired with a motion capture system while performing 24 daily activities from six subjects. Utilising a 7-DOF model of the human arm, the equations of motion were used to calculate joint torques from measured kinematics. In addition, the exoskeleton isotropy was calculated and mapped with respect to the spacial distribution of the human arm configurations during the 24 daily activities. The results indicate that the kinematic joint distributions representing all 24 actions appear normally distributed except for elbow flexion–extension with the emergence of three modal centres. Velocity and acceleration components of joint torque distributions were normally distributed about 0 Nm, whereas gravitational component distributions varied with joint. Additionally, velocity effects were found to contribute only 1/100th of the total joint torque, whereas acceleration components contribute 1/10th of the total torque at the

  20. Instantaneous Kinematics Analysis via Screw-Theory of a Novel 3-CRC Parallel Mechanism

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    Hussein de la Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mobility and kinematics analysis of a novel parallel mechanism that is composed by one base, one platform and three identical limbs with CRC joints. The paper obtains closed-form solutions to the direct and inverse kinematics problems, and determines the mobility of the mechanism and instantaneous kinematics by applying screw theory. The obtained results show that this parallel robot is part of the family 2R1T, since the platform shows 3 DOF, i.e.: one translation perpendicular to the base and two rotations about skew axes. In order to calculate the direct instantaneous kinematics, this paper introduces the vector mh, which is part of the joint velocity vector that multiplies the overall inverse Jacobian matrix. This paper compares the results between simulations and numerical examples using Mathematica and SolidWorks in order to prove the accuracy of the analytical results.

  1. Kinematic analysis of a posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia

    2015-01-20

    The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0-135° flexion. Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, "rollback" compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis.

  2. Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis

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    Zhi-Xin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0-135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee′s kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, "rollback" compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis.

  3. Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0–135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, “rollback” compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis. PMID:25591565

  4. S-06: Effect of Increased Cadence on Neuromuscular Response and Lower Limb Kinematics in Middle Distance Runners

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    Amrinder Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the differences in the neuromuscular and kinematic response in middle distance runners when the step rate was increased to 5% and 10% respectively of the preferred step rate.MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: 80 middle distance runners (40 males and 40 females participated in the study. EMG of 8 muscles (rectus femoris, medial and lateral hamstrings, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, gluteus medius and maximus, kinematic changes at the lower limb joints during stance and swing phase of running, foot pressure readings and spatiotemporal gait pa-rameters were recorded as each participant ran at their preferred speed, 5% increase in preferred speed and 10% increase in their preferred speed while keeping the treadmill speed constant.RESULTS: Kinematic analysis showed an increased knee flexion angle at initial contact (p < 0.001 and decreased knee flexion angle during swing phase (p < 0.001, Ankle showed reduced dorsiflex-ion angle at initial contact (p<0.001 and the hip showed less peak flexion (p < 0.001 across step rate conditions.With an increase in step rate, a fore foot strike running pattern was seen. Muscle activity was signif-icantly increased during the late swing and pre-swing at 10% of the preferred speed (p<0.001, with less significant changes during 5% of the preferred speed. During loading response, significant de-crease in muscle activity (p<0.05 was found between 5% and 10% increase of preferred speed.CONCLUSION: Increased cadence showed increased muscle activation and a forefoot strike run-ning pattern. The kinematic changes documented along with the neuromuscular response across the step rate conditions could be beneficial to runners for rehabilitation and injury prevention.

  5. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, John Kyle P [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  6. A fully rotational joint underactuated finger mechanism and its kinematics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Licheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic features of underactuated finger are compact structure, large grasping force, and simple operation. It has a wide application prospect in the fields of industrial robot, humanoid robot, human artificial limb, and space robot. A new type of fully rotating joint linkage-based underactuated mechanism is proposed, and a new method based on the law of minimum resistance is presented to realize the equivalent mechanism at different contact conditions of the finger and the kinematical analysis based on the equivalent mechanism. The kinematic equations and the limit moving position of the mechanism are derived using the proposed method. Finally, the numerical simulation is carried out by MATLAB program. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified. The simulation results show that the proposed mechanism has a large grasp space and can achieve good grasp trajectory.

  7. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  8. Structure design of lower limb exoskeletons for gait training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ziqiang; Tao, Chunjing; Ji, Run

    2015-09-01

    Due to the close physical interaction between human and machine in process of gait training, lower limb exoskeletons should be safe, comfortable and able to smoothly transfer desired driving force/moments to the patients. Correlatively, in kinematics the exoskeletons are required to be compatible with human lower limbs and thereby to avoid the uncontrollable interactional loads at the human-machine interfaces. Such requirement makes the structure design of exoskeletons very difficult because the human-machine closed chains are complicated. In addition, both the axis misalignments and the kinematic character difference between the exoskeleton and human joints should be taken into account. By analyzing the DOF(degree of freedom) of the whole human-machine closed chain, the human-machine kinematic incompatibility of lower limb exoskeletons is studied. An effective method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons, which are kinematically compatible with human lower limb, is proposed. Applying this method, the structure synthesis of the lower limb exoskeletons containing only one-DOF revolute and prismatic joints is investigated; the feasible basic structures of exoskeletons are developed and classified into three different categories. With the consideration of quasi-anthropopathic feature, structural simplicity and wearable comfort of lower limb exoskeletons, a joint replacement and structure comparison based approach to select the ideal structures of lower limb exoskeletons is proposed, by which three optimal exoskeleton structures are obtained. This paper indicates that the human-machine closed chain formed by the exoskeleton and human lower limb should be an even-constrained kinematic system in order to avoid the uncontrollable human-machine interactional loads. The presented method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons is universal and simple, and hence can be applied to other kinds of wearable exoskeletons.

  9. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevan Isaac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot, and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values, with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01. Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01. It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern.

  10. Alterations in knee kinematics after partial medial meniscectomy are activity dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Shannon N; Netravali, Nathan A; Favre, Julien; Giori, Nicholas J; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in knee kinematics after partial meniscectomy have been linked to the increased risk of osteoarthritis in this population. Understanding differences in kinematics during static versus dynamic activities of increased demand can provide important information regarding the possible underlying mechanisms of these alterations. Differences in the following 2 kinematics measures will increase with activity demand: (1) the offset toward external tibial rotation for the meniscectomized limb compared with the contralateral limb during stance and (2) the difference in knee flexion angle at initial foot contact between the meniscectomized and contralateral limbs. Controlled laboratory study. This study compared side-to-side differences in knee flexion and rotation angles during static and dynamic activities. Thirteen patients (2 female) were tested in a motion capture laboratory at 6 ± 2 months after unilateral, arthroscopic, partial medial meniscectomy during a static reference pose and during 3 dynamic activities: walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. The meniscectomized limb demonstrated more external tibial rotation compared with the contralateral limb during dynamic activities, and there was a trend that this offset increased with activity demand (repeated-measures analysis of variance [ANOVA] for activity, P = .07; mean limb difference: static pose, -0.1° ± 3.3°, P = .5; walking, 1.2° ± 3.8°, P = .1; stair ascent, 2.0° ± 3.2°, P = .02; stair descent, 3.0° ± 3.5°, P = .005). Similarly, the meniscectomized knee was more flexed at initial contact than the contralateral limb during dynamic activities (repeated-measures ANOVA for activity P = .006; mean limb difference: reference pose, 1.0° ± 2.5°, P = .09; walking, 2.0° ± 3.9°, P = .05; stair ascent, 5.9° ± 5.3°, P = .009; stair descent, 3.5° ± 4.0°, P = .004). These results suggest both a structural element and a potential muscular element for the differences in kinematics after

  11. The role of functional foot orthoses on calcaneal and tibial kinematics : a clinical perspective using 3-dimensional motion analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed In-shoe orthoses are used in the treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries in particular patellofemoral pain associated with subtalar joint pronation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the precise effects of in-shoe orthotic on the Calcaneus and Tibia. Two-dimension frontal plane kinematics may be used in the clinical setting to determine static and dynamic kinematics of the lower limb and foot. The findings of this thesis highlight several limitations of the...

  12. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KNEE VALGUS DURING DROP VERTICAL JUMP AND FORWARD STEP-UP IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Maia, Marianna de Freitas; Farias, Déborah; Santana, Haroldo; Miranda, Humberto; Lima, Vicente; Herrington, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Lower limb asymmetry between dominant and nondominant limbs is often associated with injuries. However, there is a lack of evidence about frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee joint (knee valgus) during drop vertical jump (DVJ) and forward step-up tasks (FSUP) in young basketball players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the FPPA (i.e., dynamic knee valgus) via 2D video analysis during DVJ and FSUP tasks in the dominant and nondominant limbs of young male basketball players. Twenty seven young male basketball players (age 14.5 ± 1.3 y, height 161.1 ± 4.1 cm, weight 64.2 ± 10.2 kg) participated in this study. The participants were asked to perform a bilateral DVJ and unilateral FSUP tasks. Kinematic analysis of FPPA was completed via a two-dimensional (2D) examination in order to evaluate the knee valgus alignment during the beginning of the concentric phase of each task. Knee valgus alignment was computed considering the angle between the line formed between the markers at the anterior superior iliac spine and middle of the tibiofemoral joint and the line formed from the markers on the middle of the tibiofemoral joint to the middle of the ankle mortise. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate differences in tasks. Standard error of measurement (SEM) was calculated to establish random error scores. There was no difference in knee valgus angle during the DVJ task between dominant (20.2 ± 4.4 º) and nondominant legs (20 ± 4.1 º; p = 0.067). However, a significant difference was noted during FSUP between the non-dominant limb (18.7 ± 3.4 º) when compared to the dominant (21.7 ± 3.5 º; p = 0.001) limb. Two dimensional kinematic analysis of knee FPPA may help coaches and other professionals to detect asymmetries between dominant and nondominant limbs, and to develop training programs with the goal of reducing overall lower extremity injury risk. 2b.

  14. Kinematics Control and Analysis of Industrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongbo; Cai, Fan; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The robot’s development present situation, basic principle and control system are introduced briefly. Research is mainly focused on the study of the robot’s kinematics and motion control. The structural analysis of a planar articulated robot (SCARA) robot is presented,the coordinate system is established to obtain the position and orientation matrix of the end effector,a method of robot kinematics analysis based on homogeneous transformation method is proposed, and the kinematics solution of the robot is obtained.Establishment of industrial robot’s kinematics equation and formula for positive kinematics by example. Finally,the kinematic analysis of this robot was verified by examples.It provides a basis for structural design and motion control.It has active significance to promote the motion control of industrial robot.

  15. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of a biologically inspired lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mingxing; Chen, Weihai; Ding, Xilun; Wang, Jianhua; Bai, Shaoping; Ren, Huichao

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding. Therefore, the design is consistent with the requirements of bionics. The forward and inverse kinematic analysis is studied and the workspace of the exoskeleton is analyzed. The structural parameters are optimized to obtain a larger workspace. The results using MATLAB-ADAMS co-simulation are shown in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of our design. A prototype of the exoskeleton is also developed and an experiment performed to verify the kinematic analysis. Compared with existing lower limb exoskeletons, the designed mechanism has a large workspace, while allowing knee joint rotation and small amount of sliding.

  17. Design of a biologically inspired lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mingxing; Chen, Weihai; Ding, Xilun; Wang, Jianhua; Bai, Shaoping; Ren, Huichao

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding. Therefore, the design is consistent with the requirements of bionics. The forward and inverse kinematic analysis is studied and the workspace of the exoskeleton is analyzed. The structural parameters are optimized to obtain a larger workspace. The results using MATLAB-ADAMS co-simulation are shown in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of our design. A prototype of the exoskeleton is also developed and an experiment performed to verify the kinematic analysis. Compared with existing lower limb exoskeletons, the designed mechanism has a large workspace, while allowing knee joint rotation and small amount of sliding.

  18. Unvealing the Principal Modes of Human Upper Limb Movements through Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Averta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rich variety of human upper limb movements requires an extraordinary coordination of different joints according to specific spatio-temporal patterns. However, unvealing these motor schemes is a challenging task. Principal components have been often used for analogous purposes, but such an approach relies on hypothesis of temporal uncorrelation of upper limb poses in time. To overcome these limitations, in this work, we leverage on functional principal component analysis (fPCA. We carried out experiments with 7 subjects performing a set of most significant human actions, selected considering state-of-the-art grasp taxonomies and human kinematic workspace. fPCA results show that human upper limb trajectories can be reconstructed by a linear combination of few principal time-dependent functions, with a first component alone explaining around 60/70% of the observed behaviors. This allows to infer that in daily living activities humans reduce the complexity of movement by modulating their motions through a reduced set of few principal patterns. Finally, we discuss how this approach could be profitably applied in robotics and bioengineering, opening fascinating perspectives to advance the state of the art of artificial systems, as it was the case of hand synergies.

  19. In vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob; Biewener

    1999-05-01

    Limb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. This study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (Iguana iguana) and crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previously unsampled phylogenetic lineages with non-parasagittal limb posture and kinematics. Principal strain orientations and shear strain magnitudes indicate that the limb bones of these species experience considerable torsion during locomotion. This contrasts with patterns commonly observed in mammals, but matches predictions from kinematic observations of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously calculated for mammals and birds. Limb bone safety factors in shear (3.9-5.4) for Alligator and Iguana are also moderately higher than safety factors to yield in bending for birds and mammals. Finally, correlations between limb posture and strain magnitudes in Alligator show that at some recording locations limb bone strains can increase during upright locomotion, in contrast to expectations based on size-correlated changes in posture among mammals that limb bone strains should decrease with the use of an upright posture. These data suggest that, in some lineages, strain magnitudes may not have been maintained at constant levels through the evolution of a non-sprawling posture unless the postural change was accompanied by a shift to parasagittal kinematics or by an evolutionary decrease in body size.

  20. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  1. Symmetrical kinematics does not imply symmetrical kinetics in people with transtibial amputation using cycling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, W Lee; Kogler, Géza F

    2014-01-01

    People with amputation move asymmetrically with regard to kinematics (joint angles) and kinetics (joint forces and moments). Clinicians have traditionally sought to minimize kinematic asymmetries, assuming kinetic asymmetries would also be minimized. A cycling model evaluated locomotor asymmetries. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation pedaled with 172 mm-length crank arms on both sides (control condition) and with the crank arm length shortened to 162 mm on the amputated side (CRANK condition). Pedaling kinetics and limb kinematics were recorded. Joint kinetics, joint angles (mean and range of motion [ROM]), and pedaling asymmetries were calculated from force pedals and with a motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance with tukey post hoc compared kinetics and kinematics across limbs. Statistical significance was set to p Pedaling asymmetries did not differ and were 23.0% +/= 9.8% and 23.2% +/= 12% for the control and CRANK conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that minimizing kinematic asymmetries does not relate to kinetic asymmetries as clinically assumed. We propose that future research should concentrate on defining acceptable asymmetry.

  2. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Bontempi, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio; Bragonzoni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics.

  3. Importance of upper-limb inertia in calculating concentric bench press force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud, Olivier; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Moyen, Bernard; Bourdin, Muriel

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of upper-limb inertia on the force-velocity relationship and maximal power during concentric bench press exercise. Reference peak force values (Fpeakp) measured with a force plate positioned below the bench were compared to those measured simultaneously with a kinematic device fixed on the barbell by taking (Fpeakt) or not taking (Fpeakb) upper-limb inertia into account. Thirteen men (27.8 +/- 4.1 years, 184.6 +/- 5.5 cm, 99.5 +/- 18.6 kg) performed all-out concentric bench press exercise against 8 loads ranging between 7 and 74 kg. The results showed that for each load, Fpeakb was significantly less than Fpeakp (P force (F0), maximal velocity (V0), optimal velocity (Vopt), and maximal power (Pmax), extrapolated from the force- and power-velocity relationships determined with the kinematic device, were significantly underestimated when upper-limb inertia was ignored. The results underline the importance of taking account of the total inertia of the moving system to ensure precise evaluation of upper-limb muscular characteristics in all-out concentric bench press exercise with a kinematic device. A major application of this study would be to develop precise upper-limb muscular characteristic evaluation in laboratory and field conditions by using a simple and cheap kinematic device.

  4. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  5. Comparison of limb kinematics between collected and lengthened (medium/extended) trot in two groups of dressage horses on two different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, V A; Tranquille, C A; Newton, J R; Dyson, S J; Brandham, J; Northrop, A J; Murray, R C

    2017-09-01

    Dressage horses are often asked to work in lengthened paces during training and competition, but to date there is limited information about the biomechanics of dressage-specific paces. Preliminary work has shown increased fetlock extension in extended compared with collected paces, but further investigation of the kinematic differences between collected, medium and extended trot in dressage horses is warranted. Investigation of the effect of collected vs. medium/extended trot on limb kinematics of dressage horses. Prospective kinematic evaluation. Twenty clinically sound horses in active dressage training were used. Group 1: Ten young horses (≤6 years) were assessed at collected and medium trot and Group 2: Ten mature horses (≥9 years) were assessed at collected and extended trot. All horses were evaluated on two different surfaces. High speed motion capture (240 Hz) was used to determine kinematic variables. Fore- and hindlimb angles were measured at mid-stance. Descriptive statistics and mixed effect multilevel regression analyses were performed. Speed and stride length were reduced and stride duration increased at collected compared with medium/extended trot. Lengthened trot (medium/extended trot) was associated with increased fetlock extension in both the fore- and hindlimbs in both groups of horses. Changes were greater in mature horses compared with young horses. Shoulder and carpus angles were associated with forelimb fetlock angle. Hock angle was not significantly influenced by pace. Surface had no effect on fetlock or hock angles. Only 2D motion analysis was carried out. Results may have differed in horses with more extreme gait characteristics. Medium/extended trot increases extension of the fore- and hindlimb fetlock joints compared with collected trot in both young and mature dressage horses, respectively. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Quantifying frontal plane knee motion during single limb squats: reliability and validity of 2-dimensional measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Craig R; Curran, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Clinical assessment of lower limb kinematics during dynamic tasks may identify individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns that may lead to etiology of exacerbation of knee conditions such as patellofemoral joint (PFJt) pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability, validity and associated measurement error of a clinically appropriate two-dimensional (2-D) procedure of quantifying frontal plane knee alignment during single limb squats. Nine female and nine male recreationally active subjects with no history of PFJt pain had frontal plane limb alignment assessed using three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis and digital video cameras (2-D analysis) while performing single limb squats. The association between 2-D and 3-D measures was quantified using Pearson's product correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined for within- and between-session reliability of 2-D data and standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to establish measurement error. Frontal plane limb alignment assessed with 2-D analysis demonstrated good correlation compared with 3-D methods (r = 0.64 to 0.78, p < 0.001). Within-session (0.86) and between-session ICCs (0.74) demonstrated good reliability for 2-D measures and SEM scores ranged from 2° to 4°. 2-D measures have good consistency and may provide a valid measure of lower limb alignment when compared to existing 3-D methods. Assessment of lower limb kinematics using 2-D methods may be an accurate and clinically useful alternative to 3-D motion analysis when identifying individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns associated with PFJt pain. 2b.

  7. Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of a 3-DOF Upper-Limb Exoskeleton with an Internally Rotated Elbow Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Qiuzhi Song; Xiaoguang Wang; Pengzhan Liu

    2018-01-01

    The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF) upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parame...

  8. Lower-Limb Wearable Exoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, J.L.; Moreno, J.C.; Brunetti, F.J.; Rocon, E.

    2007-01-01

    The differences found in the patients' kinematic gait patterns during the application of functional compensation on the lower limb showed significant differences regarding the subjects' usual gait. In both patients rapid adaptations were observed and new motor commands were learnt necessary for managing the exoskeleton with the constraints imposed on the limb. The benefits of the correct release of the knee in both instances is clear evidence of approximating their gait patterns to the normal...

  9. Effects of load carriage and work boots on lower limb kinematics of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Park, Huiju; Li, Jun; Koo, Heekwang; Xu, Qinwen

    2017-08-09

    Load and footwear condition are two crucial elements varying the kinematic responses during walking, which probably lead to chronic injury. Fifteen healthy male individuals with no obvious gait abnormalities participated in this study. Apart from a no-load condition, four external load conditions with two load levels were investigated. Work boots were compared with running shoes to determine footwear effects. Significant impacts were found for lower limb range of motion at certain joints when carrying loads. A greater hip and ankle flexion-extension while wearing the work boots indicated that participants needed to lift the leg higher to complete toe clearance off the walking surface. Work boots also increased the vertical excursion of the center of body mass, which may impact body balance and induce falling. No significant influencing pattern of carrying modes was found, which was probably due to the light load and relatively stable mode of shoulder carrying.

  10. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  11. Development of a protocol for the kinematic analysis of movement in patients with total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Pla, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this final degree project is to study and analyze the kinematics of the human body lower limbs. First of all, it is extremely important to establish a protocol in order to compare two patients operated with two different techniques of total hip arthroplasty. The three usual movements that are employed to make this comparison are gait, sit-to-stand and stairs climbing. A three-dimensional full body model is implemented and the kinematic parameters (angles) necessary for the st...

  12. Informative sensor selection and learning for prediction of lower limb kinematics using generative stochastic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eunsuk Chong; Taejin Choi; Hyungmin Kim; Seung-Jong Kim; Yoha Hwang; Jong Min Lee

    2017-07-01

    We propose a novel approach of selecting useful input sensors as well as learning a mathematical model for predicting lower limb joint kinematics. We applied a feature selection method based on the mutual information called the variational information maximization, which has been reported as the state-of-the-art work among information based feature selection methods. The main difficulty in applying the method is estimating reliable probability density of input and output data, especially when the data are high dimensional and real-valued. We addressed this problem by applying a generative stochastic neural network called the restricted Boltzmann machine, through which we could perform sampling based probability estimation. The mutual informations between inputs and outputs are evaluated in each backward sensor elimination step, and the least informative sensor is removed with its network connections. The entire network is fine-tuned by maximizing conditional likelihood in each step. Experimental results are shown for 4 healthy subjects walking with various speeds, recording 64 sensor measurements including electromyogram, acceleration, and foot-pressure sensors attached on both lower limbs for predicting hip and knee joint angles. For test set of walking with arbitrary speed, our results show that our suggested method can select informative sensors while maintaining a good prediction accuracy.

  13. Coordination of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics in Individuals With Childhood-Onset Dystonia Due to Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukke, Sahana N; Curatalo, Lindsey A; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L

    2016-05-01

    Functional reaching is impaired in dystonia. Here, we analyze upper extremity kinematics to quantify timing and coordination abnormalities during unimanual reach-to-grasp movements in individuals with childhood-onset unilateral wrist dystonia. Kinematics were measured during movements of both upper limbs in a patient group ( n = 11, age = 17.5 ±5 years), and a typically developing control group ( n = 9, age = 16.6 ±5 years). Hand aperture was computed to study the coordination of reach and grasp. Time-varying joint synergies within one upper limb were calculated using a novel technique based on principal component analysis to study intra-limb coordination. In the non-dominant arm, results indicate reduced coordination between reach and grasp in patients who could not lift the grasped object compared to those who could lift it. Lifters exhibit incoordination in distal upper extremity joints later in the movement and non-lifters lacked coordination throughout the movement and in the whole upper limb. The amount of atypical coordination correlates with dystonia severity in patients. Reduced coordination during movement may reflect deficits in the execution of simultaneous movements, motor planning, or muscle activation. Rehabilitation efforts can focus on particular time points when kinematic patterns deviate abnormally to improve functional reaching in individuals with childhood-onset dystonia.

  14. Kinematic control of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, F; Ivanenko, Y P; Zago, M

    2002-10-01

    The planar law of inter-segmental co-ordination we described may emerge from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle contraction intervenes at variable times to re-excite the intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. The hypothesis that a law of coordinative control results from a minimal active tuning of the passive inertial and viscoelastic coupling among limb segments is congruent with the idea that movement has evolved according to minimum energy criteria (1, 8). It is known that multi-segment motion of mammals locomotion is controlled by a network of coupled oscillators (CPGs, see 18, 33, 37). Flexible combination of unit oscillators gives rise to different forms of locomotion. Inter-oscillator coupling can be modified by changing the synaptic strength (or polarity) of the relative spinal connections. As a result, unit oscillators can be coupled in phase, out of phase, or with a variable phase, giving rise to different behaviors, such as speed increments or reversal of gait direction (from forward to backward). Supra-spinal centers may drive or modulate functional sets of coordinating interneurons to generate different walking modes (or gaits). Although it is often assumed that CPGs control patterns of muscle activity, an equally plausible hypothesis is that they control patterns of limb segment motion instead (22). According to this kinematic view, each unit oscillator would directly control a limb segment, alternately generating forward and backward oscillations of the segment. Inter-segmental coordination would be achieved by coupling unit oscillators with a variable phase. Inter-segmental kinematic phase plays the role of global control variable previously postulated for the network of central oscillators. In fact, inter-segmental phase shifts systematically with increasing speed both in man (4) and cat (38). Because this phase-shift is correlated with the net mechanical power

  15. Wheelchair propulsion kinematics in beginners and expert users: influence of wheelchair settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, P; Louis, N

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have linked the handrim wheelchair propulsion with a prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the wheelchair settings on upper limb kinematics during wheelchair propulsion. Recordings were made under various wheelchair configuration conditions to understand the effect of wheelchair settings on kinematics parameters such shoulder, elbow and wrist angles. Ten experts and ten beginners' subjects propelled an experimental wheelchair on a roller ergometer system at a comfortable speed. Twelve wheelchair configurations were tested. Kinematics were recorded for each configuration. Based on the hand position relatively to the handrim, the main kinematic parameters of wheelchair propulsion were investigated on the whole propulsion cycle and a key event such as handrim contact and release. Compared to the beginner subjects, all the experts' subjects generally present higher joint amplitude and propulsion speeds. Seat height and antero-posterior axle position influence usage of the hand-rim, timing parameters and configurations of upper limb joints. Results seem to confirm that low and backward seat position allow a greater efficiency. Nevertheless, according that proximity of joint limit is a well known factor of musculoskeletal disorders, our results let us think that too low and backward seat position, increasing joints positions and amplitudes, could increase the risk of upper limb injuries in relation with manual wheelchair propulsion. Kinematic differences highlight that future studies on wheelchair propulsion should only be done with impaired experienced subjects. Furthermore, this study provides indications on how wheelchair settings can be used for upper limb injury prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modular control of limb movements during human locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the CNS may control complex interactions by modular decomposition has received considerable attention. We explored this idea for human locomotion by examining limb kinematics. The coordination of limb segments during human locomotion has been shown to follow a planar law for walking at

  17. Validation of 2 noninvasive, markerless reconstruction techniques in biplane high-speed fluoroscopy for 3-dimensional research of bovine distal limb kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M; Reich, E; Grund, S; Mülling, C K W; Geiger, S M

    2017-10-01

    Lameness severely impairs cattle's locomotion, and it is among the most important threats to animal welfare, performance, and productivity in the modern dairy industry. However, insight into the pathological alterations of claw biomechanics leading to lameness and an understanding of the biomechanics behind development of claw lesions causing lameness are limited. Biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography is a new approach for the analysis of skeletal motion. Biplane high-speed videos in combination with bone scans can be used for 3-dimensional (3D) animations of bones moving in 3D space. The gold standard, marker-based animation, requires implantation of radio-opaque markers into bones, which impairs the practicability for lameness research in live animals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative accuracy of 2 noninvasive, markerless animation techniques (semi-automatic and manual) in 3D animation of the bovine distal limb. Tantalum markers were implanted into each of the distal, middle, and proximal phalanges of 5 isolated bovine distal forelimbs, and biplane high-speed x-ray videos of each limb were recorded to capture the simulation of one step. The limbs were scanned by computed tomography to create bone models of the 6 digital bones, and 3D animation of the bones' movements were subsequently reconstructed using the marker-based, the semi-automatic, and the manual animation techniques. Manual animation translational bias and precision varied from 0.63 ± 0.26 mm to 0.80 ± 0.49 mm, and rotational bias and precision ranged from 2.41 ± 1.43° to 6.75 ± 4.67°. Semi-automatic translational values for bias and precision ranged from 1.26 ± 1.28 mm to 2.75 ± 2.17 mm, and rotational values varied from 3.81 ± 2.78° to 11.7 ± 8.11°. In our study, we demonstrated the successful application of biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography to gait analysis of bovine distal limb. Using the manual animation technique, kinematics

  18. A simple method of equine limb force vector analysis and its potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Hobbs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Ground reaction forces (GRF measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase. The overall aim of the study was to demonstrate alternative methods of evaluating functional (asymmetry within horses. Methods GRF and kinematic data were collected from 10 horses trotting over a series of four force plates (120 Hz. The kinematic data were used to determine clean hoof contacts. The stance phase of each hoof was determined using a 50 N threshold. Vertical and longitudinal GRF for each stance phase were plotted both as force-time curves and as force vector diagrams in which vectors originating at the centre of pressure on the force plate were drawn at intervals of 8.3 ms for the duration of stance. Visual evaluation was facilitated by overlay of the vector diagrams for different limbs. Summary vectors representing the magnitude (VecMag and direction (VecAng of the mean force over the entire stance phase were superimposed on the force vector diagram. Typical measurements extracted from the force-time curves (peak forces, impulses were compared with VecMag and VecAng using partial correlation (controlling for speed. Paired samples t-tests (left v. right diagonal pair comparison and high v. low vertical force diagonal pair comparison were performed on discrete and vector variables using traditional methods and Hotelling’s T2 tests on normalized stance phase data using SPM. Results Evidence from traditional statistical tests suggested that VecMag is more influenced by the vertical force and impulse, whereas

  19. Customizable Rehabilitation Lower Limb Exoskeleton System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Stopforth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people require assistance with the motion of their lower limbs to improve rehabilitation. Exoskeletons used for lower limb rehabilitation are highly priced and are not affordable to the lowerincome sector of the population. This paper describes an exoskeleton lower limb system that was designed keeping in mind that the cost must be as low as possible. The forward kinematic system that is used must be a simplified model to decrease computational time, yet allow the exoskeleton to be adjustable according to the patient's leg dimensions.

  20. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fantozzi

    Full Text Available Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23° and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9° at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13° in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7° and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°. The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered

  1. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  2. 6-REXOS: Upper Limb Exoskeleton Robot with Improved pHRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Gunasekara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Close interaction can be observed between an exoskeleton robot and its wearer. Therefore, appropriate physical human-robot interaction (pHRI should be considered when designing an exoskeleton robot to provide safe and comfortable motion assistance. Different features have been used in recent studies to enhance the pHRI in upper-limb exoskeleton robots. However, less attention has been given to integrating kinematic redundancy into upper-limb exoskeleton robots to improve the pHRI. In this context, this paper proposes a six-degrees-of-freedom (DoF upper-limb exoskeleton robot (6-REXOS for the motion assistance of physically weak individuals. The 6-REXOS uses a kinematically different structure to that of the human lower arm, where the exoskeleton robot is worn. The 6-REXOS has four active DoFs to generate the motion of the human lower arm. Furthermore, two flexible bellow couplings are attached to the wrist and elbow joints to generate two passive DoFs. These couplings not only allow translational motion in wrist and elbow joints but also a redundancy in the robot. Furthermore, the compliance of the flexible coupling contributes to avoiding misalignments between human and robot joint axes. The redundancy in the 6-REXOS is verified based on manipulability index, minimum singular value, condition number and manipulability ellipsoids. The 6-REXOS and a four-DoF exoskeleton robot are compared to verify the manipulation advantage due to the redundancy. The four-DoF exoskeleton robot is designed by excluding the two passive DoFs of the 6-REXOS. In addition, a kinematic model is proposed for the human lower arm to validate the performance of the 6-REXOS. Kinematic analysis and simulations are carried out to validate the 6-REXOS and human-lower-arm model.

  3. Comparison of the Kinematic Patterns of Kick Between Brazilian and Japanese Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Exel Santana, Juliana; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Souza Bedo, Bruno Luiz; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Background Kicking performance is the most studied technical action in soccer and lower limbs kinematics is closely related to success in kicking, mainly because they are essential in imparting high velocity to the ball. Previous studies demonstrated that soccer leagues in different countries exhibit different physical demands and technical requirements during the matches. However, evidencewhether nationality has any influence in the kinematics of soccer-related skills has not yet been reported. The nationality of the players is an aspect that might be also relevant to the performance in kicking. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the lower limbs kinematic patterns during kicking, between Brazilian and Japanese young top soccer players. Patients and Methods Seven Brazilian (GA) and seven Japanese (GB) U-17 players performed 15 side-foot kicks each, with a distance of 20 m away from the goal, aiming a target of 1 × 1 m in upper corner, constrained by a defensive wall (1.8 × 2 m). Four digital video cameras (120 Hz) recorded the performance for further 3D reconstruction of thigh, shank and foot segments of both kicking and support limbs. The selected kicking cycle was characterized by the toe-off of the kicking limb to the end of the kicking foot when it came in contact with the ball. Stereographical projection of each segment was applied to obtain the representative curves of kicking as function of time for each participant in each trial. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the mean GA and GB curves for each segment. Silhouette coefficient (SC) was calculated, in order to determine the degree of separation between the two groups’ curves. Results Comparison between the median confidence intervals of the SC showed no differences between groups as regards lower limb patterns of movements. Task accuracy was determined by the relative frequency that the ball reached the target for all attempts and no differences were found (GA: 10.48 ± 14.33%; GB

  4. Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Arif Sen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.

  5. Kinematic Analysis of Continuum Robot Consisted of Driven Flexible Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic analysis of a continuum bionic robot with three flexible actuation rods. Since the motion of the end-effector is actuated by the deformation of the rods, the robot structure is with high elasticity and good compliance and the kinematic analysis of the robot requires special treatment. We propose a kinematic model based on the geometry with constant curvature. The analysis consists of two independent mappings: a general mapping for the kinematics of all robots and a specific mapping for this kind of robots. Both of those mappings are developed for the single section and for the multisections. We aim at providing a guide for kinematic analysis of the similar manipulators through this paper.

  6. Repeatability of the three dimensional kinematics of the pelvis, spine and lower limbs while performing selected exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skublewska-Paszkowska Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional optical systems are used for calculating many kinetic and kinematic parameters. The obtained data are precise; however, their repeatability is a very important aspect. The aim of this paper is to verify the range of motion repeatability of one healthy subject in the joints of the pelvis, spine and lower limbs based on the coefficient of variation. The participant performed seven exercises, repeated five times: two-leg squat, single-leg squat, forward bending, forward-step motion, step onto the stair, hip extension in a standing position and tip-toe extension while standing. Motion was recorded using Vicon motion capture system consisting of eight NIR cameras. The participant had 39 markers attached to her body according to the Plug-in Gait model. The coefficient of variation was calculated in three dimensions (X, Y and Z. The greatest repeatability, pursuant to the coefficient, was observed during the two-leg squat and forward bending in the sagittal plane (X coordinate. It was also high during the single-leg squat. The lowest repeatability was observed during the tip-toe extension while standing and the hip extension in a standing position. During the step onto the stair and the forward-step motion, a higher repeatability of measurement occurred in the open kinematic chain than in the closed chain; in the hip extension the reverse occurred. Repeatability of a range of motion is different in two types of kinematic chain and in 7 exercises. Exercises such as tip-toe extension and hip extension, which require a greater ability to balance, indicated more variability in movement.

  7. Analysis and control of a parallel lower limb based on pneumatic artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most robots that are actuated by antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscles are controlled by various control algorithms that cannot adequately imitate the actual muscle distribution of human limbs. Other robots in which the distribution of pneumatic artificial muscle is similar to that of human limbs can only analyze the position of the robot using perceptual data instead of rational knowledge. In order to better imitate the movement of a human limb, the article proposes a humanoid lower limb in the form of a parallel mechanism where muscle is unevenly distributed. Next, the kinematic and dynamic movements of bionic hip joint are analyzed, where the joint movement is controlled by an observer-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm as a whole rather than each individual pneumatic artificial muscle and parameters that are optimized by a neural network. Finally, experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. We also document the role of muscle in trajectory tracking for the piriformis and musculi obturator internus in isobaric processes.

  8. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  9. Upper Limb Posture Estimation in Robotic and Virtual Reality-Based Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698

  10. Upper Limb Posture Estimation in Robotic and Virtual Reality-Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Cortés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1 provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2 assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation.

  11. A simple method of equine limb force vector analysis and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Sarah Jane; Robinson, Mark A; Clayton, Hilary M

    2018-01-01

    Ground reaction forces (GRF) measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase. The overall aim of the study was to demonstrate alternative methods of evaluating functional (a)symmetry within horses. GRF and kinematic data were collected from 10 horses trotting over a series of four force plates (120 Hz). The kinematic data were used to determine clean hoof contacts. The stance phase of each hoof was determined using a 50 N threshold. Vertical and longitudinal GRF for each stance phase were plotted both as force-time curves and as force vector diagrams in which vectors originating at the centre of pressure on the force plate were drawn at intervals of 8.3 ms for the duration of stance. Visual evaluation was facilitated by overlay of the vector diagrams for different limbs. Summary vectors representing the magnitude (VecMag) and direction (VecAng) of the mean force over the entire stance phase were superimposed on the force vector diagram. Typical measurements extracted from the force-time curves (peak forces, impulses) were compared with VecMag and VecAng using partial correlation (controlling for speed). Paired samples t -tests (left v. right diagonal pair comparison and high v. low vertical force diagonal pair comparison) were performed on discrete and vector variables using traditional methods and Hotelling's T 2 tests on normalized stance phase data using SPM. Evidence from traditional statistical tests suggested that VecMag is more influenced by the vertical force and impulse, whereas VecAng is more influenced by the

  12. Effect of plyometric training on lower limb biomechanics in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Moreira Lobato, Daniel F; Yoshimatsu, Andre P; dos Santos, Ana Flávia; Francisco, Andrea L; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Serrão, Fábio V

    2014-01-01

    To verify the effects of plyometric training on lower limb kinematics, eccentric hip and knee torques, and functional performance. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Thirty-six females were divided into a training group (TG; n = 18) that carried out the plyometric training for 8 weeks, and a control group (CG; n = 18) that carried out no physical training. Twenty-four plyometric training sessions during approximately 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week on alternate days. Lower limb kinematics (maximum excursion of hip adduction, hip medial rotation, and knee abduction during the single leg squat), eccentric hip (abductor, adductor, medial, and lateral rotator) isokinetic peak torques and knee (flexor and extensor) isokinetic peak torques, and functional performance (triple hop test and the 6-m timed hop test). After 8 weeks, only the TG significantly reduced the values for the maximum excursion of knee abduction (P = 0.01) and hip adduction (P Plyometric training alters lower limb kinematics and increases eccentric hip torque and functional performance, suggesting the incorporation of these exercises in preventive programs for ACL injuries.

  13. Validation and structural analysis of the kinematics concept test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lichtenberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics concept test (KCT is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students’ conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part of this article we describe the development and the validation process of the KCT. We applied the KCT to 338 Swiss high school students who attended traditional teaching in kinematics. We analyzed the response data to provide the psychometric properties of the test. In the second part we present the results of a structural analysis of the test. An exploratory factor analysis of 664 student answers finally uncovered the seven kinematics concepts as factors. However, the analysis revealed a hierarchical structure of concepts. At the higher level, mathematical concepts group together, and then split up into physics concepts at the lower level. Furthermore, students who seem to understand a concept in one representation have difficulties transferring the concept to similar problems in another representation. Both results have implications for teaching kinematics. First, teaching mathematical concepts beforehand might be beneficial for learning kinematics. Second, instructions have to be designed to teach students the change between different representations.

  14. Validation and structural analysis of the kinematics concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, A.; Wagner, C.; Hofer, S. I.; Stern, E.; Vaterlaus, A.

    2017-06-01

    The kinematics concept test (KCT) is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students' conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part of this article we describe the development and the validation process of the KCT. We applied the KCT to 338 Swiss high school students who attended traditional teaching in kinematics. We analyzed the response data to provide the psychometric properties of the test. In the second part we present the results of a structural analysis of the test. An exploratory factor analysis of 664 student answers finally uncovered the seven kinematics concepts as factors. However, the analysis revealed a hierarchical structure of concepts. At the higher level, mathematical concepts group together, and then split up into physics concepts at the lower level. Furthermore, students who seem to understand a concept in one representation have difficulties transferring the concept to similar problems in another representation. Both results have implications for teaching kinematics. First, teaching mathematical concepts beforehand might be beneficial for learning kinematics. Second, instructions have to be designed to teach students the change between different representations.

  15. Development of esMOCA Biomechanic, Motion Capture Instrumentation for Biomechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendra, A.; Akhmad, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to build motion capture instruments using inertial measurement unit sensors to assist in the analysis of biomechanics. Sensors used are accelerometer and gyroscope. Estimation of orientation sensors is done by digital motion processing in each sensor nodes. There are nine sensor nodes attached to the upper limbs. This sensor is connected to the pc via a wireless sensor network. The development of kinematics and inverse dynamamic models of the upper limb is done in simulink simmechanic. The kinematic model receives streaming data of sensor nodes mounted on the limbs. The output of the kinematic model is the pose of each limbs and visualized on display. The dynamic inverse model outputs the reaction force and reaction moment of each joint based on the limb motion input. Model validation in simulink with mathematical model of mechanical analysis showed results that did not differ significantly

  16. Kinematics and hydrodynamics analysis of swimming anurans reveals striking inter-specific differences in the mechanism for producing thrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to compare the swimming kinematics and hydrodynamics within and among aquatic and semi-aquatic/terrestrial frogs. High-speed video was used to obtain kinematics of the leg joints and feet as animals swam freely across their natural range of speeds. Blade element analysis was then used to model the hydrodynamic thrust as a function of foot kinematics. Two purely aquatic frogs, Xenopus laevis and Hymenochirus boettgeri, were compared with two semi-aquatic/terrestrial frogs, Rana pipiens and Bufo americanus. The four species performed similarly. Among swimming strokes, peak stroke velocity ranged from 3.3+/-1.1 to 20.9+/-2.5, from 6.8+/-2.1 to 28.6+/-3.7 and from 4.9+/-0.5 to 20.9+/-4.1 body lengths per second (BL s(-1)) in X. laevis, H. boettgeri and R. pipiens, respectively (means +/- s.d.; N=4 frogs for each). B. americanus swam much more slowly at 3.1+/-0.3 to 7.0+/-2.0 BL s(-1) (N=3 frogs). Time-varying joint kinematics patterns were superficially similar among species. Because foot kinematics result from the cumulative motion of joints proximal to the feet, small differences in time-varying joint kinematics among species resulted in species-specific foot kinematics (therefore hydrodynamics) patterns. To obtain a simple measure of the hydrodynamically useful motion of the foot, this study uses 'effective foot velocity' (EFV): a measure of the component of foot velocity along the axis of swimming. Resolving EFV into translational and rotational components allows predictions of species-specific propulsion strategies. Additionally, a novel kinematic analysis is presented here that enables the partitioning of translational and rotational foot velocity into velocity components contributed by extension at each individual limb joint. Data from the kinematics analysis show that R. pipiens and B. americanus translated their feet faster than their body moved forward, resulting in positive net translational EFV. Conversely, translational EFV was slower than

  17. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb in Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beretta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injuries (ABIs can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.

  18. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb in Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Preliminary Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Elena; Cesareo, Ambra; Biffi, Emilia; Schafer, Carolyn; Galbiati, Sara; Strazzer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT) and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.

  19. Type synthesis and preliminary design of devices supporting lower limb's rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinski, Michał; Lewandowski, Bogusz; Gronowicz, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of existing solutions, biomechanics of human lower limbs and anticipated applications, results of con- siderations concerning the necessary number of degrees of freedom for the designed device supporting rehabilitation of lower extremities are presented. An analysis was carried out in order to determine the innovative kinematic structure of the device, ensuring sufficient mobility and functionality while minimizing the number of degrees of freedom. With the aid of appropriate formalised meth- ods, for instance, type synthesis, a complete variety of solutions for leg joints were obtained in the form of basic and kinematic schemes, having the potential to find application in devices supporting lower limb rehabilitation. A 3D model of ankle joint module was built in Autodesk Inventor System, then imported to Adams and assembled into a moving numerical model of a mechanism. Several conducted simulations resulted in finding the required maximum stroke of the cylinders. A comparison of the angular ranges of ankle joint and similar devices with the ones achieved by the designed device indicated a sufficient reserve allowing not only movements typical of gait, but approximately achieving the passive range of motion for the ankle joint.

  20. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leteneur

    Full Text Available The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW or backward (BW with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5 moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001 for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001 before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01 during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001, 1.4 (P<0.001 and 1.7 (P<0.01 times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  1. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike.

  3. A biomechanical comparison in the lower limb and lumbar spine between a hit and drag flick in field hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Leo; Rosalie, Simon M; Sherry, Dorianne; Loh, Wei Bing; Sjurseth, Andreas M; Iyengar, Shrikant; Wild, Catherine Y

    2018-03-01

    Research has revealed that field hockey drag flickers have greater odds of hip and lumbar injuries compared to non-drag flickers (DF). This study aimed to compare the biomechanics of a field hockey hit and a specialised field hockey drag flick. Eighteen male and seven female specialised hockey DF performed a hit and a drag flick in a motion analysis laboratory with an 18-camera three-dimensional motion analysis system and a calibrated multichannel force platform to examine differences in lower limb and lumbar kinematics and kinetics. Results revealed that drag flicks were performed with more of a forward lunge on the left lower limb resulting in significantly greater left ankle dorsiflexion, knee, hip and lumbar flexion (Pshit. Drag flicks were also performed with significantly greater lateral flexion (P hit. Differences in kinematics lead to greater shear, compression and tensile forces in multiple left lower limb and lumbar joints in the drag flick compared to the hit (P hit may have ramifications with respect to injury in field hockey drag flickers.

  4. 3D-printed upper limb prostheses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Kate, Jelle; Smit, Gerwin; Breedveld, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview with quantitative information of existing 3D-printed upper limb prostheses. We will identify the benefits and drawbacks of 3D-printed devices to enable improvement of current devices based on the demands of prostheses users. A review was performed using Scopus, Web of Science and websites related to 3D-printing. Quantitative information on the mechanical and kinematic specifications and 3D-printing technology used was extracted from the papers and websites. The overview (58 devices) provides the general specifications, the mechanical and kinematic specifications of the devices and information regarding the 3D-printing technology used for hands. The overview shows prostheses for all different upper limb amputation levels with different types of control and a maximum material cost of $500. A large range of various prostheses have been 3D-printed, of which the majority are used by children. Evidence with respect to the user acceptance, functionality and durability of the 3D-printed hands is lacking. Contrary to what is often claimed, 3D-printing is not necessarily cheap, e.g., injection moulding can be cheaper. Conversely, 3D-printing provides a promising possibility for individualization, e.g., personalized socket, colour, shape and size, without the need for adjusting the production machine. Implications for rehabilitation Upper limb deficiency is a condition in which a part of the upper limb is missing as a result of a congenital limb deficiency of as a result of an amputation. A prosthetic hand can restore some of the functions of a missing limb and help the user in performing activities of daily living. Using 3D-printing technology is one of the solutions to manufacture hand prostheses. This overview provides information about the general, mechanical and kinematic specifications of all the devices and it provides the information about the 3D-printing technology used to print the hands.

  5. Deviating running kinematics and hamstring injury susceptibility in male soccer players: Cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Although the vast majority of hamstring injuries in male soccer are sustained during high speed running, the association between sprinting kinematics and hamstring injury vulnerability has never been investigated prospectively in a cohort at risk. This study aimed to objectify the importance of lower limb and trunk kinematics during full sprint in hamstring injury susceptibility. Cohort study; level of evidence, 2. At the end of the 2013 soccer season, three-dimensional kinematic data of the lower limb and trunk were collected during sprinting in a cohort consisting of 30 soccer players with a recent history of hamstring injury and 30 matched controls. Subsequently, a 1.5 season follow up was conducted for (re)injury registry. Ultimately, joint and segment motion patterns were submitted to retro- and prospective statistical curve analyses for injury risk prediction. Statistical analysis revealed that index injury occurrence was associated with higher levels of anterior pelvic tilting and thoracic side bending throughout the airborne (swing) phases of sprinting, whereas no kinematic differences during running were found when comparing players with a recent hamstring injury history with their matched controls. Deficient core stability, enabling excessive pelvis and trunk motion during swing, probably increases the primary injury risk. Although sprinting encompasses a relative risk of hamstring muscle failure in every athlete, running coordination demonstrated to be essential in hamstring injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification of upper limb disability levels of children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy using K-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouafi, Sana; Achiche, Sofiane; Begon, Mickael; Sarcher, Aurélie; Raison, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    Treatment for cerebral palsy depends upon the severity of the child's condition and requires knowledge about upper limb disability. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic quantitative classification method of the upper limb disability levels for children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy based on upper limb movements and muscle activation. Thirteen children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy and six typically developing children participated in this study. Patients were matched on age and manual ability classification system levels I to III. Twenty-three kinematic and electromyographic variables were collected from two tasks. Discriminative analysis and K-means clustering algorithm were applied using 23 kinematic and EMG variables of each participant. Among the 23 kinematic and electromyographic variables, only two variables containing the most relevant information for the prediction of the four levels of severity of spastic unilateral cerebral palsy, which are fixed by manual ability classification system, were identified by discriminant analysis: (1) the Falconer index (CAI E ) which represents the ratio of biceps to triceps brachii activity during extension and (2) the maximal angle extension (θ Extension,max ). A good correlation (Kendall Rank correlation coefficient = -0.53, p = 0.01) was found between levels fixed by manual ability classification system and the obtained classes. These findings suggest that the cost and effort needed to assess and characterize the disability level of a child can be further reduced.

  7. Detecting elementary arm movements by tracking upper limb joint angles with MARG sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Biswas, Dwaipayan; Cranny, Andy; Rajan, Amal; Maharatna, Koushik; Achner, Josy; Klemke, Jasmin; Jobges, Michael; Ortmann, Steffen; Langendorfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an algorithm for the detection of three elementary upper limb movements, i.e., reach and retrieve, bend the arm at the elbow and rotation of the arm about the long axis. We employ two MARG sensors, attached at the elbow and wrist, from which the kinematic properties (joint angles, position) of the upper arm and forearm are calculated through data fusion using a quaternion-based gradient-descent method and a two-link model of the upper limb. By studying the kinematic pattern...

  8. Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis toward Robotic Power Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Chacon-Murguia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs' angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.

  9. Three-dimensional, automated, real-time video system for tracking limb motion in brain-machine interface studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikon, Ian D; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2009-06-15

    Collection and analysis of limb kinematic data are essential components of the study of biological motion, including research into biomechanics, kinesiology, neurophysiology and brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In particular, BMI research requires advanced, real-time systems capable of sampling limb kinematics with minimal contact to the subject's body. To answer this demand, we have developed an automated video tracking system for real-time tracking of multiple body parts in freely behaving primates. The system employs high-contrast markers painted on the animal's joints to continuously track the three-dimensional positions of their limbs during activity. Two-dimensional coordinates captured by each video camera are combined and converted to three-dimensional coordinates using a quadratic fitting algorithm. Real-time operation of the system is accomplished using direct memory access (DMA). The system tracks the markers at a rate of 52 frames per second (fps) in real-time and up to 100fps if video recordings are captured to be later analyzed off-line. The system has been tested in several BMI primate experiments, in which limb position was sampled simultaneously with chronic recordings of the extracellular activity of hundreds of cortical cells. During these recordings, multiple computational models were employed to extract a series of kinematic parameters from neuronal ensemble activity in real-time. The system operated reliably under these experimental conditions and was able to compensate for marker occlusions that occurred during natural movements. We propose that this system could also be extended to applications that include other classes of biological motion.

  10. Hallux valgus surgery affects kinematic parameters during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugarova, Jitka; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Sos, Zdenek; Stergiou, Nicholas; Klugar, Miloslav

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to compare spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during the walking in patients with hallux valgus before and after surgery and in relation to a control group. Seventeen females with hallux valgus, who underwent first metatarsal osteotomy, constituted our experimental group. The control group consisted of thirteen females. Kinematic data during walking were obtained using the Vicon MX system. Our results showed that hallux valgus before surgery affects spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during walking. Hallux valgus surgery further increased the differences that were present before surgery. Specifically after hallux valgus surgery, the walking speed decreased even more (p=0.09, η 2 =0.19) while step time increased (p=0.002, η 2 =0.44) on both legs. The maximum ankle plantar flexion of the operated leg during toe-off decreased to a greater extend (p=0.03, η 2 =0.26). The asymmetry in the hip and the pelvis movements in the frontal plane (present preoperatively) persisted after surgery. Hallux valgus is not an isolated problem of the first ray, which could be just surgically addressed by correcting the foot's alignment. It is a long-term progressive malfunction of the foot affecting the entire kinematic chain of the lower extremity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Difference in kinematical behavior between two landing tasks in male volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Ribeiro Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in sports. Studies investigating injury mechanisms have demonstrated that most injuries arise from landing tasks. Despite the demonstration of differences between male and female kinematics, there are no studies showing how males behave during different landing tasks. The objective of this study was to compare the angular and temporal kinematics of the lower limbs between two different landing tasks. Double leg and single leg landings were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane in 15 male volleyball athletes by videogrammetry. Reduced hip and knee flexion and increased knee valgus were observed in the single leg landing task compared to the double leg landing task. No significant difference in landing time was observed between the two tasks. In conclusion, the results support the premise that lower limb kinematics change according to the task performed. Further studies are necessary to explore the impact of these kinematic differences on knee loading and to relate them to ACL injury mechanisms in men.

  12. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau, Emilie; Gillet, Christophe; Dessery, Yoann; Barbier, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (Ppostures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  13. Golf and upper limb injuries: a summary and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.

  14. Biomechanical parameters in lower limbs during natural walking and Nordic walking at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Alicja K; Żurek, Grzegorz; Garrard, Ian; Wierzbicka-Damska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) is a sport that has a number of benefits as a rehabilitation method. It is performed with specially designed poles and has been often recommended as a physical activity that helps reduce the load to limbs. However, some studies have suggested that these findings might be erroneous. The aim of this paper was to compare the kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW) at both low and high walking speeds. The study used a registration system, BTS Smart software and Kistler platform. Eleven subjects walked along a 15-metre path at low (below 2 m⋅s-1) and high (over 2 m⋅s-1) walking speeds. The Davis model was employed for calculations of kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs. With constant speed, the support given by Nordic Walking poles does not make the stroke longer and there is no change in pelvic rotation either. The only change observed was much bigger pelvic anteversion in the sagittal plane during fast NW. There were no changes in forces, power and muscle torques in lower limbs. The study found no differences in kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW). Higher speeds generate greater ground reaction forces and muscle torques in lower limbs. Gait parameters depend on walking speed rather than on walking style.

  15. Evaluation of thoracic limb loads, elbow movement, and morphology in dogs before and after arthroscopic management of unilateral medial coronoid process disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; Dziallas, Peter; Wolf, Davina C; Kramer, Sabine; Abdelhadi, Jalal; Lucas, Karin; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    To (1) evaluate thoracic limb loads and symmetry, and elbow function and morphology, before and after arthroscopic treatment of unilateral medial coronoid process disease (MCPD), and (2) determine if functional variables correlate with morphologic findings. Prospective case series. Dogs (n = 14) with thoracic limb lameness. Dogs were included when unilateral MCPD was confirmed as the cause of lameness. Kinetic analysis of both thoracic limbs, along with kinematic analysis and goniometry of both elbows were carried out before, and 60, 120, and 180 days after partial coronoidectomy by arthroscopy. Radiography and computed tomography of both elbows were performed before and 180 days after arthroscopy. A nonsignificant (P = .11) increase in the peak vertical loads (PFz), and a significant (P = .022) increase in the vertical impulse (iFz) applied by the affected limb were seen. Symmetry indices improved, with significant differences between sessions (PFz: P = .019; iFz: P = .003). Kinematic variables showed no significant differences, between sessions or when comparing both elbows within sessions. Goniometry revealed no significant differences between sessions, but some significant differences were identified when comparing both elbows within sessions. Osteophytosis and degree of lameness showed no correlation, before (rs  = -0.077; P = .79) or after arthroscopy (rs  = 0.27; P = .35). Kinetic variables improved after arthroscopy, without full restoration of function. Kinematic variables did not change significantly. Osteoarthritis and goniometric measurements in the affected joint worsened. Functional variables did not correlate with morphologic findings. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Pattern of improvement in upper limb pointing task kinematics after a 3-month training program with robotic assistance in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Laborne, François-Xavier; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie

    2017-10-13

    When exploring changes in upper limb kinematics and motor impairment associated with motor recovery in subacute post stroke during intensive therapies involving robot-assisted training, it is not known whether trained joints improve before non-trained joints and whether target reaching capacity improves before movement accuracy. Twenty-two subacute stroke patients (mean delay post-stroke at program onset 63 ± 29 days, M2) underwent 50 ± 17 (mean ± SD) 45-min sessions of robot-assisted (InMotion™) shoulder/elbow training over 3 months, in addition to conventional occupational therapy. Monthly evaluations (M2 to M5) included Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FM), with subscores per joint, and four robot-based kinematic measures: mean target distance covered, mean velocity, direction accuracy (inverse of root mean square error from straight line) and movement smoothness (inverse of mean number of zero-crossings in the velocity profile). We assessed delays to reach statistically significant improvement for each outcome measure. At M5, all clinical and kinematic parameters had markedly improved: Fugl-Meyer, +65% (median); distance covered, +87%; mean velocity, +101%; accuracy, +134%; and smoothness, +96%. Delays to reach statistical significance were M3 for the shoulder/elbow Fugl-Meyer subscore (+43%), M4 for the hand (+80%) and M5 for the wrist (+133%) subscores. For kinematic parameters, delays to significant improvements were M3 for distance (+68%), velocity (+65%) and smoothness (+50%), and M5 for accuracy (+134%). An intensive rehabilitation program combining robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training and conventional occupational therapy was associated with improvement in shoulder and elbow movements first, which suggests focal behavior-related brain plasticity. Findings also suggested that recovery of movement quantity related parameters (range of motion, velocity and smoothness) might precede that of movement quality (accuracy). EudraCT 2016-005121-36 . Date of

  17. Hydrodynamic interactions in metachronal paddling: effects of varying stroke kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Milad; Kasoju, Vishwa; Lai, Hong Kuan; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and krill use a drag-based technique for propulsion, in which multiple pairs of limbs are paddled rhythmically from the tail to the head. Each limb is phase-shifted in time relative to its neighbor. Most studies of this type of metachronal swimming have focused on the jet formed in the animal's wake. However, synergistic hydrodynamic interactions between adjacent limbs in metachrony have received minimal attention. We used a dynamically scaled robotic model to experimentally investigate how variations in stroke kinematics impact inter-paddle hydrodynamic interactions and thrust generation. Physical models of limbs were fitted to the robot and paddled with two different motion profiles (MPs)-1) MP1: metachronal power stroke (PS) and metachronal recovery stroke (RS); and 2) MP2: metachronal PS and synchronous RS. Stroke frequency and amplitude were maintained constant across both MPs. Our results show that MP2 produced faster jets in the thrust-generating direction as compared to MP1. The necessity for a pause in MP2 after completion of PS by the paddles leading the motion, prior to executing the synchronous RS, aided in further downstream flow propagation. The effect of using asymmetric stroke kinematics on thrust generated will be discussed.

  18. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Yasuharu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Methods Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. Results After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE: 24.4 (2.1 deg was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5 deg (p Conclusions The jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  19. Increased lower limb muscle coactivation reduces gait performance and increases metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Martina; Ranavolo, Alberto; Conforto, Silvia; Martino, Giovanni; Draicchio, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Bini, Fabiano; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait. Energy consumption and energy recovery were measured as well. In addition to the correlation analysis between coactivation indexes and clinical variables, correlations between coactivation indexes and time-distance, kinematic, kinetic, and energetic parameters were estimated. Increased coactivity indexes of both knee and ankle muscles throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait were observed in patients compared with controls. Energetic parameters were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Both knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were positively correlated with knee and ankle spasticity (Ashworth score), respectively. Knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were both positively correlated with energy consumption and both negatively correlated with energy recovery. Positive correlations between the Ashworth score and lower limb muscle coactivation suggest that abnormal lower limb muscle coactivation in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis reflects a primary deficit linked to lower limb spasticity. Furthermore, these abnormalities influence the energetic mechanisms during walking. Identifying excessive muscle coactivation may be helpful in individuating the rehabilitative treatments and designing specific orthosis to restrain spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Kinematic Learning Model using Video and Interfaces Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, T.; Setiawan, W.; Hamidah, I.

    2017-09-01

    An educator currently in demand to apply the learning to not be separated from the development of technology. Educators often experience difficulties when explaining kinematics material, this is because kinematics is one of the lessons that often relate the concept to real life. Kinematics is one of the courses of physics that explains the cause of motion of an object, Therefore it takes the thinking skills and analytical skills in understanding these symptoms. Technology is one that can bridge between conceptual relationship with real life. A framework of technology-based learning models has been developed using video and interfaces analysis on kinematics concept. By using this learning model, learners will be better able to understand the concept that is taught by the teacher. This learning model is able to improve the ability of creative thinking, analytical skills, and problem-solving skills on the concept of kinematics.

  1. Kinematics analysis of a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Haibo; Guo, Sheng [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy is proposed. First, the Degrees of freedom (DOF) of the whole parallel manipulator and the Relative DOF (RDOF) between the moving platform and fixed base are studied. The results indicate that the proposed mechanism is kinematically redundant. Then, the kinematics, Jacobian matrices and workspace of this proposed parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy are analyzed. Finally, the statics simulation of the proposed parallel manipulator is performed. The obtained stress and displacement distribution can be used to determine the easily destroyed place in the mechanism configurations.

  2. Kinematics analysis of a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Haibo; Guo, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy is proposed. First, the Degrees of freedom (DOF) of the whole parallel manipulator and the Relative DOF (RDOF) between the moving platform and fixed base are studied. The results indicate that the proposed mechanism is kinematically redundant. Then, the kinematics, Jacobian matrices and workspace of this proposed parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy are analyzed. Finally, the statics simulation of the proposed parallel manipulator is performed. The obtained stress and displacement distribution can be used to determine the easily destroyed place in the mechanism configurations

  3. Kinematics Analysis and Simulation on Transfer Robot with Six Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Study focuses on transfer robot with Six Degrees of Freedom, establishing kinematic equation by D-H method, analyzing forward kinematics and obtaining inverse kinematics by using method of inverse transform. Based on vector product, it develops velocity Jacobian matrix of robot. The geometric model of robot virtual prototype is established by SolidWorks software and generates parameters such as mass and moment. Kinematic simulation for robot is performed by Mathematica software and develops curve graph of displacement, velocity and accelerated speed in x, y and z direction in end executor center of robot with measurement, analysis and assessment, which provides foundation for further kinematics analysis and structure optimization as well as motion control of robot.

  4. Kinematic analysis of a televised medial ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca E. Wade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50° occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64° occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s. The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism. Keywords: Athletic injury, Biomechanics, Ankle injury, Kinematics

  5. Relationship between lower limbs kinematic variables and effectiveness of sprint during maximum velocity phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Konieczny, Grzegorz; Grzesik, Kamila; Stawarz, Mateusz; Winiarski, Sławomir; Rokita, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between time of running over a 15-25 m section of a 30-meter run along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity observed in ankle, knee and hip joints. Therefore, the authors attempted to answer the question of whether a technique of lower limbs movement during the phase of sprint maximum velocity significantly correlates with the time of running over this section. A group of 14 young people from the Lower Silesia Voivodeship Team participated in the experiment. A Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using Noraxon MyoMotion system. There were observed statistically significant relationships between sprint time over a section from 15 to 25 m and left hip rotation (positive) and between this time and left and right ankle joint dorsi-plantar flexion (negative). During the maximum velocity phase of a 30 m sprint, the effect of dorsi-plantar flexion performed in the whole range of motion was found to be beneficial. This can be attributed to the use of elastic energy released in the stride cycle. Further, hip rotation should be minimized, which makes the stride aligned more along a line of running (a straight line) instead of from side to side.

  6. Upper Limb Kinematics Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors: Comparison of Sensor-to-Segment Calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Bouvier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-Inertial Measurement Unit sensors (MIMU display high potential for the quantitative evaluation of upper limb kinematics, as they allow monitoring ambulatory measurements. The sensor-to-segment calibration step, consisting of establishing the relation between MIMU sensors and human segments, plays an important role in the global accuracy of joint angles. The aim of this study was to compare sensor-to-segment calibrations for the MIMU-based estimation of wrist, elbow, and shoulder joint angles, by examining trueness (“close to the reference” and precision (reproducibility validity criteria. Ten subjects performed five sessions with three different operators. Three classes of calibrations were studied: segment axes equal to technical MIMU axes (TECH, segment axes generated during a static pose (STATIC, and those generated during functional movements (FUNCT. The calibrations were compared during the maximal uniaxial movements of each joint, plus an extra multi-joint movement. Generally, joint angles presented good trueness and very good precision in the range 5°–10°. Only small discrepancy between calibrations was highlighted, with the exception of a few cases. The very good overall accuracy (trueness and precision of MIMU-based joint angle data seems to be more dependent on the level of rigor of the experimental procedure (operator training than on the choice of calibration itself.

  7. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yasuharu; Ida, Hirofumi; Akai, Masami; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-07-14

    Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE): 24.4 (2.1) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5) deg) (p training trial (40.2 (1.9) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (34.3 (2.5) deg) (p training. A significant increase was also found in the activity of the hamstrings 50 ms before foot contact (p jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  8. Influence of Botulinum Toxin Therapy on Postural Control and Lower Limb Intersegmental Coordination in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics in gait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. Here we aimed to analyze the effect of lower limb botulinum toxin injections on trunk postural control and lower limb intralimb (intersegmental coordination in children with spastic diplegia or spastic hemiplegia (GMFCS I or II. We recorded tridimensional trunk kinematics and thigh, shank and foot elevation angles in fourteen 3–12 year-old children with spastic diplegia and 14 with spastic hemiplegia while walking either barefoot or with ankle-foot orthoses (AFO before and after botulinum toxin infiltration according to a management protocol. We found significantly greater trunk excursions in the transverse plane (barefoot condition and in the frontal plane (AFO condition. Intralimb coordination showed significant differences only in the barefoot condition, suggesting that reducing the degrees of freedom may limit the emergence of selective coordination. Minimal relative phase analysis showed differences between the groups (diplegia and hemiplegia but there were no significant alterations unless the children wore AFO. We conclude that botulinum toxin injection in lower limb spastic muscles leads to changes in motor planning, including through interference with trunk stability, but a combination of therapies (orthoses and physical therapy is needed in order to learn new motor strategies.

  9. Kinematic analysis of parallel manipulators by algebraic screw theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the fundamentals of screw theory concerned with velocity analysis of rigid-bodies, confirmed with detailed and explicit proofs. The author additionally investigates acceleration, jerk, and hyper-jerk analyses of rigid-bodies following the trend of the velocity analysis. With the material provided in this book, readers can extend the theory of screws into the kinematics of optional order of rigid-bodies. Illustrative examples and exercises to reinforce learning are provided. Of particular note, the kinematics of emblematic parallel manipulators, such as the Delta robot as well as the original Gough and Stewart platforms are revisited applying, in addition to the theory of screws, new methods devoted to simplify the corresponding forward-displacement analysis, a challenging task for most parallel manipulators. Stands as the only book devoted to the acceleration, jerk and hyper-jerk (snap) analyses of rigid-body by means of screw theory; Provides new strategies to simplify the forward kinematic...

  10. The influence of musical cadence into aquatic jumping jacks kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min(-1), 135 b·min(-1), 150 b·min(-1), 165 b·min(-1) and 180 b·min(-1)) with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands), lower limbs' (i.e. feet) and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key pointsWhile performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion.The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence.Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence.

  11. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF FINSWIMMING AT SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Giorgio Zanone

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01. Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01. This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance

  12. Effect of walking on sand on gait kinematics in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maayken E L; Barr, Christopher J; McLoughlin, James V; Crotty, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Walking in the real-world involves negotiating challenging or uneven surfaces, including sand. This can be challenging for people with Multiple Sclerosis (PWMS) due to motor deficits affecting the lower extremities. The study objective was to characterise kinematic gait adaptations made by PWMS when walking on sand and describe any immediate post-adaptation effects. 17 PWMS (mean age 51.4 ± 5.5, Disease Steps 2.4 ± 1.0), and 14 age-and gender matched healthy adults (HA) took part in a case-control study. 3D gait analysis was conducted using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system. Each participant completed walking trials over level ground (baseline), sand (gait adaptation response), and again level ground (post-adaptation). Spatiotemporal data and kinematic data for the hip knee and ankle were recorded. At baseline PWMS showed significantly less total lower limb flexion (pgait pattern to near baseline levels, in a manner similar to but with values not equalling HA. Further work is required to determine whether this mode of walking has potential to act as a gait retraining strategy to increase flexion of the lower limb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Forward kinematics solutions of a special six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator with three limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a special 6-degree-of freedom parallel manipulator, and the mechanical structure of this robot has been introduced; with this structure, the kinematic constrain equations are decoupled. Based on this character, the polynomial solutions of the forward kinematics problem are also presented. In this method, the closed-loop kinematic chain of the manipulator is divided into two parts, the solution forward position kinematics is obtained by a first-degree polynomial equation first, and then an eighth-degree polynomial equation in a single variable for the forward orientation kinematics is obtained. Based on those solutions, the configurations of the robot, including position and orientation of the end-effector, are graphically displayed. A numerical simulation is given to verify the algorithm, and the result implies that for a given set of input values, the manipulator can be assembled in eight different configurations at most. And a set of experiments illustrate the motion ability for forward kinematics of the prototype of this manipulator.

  14. Analysis and optimization of kinematic pair force in control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhenguo; Liu Sen; Ran Xiaobing; Dai Changnian; Li Yuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Function expressions of kinematic pair force with latch dimensions, friction coefficient, link angle and external load was obtained by theoretical analysis, and the expression was verified by the motion analysis software. Key parameters of kinematic pair were confirmed, and their effect trends with force of parts were obtained. They show that the available method of kinematic pair optimization is increasing the space of latch holes. Using the motion analysis software, the forces of parts before and after optimization was compared. The result shows that the forces of parts were improved after the optimization. (authors)

  15. A prosthesis-specific multi-link segment model of lower-limb amputee sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Stacey M; Simmons, Anne; Kark, Lauren

    2016-10-03

    Lower-limb amputees commonly utilize non-articulating energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses for high impact activities such as sprinting. Despite these prostheses lacking an articulating ankle joint, amputee gait analysis conventionally features a two-link segment model of the prosthetic foot. This paper investigated the effects of the selected link segment model׳s marker-set and geometry on a unilateral amputee sprinter׳s calculated lower-limb kinematics, kinetics and energetics. A total of five lower-limb models of the Ottobock ® 1E90 Sprinter were developed, including two conventional shank-foot models that each used a different version of the Plug-in-Gait (PiG) marker-set to test the effect of prosthesis ankle marker location. Two Hybrid prosthesis-specific models were then developed, also using the PiG marker-sets, with the anatomical shank and foot replaced by prosthesis-specific geometry separated into two segments. Finally, a Multi-link segment (MLS) model was developed, consisting of six segments for the prosthesis as defined by a custom marker-set. All full-body musculoskeletal models were tested using four trials of experimental marker trajectories within OpenSim 3.2 (Stanford, California, USA) to find the affected and unaffected hip, knee and ankle kinematics, kinetics and energetics. The geometry of the selected lower-limb prosthesis model was found to significantly affect all variables on the affected leg (p prosthesis-specific spatial, inertial and elastic properties from full-body models significantly affects the calculated amputee gait characteristics, and we therefore recommend the implementation of a MLS model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinematic Adaptations of Forward and Backward Walking on Land and in Water

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    Cadenas-Sanchez Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare sagittal plane lower limb kinematics during walking on land and submerged to the hip in water. Eight healthy adults (age 22.1 ± 1.1 years, body height 174.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass 63.4 ± 6.2 kg were asked to cover a distance of 10 m at comfortable speed with controlled step frequency, walking forward or backward. Sagittal plane lower limb kinematics were obtained from three dimensional video analysis to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint angles at selected events using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Key findings were a reduced walking speed, stride length, step length and a support phase in water, and step length asymmetry was higher compared to the land condition (p<0.05. At initial contact, knees and hips were more flexed during walking forward in water, whilst, ankles were more dorsiflexed during walking backward in water. At final stance, knees and ankles were more flexed during forward walking, whilst the hip was more flexed during backward walking. These results show how walking in water differs from walking on land, and provide valuable insights into the development and prescription of rehabilitation and training programs.

  17. Cluster-based upper body marker models for three-dimensional kinematic analysis: Comparison with an anatomical model and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Quinn A; Valevicius, Aïda M; Lavoie, Ewen B; Chapman, Craig S; Pilarski, Patrick M; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Vette, Albert H

    2018-04-27

    Quantifying angular joint kinematics of the upper body is a useful method for assessing upper limb function. Joint angles are commonly obtained via motion capture, tracking markers placed on anatomical landmarks. This method is associated with limitations including administrative burden, soft tissue artifacts, and intra- and inter-tester variability. An alternative method involves the tracking of rigid marker clusters affixed to body segments, calibrated relative to anatomical landmarks or known joint angles. The accuracy and reliability of applying this cluster method to the upper body has, however, not been comprehensively explored. Our objective was to compare three different upper body cluster models with an anatomical model, with respect to joint angles and reliability. Non-disabled participants performed two standardized functional upper limb tasks with anatomical and cluster markers applied concurrently. Joint angle curves obtained via the marker clusters with three different calibration methods were compared to those from an anatomical model, and between-session reliability was assessed for all models. The cluster models produced joint angle curves which were comparable to and highly correlated with those from the anatomical model, but exhibited notable offsets and differences in sensitivity for some degrees of freedom. Between-session reliability was comparable between all models, and good for most degrees of freedom. Overall, the cluster models produced reliable joint angles that, however, cannot be used interchangeably with anatomical model outputs to calculate kinematic metrics. Cluster models appear to be an adequate, and possibly advantageous alternative to anatomical models when the objective is to assess trends in movement behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous and Continuous Estimation of Shoulder and Elbow Kinematics from Surface EMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation method for multiple DoFs across shoulder and elbow joint. Although simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation from surface electromyography (EMG is a feasible way to achieve natural and intuitive human-machine interaction, few works investigated multi-DoF estimation across the significant joints of upper limb, shoulder and elbow joints. This paper evaluates the feasibility to estimate 4-DoF kinematics at shoulder and elbow during coordinated arm movements. Considering the potential applications of this method in exoskeleton, prosthetics and other arm rehabilitation techniques, the estimation performance is presented with different muscle activity decomposition and learning strategies. Principle component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA are respectively employed for EMG mode decomposition with artificial neural network (ANN for learning the electromechanical association. Four joint angles across shoulder and elbow are simultaneously and continuously estimated from EMG in four coordinated arm movements. By using ICA (PCA and single ANN, the average estimation accuracy 91.12% (90.23% is obtained in 70-s intra-cross validation and 87.00% (86.30% is obtained in 2-min inter-cross validation. This result suggests it is feasible and effective to use ICA (PCA with single ANN for multi-joint kinematics estimation in variant application conditions.

  19. Metrological Evaluation of a Novel Medical Robot and Its Kinematic Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The vessels are twisted in a longitudinal 3D space in the lower limbs of humans. Thus, it is difficult to perform an ultrasound scanning examination in this area. In this paper, a new medical parallel robot is introduced to effectively diagnose vessel disease in the lower limbs. The robot's position repeatability and accuracy are evaluated. Furthermore, the robot's accuracy is improved through a calibration process in which the kinematic parameters are identified through a simple identification approach.

  20. Software Development for the Kinematic Analysis of a Lynx 6 Robot Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Baki Koyuncu; Mehmet Güzel

    2007-01-01

    The kinematics of manipulators is a central problem in the automatic control of robot manipulators. Theoretical background for the analysis of the 5 Dof Lynx-6 educational Robot Arm kinematics is presented in this paper. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. The Denavit-Harbenterg (D-H) model of representation is used to model robot links and joints in this study. Both forward and inverse kinematics solutions for th...

  1. Plastic limit analysis with non linear kinematic strain hardening for metalworking processes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaba, Ali; Aboussaleh, Mohamed; Bousshine, Lahbib; Boudaia, El Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Limit analysis approaches are widely used to deal with metalworking processes analysis; however, they are applied only for perfectly plastic materials and recently for isotropic hardening ones excluding any kind of kinematic hardening. In the present work, using Implicit Standard Materials concept, sequential limit analysis approach and the finite element method, our objective consists in extending the limit analysis application for including linear and non linear kinematic strain hardenings. Because this plastic flow rule is non associative, the Implicit Standard Materials concept is adopted as a framework of non standard plasticity modeling. The sequential limit analysis procedure which considers the plastic behavior with non linear kinematic strain hardening as a succession of perfectly plastic behavior with yielding surfaces updated after each sequence of limit analysis and geometry updating is applied. Standard kinematic finite element method together with a regularization approach is used for performing two large compression cases (cold forging) in plane strain and axisymmetric conditions

  2. Kinematics of roller chain drives - Exact and approximate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    An exact and approximate kinematic analysis of a roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism is presented. The span connects the sprockets such that they rotate in the same direction, and the sprocket size, number of teeth, and shaft center distance can be arbitrary. The driven sprocket...... to be very good agreement. All together this gives new insights into the characteristics of chain drive kinematics and the influence of main design parameters....

  3. The Evolution of Devices and Systems Supporting Rehabilitation of Lower Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinski, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Gronowicz, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the process of development, as well as examples of devices and systems supporting rehabilitation of the human lower extremities, developed independently over the years in many parts of the world. Particular emphasis was placed on indicating, which major groups of devices supporting kinesitherapy of the lower limbs can be distinguished, what are the important advantages and disadvantages of particular types of solutions, as well as what directions currently dominating in development of rehabilitation systems may be specified. A deeper analysis and comparison of several selected systems was also conducted, resulting in gathering the outcomes in two tables. They focused on a few features of mechanical design, especially the devices' kinematic structures, and devices' additional functions associated with, among others, interaction, as well as diagnosis of the limb's state and the progress of rehabilitation.

  4. Cortical Decoding of Individual Finger and Wrist Kinematics for an Upper-Limb Neuroprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vikram; Tenore, Francesco; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Schieber, Marc H.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that neuronal activity can be used to continuously decode the kinematics of gross movements involving arm and hand trajectory. However, decoding the kinematics of fine motor movements, such as the manipulation of individual fingers, has not been demonstrated. In this study, single unit activities were recorded from task-related neurons in M1 of two trained rhesus monkey as they performed individuated movements of the fingers and wrist. The primates’ hand was placed in a manipulandum, and strain gauges at the tips of each finger were used to track the digit’s position. Both linear and non-linear filters were designed to simultaneously predict kinematics of each digit and the wrist, and their performance compared using mean squared error and correlation coefficients. All models had high decoding accuracy, but the feedforward ANN (R=0.76–0.86, MSE=0.04–0.05) and Kalman filter (R=0.68–0.86, MSE=0.04–0.07) performed better than a simple linear regression filter (0.58–0.81, 0.05–0.07). These results suggest that individual finger and wrist kinematics can be decoded with high accuracy, and be used to control a multi-fingered prosthetic hand in real-time. PMID:19964645

  5. Lower limb joint motion during a cross cutting movement differs in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Yuta; Yamanaka, Masanori; Ezawa, Yuya; Ishida, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Takumi; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Takeda, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    To compare the kinematics of lower limb joints between individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI) during cross-turn and -cutting movements. Cross-sectional study. Motion analysis laboratory. Twelve subjects with CAI and twelve healthy controls. Hip flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion and inversion angles were calculated in the 200 ms before initial ground contact and from initial ground contact to toe-off (stance phase) in a cross-turn movement during gait and a cross-cutting movement from a forward jump, and compared across the two groups. In the cross-cutting movement, the CAI group exhibited greater hip and knee flexion than the control group during the stance phase, and more hip abduction during the period before initial contact and the stance phase. In the cross-turn movement the joint kinematics were similar in the two groups. CAI subjects exhibited an altered pattern of the proximal joint kinematics during a cross-cutting movement. It is important for clinicians to assess the function of the hip and knee as well as the ankle, and to incorporate coordination training for the entire lower limb into rehabilitation after lateral ankle sprains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical kinematics analysis and synthesis of planar mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Using computational techniques and a complex variable formulation, this book teaches the student of kinematics to handle increasingly difficult problems in both the analysis and design of mechanisms all based on the fundamental loop closure equation.

  8. The adaptation of limb kinematics to increasing walking speeds in freely moving mice 129/Sv and C57BL/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc

    2009-07-19

    The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed.

  9. Kinematic Analysis of Speech Sound Sequencing Errors Induced by Delayed Auditory Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cler, Gabriel J; Lee, Jackson C; Mittelman, Talia; Stepp, Cara E; Bohland, Jason W

    2017-06-22

    Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) causes speakers to become disfluent and make phonological errors. Methods for assessing the kinematics of speech errors are lacking, with most DAF studies relying on auditory perceptual analyses, which may be problematic, as errors judged to be categorical may actually represent blends of sounds or articulatory errors. Eight typical speakers produced nonsense syllable sequences under normal and DAF (200 ms). Lip and tongue kinematics were captured with electromagnetic articulography. Time-locked acoustic recordings were transcribed, and the kinematics of utterances with and without perceived errors were analyzed with existing and novel quantitative methods. New multivariate measures showed that for 5 participants, kinematic variability for productions perceived to be error free was significantly increased under delay; these results were validated by using the spatiotemporal index measure. Analysis of error trials revealed both typical productions of a nontarget syllable and productions with articulatory kinematics that incorporated aspects of both the target and the perceived utterance. This study is among the first to characterize articulatory changes under DAF and provides evidence for different classes of speech errors, which may not be perceptually salient. New methods were developed that may aid visualization and analysis of large kinematic data sets. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5103067.

  10. Kinematic analysis of in situ measurement during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Wang, Tongqing; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technique in semiconductor manufacturing presently. With the aid of in situ measurement technology, CMP tools can achieve good performance and stable productivity. However, the in situ measurement has remained unexplored from a kinematic standpoint. The available related resources for the kinematic analysis are very limited due to the complexity and technical secret. In this paper, a comprehensive kinematic analysis of in situ measurement is provided, including the analysis model, the measurement trajectory, and the measurement time of each zone of wafer surface during the practical CMP process. In addition, a lot of numerical calculations are performed to study the influences of main parameters on the measurement trajectory and the measurement velocity variation of the probe during the measurement process. All the efforts are expected to improve the in situ measurement system and promote the advancement in CMP control system.

  11. Ontogenetic scaling of locomotor kinetics and kinematics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Jespers, Karin J; Wilson, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    Kinematic and kinetic parameters of running gait were investigated through growth in the ostrich, from two weeks up to 10 months of age, in order to investigate the effects of increasing body size. Ontogenetic scaling relationships were compared with published scaling relationships found to exist with increasing body size between species to determine whether dynamic similarity is maintained during growth. During the study, ostrich mass (M(b)) ranged from 0.7 kg to 108.8 kg. Morphological measurements showed that lengths scaled with positive allometry during growth (hip height proportional to M(b)(0.40); foot segment length proportional to M(b)(0.40); tarsometatarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.41); tibiotarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.38); femur length proportional to M(b)(0.37)), significantly exceeding the close to geometric scaling observed between mammalian and avian species of increasing body size. Scaling of kinematic variables largely agreed with predicted scaling for increasing size and demonstrated relationships close to dynamic similarity and, as such, ontogenetic scaling of locomotor parameters was similar to that observed with increasing body mass between species. However, the ways in which these scaling trends were achieved were very different, with ontogenetic scaling of locomotor mechanics largely resulting from simple scaling of the limb segments rather than postural changes, likely to be due to developmental constraints. Small deviations from dynamic similarity of kinematic parameters and a reduction in the predicted scaling of limb stiffness (proportional to M(b)(0.59)) were found to be accounted for by the positive allometric scaling of the limb during growth.

  12. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  13. The Standard Deviation of Differential Index as an innovation diagnostic tool based on kinematic parameters for objective assessment of a upper limb motion pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkojć, Jacek; Wodarski, Piotr; Michnik, Robert A; Bieniek, Andrzej; Gzik, Marek; Granek, Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Indexing methods are very popular in terms of determining the degree of disability associated with motor dysfunctions. Currently, indexing methods dedicated to the upper limbs are not very popular, probably due to difficulties in their interpretation. This work presents the calculation algorithm of new SDDI index and the attempt is made to determine the level of physical dysfunction along with description of its kind, based on the interpretation of the calculation results of SDDI and PULMI indices. 23 healthy people (10 women and 13 men), which constituted a reference group, and a group of 3 people with mobility impairments participated in the tests. In order to examine possibilities of the utilization of the SDDI index the participants had to repetitively perform two selected rehabilitation movements of upper extremities. During the tests the kinematic value was registered using inertial motion analysis system MVN BIOMECH. The results of the test were collected in waveforms of 9 anatomical angles in 4 joints of upper extremities. Then, SDDI and PULMI indices were calculated for each person with mobility impairments. Next, the analysis was performed to check which abnormalities in upper extremity motion can influence the value of both indexes and interpretation of those indexes was shown. Joint analysis of the both indices provides information on whether the patient has correctly performed the set sequence of movement and enables the determination of possible irregularities in the performance of movement given.

  14. Modeling and dynamic simulation of astronaut's upper limb motions considering counter torques generated by the space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Ye, Qing; Ding, Li; Liao, Qianfang

    2017-07-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions. Therefore, focusing on upper limb models of the body and space suit is valuable to this effort. In previous modeling studies, some multi-rigid-body systems were developed to simplify the human musculoskeletal system, and the space suit was mostly considered as a part of the astronaut body. With the aim to improve the reality of the models, we developed an astronauts' upper limb model, including a torque model and a muscle-force model, with the counter torques from the space suit being considered as a boundary condition. Inverse kinematics and the Maggi-Kane's method was applied to calculate the joint angles, joint torques and muscle force given that the terminal trajectory of upper limb motion was known. Also, we validated the muscle-force model using electromyogram (EMG) data collected in a validation experiment. Muscle force calculated from our model presented a similar trend with the EMG data, supporting the effectiveness and feasibility of the muscle-force model we established, and also, partially validating the joint model in kinematics aspect.

  15. Importance of Upper-Limb Inertia in Calculating Concentric Bench Press Force

    OpenAIRE

    RAMBAUD, O; RAHMANI, A; MOYEN, B; BOURDIN, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of upper-limb inertia on the force-velocity relationship and maximal power during concentric bench press exercise. Reference peak force values (Fpeakp) measured with a force plate positioned below the bench were compared to those measured simultaneously with a kinematic device fixed on the barbell by taking (Fpeakt) or not taking (Fpeakb) upper-limb inertia into account. Thirteen men (27.8 6 4.1 years, 184.6 6 5.5 cm, 99.5 6 18.6 kg) ...

  16. Evaluation of Clinical Gait Analysis parameters in patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, Giacomo; Manca, Mario; Ferraresi, Giovanni; Caniatti, Luisa Maria; Cosma, Michela; Baldasso, Francesco; Straudi, Sofia; Morelli, Monica; Basaglia, Nino

    2017-06-01

    Clinical Gait Analysis is commonly used to evaluate specific gait characteristics of patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis. The aim of this report is to present a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the changes in Clinical Gait Analysis parameters in patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis. In this study a sample of 51 patients with different levels of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale 2-6.5) was analyzed. We extracted a set of 52 parameters from the Clinical Gait Analysis of each patient and used statistical analysis and linear regression to assess differences among several groups of subjects stratified according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale and 6-Minutes Walking Test. The impact of assistive devices (e.g. canes and crutches) on the kinematics was also assessed in a subsample of patients. Subjects showed decreased range of motion at hip, knee and ankle that translated in increased pelvic tilt and hiking. Comparison between the two stratifications showed that gait speed during 6-Minutes Walking Test is better at discriminating patients' kinematics with respect to Expanded Disability Status Scale. Assistive devices were shown not to significantly impact gait kinematics and the Clinical Gait Analysis parameters analyzed. We were able to characterize disability-related trends in gait kinematics. The results presented in this report provide a small atlas of the changes in gait characteristics associated with different disability levels in the Multiple Sclerosis population. This information could be used to effectively track the progression of MS and the effect of different therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain. A secondary aim was to quantify bilateral asymmetry in both environments in affected and unaffected individuals using a symmetry index. Twenty individuals with unilateral knee pain and twenty healthy, matched controls performed body weight double- and single-leg squats in both environments while inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for environmental effects on movement depths and peak angles within the anterior knee pain group. Differences in their inter-limb symmetry in each environments was compared to the control group using analysis of variance tests. Water immersion allowed for greater movement depths during both exercises (double-leg squat: +7 cm, p  = 0.032, single-leg squat: +9 cm, p  = 0.002) for the knee pain group. The double-leg squat was symmetrical on land but water immersion revealed asymmetries in the lower body frontal plane movements. The single-leg squat revealed decreased hip flexion and frontal plane shank motions on the affected limb in both environments. Water immersion also affected the degree of lower limb asymmetry in both groups, with differences also showing between groups. Individuals with anterior knee pain achieved increased squat depth during both exercises whilst in water. Kinematic differences between the affected and unaffected limbs were often increased in water. Individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain appear to utilise different kinematics in the affected

  18. Effects of two different knee tape procedures on lower-limb kinematics and kinetics in recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A; Campbell, A; Ng, L; Hall, T; Hopper, D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Mulligan's tape (MT) and kinesio tape (KT) with no tape (NT) on hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during running. Twenty-nine female recreational runners performed a series of 'run-throughs' along a 10-m runway under the three taping conditions. Two force plates and a 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system (Oxford Metrics, Inc., Oxford, UK) captured kinematic and kinetic data for each dependent variable from ground contact to toe off. Comparisons of each dependent variable under three taping conditions were assessed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA; P-value kinetics, between KT and NT (P = 1.000). MT appears to influence hip and knee biomechanics during running in an asymptomatic sample, whereas KT appeared to be biomechanically not different from NT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Kinematic alterations of the lower limbs and pelvis during an ascending stairs task are associated with the degree of knee osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Glaucia Helena; Selistre, Luiz Fernando Approbato; Petrella, Marina; Mattiello, Stela Márcia

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) generally demonstrate great difficulty in ascending stairs. The strategies and compensations used by these individuals in stair activities have not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle throughout the gait cycle, in the sagittal and frontal planes, in individuals with mild and moderate knee OA, during an ascending stairs task. Thirty-one individuals with knee OA and 19 controls were subjected to clinical and radiographic analysis, divided into three groups: control, mild knee OA, and moderate knee OA. Participants answered a self-reported questionnaire, carried out performance-based tests, and their kinematic data were recorded during an ascending stairs task using an eight-camera Qualisys 3D-Motion analysis system. The individuals with moderate degrees of knee OA demonstrated kinematic alterations in the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle in the sagittal plane. The individuals with mild degrees of knee OA demonstrated kinematic alterations of the hip in the frontal plane, and kinematic alterations of the ankle in the sagittal plane. The ascending stairs task allowed verification of meaningful information regarding gait strategies used by individuals with mild and moderate knee OA. The strategies of these two groups of individuals are different for this task, although more pronounced in individuals with moderate knee OA. The findings should be taken into account in the development of rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna V Zhuang

    Full Text Available By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle. Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90° and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad. We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies.

  1. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis) Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingna V; Higham, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle). Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video) of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90°) and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad). We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies.

  2. An Inverse Kinematic Approach Using Groebner Basis Theory Applied to Gait Cycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS Anum Barki AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS...APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS Anum Barki, BS Approved: Dr. Ronald F. Tuttle (Chairman) Date Dr. Kimberly Kendricks

  3. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah; Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants' height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the involved ( r =.62) and uninvolved limb ( r =.65, p=.02). No significant associations were demonstrated between hip extensor or abductor strength and hip flexion and/or abduction/adduction angles in the healthy group. The

  4. Correlation among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter Composite Scores, Hip Musculoskeletal Characteristics, and Pitching Kinematics in NCAA Division I Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culiver, Adam; Garrison, J Craig; Creed, Kalyssa M; Conway, John E; Goto, Shiho; Werner, Sherry

    2018-01-24

    Numerous studies have reported kinematic data on baseball pitchers using 3D motion analysis, but no studies to date have correlated this data with clinical outcome measures. To examine the relationship among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) composite scores, musculoskeletal characteristics of the hip and pitching kinematics in NCAA Division I baseball pitchers. Cross-sectional. 3D motion analysis laboratory. 19 healthy male collegiate baseball pitchers. Internal and external hip passive range of motion (PROM); hip abduction strength; YBT-LQ composite scores; kinematic variables of the pitching motion. Stride length demonstrated a moderate positive correlation with dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.524, p=0.018) and non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.550, p=0.012), and a weak positive correlation with normalized time to maximal humerus velocity (r=0.458, p=0.043). Stride length had a moderate negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.522, p=0.018) and dominant hip TRM (r= -0.660, p=0.002), and had a strong negative correlation with normalized time from SFC to maximal knee flexion (r= -0.722, pcorrelation with hip abduction strength difference (r= -0.459, p=0.042) and normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.468, p=0.037), as well as a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.160, p=0.004). Non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score demonstrated a weak negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.450, p=0.046) and had a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.668, p=0.001). Hip abduction strength difference demonstrated a weak positive correlation with dominant hip TRM (r=0.482, p=0.032). Dominant hip TRM had a moderate positive correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r=0.484, p=0.031). There were no other significant relationships between the remaining variables. YBT-LQ is a clinical measure which can be used to

  5. D2 Delta Robot Structural Design and Kinematics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; wang, Song; Dong, Yu; Yang, Hai

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new type of Delta robot with only two degrees of freedom is proposed on the basis of multi - degree - of - freedom delta robot. In order to meet our application requirements, we have carried out structural design and analysis of the robot. Through SolidWorks modeling, combined with 3D printing technology to determine the final robot structure. In order to achieve the precise control of the robot, the kinematics analysis of the robot was carried out. The SimMechanics toolbox of MATLAB is used to establish the mechanism model, and the kinematics mathematical model is used to simulate the robot motion control in Matlab environment. Finally, according to the design mechanism, the working space of the robot is drawn by the graphic method, which lays the foundation for the motion control of the subsequent robot.

  6. Effects of Stroke on Ipsilesional End-Effector Kinematics in a Multi-Step Activity of Daily Living

    OpenAIRE

    Gulde, Philipp; Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke frequently impairs activities of daily living (ADL) and deteriorates the function of the contra- as well as the ipsilesional limbs. In order to analyze alterations of higher motor control unaffected by paresis or sensory loss, the kinematics of ipsilesional upper limb movements in patients with stroke has previously been analyzed during prehensile movements and simple tool use actions. By contrast, motion recording of multi-step ADL is rare and patient-control comparisons f...

  7. Learning by Demonstration for Motion Planning of Upper-Limb Exoskeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, Clemente; Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Trigili, Emilio; Catalan, Jose Maria; Badesa, Francisco Javier; Crea, Simona; Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sterzi, Silvia; Vitiello, Nicola; Garcia Aracil, Nicolas; Zollo, Loredana

    2018-01-01

    The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs) of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i) compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii) assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured. PMID:29527161

  8. Learning by Demonstration for Motion Planning of Upper-Limb Exoskeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Lauretti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured.

  9. Suspension kinematic analysis of UTeM’s FV Malaysia electric vehicle racing car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Manaf, M.Z.; Latif, M.F.A.; Razak, M.S.A.; Hassan, M.Z.B.; Rosley, M.I.F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the kinematic performance of students’ racing car, namely UTeM’s FV Malaysia Electric Vehicle. An elasto-kinematic analysis approach is used to predict the car’s performance during straight line drive and curvature drive. Two suspension design factors

  10. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwencke, M.; Smolders, L.A.; Bergknut, N.; Gustas, P.; Meij, B.P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):829-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01021.x. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis. Schwencke M, Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Gustås P, Meij BP, Hazewinkel HA. Source Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals,, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

  11. Kinematic analysis of the gait in professional ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Teplá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A ballet dance routine places extreme functional demands on the musculoskeletal system and affects the motor behaviour of the dancers. An extreme ballet position places high stress on many segments of the dancer's body and can significantly influence the mobility of the lower limb joints. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the differences in the gait pattern between ballet dancers and non-dancers. Methods:Thirteen professional ballet dancers (5 males, 8 females; age 24.1 ± 3.8 years; height 170.2 ± 8.5 cm; weight 58.3 ± 11.2 kg participated in this research. We compared these subjects with twelve controls (3 males, 9 females; mean age 24.3 ± 2.75 years; height 173.3 ± 6.01 cm; weight 72.2 ± 12.73 kg. None of the participants had any history of serious musculoskeletal pathology or injury or surgery to the lower limbs. Control groups had no ballet experience. Each participant performed five trials of the gait at self-selected walking speed. Kinematic data was obtained using the Vicon MX optoelectronic system. The observed data was processed in the Vicon Nexus and Vicon Polygon programmes and statistically evaluated in Statistica. Non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U test, p < .05 was applied for comparing the dancers and the controls. Results:  Significant differences (p < .05 were found in all lower limb joints. In the dancers, greater hip extension (-15.30 ± 3.31° vs. -12.95 ± 6.04°; p = .008 and hip abduction (-9.18 ± 5.89° vs. -6.08 ± 2.52°; p < .001 peaks together with increased pelvic tilt (3.33 ± 1.26° vs. 3.01 ± 1.46°; p = .020, pelvic obliquity (12.46 ± 3.05° vs. 10.34 ± 3.49°; p < .001 and pelvic rotation (14.29 ± 3.77° vs. 13.26 ± 4.91°; p = .029 were observed. Additionally, the dancers demonstrated greater knee flexion (65.67 ± 4.65° vs. 62.45 ± 5.24°; p = .002 and knee

  12. Network based transcription factor analysis of regenerating axolotl limbs

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    Cameron Jo Ann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on amphibian limb regeneration began in the early 1700's but we still do not completely understand the cellular and molecular events of this unique process. Understanding a complex biological process such as limb regeneration is more complicated than the knowledge of the individual genes or proteins involved. Here we followed a systems biology approach in an effort to construct the networks and pathways of protein interactions involved in formation of the accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. Results We used the human orthologs of proteins previously identified by our research team as bait to identify the transcription factor (TF pathways and networks that regulate blastema formation in amputated axolotl limbs. The five most connected factors, c-Myc, SP1, HNF4A, ESR1 and p53 regulate ~50% of the proteins in our data. Among these, c-Myc and SP1 regulate 36.2% of the proteins. c-Myc was the most highly connected TF (71 targets. Network analysis showed that TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN lead to the activation of these TFs. We found that other TFs known to be involved in epigenetic reprogramming, such as Klf4, Oct4, and Lin28 are also connected to c-Myc and SP1. Conclusions Our study provides a systems biology approach to how different molecular entities inter-connect with each other during the formation of an accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. This approach provides an in silico methodology to identify proteins that are not detected by experimental methods such as proteomics but are potentially important to blastema formation. We found that the TFs, c-Myc and SP1 and their target genes could potentially play a central role in limb regeneration. Systems biology has the potential to map out numerous other pathways that are crucial to blastema formation in regeneration-competent limbs, to compare these to the pathways that characterize regeneration-deficient limbs and finally, to identify stem

  13. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly Atit Shah; S.S. Rattan; B.C. Nakra

    2013-01-01

    Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to m...

  14. Biomechanical effects of robot assisted walking on knee joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Pavithra; Vidhya, S; Li, Junhua; Chew, Effie; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-07-01

    Since manual rehabilitation therapy can be taxing for both the patient and the physiotherapist, a gait rehabilitation robot has been built to reduce the physical strain and increase the efficacy of the rehabilitation therapy. The prototype of the gait rehabilitation robot is designed to provide assistance while walking for patients with abnormal gait pattern and it can also be used for rehabilitation therapy to restore an individual's normal gait pattern by aiding motor recovery. The Gait Rehabilitation Robot uses gait event based synchronization, which enables the exoskeleton to provide synchronous assistance during walking that aims to reduce the lower-limb muscle activation. This study emphasizes on the biomechanical effects of assisted walking on the lower limb by analyzing the EMG signal, knee joint kinematics data that was collected from the right leg during the various experimental conditions. The analysis of the measured data shows an improved knee joint trajectory and reduction in muscle activity with assistance. The result of this study does not only assess the functionality of the exoskeleton but also provides a profound understanding of the human-robot interaction by studying the effects of assistance on the lower limb.

  15. Medical infrared imaging and orthostatic analysis to determine lameness in the pelvic limbs of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fernanda V. Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtle lameness makes it difficult to ascertain which is the affected limb. A study was conducted to investigate a change in the thermal pattern and temperature of the thermal image of the paw print in a lame pelvic limb compared to a non-lame pelvic limb of dogs confirmed by orthostatic analysis. Fourteen client owned dogs with a unilateral pelvic limb lameness and 14 healthy employee dogs were examined and the pelvic limbs radiographed. Thermal images of the paw print were taken after each dog was kept in a static position on a foam mat for 30 seconds. Average temperatures and thermographic patterns were analyzed. Analysis was performed in a static position. The asymmetry index for each stance variable and optimal cutoff point for the peak vertical force and thermal image temperatures were calculated. Image pattern analysis revealed 88% success in differentiating the lame group, and 100% in identifying the same thermal pattern in the healthy group. The mean of the peak vertical force revealed a 10.0% difference between the left and right pelvic limb in healthy dogs and a 72.4% between the lame and non-lame limb in the lame dog group. Asymmetry index analysis revealed 5% in the healthy group and 36.2% in the lame group. The optimal cutoff point for the peak vertical force to determine lameness was 41.77% (AUC = 0.93 and for MII 0.943% (AUC = 0.72. The results of this study highlight the change in the thermal pattern of the paw print in the lame pelvic limb compared to a non-lame pelvic limb in the lame group and the healthy group. Medical infrared imaging of the paw prints can be utilized to screen for the lame limb in dogs.

  16. A computational clonal analysis of the developing mouse limb bud.

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    Luciano Marcon

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis.

  17. Sex Differences in Limb and Joint Stiffness in Recreational Runners

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    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners are known to be at greater risk from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact mechanisms are often poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine if female recreational runners exhibit distinct limb and joint stiffness characteristics in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s-1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated as a function of limb length and joint moments divided by the extent of limb and joint excursion. All stiffness and joint moment parameters were normalized to body mass. Sex differences in normalized limb and knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that normalized limb (male = 0.18 ± 0.07, female = 0.37 ± 0.10 kN · kg · m-1 and knee stiffness (male = 5.59 ± 2.02, female = 7.34 ± 1.78 Nm · kg · rad-1 were significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. On the basis that normalized knee and limb stiffness were shown to be significantly greater in female runners, the findings from the current investigation may provide further insight into the aetiology of the distinct injury patterns observed between sexes.

  18. Kinematic Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Novel PRS Parallel Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K.; Khan, B. Shahul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a 3 DoF (Degree of Freedom) novel PRS (Prismatic-Revolute- Spherical) type parallel mechanisms has been designed and presented. The combination of striaght and arc type linkages for 3 DOF parallel mechanism is introduced for the first time. The performances of the mechanisms are evaluated based on the indices such as Minimum Singular Value (MSV), Condition Number (CN), Local Conditioning Index (LCI), Kinematic Configuration Index (KCI) and Global Conditioning Index (GCI). The overall reachable workspace of all mechanisms are presented. The kinematic measure, dexterity measure and workspace analysis for all the mechanism have been evaluated and compared.

  19. The preliminary of software development for the kinematics analysis of 5 DOF Nuclear Malaysia robot arm v2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary software development for the kinematics analysis of 5 DOF rescue robot. The kinematics analysis is the study of relationship between the individual joints of the robot manipulator, the position and orientation of the end-effector. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) model is used to model the robot links and joints. Both forward and inverse kinematic are presented. The simulation software has been developed by using MATLAB to solve the robot arms kinematic behavior. (author)

  20. Analisys and Choice of the Exoskeleton’s Actuator Kinematic Structure

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    A. A. Vereikin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of designing of robotic exoskeletons as one of the most prospective means of modern robotics is proved. A literature review concerning the design issues of anthropomorphic walking robots and exoskeletons is performed. Some problems, accompanying the designing process of exoskeleton actuator, are highlighted. Among them synthesis of its tree-like kinematic structure takes leading place. Its complication is explained by the specific human-machine interaction.The problem of exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme synthesis is formulated and possible approaches to its solution are shown. The paper presents the synthesis results obtained using the software complex CATIA-based means of ergonomic design. It investigates the degrees of freedom of human-operator’s foot, shin, and thigh. And it identifies a number of shortcomings of this software complex associated with the ambiguity to solve the inverse kinematics problem, leading to a significant complication of kinematics synthesis.A model of human lower limb on which further studies of the exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme, ensuring fulfillment of the human-operator standard movements (squats, kick their feet, bending body, walking, running stairs, etc., are based, is developed in SolidWorks software complex. The reasonability of the exoskeleton kinematic scheme synthesis in software package SolidWorks using anthropometric data from the software complex CATIA, is justified.The proposed method allows to analyze different kinematic schemes of actuator for the stage of conceptual design and to choose the best of them in accordance with established criterions. Thus, the developer receives the final version of the kinematic scheme before the detailed design of the actuator starts, thus significantly reducing its labor costs.

  1. A kinematic analysis of the modified flight telerobotic servicer manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Carl; Carnahan, Tim; Duffy, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A reverse kinematic analysis is presented of a six-DOF subchain of a modified seven-DOF flight telerobotic servicer manipulator system. The six-DOF subchain is designated as a TR-RT chain, which describes the sequence of manipulator joints beginning with the first grounded hook joint (universal joint) T, where the sequence R-R designates a pair of revolute joints with parallel axes. At the outset, it had been thought that the reverse kinematic analysis would be similar to a TTT manipulator previously analyzed, in which the third and fourth joints intersected at a finite point. However, this is shown not the case, and a 16th-degree tan-half-angle polynomial is derived for the TR-RT manipulator.

  2. Effect of Fatigue Protocols on Lower Limb Neuromuscular Function and Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Westin, Sue D; Noyes, Frank R

    2017-12-01

    Approximately two-thirds of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are sustained during noncontact situations when an athlete is cutting, pivoting, decelerating, or landing from a jump. Some investigators have postulated that fatigue may result in deleterious alterations in lower limb biomechanics during these activities that could increase the risk of noncontact ACL injuries. However, prior studies have noted a wide variation in fatigue protocols, athletic tasks studied, and effects of fatigue on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. First, to determine if fatigue uniformly alters lower limb biomechanics during athletic tasks that are associated with noncontact ACL injuries. Second, to determine if changes should be made in ACL injury prevention training programs to alter the deleterious effects of fatigue on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE was performed. Key terms were fatigue, neuromuscular, exercise, hop test, and single-legged function tests. Inclusion criteria were original research studies involving healthy participants, use of a fatigue protocol, study of at least 1 lower limb task that involved landing from a hop or jump or cutting, and analysis of at least 1 biomechanical variable. Thirty-seven studies involving 806 athletes (485 female, 321 male; mean age, 22.7 years) met the inclusion criteria. General fatigue protocols were used in 20 investigations, peripheral protocols were used in 17 studies, and 21 different athletic tasks were studied (13 single-legged, 8 double-legged). There was no consistency among investigations regarding the effects of fatigue on hip, knee, or ankle joint angles and moments or surface electromyography muscle activation patterns. The fatigue protocols typically did not produce statistically significant changes in ground-reaction forces. Published fatigue protocols did not uniformly produce alterations in lower limb neuromuscular

  3. Kinematics of a Hybrid Manipulator by Means of Screw Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Alvarado, J

    2005-01-01

    In this work the kinematics of a hybrid manipulator, namely a fully parallel-serial manipulator, with a particular topology is approached by means of the theory of screws. Given the length of the six independent limbs, the forward position analysis of the mechanism under study, indeed the computation of the resulting pose, position and orientation, of the end-platform with respect to the fixed platform, is carried out in closed-form solution. Therefore conveniently this initial analysis avoids the use of a numerical technique such as the Newton-Raphson method. Writing in screw form the reduced acceleration state of the translational platform, with respect to the fixed platform, a simple expression for the computation of the acceleration of the translational platform is derived by taking advantage of the properties of reciprocal screws, via the Klein form, a bilinear symmetric form of the Lie algebra e(3). Following a similar procedure, a simple expression for the computation of the angular acceleration of the end-platform, with respect to the translational platform, is easily derived. Naturally, as an intermediate step, this contribution also provides the forward and inverse velocity analyses of the chosen parallel-serial manipulator. Finally, in order to prove the versatility of the expressions obtained via screw theory for solving the kinematics, up to the acceleration analysis, of the proposed spatial mechanism, a numerical example is solved with the help of commercial computer codes

  4. Biomechanical analysis of abdominal injury in tennis serves. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubez, François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Cordonnier, Caroline; Brüls, Olivier; Denoël, Vincent; Berwart, Gilles; Joris, Maurice; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Schwartz, Cédric

    2015-06-01

    The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kinematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player's knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as reference. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. Key pointsIn the proximal-distal sequence, energy is transmitted from lower limbs to upper limps via trunk.The 3D analysis tool is an indispensable test for an objective evaluation of the kinematic in the tennis serve.Multiple evaluations techniques are useful for fuller comprehension of the kinematics and contribute to the awareness of the player's staff concerning pathologies and performance.

  5. Knee Motion Generation Method for Transfemoral Prosthesis Based on Kinematic Synergy and Inertial Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the effective use of inertial motion (i.e., less or no torque input at the knee joint) plays an important role in achieving a smooth gait of transfemoral prostheses in the swing phase. In our previous research, a method for generating a timed knee trajectory close to able-bodied individuals, which leads to sufficient clearance between the foot and the floor and the knee extension, was proposed using the inertial motion. Limb motions are known to correlate with each other during walking. This phenomenon is called kinematic synergy. In this paper, we measure gaits in level walking of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of walking velocities. We show that this kinematic synergy also exists between the motions of the intact limbs and those of the knee as determined by the inertial motion technique. We then propose a new method for generating the motion of the knee joint using its inertial motion close to the able-bodied individuals in mid-swing based on its kinematic synergy, such that the method can adapt to the changes in the motion velocity. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method achieves prosthetic walking similar to that of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of constant walking velocities and termination of walking from steady-state walking. Further investigations have found that a kinematic synergy also exists at the start of walking. Overall, our method successfully achieves knee motion generation from the initiation of walking through steady-state walking with different velocities until termination of walking.

  6. Kinematics analysis technique fouettes 720° classic ballet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletics practice proved that the more complex the item, the more difficult technique of the exercises. Fouettes at 720° one of the most difficult types of the fouettes. Its implementation is based on high technology during rotation of the performer. To perform this element not only requires good physical condition of the dancer, but also requires possession correct technique dancer. On the basis corresponding kinematic theory in this study, qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of fouettes at 720 by the best Chinese dancers. For analysis, was taken the method of stereoscopic images and the theoretical analysis.

  7. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  8. Difference in kinematical behavior between two landing tasks in male volleyball athletes doi: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p464

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in sports. Studies investigating injury mechanisms have demonstrated that most injuries arise from landing tasks. Despite the demonstration of differences between male and female kinematics, there are no studies showing how males behave during different landing tasks. The objective of this study was to compare the angular and temporal kinematics of the lower limbs between two different landing tasks. Double leg and single leg landings were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane in 15 male volleyball athletes by videogrammetry. Reduced hip and knee flexion and increased knee valgus were observed in the single leg landing task compared to the double leg landing task. No significant difference in landing time was observed between the two tasks. In conclusion, the results support the premise that lower limb kinematics change according to the task performed. Further studies are necessary to explore the impact of these kinematic differences on knee loading and to relate them to ACL injury mechanisms in men.

  9. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  10. Lower limb joint kinetics and ankle joint stiffness in the sprint start push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Laura; Irwin, Gareth; Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David

    2012-01-01

    Sprint push-off technique is fundamental to sprint performance and joint stiffness has been identified as a performance-related variable during dynamic movements. However, joint stiffness for the push-off and its relationship with performance (times and velocities) has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify and explain lower limb net joint moments and mechanical powers, and ankle stiffness during the first stance phase of the push-off. One elite sprinter performed 10 maximal sprint starts. An automatic motion analysis system (CODA, 200 Hz) with synchronized force plates (Kistler, 1000 Hz) collected kinematic profiles at the hip, knee, and ankle and ground reaction forces, providing input for inverse dynamics analyses. The lower-limb joints predominately extended and revealed a proximal-to-distal sequential pattern of maximal extensor angular velocity and positive power production. Pearson correlations revealed relationships (P push-off in different ways, depending on the phase of stance considered.

  11. Forward and Inverse Predictive Model for the Trajectory Tracking Control of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Gait Rehabilitation: Simulation modelling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M. A.; Majeed, A. P. P. A.; Taha, Z.; Alim, M. M.; Baarath, K.

    2018-03-01

    The movement of a lower limb exoskeleton requires a reasonably accurate control method to allow for an effective gait therapy session to transpire. Trajectory tracking is a nontrivial means of passive rehabilitation technique to correct the motion of the patients’ impaired limb. This paper proposes an inverse predictive model that is coupled together with the forward kinematics of the exoskeleton to estimate the behaviour of the system. A conventional PID control system is used to converge the required joint angles based on the desired input from the inverse predictive model. It was demonstrated through the present study, that the inverse predictive model is capable of meeting the trajectory demand with acceptable error tolerance. The findings further suggest the ability of the predictive model of the exoskeleton to predict a correct joint angle command to the system.

  12. Analysis and experimental kinematics of a skid-steering wheeled robot based on a laser scanner sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianmiao; Wu, Yao; Liang, Jianhong; Han, Chenhao; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Qiteng

    2015-04-24

    Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR) of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed ), including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model's stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid-steering robot.

  13. Microarray and cDNA sequence analysis of transcription during nerve-dependent limb regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR and denervated (DL forelimbs of Mexican axolotls were amputated and transcripts were sampled after 0, 5, and 14 days of regeneration. Results Considerable similarity was observed between NR and DL transcriptional programs at 5 and 14 days post amputation (dpa. Genes with extracellular functions that are critical to wound healing were upregulated while muscle-specific genes were downregulated. Thus, many processes that are regulated during early limb regeneration do not depend upon nerve-derived factors. The majority of the transcriptional differences between NR and DL limbs were correlated with blastema formation; cell numbers increased in NR limbs after 5 dpa and this yielded distinct transcriptional signatures of cell proliferation in NR limbs at 14 dpa. These transcriptional signatures were not observed in DL limbs. Instead, gene expression changes within DL limbs suggest more diverse and protracted wound-healing responses. 454 cDNA sequencing complemented the microarray analysis by providing deeper sampling of transcriptional programs and associated biological processes. Assembly of new 454 cDNA sequences with existing expressed sequence tag (EST contigs from the Ambystoma EST database more than doubled (3935 to 9411 the number of non-redundant human-A. mexicanum orthologous sequences. Conclusion Many new candidate gene sequences were discovered for the first time and these will greatly enable future studies of wound healing, epigenetics, genome stability, and nerve-dependent blastema formation and outgrowth using the axolotl model.

  14. Trunk and lower limb biomechanics during stair climbing in people with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Connor A; Hatfield, Gillian L; Gilbart, Michael K; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a pathomechanical hip condition leading to pain and impaired physical function. It has been shown that those with femoroacetabular impingement exhibit altered gait characteristics during level walking and stair climbing, and decreased muscle force production during isometric muscle contractions. However, no studies to-date have looked at trunk kinematics or muscle activation during dynamic movements such as stair climbing in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical outcomes (trunk and lower limb kinematics as well as lower limb kinetics and muscle activation) during stair climbing in those with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. Trunk, hip, knee and ankle kinematics, as well as hip, knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activity of nine lower limb muscles were collected during stair climbing for 20 people with clinical and radiographic femoroacetabular impingement and compared to 20 age- and sex-matched pain-free individuals. Those with femoroacetabular impingement ascended the stairs slower (effect size=0.82), had significantly increased peak trunk forward flexion angles (effect size=0.99) and external hip flexion moments (effect size=0.94) and had decreased peak external knee flexion moments (effect size=0.90) compared to the control group. Findings from this study indicate that while those with and without femoroacetabular impingement exhibit many biomechanical similarities when ascending stairs, differences in trunk forward flexion and joint kinetics indicate some important differences. Further longitudinal research is required to elucidate the cause of these differences as well as the clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation and Structural Analysis of the Kinematics Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, A.; Wagner, C.; Hofer, S. I.; Stem, E.; Vaterlaus, A.

    2017-01-01

    The kinematics concept test (KCT) is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students' conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part…

  16. Effects of treadmill inclination on electromyographic activity and hind limb kinematics in healthy hounds at a walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Susanne K; Hillman, Robert B; Li, Li; Hosgood, Giselle L

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of treadmill incline on muscle activity and joint range of motion (ROM) in hind limbs of dogs. 8 purpose-bred healthy adult hounds. Activities of the hamstring (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles), gluteal (superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles), and quadriceps (femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles) muscle groups and hip and stifle joint ROM were measured with surface electrogoniometric and myographic sensors in hounds walking on a treadmill at 0.54 m/s at inclines of 5%, 0%, and -5% in random order. Mean electromyographic activities and mean ROMs at each inclination were compared for swing and stance phases. Treadmill inclination did not affect duration of the stance and swing phases or the whole stride. When treadmill inclination was increased from -5% to 5%, hip joint ROM increased and the degree of stifle joint extension decreased significantly. In the beginning of the stance phase, activity of the hamstring muscle group was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus a 5% decline. In the end of the stance phase, that activity was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus at a 5% decline or on a flat surface. Activity of the gluteal and quadriceps muscle groups was not affected when treadmill inclination changed. Treadmill inclination affected joint kinematics only slightly. Walking on a treadmill at a 5% incline had more potential to strengthen the hamstring muscle group than walking on a treadmill with a flat or declined surface.

  17. 2D AND 3D KINEMATICS DURING LATERAL STEP-DOWN TESTING IN INDIVIDUALS WITH ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaed, Maria F; Werner, David M; Barrios, Joaquin A

    2018-02-01

    The lateral step-down test is an established clinical evaluation tool to assess quality of movement in patients with knee disorders. However, this test has not been investigated in individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in association with quantitative 3D motion analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of association between visually-assessed quality of movement during the lateral step-down test and 3D lower limb kinematics in patients with history of ACLR. A second purpose was to compare kinematics between subgroups based on the presence or absence of faulty alignments during the task. The final purpose was to compare visually-assessed quality of movement scores between box heights during lateral step-down testing. Twenty subjects at least one year status post-ACLR (18 females, age of 24.5 ± 4.6 years and body mass index of 23.4 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 ) performed the lateral step-down test unilaterally on the surgical limb atop four and six inch boxes. A board-certified orthopedic physical therapist scored overall quality of movement during the lateral step-down test using established criteria during 2D video playback. Lower limb kinematics were simultaneously collected using 3D motion capture. An alpha level of 0.05 was used for all statistical treatments. Overall 2D quality of movement score significantly correlated (r =0.47-0.57) with 3D hip adduction and hip internal rotation across box heights. Across box heights, the presence of faulty pelvic alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting less peak knee flexion, and the presence of faulty knee alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting greater peak hip adduction. The six inch box elicited worse quality of movement compared to the four inch box. These results suggest that visually-assessed quality of movement is associated with several kinematic variables after ACLR. 2D movement deviations at the pelvis appear to consistently relate to less knee

  18. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of overhand, sidearm and underhand lacrosse shot techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Charles A J; Katz, Larry; Stergiou, Pro; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Tomaghelli, Luciano

    2017-12-01

    Lacrosse requires the coordinated performance of many complex skills. One of these skills is shooting on the opponents' net using one of three techniques: overhand, sidearm or underhand. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine which technique generated the highest ball velocity and greatest shot accuracy and (ii) identify kinematic and kinetic variables that contribute to a high velocity and high accuracy shot. Twelve elite male lacrosse players participated in this study. Kinematic data were sampled at 250 Hz, while two-dimensional force plates collected ground reaction force data (1000 Hz). Statistical analysis showed significantly greater ball velocity for the sidearm technique than overhand (P  0.05). Kinematic and kinetic variables were not significantly correlated to shot accuracy or velocity across all shot types; however, when analysed independently, the lead foot horizontal impulse showed a negative correlation with underhand ball velocity (P = 0.042). This study identifies the technique with the highest ball velocity, defines kinematic and kinetic predictors related to ball velocity and provides information to coaches and athletes concerned with improving lacrosse shot performance.

  19. Biomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubez, François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Cordonnier, Caroline; Brüls, Olivier; Denoël, Vincent; Berwart, Gilles; Joris, Maurice; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Schwartz, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kinematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as reference. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. Key points In the proximal-distal sequence, energy is transmitted from lower limbs to upper limps via trunk. The 3D analysis tool is an indispensable test for an objective evaluation of the kinematic in the tennis serve. Multiple evaluations techniques are useful for fuller comprehension of the kinematics and contribute to the awareness of the player’s staff concerning pathologies and performance. PMID:25983591

  20. Correlation between hip function and knee kinematics evaluated by three-dimensional motion analysis during lateral and medial side-hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiromitsu; Takiguchi, Kohei; Shibata, Yohei; Okubo, Satoshi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated. Subsequently, the relationship between knee motion and the clinical parameters of the hip was analyzed. [Results] In the lateral touchdown phase, the knee was positioned in an abducted and externally rotated position, and increasing abduction moment was applied to the knee. An analysis of the interaction between knee motion and hip function showed that range of motion for hip internal rotation was significantly correlated with external rotation angle and external rotation/abduction moments of the knee during the lateral touchdown phase. [Conclusion] Range of motion for hip internal rotation should be taken into consideration for identifying the biomechanical characteristics in the side hop test results.

  1. Are undesirable contact kinematics minimized after kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty? An intersurgeon analysis of consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Hodapp, Esther E; Vernace, Joseph V; Hull, Maury L; Meade, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    Tibiofemoral contact kinematics or knee implant motions have a direct influence on patient function and implant longevity and should be evaluated for any new alignment technique such as kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Edge loading of the tibial liner and external rotation (reverse of normal) and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component are undesirable contact kinematics that should be minimized. Accordingly, this study determined whether the overall prevalence of undesirable contact kinematics during standing, mid kneeling near 90 degrees and full kneeling with kinematically aligned TKA are minimal and not different between groups of consecutive patients treated by different surgeons. Three surgeons were asked to perform cemented, kinematically aligned TKA with patient-specific guides in a consecutive series of patients with their preferred cruciate-retaining (CR) implant. In vivo tibiofemoral contact positions were obtained using a 3- to 2-dimensional image registration technique in 69 subjects (Vanguard CR-TKA N = 22, and Triathlon CR-TKA N = 47). Anterior or posterior edge loading of the tibial liner was not observed. The overall prevalence of external rotation of the tibial component on the femoral component of 6 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). The overall prevalence of adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component of 4 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). Kinematically aligned TKA minimized the undesirable contact kinematics of edge loading of the tibial liner, and external rotation and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component during standing and kneeling, which suggests an optimistic prognosis for durable long-term function. III.

  2. Experimental evaluation of indoor magnetic distortion effects on gait analysis performed with wearable inertial sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, E; Patanè, F; Cappa, P; Rossi, S

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic inertial measurement unit systems (MIMU) offer the potential to perform joint kinematics evaluation as an alternative to optoelectronic systems (OS). Several studies have reported the effect of indoor magnetic field disturbances on the MIMU's heading output, even though the overall effect on the evaluation of lower limb joint kinematics is not yet fully explored. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of indoor magnetic field distortion on gait analysis trials conducted with a commercial MIMU system. A healthy adult performed gait analysis sessions both indoors and outdoors. Data collected indoors were post-processed with and without a heading correction methodology performed with OS at the start of the gait trial. The performance of the MIMU system is characterized in terms of indices, based on the mean value of lower limb joint angles and the associated ROM, quantifying the system repeatability. We find that the effects of magnetic field distortion, such as the one we experienced in our lab, were limited to the transverse plane of each joint and to the frontal plane of the ankle. Sagittal plane values, instead, showed sufficient repeatability moving from outdoors to indoors. Our findings provide indications to clinicians on MIMU performance in the measurement of lower limb kinematics. (paper)

  3. Stroller running: Energetic and kinematic changes across pushing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Ryan S; Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2017-01-01

    Running with a stroller provides an opportunity for parents to exercise near their child and counteract health declines experienced during early parenthood. Understanding biomechanical and physiological changes that occur when stroller running is needed to evaluate its health impact, yet the effects of stroller running have not been clearly presented. Here, three commonly used stroller pushing methods were investigated to detect potential changes in energetic cost and lower-limb kinematics. Sixteen individuals (M/F: 10/6) ran at self-selected speeds for 800m under three stroller conditions (2-Hands, 1-Hand, and Push/Chase) and an independent running control. A significant decrease in speed (p = 0.001) and stride length (ppushing method had a significant effect on speed (p = 0.001) and stride length (ppushing technique influences stroller running speed and kinematics. These findings suggest specific fitness effects may be achieved through the implementation of different pushing methods.

  4. An upper limb robot model of children limb for cerebral palsy neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Yagna; Johnson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Robot therapy has emerged in the last few decades as a tool to help patients with neurological injuries relearn motor tasks and improve their quality of life. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple model of the human arm for children affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The Simulink based model presented here shows a comparison for children with and without disabilities (ages 6-15) with normal and reduced range of motion in the upper limb. The model incorporates kinematic and dynamic considerations required for activities of daily living. The simulation was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and will eventually be integrated with a robotic counterpart to develop a physical robot that will provide assistance in activities of daily life (ADLs) to children with CP while also aiming to improve motor recovery.

  5. Local dynamic stability of lower extremity joints in lower limb amputees during slope walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Ling; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb amputees have a higher fall risk during slope walking compared with non-amputees. However, studies on amputees' slope walking were not well addressed. The aim of this study was to identify the difference of slope walking between amputees and non-amputees. Lyapunov exponents λS was used to estimate the local dynamic stability of 7 transtibial amputees' and 7 controls' lower extremity joint kinematics during uphill and downhill walking. Compared with the controls, amputees exhibited significantly lower λS in hip (P=0.04) and ankle (P=0.01) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.01) of the prosthetic limb during uphill walking, while they exhibited significantly lower λS in knee (P=0.02) and ankle (P=0.03) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.03) of the prosthetic limb during downhill walking. Compared with amputees level walking, they exhibited significantly lower λS in ankle joints of the sound limb during both uphill (P=0.01) and downhill walking (P=0.01). We hypothesized that the better local dynamic stability of amputees was caused by compensation strategy during slope walking.

  6. A Pilot Study on Gait Kinematics of Old Women with Bound Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot binding has a long and influential history in China. Little is known about biomechanical changes in gait caused by bound foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics between old women with bound feet and normal feet during walking. Six old women subjects (three with bound feet and three controls with normal feet volunteered to participate in this study. Video data were recorded with a high speed video camera and analysed in the SIMI motion analysis software. Compared to normal controls, bound feet subjects had faster gait cadence with shorter stride length as well as smaller ankle and knee range of motion (ROM. During preswing phase, ankle remained to be dorsiflexion for bound foot subjects. The data from bound foot group also demonstrated that toe vertical displacement increased continuously during whole swing phase without a minimum toe clearance (MTC. The findings indicate that older women with bound feet exhibit significant differences in gait pattern compared to those with normal feet, which is characterised by disappeared propulsion/push-off and reduced mobility of lower limb segments.

  7. Experiments and kinematics analysis of a hand rehabilitation exoskeleton with circuitous joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuhai; Fu, Yili; Zhang, Qinchao; Wang, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients, a wearable hand exoskeleton with circuitous joint is proposed. The circuitous joint adopts the symmetric pinion and rack mechanism (SPRM) with the parallel mechanism. The exoskeleton finger is a serial mechanism composed of three closed-chain SPRM joints in series. The kinematic equations of the open chain of the finger and the closed chains of the SPRM joints were built to analyze the kinematics of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton. The experimental setup of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton was built and the continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation experiment and the test of human-robot interaction force measurement were conducted. Experiment results show that the mechanical design of the hand rehabilitation robot is reasonable and that the kinematic analysis is correct, thus the exoskeleton can be used for the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  8. Lower limb joint moment during walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2003-11-04

    Walking in water is a widely used rehabilitation method for patients with orthopedic disorders or arthritis, based on the belief that the reduction of weight in water makes it a safer medium and prevents secondary injuries of the lower-limb joints. To our knowledge, however, no experimental data on lower-limb joint moment during walking in water is available. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint moments of the ankle, knee, and hip during walking in water in comparison with those on land. Eight healthy volunteers walked on land and in water at a speed comfortable for them. A video-motion analysis system and waterproof force platform were used to obtain kinematic data and to calculate the joint moments. The hip joint moment was shown to be an extension moment almost throughout the stance phase during walking in water, while it changed from an extension- to flexion-direction during walking on land. The knee joint moment had two extension peaks during walking on land, whereas it had only one extension peak, a late one, during walking in water. The ankle joint moment during walking in water was considerably reduced but in the same direction, plantarflexion, as that during walking on land. The joint moments of the hip, knee, and ankle were not merely reduced during walking in water; rather, inter-joint coordination was totally changed.

  9. Use of high-speed cinematography and computer generated gait diagrams for the study of equine hindlimb kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobluk, C N; Schnurr, D; Horney, F D; Sumner-Smith, G; Willoughby, R A; Dekleer, V; Hearn, T C

    1989-01-01

    High-speed cinematography with computer aided analysis was used to study equine hindlimb kinematics. Eight horses were filmed at the trot or the pace. Filming was done from the side (lateral) and the back (caudal). Parameters measured from the lateral filming included the heights of the tuber coxae and tailhead, protraction and retraction of the hoof and angular changes of the tarsus and stifle. Abduction and adduction of the limb and tarsal height changes were measured from the caudal filming. The maximum and minimum values plus the standard deviations and coefficients of variations are presented in tabular form. Three gait diagrams were constructed to represent stifle angle versus tarsal angle, metatarsophalangeal height versus protraction-retraction (fetlock height diagram) and tuber coxae and tailhead height versus stride (pelvic height diagram). Application of the technique to the group of horses revealed good repeatability of the gait diagrams within a limb and the diagrams appeared to be sensitive indicators of left/right asymmetries.

  10. Design and Interaction Control of a New Bilateral Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation device (BULReD with two degrees of freedom (DOFs. The BULReD is portable for both hospital and home environment, easy to use for therapists and patients, and safer with respect to upper-limb robotic exoskeletons. It was implemented to be able to conduct both passive and interactive training, based on system kinematics and dynamics, as well as the identification of real-time movement intention of human users. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of the BULReD for clinical applications, with satisfactory position and interaction force tracking performance. Future work will focus on the clinical evaluation of the BULReD on a large sample of poststroke patients.

  11. Knee Kinematic Improvement After Total Knee Replacement Using a Simplified Quantitative Gait Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sarailoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to extract suitable spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters to determine how Total Knee Replacement (TKR alters patients’ knee kinematics during gait, using a rapid and simplified quantitative two-dimensional gait analysis procedure. Methods: Two-dimensional kinematic gait pattern of 10 participants were collected before and after the TKR surgery, using a 60 Hz camcorder in sagittal plane. Then, the kinematic parameters were extracted using the gait data. A student t-test was used to compare the group-average of spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics in the sagittal plane. The knee condition was also evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS Questionnaire to ensure thateach subject was placed in the right group. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in knee flexion during stance and swing phases after TKR surgery. The walking speed was increased as a result of stride length and cadence improvement, but this increment was not statistically significant. Both post-TKR and control groups showed an increment in spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics between comfortable and fast walking speeds. Discussion: The objective kinematic parameters extracted from 2D gait data were able to show significant improvements of the knee joint after TKR surgery. The patients with TKR surgery were also able to improve their knee kinematics during fast walking speed equal to the control group. These results provide a good insight into the capabilities of the presented method to evaluate knee functionality before and after TKR surgery and to define a more effective rehabilitation program.

  12. Effects of load on ground reaction force and lower limb kinematics during concentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Arambatzi, Fotini; Papadopoulos, Christos

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external load on vertical ground reaction force, and linear and angular kinematics, during squats. Eight males aged 22.1 +/- 0.8 years performed maximal concentric squats using loads ranging from 7 to 70% of one-repetition maximum on a force plate while linear barbell velocity and the angular kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle were recorded. Maximum, average and angle-specific values were recorded. The ground reaction force ranged from 1.67 +/- 0.20 to 3.21 +/- 0.29 times body weight and increased significantly as external load increased (P squat exercises is not achieved at the same position of the lower body as external load is increased. In contrast, joint velocity coordination does not change as load is increased. The force-velocity relationship was linear and independent from the set of data used for its determination.

  13. Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Ball, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic data were collected from 15 low-handicap male golfers (handicap = 2.5 +/- 1.9). Data were collected using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Data on clubhead speed and ball velocity were collected using a real-time launch monitor. Paired t-tests revealed nine significant (p golf swing kinematics, namely trunk and lower trunk flexion/extension and lower trunk axial rotation. Multiple regression analyses explained 33.7-66.7% of the variance in clubhead speed for the driver and five-iron, respectively, with both trunk and lower trunk variables showing associations with clubhead speed. Future studies should consider the role of the upper limbs and modifiable features of the golf club in developing clubhead speed for the driver in particular.

  14. Dynamic evaluation method of lower limbs joint alignment (MADAAMI for dancers during the plié

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanda Nabilla Souza Gontijo

    Full Text Available Abstract In classical ballet, the joint misalignments during the plié can generate various injuries. To evaluate potential misalignments during the plié the aim of this study was to present a method for dynamic evaluation of lower limb alignment articulation (called MADAAMI. MADAAMI was validated by 12 experts, and for the evaluation of its reproducibility and for agreement with 3D kinematics, 20 dancers were assessed using a video recording of their plié. For statistical analysis we used the Kappa coefficient (k (p 0.40 and C > 80%, and it is a suitable and valid method for use by the same examiner.

  15. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biren A Patel

    Full Text Available Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1 ranges of body size, and/or (2 numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months and body mass (2-29.5 kg during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1 why younger mammals (including baboons tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2 why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons. Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  16. Kinematic analysis of hip and knee rotation and other contributors to ballet turnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Amy E; Russell, Jeffrey A; Handley, Sara C; Quanbeck, Deborah S

    2017-02-01

    Turnout, or external rotation (ER) of the lower extremities, is essential in ballet. The purpose of this study was to utilise physical examination and a biomechanical method for obtaining functional kinematic data using hip and knee joint centres to identify the relative turnout contributions from hip rotation, femoral anteversion, knee rotation, tibial torsion, and other sources. Ten female dancers received a lower extremity alignment assessment, including passive hip rotation, femoral anteversion, tibial torsion, weightbearing foot alignment, and Beighton hypermobility score. Next, turnout was assessed using plantar pressure plots and three-dimensional motion analysis; participants performed turnout to ballet first position on both a plantar pressure mat and friction-reducing discs. A retro-reflective functional marker motion capture system mapped the lower extremities and hip and knee joint centres. Mean total turnout was 129±15.7° via plantar pressure plots and 135±17.8° via kinematics. Bilateral hip ER during turnout was 49±10.2° (36% of total turnout). Bilateral knee ER during turnout was 41±5.9° (32% of total turnout). Hip ER contribution to total turnout measured kinematically was less than expected compared to other studies, where hip ER was determined without functional kinematic data. Knee ER contributed substantially more turnout than expected or previously reported. This analysis method allows precise assessment of turnout contributors.

  17. Landslide Kinematical Analysis through Inverse Numerical Modelling and Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Lollino, P.; Calò, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Lanari, R.; Guzzetti, F.; Manunta, M.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to perform inverse numerical modelling of slow landslides that combines the potentialities of both numerical approaches and well-known remote-sensing satellite techniques. In particular, through an optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we minimize, with respect to a proper penalty function, the difference between the modelled displacement field and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) deformation time series. The proposed methodology allows us to automatically search for the physical parameters that characterize the landslide behaviour. To validate the presented approach, we focus our analysis on the slow Ivancich landslide (Assisi, central Italy). The kinematical evolution of the unstable slope is investigated via long-term DInSAR analysis, by exploiting about 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite acquisitions. The landslide is driven by the presence of a shear band, whose behaviour is simulated through a two-dimensional time-dependent finite element model, in two different physical scenarios, i.e. Newtonian viscous flow and a deviatoric creep model. Comparison between the model results and DInSAR measurements reveals that the deviatoric creep model is more suitable to describe the kinematical evolution of the landslide. This finding is also confirmed by comparing the model results with the available independent inclinometer measurements. Our analysis emphasizes that integration of different data, within inverse numerical models, allows deep investigation of the kinematical behaviour of slow active landslides and discrimination of the driving forces that govern their deformation processes.

  18. The kinematic determinants of anuran swimming performance: an inverse and forward dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the hydrodynamic mechanism of Xenopus laevis swimming and to describe how hind limb kinematics shift to control swimming performance. Kinematics of the joints, feet and body were obtained from high speed video of X. laevis frogs (N=4) during swimming over a range of speeds. A blade element approach was used to estimate thrust produced by both translational and rotational components of foot velocity. Peak thrust from the feet ranged from 0.09 to 0.69 N across speeds ranging from 0.28 to 1.2 m s(-1). Among 23 swimming strokes, net thrust impulse from rotational foot motion was significantly higher than net translational thrust impulse, ranging from 6.1 to 29.3 N ms, compared with a range of -7.0 to 4.1 N ms from foot translation. Additionally, X. laevis kinematics were used as a basis for a forward dynamic anuran swimming model. Input joint kinematics were modulated to independently vary the magnitudes of foot translational and rotational velocity. Simulations predicted that maximum swimming velocity (among all of the kinematics patterns tested) requires that maximal translational and maximal rotational foot velocity act in phase. However, consistent with experimental kinematics, translational and rotational motion contributed unequally to total thrust. The simulation powered purely by foot translation reached a lower peak stroke velocity than the pure rotational case (0.38 vs 0.54 m s(-1)). In all simulations, thrust from the foot was positive for the first half of the power stroke, but negative for the second half. Pure translational foot motion caused greater negative thrust (70% of peak positive thrust) compared with pure rotational simulation (35% peak positive thrust) suggesting that translational motion is propulsive only in the early stages of joint extension. Later in the power stroke, thrust produced by foot rotation overcomes negative thrust (due to translation). Hydrodynamic analysis from X. laevis as well as forward

  19. A neural tracking and motor control approach to improve rehabilitation of upper limb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of upper limb movements in subjects recovering from stroke is an essential keystone in rehabilitative practices. Rehabilitation of arm movements, in fact, is usually a far more difficult one as compared to that of lower extremities. For these reasons, researchers are developing new methods and technologies so that the rehabilitative process could be more accurate, rapid and easily accepted by the patient. This paper introduces the proof of concept for a new non-invasive FES-assisted rehabilitation system for the upper limb, called smartFES (sFES, where the electrical stimulation is controlled by a biologically inspired neural inverse dynamics model, fed by the kinematic information associated with the execution of a planar goal-oriented movement. More specifically, this work details two steps of the proposed system: an ad hoc markerless motion analysis algorithm for the estimation of kinematics, and a neural controller that drives a synthetic arm. The vision of the entire system is to acquire kinematics from the analysis of video sequences during planar arm movements and to use it together with a neural inverse dynamics model able to provide the patient with the electrical stimulation patterns needed to perform the movement with the assisted limb. Methods The markerless motion tracking system aims at localizing and monitoring the arm movement by tracking its silhouette. It uses a specifically designed motion estimation method, that we named Neural Snakes, which predicts the arm contour deformation as a first step for a silhouette extraction algorithm. The starting and ending points of the arm movement feed an Artificial Neural Controller, enclosing the muscular Hill's model, which solves the inverse dynamics to obtain the FES patterns needed to move a simulated arm from the starting point to the desired point. Both position error with respect to the requested arm trajectory and comparison between curvature factors

  20. Strength Training and Kinematics Parameters of Gait in Healthy Female Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was under taken to consider the effect of strength training on some kinematics parameters of gait (step length, cadence and speed walking. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four healthy elderly women (with average and standard deviation age of 61.53±2.84 years, height of 157.1±5.5 cm, weight of 69.13±7.6 kg and BMI 28.1±3.6 kg/m participated in this study. The strength of lower limb assessed using leg press test. The subjects were randomly divided in to control and experimental group. Video camera, 3DMax, Premier and Photoshop soft ware’s were used to measure speed walking, cadence and step length before and after training program. The control group continued their daily activity, while experimental group were in eight weeks for strength training for lower limb and body stabilizer muscles. Within group differences using T-test for independent groups and between group differences were analyzed using by T-test for dependent group before and after training at significant level of 0.05. Results: The changes of speed walking and lower limb strength weren't significant in control group. While significant differences observed in step length and speed walking and lower limb strength in experimental group. In comparison between groups, except of cadence, step length, speed walking and lower limb strength showed significant increase in experimental group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of strength training and increasing lower limb and stabilizer muscles strength on step length and speed walking in healthy elder women.

  1. Kinematics of the 3(RPSP-S Fully Spherical Parallel Manipulator by Means of Screw Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gallardo-Alvarado

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the kinematics of a spherical parallel manipulator composed of three peripheral limbs equipped with linear actuators and a passive center shaft is approached by means of the theory of screws. The displacement analysis is carried out solving closure equations, which are obtained upon simple linear combinations of the components of two unit vectors describing the orientation of the moving platform. After, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration of the spherical parallel manipulator are systematically obtained by resorting to reciprocal-screw theory. This strategy avoids the computation of the passive joint velocity and acceleration rates of the robot manipulator. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Kinematic analysis of competitive sprinting | Ansari | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study showed that the kinematic variables i.e. knee angle, hip angle, ankle angle, shoulder rotation and extension had a significant influence on sprinting style. The results indicated that the kinematic variables of running style, knee angle at landing, hip flexion, ankle angle at landing, ankle angle at take-off, ...

  3. Immediate effects of using ankle-foot orthoses in the kinematics of gait and in the balance reactions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Rouse Barbosa; Felício, Lílian Ramiro; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Menezes, Sara Lúcia de; Freitas, Marcos Raimundo Gomes de; Orsini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a peripheral hereditary neuropathy with progressive distal muscle atrophy and weakness, mainly in lower limbs, that evolves limiting the gait and balance. The objective of the study was to analyse the immediate effects of using Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFO) in the gait's kinematics and balance in patients with CMT. Nine individuals were evaluated by Tinetti scales and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and gait's kinematics parameters through the motion capturing sy...

  4. Analysis of thermal ratchetting of a cylinder subjected to axially moving temperature front. Effect of kinematic hardening rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Nobutada; Yari, Takashi; Kobayashi, Mineo

    1995-01-01

    When a cylinder is subjected to a temperature front moving cyclically in the axial direction, the circumferential plastic strain may accumulate with the increase of the number of cycles. This is a thermal ratchetting problem induced by a liquid surface moving in a cylinder, and it is important especially in designing fast breeder reactors. In the present paper, the effect of kinematic hardening rule on the thermal ratchetting analysis is discussed by implementing the following four kinds of kinematic hardening rules in a finite element analysis; the perfectly plastic model (PP), the linear kinematic hardening rule (LKH), the classical nonlinear kinematic hardening rule of Armstrong and Frederick (AF), and the rule proposed recently by Ohno and Wang (OW). It is shown that disregard of transient hardening after yielding leads to overestimating the thermal ratchetting, that a rule predicting larger mechanical ratchetting under uniaxial cyclic loading makes the thermal ratchetting more serious, and that the Ohno and Wang rule can render the analysis most realistic among them. (author)

  5. Performance and Kinematic Differences in Putting Between Healthy and Disabled Elite Golfers

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    Gryc Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Golfers with disability are limited in the execution of the full golf swing, but their performance in putting may be comparable because this stroke does not demand significant strength, balance and range of motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare putting performance, kinetic and kinematic consistency between golfers with different disabilities and healthy athletes. The participants consisted of three disabled athletes (perinatal cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, below knee lower limb amputee and three healthy golfers (age 34 ± 4.5 years, body height 178 ± 3.3 cm, body mass 83 ± 6.2 kg. The golfers’ movements were recorded by active 3D markers for kinematic analyses; the subjects performed 10 trials of a 6 m putting task while standing on separate force platforms placed under each lower limb. Putting performance was measured by the distance of the final ball position to the centre of the hole. ANOVA analyses did not show any differences in clubhead speed and total ball distance from the hole. The consistency of those two parameters expressed by the coefficient of variation (CV was CV = 0.5% or better in both groups for clubhead speed and ranged from CV = 0.40 to 0.61% in healthy and CV = 0.21 to 0.55% in disabled athletes for total error distance. The main effect ANOVA showed differences in weight shift, hip and shoulder kinematics (p < 0.05 between healthy players and all players with disability. All disabled athletes shifted their weight toward the healthy side (towards the healthy lower limb and alternated the end of the swing. The player with below knee amputation had the lowest range of motion in the shoulder joint during the putting stroke. The players with perinatal cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis had the largest range of motion in the hips. Putting performance of disabled golfers was similar to healthy athletes. During training of disabled players, coaches should pay attention to the specificity of a

  6. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

  7. Evaluation of the Leap Motion Controller during the performance of visually-guided upper limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Gonzalez, David; Nouredanesh, Mina; Tung, James

    2018-01-01

    Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position. The main goal of this study was to assess the concurrent reliability and validity of the LMC as compared to the Optotrak, a criterion-standard motion capture system, for measures of temporal accuracy and peak velocity during the performance of upper limb, visually-guided movements. In experiment 1, 14 participants executed aiming movements to visual targets presented on a computer monitor. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess the validity and limits of agreement for measures of temporal accuracy (movement time, duration of deceleration interval), peak velocity, and spatial accuracy (endpoint accuracy). In addition, a one-sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that the error difference between measures obtained from Optotrak and LMC is zero. In experiment 2, 15 participants performed a Fitts' type aiming task in order to assess whether the LMC is capable of assessing a well-known speed-accuracy trade-off relationship. Experiment 3 assessed the temporal coordination pattern during the performance of a sequence consisting of a reaching, grasping, and placement task in 15 participants. Results from the t-test showed that the error difference in temporal measures was significantly different from zero. Based on the results from the 3 experiments, the average temporal error in movement time was 40±44 ms, and the error in peak velocity was 0.024±0.103 m/s. The limits of agreement between the LMC and Optotrak for spatial accuracy measures ranged between

  8. Classification of different reaching movements from the same limb using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, Farid; López-Larraz, Eduardo; Sarasola-Sanz, Andrea; Irastorza-Landa, Nerea; Spüler, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed not only as assistive technologies but also as rehabilitation tools for lost functions. However, due to the stochastic nature, poor spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio from electroencephalography (EEG), multidimensional decoding has been the main obstacle to implement non-invasive BCIs in real-live rehabilitation scenarios. This study explores the classification of several functional reaching movements from the same limb using EEG oscillations in order to create a more versatile BCI for rehabilitation. Approach. Nine healthy participants performed four 3D center-out reaching tasks in four different sessions while wearing a passive robotic exoskeleton at their right upper limb. Kinematics data were acquired from the robotic exoskeleton. Multiclass extensions of Filter Bank Common Spatial Patterns (FBCSP) and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier were used to classify the EEG activity into four forward reaching movements (from a starting position towards four target positions), a backward movement (from any of the targets to the starting position and rest). Recalibrating the classifier using data from previous or the same session was also investigated and compared. Main results. Average EEG decoding accuracy were significantly above chance with 67%, 62.75%, and 50.3% when decoding three, four and six tasks from the same limb, respectively. Furthermore, classification accuracy could be increased when using data from the beginning of each session as training data to recalibrate the classifier. Significance. Our results demonstrate that classification from several functional movements performed by the same limb is possible with acceptable accuracy using EEG oscillations, especially if data from the same session are used to recalibrate the classifier. Therefore, an ecologically valid decoding could be used to control assistive or rehabilitation mutli-degrees of freedom (DoF) robotic devices

  9. Constraints on arm selection processes when reaching: degrees of freedom and joint amplitudes interact to influence limb selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wondae; Buchanan, John; Gabbard, Carl

    2011-01-01

    With an interest in identifying the variables that constrain arm choice when reaching, the authors had 11 right-handed participants perform free-choice and assigned-limb reaches at 9 object positions. The right arm was freely selected 100% of the time when reaching to positions at 30° and 40° into right hemispace. However, the left arm was freely selected to reach to positions at -30° and -40° in left hemispace 85% of the time. A comparison between free- and assigned-limb reaching kinematics revealed that free limb selection when reaching to the farthest positions was constrained by joint amplitude requirements and the time devoted to limb deceleration. Differences between free- and assigned-arm reaches were not evident when reaching to the midline and positions of ±10°, even though the right arm was freely selected most often for these positions. Different factors contribute to limb selection as a function of distance into a specific hemispace.

  10. Advances in robot kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  11. Plyometric Long Jump Training With Progressive Loading Improves Kinetic and Kinematic Swimming Start Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebutini, Vanessa Z; Pereira, Gleber; Bohrer, Roberta C D; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Rebutini, VZ, Pereira, G, Bohrer, RCD, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Rodacki, ALF. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2392-2398, 2016-This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plyometric long jump training program on torque around the lower limb joints and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start. Ten swimmers performed 3 identical assessment sessions, measuring hip and knee muscle extensors during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start, at 3 instants: INI (2 weeks before the training program, control period), PRE (2 weeks after INI measurements), and POST (24-48 hours after 9 weeks of training). There were no significant changes from INI to PRE measurements. However, the peak torque and rate of torque development increased significantly from PRE to POST measurements for both hip (47 and 108%) and knee (24 and 41%) joints. There were significant improvements to the horizontal force (7%), impulse (9%), and angle of resultant force (19%). In addition, there were significant improvements to the center of mass displacement (5%), horizontal takeoff velocity (16%), horizontal velocity at water entrance (22%), and peak angle velocity for the knee (15%) and hip joints (16%). Therefore, the plyometric long jump training protocol was effective to enhance torque around the lower limb joints and to control the resultant vector direction, to increase the swimming jump start performance. These findings suggest that coaches should use long jump training instead of vertical jump training to improve swimming start performance.

  12. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  13. Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aimée C; Roberts, Jonathan R; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing.

  14. Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others.   This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...

  15. Intramuscular psoas lengthening during single-event multi-level surgery fails to improve hip dynamics in children with spastic diplegia. Clinical and kinematic outcomes in the short- and medium-terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, C; Simon, A-L; Ilharreborde, B; Presedo, A; Mazda, K; Penneçot, G-F

    2016-06-01

    In children with spastic diplegia, hip extension in terminal stance is limited by retraction of the psoas muscle, which decreases stride propulsion and step length on the contralateral side. Whether intramuscular psoas lengthening (IMPL) is effective remains controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of IMPL as a component of single-event multi-level surgery (SEMLS) on spatial and temporal gait parameters, clinical hip flexion deformity, and hip flexion kinematics. IMPL as part of SEMLS does not significantly improve hip flexion kinematics. A retrospective review was conducted of the medical charts of consecutive ambulatory children with cerebral palsy who had clinical hip flexion deformity (>10°) with more than 10° of excess hip flexion in terminal stance and who underwent SEMLS. The groups with and without IMPL were compared. Preoperative values of the clinical hip flexion contracture, hip flexion kinematics in terminal stance, and spatial and temporal gait parameters were compared to the values recorded after a mean postoperative follow-up of 2.4±2.0 years (range, 1.0-8.7 years). Follow-up was longer than 3 years in 6 patients. Of 47 lower limbs (in 34 patients) included in the analysis, 15 were managed with IMPL. There were no significant between-group differences at baseline. Surgery was followed in all limbs by significant decreases in kinematic hip flexion and in the Gillette Gait Index. In the IMPL group, significant improvements occurred in clinical hip flexion deformity, walking speed, and step length. The improvement in kinematic hip extension was not significantly different between the two groups. Crouch gait recurred in 3 (8%) patients. The improvement in kinematic hip extension in terminal stance was not significantly influenced by IMPL but was, instead, chiefly dependent on improved knee extension and on the position of the ground reaction vector after SEMLS. IMPL remains indicated only when the clinical hip flexion

  16. Upper limb movement analysis during gait in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Timing training in three children with diplegic cerebral palsy: Short- and long-term effects on upper-limb movement organization and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria eJohansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great need of interventions to maintain and improve motor functions in children with diplegic cerebral palsy (DCP, scientific evaluations of existing training methods are rare. This study aimed to explore individual effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing, spatio-temporal movement organization, and subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions in three children with DCP. All children participated in an individualized 4-week/12 session SMT training regime. Measurements before training (Pre, after training (Post1 and at 6 months post completed training (Post2 were made by the applied SMT training equipment, optoelectronic registrations of goal-directed upper-limb movements, and a questionnaire assessing subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions and usability. In general, the training regime was shown to have little effect on motor timing. However, some positive changes in spatio-temporal movement organization were found. Two children also reported substantial long-lasting positive changes in subjective experiences of hand/arm functionality in terms of increased movement control and reduced muscle tone. For these children, parallel kinematic findings also indicated smoother and faster movement trajectories that remained at Post2. Although highly individualized, the shown improvements in upper-limb kinematics and subjective experiences of improved functionality of the hands/arms for two of the cases warrant further explorations of SMT outcomes in children with DCP.

  18. An integrated neuro-robotic interface for stroke rehabilitation using the NASA X1 powered lower limb exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongtian; Nathan, Kevin; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Rovekamp, Roger; Beck, Christopher; Ozdemir, Recep; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of disability, limiting independent ambulation in survivors, and consequently affecting quality of life (QOL). Recent technological advances in neural interfacing with robotic rehabilitation devices are promising in the context of gait rehabilitation. Here, the X1, NASA's powered robotic lower limb exoskeleton, is introduced as a potential diagnostic, assistive, and therapeutic tool for stroke rehabilitation. Additionally, the feasibility of decoding lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics during walking with the X1 from scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) signals--the first step towards the development of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system to the X1 exoskeleton--is demonstrated.

  19. THE EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON THREE DIMENSIONAL ANKLE KINEMATICS DURING A SIDESTEP CUTTING MANEUVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean L. McCrory

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cryotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of acute and chronic athletic injuries, the deleterious effects of limb cooling, such as decreased nerve and muscle function, slowed sensation and inhibition of normal relaxes, may put an athlete at increased risk of additional injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy on subtalar and ankle joint kinematics of healthy athletes performing a sidestep 45° cut. We hypothesized that greater joint displacements and velocities would be seen after icing. Twenty one subjects performed a 45° sidestep cut prior to and after limb cooling. Retroreflective markers were placed on the subject's shank and foot while 6 high-speed cameras were used to collect the kinematic data. In this test-retest controlled laboratory study, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed on the PRE and POST icing data for the minimum and maximum joint displacements and velocities. No statistical differences were noted between the PRE and POST icing conditions. The results indicate that a 10-minute icing treatment did not have an effect on either the movement patterns or angular velocities. Our results do not support any change in practice of icing injured ankles for ten minutes during halftime of athletic events

  20. Using Data From the Microsoft Kinect 2 to Quantify Upper Limb Behavior: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbandi, Behdad; Barachant, Alexandre; Harary, David; Long, John Davis; Tsagaris, K Zoe; Bumanlag, Silverio Joseph; He, Victor; Putrino, David

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the novel application of a machine learning approach to data collected from the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2) could be used to classify differing levels of upper limb impairment. Twenty-four healthy subjects completed items of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), which is a clinically validated metric of upper limb function for stroke survivors. Subjects completed the WMFT three times: 1) as a healthy individual; 2) emulating mild impairment; and 3) emulating moderate impairment. A MK2 was positioned in front of participants, and collected kinematic data as they completed the WMFT. A classification framework, based on Riemannian geometry and the use of covariance matrices as feature representation of the MK2 data, was developed for these data, and its ability to successfully classify subjects as either "healthy," "mildly impaired," or "moderately impaired" was assessed. Mean accuracy for our classifier was 91.7%, with a specific accuracy breakdown of 100%, 83.3%, and 91.7% for the "healthy," "mildly impaired," and "moderately impaired" conditions, respectively. We conclude that data from the MK2 is of sufficient quality to perform objective motor behavior classification in individuals with upper limb impairment. The data collection and analysis framework that we have developed has the potential to disrupt the field of clinical assessment. Future studies will focus on validating this protocol on large populations of individuals with actual upper limb impairments in order to create a toolkit that is clinically validated and available to the clinical community.

  1. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to comm...

  2. Design, implementation and control of rehabilitation robots for upper and lower limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ergin, Alper Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    We present two novel rehabilitation robots for stroke patients. For lower limb stroke rehabilitation, we present a novel self-aligning exoskeleton for the knee joint. The primal novelty of the design originates from its kinematic structure that allows translational movements of the knee joint on the sagittal plane along with the knee rotation. Automatically adjusting its joint axes, the exoskeleton enables a perfect match between human joint axes and the device axes. Thanks to this feature, t...

  3. Modifying upper-limb inter-joint coordination in healthy subjects by training with a robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Guigon, Emmanuel; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Jarrassé, Nathanaël

    2017-06-12

    The possibility to modify the usually pathological patterns of coordination of the upper-limb in stroke survivors remains a central issue and an open question for neurorehabilitation. Despite robot-led physical training could potentially improve the motor recovery of hemiparetic patients, most of the state-of-the-art studies addressing motor control learning, with artificial virtual force fields, only focused on the end-effector kinematic adaptation, by using planar devices. Clearly, an interesting aspect of studying 3D movements with a robotic exoskeleton, is the possibility to investigate the way the human central nervous system deals with the natural upper-limb redundancy for common activities like pointing or tracking tasks. We asked twenty healthy participants to perform 3D pointing or tracking tasks under the effect of inter-joint velocity dependant perturbing force fields, applied directly at the joint level by a 4-DOF robotic arm exoskeleton. These fields perturbed the human natural inter-joint coordination but did not constrain directly the end-effector movements and thus subjects capability to perform the tasks. As a consequence, while the participants focused on the achievement of the task, we unexplicitly modified their natural upper-limb coordination strategy. We studied the force fields direct effect on pointing movements towards 8 targets placed in the 3D peripersonal space, and we also considered potential generalizations on 4 distinct other targets. Post-effects were studied after the removal of the force fields (wash-out and follow up). These effects were quantified by a kinematic analysis of the pointing movements at both end-point and joint levels, and by a measure of the final postures. At the same time, we analysed the natural inter-joint coordination through PCA. During the exposition to the perturbative fields, we observed modifications of the subjects movement kinematics at every level (joints, end-effector, and inter-joint coordination

  4. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Snoek, Govert J.; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation), however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown We conducted a cross-sectional explorative

  5. [Epidemiological analysis of selected congenital limb malformations in Hengyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na-Na; Yuan, Yu-Mei; Liu, Yong; Dai, Li; Deng, Chang-Fei; Nie, Xing-Hui; Zheng, Xiang-Chi; Hu, Yan-Zhen; Liu, Yun-Rong

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of selected congenital limb malformations (CLM) in newborns of Hengyang. During the period of 2008-2010, cluster sampling survey was adopted to investigate the congenital limb malformations of neonates born to women resident in Hengyang, including Nanyue District, Zhuhui District, Changning City and Hengshan County. Each newborn was examined for the screening of CLM after birth. Limb malformations were grouped into the isolated (ILM) and the syndromic (SLM) form, depending on associated malformations of the affected. Prevalence rates, CLM spectrum and clinical manifestations were analyzed. A total of 170 CLM cases were identified among 52,307 newborns during the study period, resulting overall rate of 32.50/10(4). The rates for isolated and syndromic CLM were 28.29 and 4.21 per 10 000 births respectively. The rates for polydactyly, congenital talipes equinovarus, syndactyly and limb reduction defects were 13.00/10(4), 9.56/10(4), 5.16/10(4) and 3.63/10(4), respectively. No significant difference in rates of overall CLM or specified CLM was observed across urban-rural, gender and maternal age groups. Of the cases affected by polydactyly, syndactyly and limb reduction defects, malformation involved upper limbs, lower limbs and the both accounted for 68.14%, 14.16% and 17.70%. Preterm birth, low birth-weight, still birth and neonatal death were observed more frequently in syndromic cases than in isolated patients. The high CLM prevalence rate and fatality rate in Hengyang suggest that effective measures should be taken to prevent malformations and to improve survival of the affected.

  6. Analysis of a closed-kinematic chain robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are the research results from the research grant entitled: Active Control of Robot Manipulators, sponsored by the Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) under grant number NAG-780. This report considers a class of robot manipulators based on the closed-kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This type of robot manipulators mainly consists of two platforms, one is stationary and the other moving, and they are coupled together through a number of in-parallel actuators. Using spatial geometry and homogeneous transformation, a closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, built to study robotic assembly in space. Iterative Newton Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Finally, the equations of motion of the above manipulators are obtained by employing the Lagrangian method. Study of the manipulator dynamics is performed using computer simulation whose results show that the robot actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid locations of the robot links.

  7. Kinematic and dynamic modeling and approximate analysis of a roller chain drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    for analytical studies of the coupled motion of the chain spans and driven sprocket. Parametric excitation of the spans come from sprocket angular displacements, and the driven sprocket acts as a boundary which can be compliant in the axial direction. External transverse excitation of the spans comes from...... polygonal action, and is treated through kinematic forcing at the moving string boundaries. Perturbation analysis of the model is carried out using the method of multiple scales. Results show a multitude of internal and external resonance conditions, and some examples are presented of both decoupled...... and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model are aimed toward providing a framework for conducting and understanding both numerical, and experimental investigations of roller chain drive dynamics....

  8. Radiographic analysis of the development of the pelvic limb of captive-reared cranes (Grus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, T.G.; Langenberg, J.A.; Deakin, L.

    1996-01-01

    For captive-reared cranes, pelvic limb abnormalities in chicks have been identified as significant morbidity/mortality factors. An important component of the diagnosis of limb abnormalities is the understanding of the normal limb. This study was undertaken to describe the normal, radiographic development of the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and fibula of the whooping crane (Grus americana), Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus). Crane chicks were anesthetized and their pelvic limb bone development evaluated radiographically on a weekly to bimonthly basis from one to fourteen weeks of age. Body weight, bone length, diaphyseal width, and physeal development and closure were evaluated. Based on the radiographic analysis, the gross development of the long bones of the pelvic limb of whooping, Florida sandhill, and Siberian cranes was found to be similar among the three species, and not dissimilar from other avian species which have been studied. Repeated handling, anesthesia, and radiographic exposure did not produce any behavioral, developmental, or physical abnormalities in the studied cranes when compared to cranes of the same species raised using the same methods. This is the first work to describe pelvic limb bone development in these species

  9. Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Yvan; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Ramos, Casto; Bach, Antoine; Cloment, Cécile Saint; Robert, Benoît

    2005-07-01

    The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. However, mice homozygous for a null mutation in either Msx1 or Msx2 do not display abnormalities in limb development. By contrast, Msx1; Msx2 double mutants exhibit a severe limb phenotype. Our analysis indicates that these genes play a role in crucial processes during limb morphogenesis along all three axes. Double mutant limbs are shorter and lack anterior skeletal elements (radius/tibia, thumb/hallux). Gene expression analysis confirms that there is no formation of regions with anterior identity. This correlates with the absence of dorsoventral boundary specification in the anterior ectoderm, which precludes apical ectodermal ridge formation anteriorly. As a result, anterior mesenchyme is not maintained, leading to oligodactyly. Paradoxically, polydactyly is also frequent and appears to be associated with extended Fgf activity in the apical ectodermal ridge, which is maintained up to 14.5 dpc. This results in a major outgrowth of the mesenchyme anteriorly, which nevertheless maintains a posterior identity, and leads to formation of extra digits. These defects are interpreted in the context of an impairment of Bmp signalling.

  10. Kinematic analysis for the implementation of landslide mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    The present work is finalised at the implementation of a landslide risk mitigation master plan of the ancient citadel of Machu Picchu. After the warning launched in March 2001, by the scientific community on potential collapse of the citadel from a near-disastrous landslide event different studies have been promoted to reconstruct landslide activity and suggest landslide risk mitigation measures for the protection and conservation of Machu Picchu cultural heritage. A site-scale analysis has been implemented following the application and integration of geomechanical classifications, ambient noise measurements and structural and kinematical analysis. The geology of the area is characterized by granitoid bodies that had been emplaced in the axial zones of the main rift system that are now exposed at the highest altitudes, together with country rocks (Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic metamorphics) originally constituting the rift ‘roots'. The bedrock of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu is mainly composed by granite and subordinately granodiorite. This is mainly located in the lower part of the slopes. Superficially, the granite is jointed in blocks with variable dimensions, promoted by local structural setting. Single blocks vary from 10-1 to about 200 m3. Soil cover, widely outcropping in the area, is mainly composed by individual blocks and subordinately by coarse materials originated by chemical and physical weathering of minerals. Regional tectonic uplift and structural setting rule the general morphological features of the area and as a consequence, landslide type and evolution. Rock falls, rock slides, debris flows and debris slides are the main landslide typologies affecting the citadel slopes. In the last mission in May 2009, elastic and deformation rock parameters have been collected using a passive seismic innovative technique based on natural microtremor measurements and geostructural scan lines elaboration. A landslide zoning of the citadel has been

  11. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heinemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tropospheric coverage can be improved in comparison to limb sounding using a fixed field of view with the size of the super-pixels, as in conventional limb sounders. The study is based on cloud topographies derived from (a IR brightness temperatures (BT of geostationary weather satellites in conjunction with ECMWF temperature profiles and (b ice and liquid water content data of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling-Europe (COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service. Limb cloud images are simulated by matching the cloud topography with the limb sounding line of sight (LOS. The analysis of the BT data shows that the reduction of the spatial sampling along the track has hardly any effect on the gain in information. The comparison between BT and COSMO-EU data identifies the strength of both data sets, which are the representation of the horizontal cloud extent for the BT data and the reproduction of the cloud amount for the COSMO-EU data. The results of the analysis of both data sets show the great advantage of the cloud imager. However, because both cloud data sets do not present the complete fine structure of the real cloud fields in the atmosphere it is assumed that the results tend to underestimate the increase in information. In conclusion, real measurements by such an instrument may result in an even higher benefit for tropospheric limb retrievals.

  12. Applying Clustering to Statistical Analysis of Student Reasoning about Two-Dimensional Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springuel, R. Padraic; Wittman, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We use clustering, an analysis method not presently common to the physics education research community, to group and characterize student responses to written questions about two-dimensional kinematics. Previously, clustering has been used to analyze multiple-choice data; we analyze free-response data that includes both sketches of vectors and…

  13. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  14. Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Ludovic; Nylén, Anna; Rosander, Kerstin; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2015-01-01

    Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics. PMID:25709597

  15. Classical test theory and Rasch analysis validation of the Upper Limb Functional Index in subjects with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravini, Elisabetta; Franchignoni, Franco; Giordano, Andrea; Sartorio, Francesco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano; Foti, Calogero

    2015-01-01

    To perform a comprehensive analysis of the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis (RA). Prospective, single-group observational design. Freestanding rehabilitation center. Convenience sample of Italian-speaking subjects with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (N=174). Not applicable. The Italian version of the ULFI. Data were analyzed using parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and RA for evaluating dimensionality, functioning of rating scale categories, item fit, hierarchy of item difficulties, and reliability indices. Parallel analysis revealed 2 factors explaining 32.5% and 10.7% of the response variance. RA confirmed the failure of the unidimensionality assumption, and 6 items out of the 25 misfitted the Rasch model. When the analysis was rerun excluding the misfitting items, the scale showed acceptable fit values, loading meaningfully to a single factor. Item separation reliability and person separation reliability were .98 and .89, respectively. Cronbach alpha was .92. RA revealed weakness of the scale concerning dimensionality and internal construct validity. However, a set of 19 ULFI items defined through the statistical process demonstrated a unidimensional structure, good psychometric properties, and clinical meaningfulness. These findings represent a useful starting point for further analyses of the tool (based on modern psychometric approaches and confirmatory factor analysis) in larger samples, including different patient populations and nationalities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinematic relations in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, P.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present work gives a short overview of the non-relativistic kinematics of nuclear reactions derived on the basis of the conservation laws of energy and linear momentum. Section 2 contains kinematic relations valid for two-body reactions, sections 3 makes use of these relations to describe sequential fission as a special case of reactions with three particles in the exit channel. It is the aim of this work to comprise the kinematic formulae essential for planning of experiments, data analysis and critical examination of the obtained results. (author)

  17. The Impact of the Support System’s Kinematic Structure on Selected Kinematic and Dynamic Quantities of an Experimental Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trąbka Arkadiusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of two kinematic structures of the support system (with supports with bilateral and unilateral constraints, which were used in an experimental model of a crane. The computational model was developed by using the ADAMS software. The impact of the kinematic structure of the support system on selected kinematic and dynamic values that were recorded during the slewing motion was analysed. It was found, among other things, that an increased number of degrees of freedom of the support system leads to multiple distortions of time characteristics of kinematic and dynamic quantities.

  18. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  19. New lower-limb gait asymmetry indices based on a depth camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Edouard; Multon, Franck; Meunier, Jean

    2015-02-24

    Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™) output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  20. Diagnosis abnormalities of limb movement in disorders of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchik, Gregory S.; Skytsiouk, Volodymyr I.; Klotchko, Tatiana R.; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Wójcik, Waldemar; Luganskaya, Saule; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Iskakova, Aigul

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with important issues of diagnosis early signs of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and other specific diseases. Small quantities of violation trajectory of spatial movement of the extremities of human disease at the primary level as the most appropriate features are studied. In modern medical practice is very actual the control the emergence of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease. In work a model limbs with six rotational kinematic pairs for diagnosis of early signs of diseases of the nervous system is considered. subject.

  1. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Design and Kinematic Analysis of a New End-Effector for a Robotic Needle Insertion-Type Intervention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjin Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new end-effector as a key component for a robotic needle insertion-type intervention system and its kinematic analysis. The mechanism is designed as a spherical mechanism with a revolute joint and a curved sliding joint, and its links always move on the surface of a sphere. The remote centre of motion (RCM of the designed mechanism is placed below the base of the mechanism to avoid contact with the patient's body, unlike the conventional end-effectors developed for needle insertion. For the proposed mechanism, the forward kinematics are solved in terms of input joint parameters and then the reverse kinematics are solved by using the cross-product relationship between each joint vector and a vector mutually perpendicular to the vectors. The kinematic solutions are confirmed by numerical examples.

  3. Effects of kinematic hardening rules on thermal ratchetting analysis of cylinders subjected to cyclically moving temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.; Kobayashi, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work, thermal ratchetting in a cylinder subjected to a cyclically moving temperature front (i.e. liquid surface induced thermal ratchetting) was analyzed by implementing in a finite element method the four kinds of plasticity models with different kinematic hardening rules. The following findings were thus obtained concerning effects of the kinematic hardening rules on the analysis. (1) If transition nonlinear hardening after yielding is disregarded, the thermal ratchetting becomes significant, as seen in the results of the PP and LKH models. Especially the PP model, which does not express any strain hardening, predicts steady development of the thermal ratchetting. (2) If significant mechanical ratchetting is allowed in the modeling of kinematic hardening, the thermal ratchetting becomes marked, as seen in the results of the AF model. (3) Model dependence of the thermal ratchetting is more noticeable when the difference of temperature at the temperature front, ΔT, is smaller. (4) The OW model makes the thermal ratchetting stop at a smaller number of cycles when ΔT is smaller. On the other hand, the LKH and AF models allow that the thermal ratchetting to develop more constantly when ΔT is smaller. As seen from the above findings, the analysis of liquid surface induced thermal ratchetting has great dependence on the kinematic hardening rules employed. Especially the PP model, which has been used often to analyze the thermal ratchetting so far, gives too large development of the thermal ratchetting. Thus we may say that in order to improve the analysis it is necessary to use an appropriate kinematic hardening model which is capable of expressing appropriately both mechanical ratchetting and transient nonlinear hardening after yielding. (author)

  4. Hyperinnervation improves Xenopus laevis limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2018-01-15

    Xenopus laevis (an anuran amphibian) shows limb regeneration ability between that of urodele amphibians and that of amniotes. Xenopus frogs can initiate limb regeneration but fail to form patterned limbs. Regenerated limbs mainly consist of cone-shaped cartilage without any joints or branches. These pattern defects are thought to be caused by loss of proper expressions of patterning-related genes. This study shows that hyperinnervation surgery resulted in the induction of a branching regenerate. The hyperinnervated blastema allows the identification and functional analysis of the molecules controlling this patterning of limb regeneration. This paper focuses on the nerve affects to improve Xenopus limb patterning ability during regeneration. The nerve molecules, which regulate limb patterning, were also investigated. Blastemas grown in a hyperinnervated forelimb upregulate limb patterning-related genes (shh, lmx1b, and hoxa13). Nerves projecting their axons to limbs express some growth factors (bmp7, fgf2, fgf8, and shh). Inputs of these factors to a blastema upregulated some limb patterning-related genes and resulted in changes in the cartilage patterns in the regenerates. These results indicate that additional nerve factors enhance Xenopus limb patterning-related gene expressions and limb regeneration ability, and that bmp, fgf, and shh are candidate nerve substitute factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Paleostress Analysis Using Kinematic Indicators Found on an Oriented Core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Brož, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 76-83 ISSN 2331-9593 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : paleostress analysis * borehole core * kinematic indicators * bias sampling * recent stress Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.hrpub.org/download/20140105/UJG6-13901884.pdf

  6. Proteomic analysis of blastema formation in regenerating axolotl limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nye Holly LD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand the molecular basis of blastema formation, we used quantitative label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS-based methods to analyze changes in the proteome that occurred 1, 4 and 7 days post amputation (dpa through the mid-tibia/fibula of axolotl hind limbs. Results We identified 309 unique proteins with significant fold change relative to controls (0 dpa, representing 10 biological process categories: (1 signaling, (2 Ca2+ binding and translocation, (3 transcription, (4 translation, (5 cytoskeleton, (6 extracellular matrix (ECM, (7 metabolism, (8 cell protection, (9 degradation, and (10 cell cycle. In all, 43 proteins exhibited exceptionally high fold changes. Of these, the ecotropic viral integrative factor 5 (EVI5, a cell cycle-related oncoprotein that prevents cells from entering the mitotic phase of the cell cycle prematurely, was of special interest because its fold change was exceptionally high throughout blastema formation. Conclusion Our data were consistent with previous studies indicating the importance of inositol triphosphate and Ca2+ signaling in initiating the ECM and cytoskeletal remodeling characteristic of histolysis and cell dedifferentiation. In addition, the data suggested that blastema formation requires several mechanisms to avoid apoptosis, including reduced metabolism, differential regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins, and initiation of an unfolded protein response (UPR. Since there is virtually no mitosis during blastema formation, we propose that high levels of EVI5 function to arrest dedifferentiated cells somewhere in the G1/S/G2 phases of the cell cycle until they have accumulated under the wound epidermis and enter mitosis in response to

  7. Estimation of continuous multi-DOF finger joint kinematics from surface EMG using a multi-output Gaussian Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeo, Jimson; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals have often been used in estimating upper and lower limb dynamics and kinematics for the purpose of controlling robotic devices such as robot prosthesis and finger exoskeletons. However, in estimating multiple and a high number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) kinematics from EMG, output DOFs are usually estimated independently. In this study, we estimate finger joint kinematics from EMG signals using a multi-output convolved Gaussian Process (Multi-output Full GP) that considers dependencies between outputs. We show that estimation of finger joints from muscle activation inputs can be improved by using a regression model that considers inherent coupling or correlation within the hand and finger joints. We also provide a comparison of estimation performance between different regression methods, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) which is used by many of the related studies. We show that using a multi-output GP gives improved estimation compared to multi-output ANN and even dedicated or independent regression models.

  8. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  9. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  10. A Method for Mechanism Analysis of Frog Swimming Based on Motion Observation Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For understanding the mechanism of frog swimming under water and designing a frog-inspired swimming robot, kinematics of the frog body and trajectories of joints should be obtained. In this paper, an aquatic frog, Xenopus laevis, was chosen for analysis of swimming motions which were recorded by a high speed camera, and kinematic data were processed in a swimming data extraction platform. According to the shape features of the frog, we propose a method that the frog eyes are set as the natural data extraction markers for body motion, and kinematic data of joint trajectories are calculated by the contour points on the limbs. For the data processing, a pinhole camera model was built to transform the pixel coordinate system to world coordinate system, and the errors caused by the water refraction were analyzed and corrected. Finally, from the developed data extraction platform, the kinematic data for the analysis of swimming mechanism and design of frog-inspired robot were obtained.

  11. Quality parameters for a multimodal EEG/EMG/kinematic brain-computer interface (BCI aiming to suppress neurological tremor in upper limbs [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3aq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Grimaldi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tremor is the most common movement disorder encountered during daily neurological practice. Tremor in the upper limbs causes functional disability and social inconvenience, impairing daily life activities. The response of tremor to pharmacotherapy is variable. Therefore, a combination of drugs is often required. Surgery is considered when the response to medications is not sufficient. However, about one third of patients are refractory to current treatments. New bioengineering therapies are emerging as possible alternatives. Our study was carried out in the framework of the European project “Tremor” (ICT-2007-224051. The main purpose of this challenging project was to develop and validate a new treatment for upper limb tremor based on the combination of functional electrical stimulation (FES; which has been shown to reduce upper limb tremor with a brain-computer interface (BCI. A BCI-driven detection of voluntary movement is used to trigger FES in a closed-loop approach. Neurological tremor is detected using a matrix of EMG electrodes and inertial sensors embedded in a wearable textile. The identification of the intentionality of movement is a critical aspect to optimize this complex system. We propose a multimodal detection of the intentionality of movement by fusing signals from EEG, EMG and kinematic sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometry. Parameters of prediction of movement are extracted in order to provide global prediction plots and trigger FES properly. In particular, quality parameters (QPs for the EEG signals, corticomuscular coherence and event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS parameters are combined in an original algorithm which takes into account the refractoriness/responsiveness of tremor. A simulation study of the relationship between the threshold of ERD/ERS of artificial EEG traces and the QPs is also provided. Very interestingly, values of QPs were much greater than those obtained for the corticomuscular

  12. Kinematical Comparison Analysis on the Discus Athletes Throwing Techniques Based on Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming, Li; Jihe, Zhou; Ting, Long

    2017-09-01

    In the discus final site of throwing event series game of China’s track and field sport in April, 2015, three dimensional camera analytical method which is an application of kinematical data project was used on female discus athletes’ discus throwing technology. And analysis was made for the top four discus throwers’ last exertion action, related kinematics parameter was thus obtained. Analysis results show that: first, Lu Xiaoxin behaves better in body twist tight effect when it is left foot on the ground and in capacity of beyond devices, followed by Su Xinyue and Tan Jian, with Feng Bin relatively weaker; second, our athletes’ discus shots speed is to be upgraded compared with world excellent female discus athletes; third, discus is left slightly earlier, with Tan Jian throwing in a reasonable angle, Feng Bin, Lu Xiaoxin in a larger angle, and Sue Xinyue in a smaller angle. Feng bin has a higher height of release, followed by Lu Xiaoxin and Tan jian.

  13. The effects of weighted skates on ice-skating kinematics, kinetics and muscular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavor, Matthew P; Hay, Dean C; Graham, Ryan B

    2018-07-01

    Sport-specific resistance training, through limb loading, can be a complimentary training method to traditional resistance training by loading the working muscles during all phases of a specific movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of skating with an additional load on the skate, using a skate weight prototype, on kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during the acceleration phase while skating on a synthetic ice surface. 10 male hockey skaters accelerated from rest (standing erect with knees slightly bent) under four non-randomized load conditions: baseline 1 (no weight), light (0.9 kg per skate), heavy (1.8 kg per skate), and baseline 2 (no weight). Skating with additional weight caused athletes to skate slower (p skates decreased skating velocity, but athletes maintained similar muscle activation profiles (magnitude and trends) with minor changes to their skating kinematics.

  14. Robotic lower limb prosthesis design through simultaneous computer optimizations of human and prosthesis costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Matthew L.; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2016-02-01

    Robotic lower limb prostheses can improve the quality of life for amputees. Development of such devices, currently dominated by long prototyping periods, could be sped up by predictive simulations. In contrast to some amputee simulations which track experimentally determined non-amputee walking kinematics, here, we explicitly model the human-prosthesis interaction to produce a prediction of the user’s walking kinematics. We obtain simulations of an amputee using an ankle-foot prosthesis by simultaneously optimizing human movements and prosthesis actuation, minimizing a weighted sum of human metabolic and prosthesis costs. The resulting Pareto optimal solutions predict that increasing prosthesis energy cost, decreasing prosthesis mass, and allowing asymmetric gaits all decrease human metabolic rate for a given speed and alter human kinematics. The metabolic rates increase monotonically with speed. Remarkably, by performing an analogous optimization for a non-amputee human, we predict that an amputee walking with an appropriately optimized robotic prosthesis can have a lower metabolic cost - even lower than assuming that the non-amputee’s ankle torques are cost-free.

  15. The influence of limited kinematic hardening in shakedown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Domingos E.S.; Jospin, Reinaldo R.; Zouain, Nestor

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Design by Analysis concept is a trend in modern pressure vessel and piping calculations. DBA flexibility allow us to deal with unexpected configurations detected at in-service inspections. It is also important, in life extension calculations, when deviations of the original standard hypothesis adopted initially in Design by Formula, can happen. To apply the DBA to structures under variable mechanic and thermal loads, it is necessary that, alternate plasticity and incremental collapse (with instantaneous plastic collapse as a particular case), be precluded. These are two basic failure modes considered by ASME or European Standards in DBA. The shakedown theory is the tool available to achieve this goal. In order to apply it, is necessary only the range of the variable loads and the material properties. Precise, robust and efficient algorithms to solve the very large nonlinear optimization problems generated in numerical applications of the shakedown theory is a recent achievement. Zouain and co-workers developed one of these algorithms for elastic ideally-plastic materials. But, it is necessary to consider more realistic material properties in real practical applications. This paper shows an enhancement of this algorithm to dealing with limited kinematic hardening, a typical property of the usual steels. This is done using internal thermodynamic variables. A discrete algorithm is obtained using a plane stress, mixed finite element, with internal variable. An example, a beam encased in an end, under constant axial force and variable moment is presented to show the importance of considering the limited kinematic hardening in a shakedown analysis. (author)

  16. Research on Robot Pose Control Technology Based on Kinematics Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Xu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the attitude stability of the robot, proposes an attitude control method of robot based on kinematics analysis model, solve the robot walking posture transformation, grasping and controlling the motion planning problem of robot kinematics. In Cartesian space analytical model, using three axis accelerometer, magnetometer and the three axis gyroscope for the combination of attitude measurement, the gyroscope data from Calman filter, using the four element method for robot attitude angle, according to the centroid of the moving parts of the robot corresponding to obtain stability inertia parameters, using random sampling RRT motion planning method, accurate operation to any position control of space robot, to ensure the end effector along a prescribed trajectory the implementation of attitude control. The accurate positioning of the experiment is taken using MT-R robot as the research object, the test robot. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better robustness, and higher positioning accuracy, and it improves the reliability and safety of robot operation.

  17. Energy flow analysis of amputee walking shows a proximally-directed transfer of energy in intact limbs, compared to a distally-directed transfer in prosthetic limbs at push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, R A; Howard, D; Twiste, M; Jarvis, H L; Bennett, A N; Baker, R J

    2017-01-01

    Reduced capacity and increased metabolic cost of walking occurs in amputees, despite advances in prosthetic componentry. Joint powers can quantify deficiencies in prosthetic gait, but do not reveal how energy is exchanged between limb segments. This study aimed to quantify these energy exchanges during amputee walking. Optical motion and forceplate data collected during walking at a self-selected speed for cohorts of 10 controls, 10 unilateral trans-tibial, 10 unilateral trans-femoral and 10 bilateral trans-femoral amputees were used to determine the energy exchanges between lower limb segments. At push-off, consistent thigh and shank segment powers were observed between amputee groups (1.12W/kg vs. 1.05W/kg for intact limbs and 0.97W/kg vs. 0.99W/kg for prosthetic limbs), and reduced prosthetic ankle power, particularly in trans-femoral amputees (3.12W/kg vs. 0.87W/kg). Proximally-directed energy exchange was observed in the intact limbs of amputees and controls, while prosthetic limbs displayed distally-directed energy exchanges at the knee and hip. This study used energy flow analysis to show a reversal in the direction in which energy is exchanged between prosthetic limb segments at push-off. This reversal was required to provide sufficient energy to propel the limb segments and is likely a direct result of the lack of push-off power at the prosthetic ankle, particularly in trans-femoral amputees, and leads to their increased metabolic cost of walking. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinematic simulation and analysis of robot based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shuhua; Li, Jiong

    2018-03-01

    The history of industrial automation is characterized by quick update technology, however, without a doubt, the industrial robot is a kind of special equipment. With the help of MATLAB matrix and drawing capacity in the MATLAB environment each link coordinate system set up by using the d-h parameters method and equation of motion of the structure. Robotics, Toolbox programming Toolbox and GUIDE to the joint application is the analysis of inverse kinematics and path planning and simulation, preliminary solve the problem of college students the car mechanical arm positioning theory, so as to achieve the aim of reservation.

  19. Latest Advances in Robot Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Husty, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    This book is  of interest to researchers inquiring about modern topics and methods in the kinematics, control and design of robotic manipulators. It considers the full range of robotic systems, including serial, parallel and cable driven manipulators, both planar and spatial. The systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. In addition to recognized areas, this book also presents recent advances in emerging areas such as the design and control of humanoids and humanoid subsystems, and the analysis, modeling and simulation of human body motions, as well as the mobility analysis of protein molecules and the development of machines which incorporate man.

  20. Body Composition and Kinematic Analysis of the Grab Start in Youth Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to compare the kinematic variables in youth swimmers during the grab start between sexes and to investigate the relationship between body composition and kinematic variables of the participants. Six female (Mage = 13.71 ± 0.49 yrs and seven male (Mage = 14.00 ± 1.07 yrs swimmers participated in this study. All participants were required to perform grab start tests in random order (three trials by each participant, while the best attempt was analyzed. Nineteen kinematic parameters consisting of block time, flight time, flight distance, total time, total distance, horizontal and vertical displacement of the center of mass (CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical displacement of the CM at entry, height of take-off and entry, relative height of take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at take-off, horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM at entry, angle of take-off, angle of entry and angle of knee at block were analyzed. Out of the 19 evaluated kinematic parameters, a statistical difference between the female and male group was found only in the total distance. Therefore, both female and male groups are considered as only one group and merged after analyzing the results. Statistical analysis showed positive and negative correlations between horizontal / vertical velocity of CM at take-off and several kinematic variables (e.g. angle of entry (rhorizontal = -.868, p=.000 / rvertical = .591, p=.02, total distance (rhorizontal = .594, p=.02 / rvertical = .54, p=.04, and height of take-off (rvertical = .888, p=.000, respectively. On the other hand, positive and negative correlations were found between somatotype components and several kinematic variables (e.g. horizontal displacement of CM at entry (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.013, angle of entry (rmesomorphy = -.686, p=.005 / rectomorphy = .52, p=.047, total distance (rendomorphy = -.626, p=.012, and height of take-off (rendomorphy = -.633, p=.011

  1. Gait and electromyographic analysis of patients recovering after limb-saving surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, E; Mulder, T; Schreuder, HWB; Veth, RPH; Duysens, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Control of gait after limb-saving surgery. Design. Case series study. Background. At the moment little is known about adaptations in patients' gait after limb-saving surgery. Methods. Nineteen patients who underwent limb-saving surgery at least 1 yr earlier and 10 normal subjects were

  2. Kinematic analysis and bilateral differences in pedaling technique of professional cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci Irigoyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the maximal angulations of knee and ankle in the flexions and extensions in pedaling performed by professional cyclists and to compare the differences in these angulations between the right and left leg. Thirteen cyclists, who all belonged to a professional team which regularly competed in the “Vuelta Ciclista a España”, took part in this study. Measurements were taken of the length of the crank arms, height and saddle height of the cyclists’ bicycles. A 2D kinematic analysis was also performed of their pedaling to study the angulations of knee and ankle. No significant differences were found between the right and the left leg with regard to the angulations of flexion or extension of the knees or the flexion of the ankles. However, contrary to other studies, differences were found in the ankle angulation of extension (p < 0.05, difference between means = 14.53%, d = 0.37, moderate between the two legs. In future research it would be interesting to complement the kinematic analysis with a kinetic study to observe if the differences in the angulations are accompanied by differences in the force applied by each leg.

  3. Influence of basal ganglia on upper limb locomotor synergies. Evidence from deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, P; Carpinella, I; Lopiano, L; Marzegan, A; Rabuffetti, M; Rizzone, M; Lanotte, M; Ferrarin, M

    2008-12-01

    Clinical evidence of impaired arm swing while walking in patients with Parkinson's disease suggests that basal ganglia and related systems play an important part in the control of upper limb locomotor automatism. To gain more information on this supraspinal influence, we measured arm and thigh kinematics during walking in 10 Parkinson's disease patients, under four conditions: (i) baseline (no treatment), (ii) therapeutic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), (iii)L-DOPA medication and (iv) combined STN stimulation and L-DOPA. Ten age-matched controls provided reference data. Under baseline conditions the range of patients' arm motion was severely restricted, with no correlation with the excursion of the thigh. In addition, the arm swing was abnormally coupled in time with oscillation of the ipsilateral thigh. STN stimulation significantly increased the gait speed and improved the spatio-temporal parameters of arm and thigh motion. The kinematic changes as a function of gait speed changes, however, were significantly smaller for the upper than the lower limb, in contrast to healthy controls. Arm motion was also less responsive after L-DOPA. Simultaneous deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA had additive effects on thigh motion, but not on arm motion and arm-thigh coupling. The evidence that locomotor automatisms of the upper and lower limbs display uncorrelated impairment upon dysfunction of the basal ganglia, as well as different susceptibility to electrophysiological and pharmacological interventions, points to the presence of heterogeneously distributed, possibly partially independent, supraspinal control channels, whereby STN and dopaminergic systems have relatively weaker influence on the executive structures involved in the arm swing and preferential action on those for lower limb movements. These findings might be considered in the light of phylogenetic changes in supraspinal control of limb motion related to primate bipedalism.

  4. Clinical assessment and three-dimensional movement analysis: An integrated approach for upper limb evaluation in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mailleux

    Full Text Available The clinical application of upper limb (UL three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP remains challenging, despite its benefits compared to conventional clinical scales. Moreover, knowledge on UL movement pathology and how this relates to clinical parameters remains scarce. Therefore, we investigated UL kinematics across different manual ability classification system (MACS levels and explored the relation between clinical and kinematic parameters in children with uCP.Fifty children (MACS: I = 15, II = 26, III = 9 underwent an UL evaluation of sensorimotor impairments (grip force, muscle strength, muscle tone, two-point discrimination, stereognosis, bimanual performance (Assisting Hand Assessment, AHA, unimanual capacity (Melbourne Assessment 2, MA2 and UL-3DMA during hand-to-head, hand-to-mouth and reach-to-grasp tasks. Global parameters (Arm Profile Score (APS, duration, (timing of maximum velocity, trajectory straightness and joint specific parameters (angles at task endpoint, ROM and Arm Variable Scores (AVS were extracted. The APS and AVS refer respectively to the total amount of movement pathology and movement deviations of wrist, elbow, shoulder, scapula and trunk.Longer movement durations and increased APS were found with higher MACS-levels (p<0.001. Increased APS was also associated with more severe sensorimotor impairments (r = -0.30-(-0.73 and with lower AHA and MA2-scores (r = -0.50-(-0.86. For the joint specific parameters, stronger movement deviations distally were significantly associated with increased muscle weakness (r = -0.32-(-0.74 and muscle tone (r = 0.33-(-0.61; proximal movement deviations correlated only with muscle weakness (r = -0.35-0.59. Regression analysis exposed grip force as the most important predictor for the variability in APS (p<0.002.We found increased movement pathology with increasing MACS-levels and demonstrated the adverse impact of especially muscle weakness

  5. Clinical assessment and three-dimensional movement analysis: An integrated approach for upper limb evaluation in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleux, Lisa; Jaspers, Ellen; Ortibus, Els; Simon-Martinez, Cristina; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Klingels, Katrijn; Feys, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    The clinical application of upper limb (UL) three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP) remains challenging, despite its benefits compared to conventional clinical scales. Moreover, knowledge on UL movement pathology and how this relates to clinical parameters remains scarce. Therefore, we investigated UL kinematics across different manual ability classification system (MACS) levels and explored the relation between clinical and kinematic parameters in children with uCP. Fifty children (MACS: I = 15, II = 26, III = 9) underwent an UL evaluation of sensorimotor impairments (grip force, muscle strength, muscle tone, two-point discrimination, stereognosis), bimanual performance (Assisting Hand Assessment, AHA), unimanual capacity (Melbourne Assessment 2, MA2) and UL-3DMA during hand-to-head, hand-to-mouth and reach-to-grasp tasks. Global parameters (Arm Profile Score (APS), duration, (timing of) maximum velocity, trajectory straightness) and joint specific parameters (angles at task endpoint, ROM and Arm Variable Scores (AVS)) were extracted. The APS and AVS refer respectively to the total amount of movement pathology and movement deviations of wrist, elbow, shoulder, scapula and trunk. Longer movement durations and increased APS were found with higher MACS-levels (pMA2-scores (r = -0.50-(-0.86)). For the joint specific parameters, stronger movement deviations distally were significantly associated with increased muscle weakness (r = -0.32-(-0.74)) and muscle tone (r = 0.33-(-0.61)); proximal movement deviations correlated only with muscle weakness (r = -0.35-0.59). Regression analysis exposed grip force as the most important predictor for the variability in APS (p<0.002). We found increased movement pathology with increasing MACS-levels and demonstrated the adverse impact of especially muscle weakness. The lower correlations suggest that 3DMA provides additional information regarding UL motor function, particularly for

  6. Influence of inclination angles on intra- and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Li, Jia-Da; Wang, Ting-Ming; Ho, Wei-Ping; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uphill walking is an inevitable part of daily living, placing more challenges on the locomotor system with greater risk of falls than level walking does. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of inclination angles on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking in terms of total support moment and contributions of individual joint moments to the total support moment. Fifteen young adults walked up walkways with 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° of slope while kinematic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed. With increasing inclination angles, the first peak of the total support moment was increased with unaltered individual joint contributions, suggesting an unaltered inter-joint control pattern in the leading limb to meet the increased demands. The second peak of the total support moment remained unchanged with increasing inclination angles primarily through a compensatory redistribution of the hip and knee moments. During DLS, the leading limb shared the majority of the whole body support moments. The current results reveal basic intra- and inter-limb load-sharing patterns of uphill walking, which will be helpful for a better understanding of the control strategies adopted and for subsequent clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic features of human limb specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Amina, Bibi; Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Parveen, Nazia; Nawaz, Uzma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate important cellular and molecular interactions that regulate patterning and skeletal development, vertebrate limbs served as a model organ. A growing body of evidence from detailed studies on a subset of limb regulators like the HOXD cluster or SHH, reveals the importance of enhancers in limb related developmental and disease processes. Exploiting the recent genome-wide availability of functionally confirmed enhancer dataset, this study establishes regulatory interactions for dozens of human limb developmental genes. From these data, it appears that the long-range regulatory interactions are fairly common during limb development. This observation highlights the significance of chromosomal breaks/translocations in human limb deformities. Transcriptional factor (TF) analysis predicts that the differentiation of early nascent limb-bud into future territories entail distinct TF interaction networks. Conclusively, an important motivation for annotating the human limb specific regulatory networks is to pave way for the systematic exploration of their role in disease and evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Kinematic Analysis of 3-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 3-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 3-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.

  9. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 4: Wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    The kinematics of large surface waves has been measured by means of sonar's placed on the sea floor at the Tyra field. Measurements from the most severe storm are analysed and extreme wave velocity profiles are compared to Stoke wave velocity profiles. Statistical distributions of crest velocity and wave celerity are presented. The analysis shows how the deviation from the Stokes prediction varies with wave heights and steepness. Analyses of the directional wave field leads to the conclusion that the extreme waves are three-dimensional. It is shown that the peculiar kinematics of extreme waves is of great relevance to the design of jacket type structures. (au)

  10. Sensorimotor Reorganizations of Arm Kinematics and Postural Strategy for Functional Whole-Body Reaching Movements in Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Macaluso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement. We thus aimed at characterizing kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements in microgravity, involving high spatiotemporal constraints of execution, to question whether and how humans are able to maintain the performance of a functional behavior in the standards of normogravity execution. Seven participants were asked to reach as fast and as accurately as possible visual targets while standing during microgravity episodes in parabolic flight. Small and large targets were presented either close or far from the participants (requiring, in the latter case, additional whole-body displacement. Results reported that participants successfully performed the reaching task with general temporal features of movement (e.g., movement speed close to land observations. However, our analyses also demonstrated substantial kinematic changes related to the temporal structure of focal movement and the postural strategy to successfully perform -constrained- whole-body reaching movements in microgravity. These immediate reorganizations are likely achieved by rapidly taking into account the absence of gravity in motor preparation and execution (presumably from cues about body limbs unweighting. Specifically, when compared to normogravity, the arm deceleration phase substantially increased. Furthermore, greater whole-body forward displacements

  11. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  12. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E.; del-Ama, Antonio J.; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C.; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton. PMID:29755336

  13. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton.

  14. Effects of contracture on gait kinematics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Michael; Chevalley, Odile; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; De Coulon, Geraldo; Cheze, Laurence; Armand, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Contractures of a major joint in the lower limbs may impair human walking in addition to other daily living activities. A contracture is defined as the inability of a joint to perform the full range of motion and excessive resistance during passive mobilization of the joint. Few studies have reported methods describing how to evaluate contractures. Understanding the association among all of these studies seems essential to improve patient management. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review on this topic to elucidate the influence of contractures on gait kinematics. An electronic search in the literature will be conducted. Studies were screened by title and abstract and full texts were evaluated secondarily for definitive inclusion. The quality of the included studies was assessed independently by the two review authors with the Modified Quality Assessment Checklist. The included studies were separated into three categories: pathological contracture versus healthy controls (descriptive), simulated contracture versus healthy controls (experimental), and pre- and post-kinematics after surgical muscle lengthening (surgery). From a total of 4402 references, 112 original articles were selected, and 28 studies were identified in this systematic review. No significant difference between raters was observed on the total score of the Modified Quality Assessment Checklist. Contractures influence walking depending on the location (muscle) and the contracture level (muscle-tendon length). After giving a definition of contracture, this review identified some contracture alterations, such as plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip flexion contractures, with a kinematic description and presented possible different compensations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Upper limb joint forces and moments during underwater cyclical movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-03

    Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exoskeleton-Based Robotic Platform Applied in Biomechanical Modelling of the Human Upper Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres F. Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches to study the human motor system, and specifically the motor strategies implied during postural tasks of the upper limbs, is to manipulate the mechanical conditions of each joint of the upper limbs independently. At the same time, it is essential to pick up biomechanical signals and bio-potentials generated while the human motor system adapts to the new condition. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to describe the design, development and validation of an experimental platform designed to modify or perturb the mechanics of human movement, and simultaneously acquire, process, display and quantify bioelectric and biomechanical signals; second, to characterise the dynamics of the elbow joint during postural control. A main goal of the study was to determine the feasibility of estimating human elbow joint dynamics using EMG-data during maintained posture. In particular, the experimental robotic platform provides data to correlate electromyographic (EMG activity, kinetics and kinematics information from the upper limb motion. The platform aims consists of an upper limb powered exoskeleton, an EMG acquisition module, a control unit and a software system. Important concerns of the platform such as dependability and safety were addressed in the development. The platform was evaluated with 4 subjects to identify, using system identification methods, the human joint dynamics, i.e. visco-elasticity. Results obtained in simulations and experimental phase are introduced.

  17. Prediction of Kinematic and Kinetic Performance in a Drop Vertical Jump with Individual Anthropometric Factors in Adolescent Female Athletes: Implications for Cadaveric Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (P-range 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions. PMID:25266933

  18. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions.

  19. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  20. Inverse Dynamic Analysis for Various Drivings in Kinematic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hoon [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Analysis of actuating forces and joint reaction forces are essential to determine the capacity of actuators, to control the mechanical system and to design its components. This paper presents an algorithm that calculates actuating forces(or torques), depending on the various types of driving constraints, in order to produce a given system motion in the joint coordinate space. The joint coordinates are used as the generalized coordinates of a kinematic system. System equations of motion and constraint acceleration equations are transformed from the Cartesian coordinate space to the joint coordinate space using the velocity transformation method. A numerical example is carried out to verify the algorithm proposed.

  1. New Lower-Limb Gait Asymmetry Indices Based on a Depth Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Auvinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. Methods: To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™ output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. Results: The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p < 0.001, while other symmetry indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. Conclusion: This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  2. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the lower limb: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical history over centuries includes description of a wide variety of malformations involving the lower limbs. This article offers an organized review of these diverse abnormalities, including new understanding of mechanisms through recent discoveries in genetics and molecular biology. In 19th century Europe, a number of unique anomalies were reported, as well as evidence of foot amputations occurring in ancient Peruvian culture. Embryologically, the limbs develop early, with the lower limb being recognizable for the first time at stage 13 of development. By stage 23, the toes are clearly defined and by birth, although the legs appear bowed, the tibia and fibula are straight. Removal of the apical ectodermal ridge results in cessation of limb development, conversely, a second apical ectodermal ridge results in duplication of distal structures. Supernumerary limbs have been documented to occur as part of a teratoma with unique morphology and accompanying blood supply. Additionally, many examples of polydactyly occur in the foot postulating that deletion of chromosome 22q11 is involved in postaxial polydactyly. Such deletions occur near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2 (i.e., on the long arm of one of the pair of chromosomes 22) and this syndrome is also referred to as DiGeorge syndrome, which has a prevalence estimated at 1:4,000. Absence of the lower limbs has also been noted, with hypoplasia of the fibula being the most common manifestation of congenital bone absences in the lower limb. In addition to fibular aplasia, cases of tibial aplasia have been reported. This article is important for surgeons attempting correctional repair of lower limb anomalies, as well as providing analysis of the historical, anatomical and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the lower limb. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Modular organization of muscle activity patterns in the leading and trailing limbs during obstacle clearance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline. Full body three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded and electromyography (EMG) was collected from 14 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. EMG data were analyzed using two techniques: by mapping the EMG data to the approximate location of the motor neuron pools on the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord and by applying a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to unilateral and bilateral muscle activations separately. Results showed that obstacle clearance may be achieved not only with the addition of a new activation pattern in the leading limb, but with a temporal shift of a pattern present during unobstructed walking in both the leading and trailing limbs. An investigation of the inter-limb coordination of these patterns suggested a strong bilateral linkage between lower limbs. These results highlight the modular organization of muscle activation in the leading and trailing limbs, as well as provide a mechanism of control when implementing a locomotor adjustment when stepping over an obstacle.

  4. Intention detection of gait initiation using EMG and kinematic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, E C; Beijen, S I; Hermens, H J; Rietman, J S; Veltink, P H

    2013-02-01

    Gait initiation in transfemoral amputees (TFA) is different from non-amputees. This is mainly caused by the lack of stability and push-off from the prosthetic leg. Adding control and artificial push-off to the prosthesis may therefore be beneficial to TFA. In this study the feasibility of real-time intention detection of gait initiation was determined by mimicking the TFA situation in non-amputees. EMG and inertial sensor data was measured in 10 non-amputees. Only data available in TFA was used to determine if gait initiation can be predicted in time to control a transfemoral prosthesis to generate push-off and stability. Toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb are important parameters to be detected, to control a prosthesis and to time push-off. The results show that toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb can be detected using EMG and kinematic data in non-amputees 130-260 ms in advance. This leaves enough time to control a prosthesis. Based on these results we hypothesize that similar results can be found in TFA, allowing for adequate control of a prosthesis during gait initiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expressions of manipulator kinematic equations via symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1993-09-01

    While it is simple in principle to determine the position and orientation of the manipulator hand, its computational process has been regarded as extremely laborious since trigonometric functions must be calculated many times in operations of revolute or rotation. Due to development of a general class of kinematic algorithm based on iterative methods, however, we have come to a satisfactory settlement of this problem. In the present article, we consider to construct symbolic kinematic equations in an automatic fashion making use of the algorithm. To this end, recursive expressions are applied to a symbolic computation system REDUCE. As a concrete result, a complete kinematic model for a six-jointed arm having all kinematic attributes is provided. Together with work space analysis, the computer-aided generation of kinematic equations in symbolic form will serve to liberate us from their cumbersome derivations. (author)

  6. 2nd Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications in Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This book collects a number of important contributions presented during the Second Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications of Kinematics (IAK 2013) held in Lima, Peru. The conference brought together scientists from several research fields, such as computational kinematics, multibody systems, industrial machines, robotics, biomechanics, mechatronics, computational chemistry, and vibration analysis, and embraced all key aspects of kinematics, namely, theoretical methods, modeling, optimization, experimental validation, industrial applications, and design. Kinematics is an exciting area of computational mechanics and plays  a central role in a great variety of fields and industrial applications nowadays. Apart from research in pure kinematics, the field deals with problems of practical relevance that need to be solved in an interdisciplinary manner in order for new technologies to develop. The results presented in this book should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. stud...

  7. Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2007-11-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.

  8. Effect of Leg Dominance on The Center-of-Mass Kinematics During an Inside-of-the-Foot Kick in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Motta, Andrea Francesco; Mapelli, Andrea; Annoni, Isabella; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2014-09-29

    Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep-kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick, which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games. In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players (23.0 ± 2.1 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2), who performed 30 pass-kicks each, 15 with the preferred and 15 with the non-preferred leg. We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences. The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass (CoM), which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability. When kicking with the preferred leg, CoM displacement during the ground-support phase was 13% higher (p<0.001), normalized CoM height was 1.3% lower (p<0.001) and CoM velocity 10% higher (p<0.01); foot and shank velocities were about 5% higher (p<0.01); arms were more abducted (p<0.01); shoulders were rotated more towards the target (p<0.01, 6° mean orientation difference). We concluded that differences in motor control between preferred and non-preferred leg kicks exist, particularly in the movement velocity and upper body kinematics. Coaches can use these results to provide effective instructions to players in the learning process, moving their focus on kicking speed and upper body behavior.

  9. Discrimination of gender-, speed-, and shoe-dependent movement patterns in runners using full-body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Stirling, Lisa; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-05-01

    Changes in gait kinematics have often been analyzed using pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). It is usually just the first few principal components that are analyzed, because they describe the main variability within a dataset and thus represent the main movement patterns. However, while subtle changes in gait pattern (for instance, due to different footwear) may not change main movement patterns, they may affect movements represented by higher principal components. This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) speed and gender differences can be observed in the first principal components, and (2) small interventions such as changing footwear change the gait characteristics of higher principal components. Kinematic changes due to different running conditions (speed - 3.1m/s and 4.9 m/s, gender, and footwear - control shoe and adidas MicroBounce shoe) were investigated by applying PCA and support vector machine (SVM) to a full-body reflective marker setup. Differences in speed changed the basic movement pattern, as was reflected by a change in the time-dependent coefficient derived from the first principal. Gender was differentiated by using the time-dependent coefficient derived from intermediate principal components. (Intermediate principal components are characterized by limb rotations of the thigh and shank.) Different shoe conditions were identified in higher principal components. This study showed that different interventions can be analyzed using a full-body kinematic approach. Within the well-defined vector space spanned by the data of all subjects, higher principal components should also be considered because these components show the differences that result from small interventions such as footwear changes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic seismic response of piles in layered soil profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is aimed at highlighting the importance of Kinematic Seismic Response of Piles, a phenomenon often ignored in dynamic analysis. A case study is presented where the end bearing pile is embedded in two layer soil system of highly contrasting stiffnesses; a typical case where kinematic loading plays important role. The pile soil system is modeled as continuous system and as discrete parameter system; both are based on BDWF (Beam on Dynamic Winkler Foundation) formulation. For discrete parameter system, a finite element software SAP2000 is used and the modeling technique of kinematic interaction in finite element software is discussed. For pile soil system modeled as continuous system, a general MATLAB code is developed capable of performing elastic site response analysis in two layer soil system, solving differential equation governing kinematic interaction, and giving as output the maximum ground displacement, maximum pile displacement, rotation, moment and shear distribution along pile length. The paper concludes that kinematic seismic actions must be evaluated particularly at the interface of soil layers of significantly differing soil stiffnesses. (author)

  11. Analysing the Hydraulic Actuator-based Knee Unit Kinematics and Correlating the Numerical Results and Walking Human Knee Joint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Trukhanov

    2014-01-01

    the mechanical device kinematics to replace an amputee’s knee joint.3. An analytical dependence is found for the reduced load on the actuator, which is part of the knee unit, on the time in the bending knee when walking.4. A value of required capacity and a type of analytical dependence in the case of active knee unit is determined.The analysis allows us to conclude the following:1. It is found from the obtained results that the motion and human walk parameters can be described by functional dependencies.2. Calculation has shown that the obtained relationships defining knee joint kinematics can be used to describe a walk of the amputee with artificial limb on the flat surface with accuracy of up to 6 %.3. Established relationships may be useful in other fields of engineering to assess the kinematics of mechanisms with similar structure, such as excavation equipment and robotic systems. 4. The resulting dependence for the reduced load on the stock of A is necessary to perform a shock absorber synthesis.

  12. Modulation of shoulder muscle and joint function using a powered upper-limb exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Fong, Justin; Crocher, Vincent; Lee, Peter V S; Oetomo, Denny; Tan, Ying; Ackland, David C

    2018-04-27

    Robotic-assistive exoskeletons can enable frequent repetitive movements without the presence of a full-time therapist; however, human-machine interaction and the capacity of powered exoskeletons to attenuate shoulder muscle and joint loading is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify shoulder muscle and joint force during assisted activities of daily living using a powered robotic upper limb exoskeleton (ArmeoPower, Hocoma). Six healthy male subjects performed abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, reaching and nose touching activities. These tasks were repeated under two conditions: (i) the exoskeleton compensating only for its own weight, and (ii) the exoskeleton providing full upper limb gravity compensation (i.e., weightlessness). Muscle EMG, joint kinematics and joint torques were simultaneously recorded, and shoulder muscle and joint forces calculated using personalized musculoskeletal models of each subject's upper limb. The exoskeleton reduced peak joint torques, muscle forces and joint loading by up to 74.8% (0.113 Nm/kg), 88.8% (5.8%BW) and 68.4% (75.6%BW), respectively, with the degree of load attenuation strongly task dependent. The peak compressive, anterior and superior glenohumeral joint force during assisted nose touching was 36.4% (24.6%BW), 72.4% (13.1%BW) and 85.0% (17.2%BW) lower than that during unassisted nose touching, respectively. The present study showed that upper limb weight compensation using an assistive exoskeleton may increase glenohumeral joint stability, since deltoid muscle force, which is the primary contributor to superior glenohumeral joint shear, is attenuated; however, prominent exoskeleton interaction moments are required to position and control the upper limb in space, even under full gravity compensation conditions. The modeling framework and results may be useful in planning targeted upper limb robotic rehabilitation tasks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is Angiosome-Targeted Angioplasty Effective for Limb Salvage and Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot? : A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Shin, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Given that the efficacy of employing angiosome-targeted angioplasty in the treatment of diabetic foot remains controversial, this study was conducted to examine its efficacy. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis using core databases, extracting the treatment modality of angiosome-targeted angioplasty as the predictor variable, and limb salvage, wound healing, and revision rate as the outcome variables. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the study quality, along with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We evaluated publication bias using a funnel plot. The search strategy identified 518 publications. After screening these, we selected four articles for review. The meta-analysis revealed that overall limb salvage and wound healing rates were significantly higher (Odds ratio = 2.209, 3.290, p = 0.001, pdiabetic foot was more effective than nonangiosome-targeted angioplasty with respect to wound healing and limb salvage.

  14. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to command the device, and presents data from preliminary trials that indicate the efficacy of the orthosis and controller in providing legged mobility.

  15. A dynamical systems analysis of the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Julio M.

    1991-01-01

    Computer flow simulation aided by dynamical systems analysis is used to investigate the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a two-dimensional circular cylinder in the context of the following general questions: (1) Is a dynamical systems viewpoint useful in the understanding of this and similar problems involving time-periodic shedding behind bluff bodies; and (2) Is it indeed possible, by adopting such a point of view, to complement previous analyses or to understand kinematical aspects of the vortex shedding process that somehow remained hidden in previous approaches. We argue that the answers to these questions are positive. Results are described.

  16. Kinematic analysis of head, trunk, and pelvis movement when people early after stroke reach sideways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyden, G.; Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Burnett, M.; Littlewood, J.; Kunkel, D.; Ashburn, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sideways reaching with the unaffected arm while seated is a component of everyday activities and can be a challenging task early after stroke. Kinematic analysis of a lateral reach task may provide potential rehabilitation strategies. OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the difference

  17. Kinematic Patterns Associated with the Vertical Force Produced during the Eggbeater Kick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nuno; Chiu, Chuang-Yuan; Sanders, Ross H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic patterns that maximized the vertical force produced during the water polo eggbeater kick. Twelve water polo players were tested executing the eggbeater kick with the trunk aligned vertically and with the upper limbs above water while trying to maintain as high a position as possible out of the water for nine eggbeater kick cycles. Lower limb joint angular kinematics, pitch angles and speed of the feet were calculated. The vertical force produced during the eggbeater kick cycle was calculated using inverse dynamics for the independent lower body segments and combined upper body segments, and a participant-specific second-degree regression equation for the weight and buoyancy contributions. Vertical force normalized to body weight was associated with hip flexion (average, r = 0.691; maximum, r = 0.791; range of motion, r = 0.710), hip abduction (maximum, r = 0.654), knee flexion (average, r = 0.716; minimum, r = 0.653) and knee flexion-extension angular velocity (r = 0.758). Effective orientation of the hips resulted in fast horizontal motion of the feet with positive pitch angles. Vertical motion of the feet was negatively associated with vertical force. A multiple regression model comprising the non-collinear variables of maximum hip abduction, hip flexion range of motion and knee flexion angular velocity accounted for 81% of the variance in normalized vertical force. For high performance in the water polo, eggbeater kick players should execute fast horizontal motion with the feet by having large abduction and flexion of the hips, and fast extension and flexion of the knees.

  18. The influence of heel height on sagittal plane knee kinematics during landing tasks in recreationally active and athletic collegiate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Kelly M; Carcia, Christopher R; Phelps, Amy L; Martin, Robroy L; Burrows, Anne M

    2011-09-01

    To determine if heel height alters sagittal plane knee kinematics when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Knee angles close to extension during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a sneaker. Using an electrogoniometer, sagittal plane kinematics (initial contact [KA(IC)], peak flexion [KA(Peak)], and rate of excursion [RE]) were examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Forward hop task- KA(IC) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 8.88±6.5, 9.38±5.8 and 11.28±7.0, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (psneaker significantly alters sagittal plane knee kinematics upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a drop jump.

  19. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  20. Differences between kinematic synergies and muscle synergies during two-digit grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eTagliabue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle synergies. This study addresses two questions: (i Whether kinematic and muscle synergies can simultaneously accommodate for kinematic and kinetic constraints. (ii If so, whether there is an interrelation between kinematic and muscle synergies. We used a reach-grasp-and-pull paradigm and recorded the hand kinematics as well as 8 surface EMGs. Subjects had to either perform a precision grip or side grip and had to modify their grip force in order to displace an object against a low or high load. The analysis was subdivided into three epochs: reach, grasp-and-pull, and static hold. Principal component analysis (PCA, temporal or static was performed separately for all three epochs, in the kinematic and in the EMG domain. PCA revealed that (i Kinematic- and muscle-synergies can simultaneously accommodate kinematic (grip type and kinetic task constraints (load condition. (ii Upcoming grip and load conditions of the grasp are represented in kinematic- and muscle-synergies already during reach. Phase plane plots of the principal muscle-synergy against the principal kinematic synergy revealed (iii that the muscle-synergy is linked (correlated, and in phase advance to the kinematic synergy during reach and during grasp-and-pull. Furthermore (iv, pair-wise correlations of EMGs during hold suggest that muscle-synergies are (in part implemented by coactivation of muscles through common input. Together, these results suggest that kinematic synergies have (at least in part their origin not just in muscular activation, but in synergiestic muscle activation. In short: kinematic synergies may result from muscle

  1. Applying clustering to statistical analysis of student reasoning about two-dimensional kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Padraic Springuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We use clustering, an analysis method not presently common to the physics education research community, to group and characterize student responses to written questions about two-dimensional kinematics. Previously, clustering has been used to analyze multiple-choice data; we analyze free-response data that includes both sketches of vectors and written elements. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the methodology itself; we include a brief overview of relevant results.

  2. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of Portunus trituberculatus reveals a critical role for WNT4 and WNT signalling in limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Fu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Fang; Mu, Changkao; Li, Ronghua; Song, Weiwei; Shi, Ce; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Chunlin

    2018-06-05

    The swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) is among the most economically important seawater crustacean species in Asia. Despite its commercial importance and being well-studied status, genomic and transcriptomic data are scarce for this crab species. In the present study, limb bud tissue was collected at different developmental stages post amputation for transcriptomic analysis. Illumina RNA-sequencing was applied to characterise the limb regeneration transcriptome and identify the most characteristic genes. A total of 289,018 transcripts were obtained by clustering and assembly of clean reads, producing 150,869 unigenes with an average length of 956 bp. Subsequent analysis revealed WNT signalling as the key pathway involved in limb regeneration, with WNT4 a key mediator. Overall, limb regeneration appears to be regulated by multiple signalling pathways, with numerous cell differentiation, muscle growth, moult, metabolism, and immune-related genes upregulated, including WNT4, LAMA, FIP2, FSTL5, TNC, HUS1, SWI5, NCGL, SLC22, PLA2, Tdc2, SMOX, GDH, and SMPD4. This is the first experimental study done on regenerating claws of P. trituberculatus. These findings expand existing sequence resources for crab species, and will likely accelerate research into regeneration and development in crustaceans, particularly functional studies on genes involved in limb regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of a 12.8-km military load carriage activity on lower limb gait mechanics and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2017-05-01

    The high stress fracture occurrence in military populations has been associated with frequent load carriage activities. This study aimed to assess the influence of load carriage and of completing a load carriage training activity on gait characteristics. Thirty-two Royal Marine recruits completed a 12.8-km load carriage activity as part of their military training. Data were collected during walking in military boots, pre and post-activity, with and without the additional load (35.5 kg). Ground contact time, lower limb sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics, and electromyographic variables were obtained for each condition. When carrying load, there was increased ground contact time, increased joint flexion and joint moments, and increased plantar flexor and knee extensor muscle activity. Post-activity, there were no changes to kinematic variables, knee extensor moments were reduced, and there was evidence of plantar flexor muscle fatigue. The observed gait changes may be associated with stress fracture development. Practitioner Summary: This study identified gait changes due to load carriage and after a military load carriage training activity. Such activities are associated with lower limb stress fractures. A pre-post study design was used. Gait mechanics changed to a greater extent when carrying load, than after completion of the activity when assessed without load.

  5. Kinematic and Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Hydraulic Excavator’s Working Equipment based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the 3D excavator model according to the actual size in UG firstly. Then based on the virtual simulation software ADAMS, the virtual prototype of the working device is built by adding interrelated constraints(kinematic pair and hydraulic cylinder driving function and load secondly. This paper gets the main parameters of the excavator working scope and the pressure situation change curves of point of each hydraulic cylinder by making kinematic and dynamic simulation analysis of hydraulic excavator’s working equipment at last. The conclusion providing design theory and improvement for the excavator’s working device, which also play an important role in improving the level of China’s excavator design, enhancing excavator’s performance and promoting the rapid development of excavator industry.

  6. Inertial Sensor-Based Motion Analysis of Lower Limbs for Rehabilitation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemiplegic rehabilitation state diagnosing performed by therapists can be biased due to their subjective experience, which may deteriorate the rehabilitation effect. In order to improve this situation, a quantitative evaluation is proposed. Though many motion analysis systems are available, they are too complicated for practical application by therapists. In this paper, a method for detecting the motion of human lower limbs including all degrees of freedom (DOFs via the inertial sensors is proposed, which permits analyzing the patient’s motion ability. This method is applicable to arbitrary walking directions and tracks of persons under study, and its results are unbiased, as compared to therapist qualitative estimations. Using the simplified mathematical model of a human body, the rotation angles for each lower limb joint are calculated from the input signals acquired by the inertial sensors. Finally, the rotation angle versus joint displacement curves are constructed, and the estimated values of joint motion angle and motion ability are obtained. The experimental verification of the proposed motion detection and analysis method was performed, which proved that it can efficiently detect the differences between motion behaviors of disabled and healthy persons and provide a reliable quantitative evaluation of the rehabilitation state.

  7. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 4: assessment of anatomical landmark misplacement and its effects on joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Croce, Ugo; Leardini, Alberto; Chiari, Lorenzo; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2005-02-01

    Estimating the effects of different sources of error on joint kinematics is crucial for assessing the reliability of human movement analysis. The goal of the present paper is to review the different approaches dealing with joint kinematics sensitivity to rotation axes and the precision of anatomical landmark determination. Consistent with the previous papers in this series, the review is limited to studies performed with video-based stereophotogrammetric systems. Initially, studies dealing with estimates of precision in determining the location of both palpable and internal anatomical landmarks are reviewed. Next, the effects of anatomical landmark position uncertainty on anatomical frames are shown. Then, methods reported in the literature for estimating error propagation from anatomical axes location to joint kinematics are described. Interestingly, studies carried out using different approaches reported a common conclusion: when joint rotations occur mainly in a single plane, minor rotations out of this plane are strongly affected by errors introduced at the anatomical landmark identification level and are prone to misinterpretation. Finally, attempts at reducing joint kinematics errors due to anatomical landmark position uncertainty are reported. Given the relevance of this source of errors in the determination of joint kinematics, it is the authors' opinion that further efforts should be made in improving the reliability of the joint axes determination.

  8. Lower Limb Interjoint Postural Coordination One Year after First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-11-01

    Longitudinal analyses of participants with a history of lateral ankle sprain are lacking. This investigation combined measures of lower limb interjoint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate static unipedal stance with the eyes open (condition 1) and closed (condition 2) in a group of participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) compared to lateral ankle sprain "copers" (both recruited 12 months after sustaining an acute first-time lateral ankle sprain) and a group of noninjured controls. Twenty-eight participants with CAI, 42 lateral ankle sprain "copers," and 20 noninjured controls completed three 20-s single-limb stance trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb three-dimensional kinematic data for similarity to establish patterns of interjoint coordination. The fractal dimension of the stance limb center of pressure path was also calculated. Between-group analyses revealed that participants with CAI displayed notable increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared with both lateral ankle sprain "copers" (-0.52 (1.05) vs 0.28 (0.9), P = 0.007) and controls (-0.52 (1.05) vs 0.63 (0.64), P = 0.006) in condition 1 and compared with controls only (0.62 (1.92) vs 0.1 (1.0) P = 0.002) in condition 2. Participants with CAI also exhibited a decrease in the fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path during condition 2 compared with both controls and lateral ankle sprain "copers." Participants with CAI present with a hip-dominant strategy of eyes-open and eyes-closed static unipedal stance. This coincided with reduced complexity of the stance limb center of pressure path in the eyes-closed condition.

  9. Relationship between Lower Limb Angular Kinematic Variables and the Effectiveness of Sprinting during the Acceleration Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Struzik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a high running velocity over a short distance is essential to a high playing performance in team games. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between running time over a 10-meter section of a 30-meter sprint along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity that were observed in the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The possible presence may help to optimize motion efficiency during acceleration sprint phase. Eighteen girls involved in team sports were examined in the study. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using the Noraxon MyoMotion system. Statistically significant relationships were found between running time over a 10-meter section and the kinematic variables of hip and ankle joints. An excessively large flexion in hip joints might have an unfavorable effect on running time during the acceleration phase. Furthermore, in order to minimize running time during the acceleration phase, stride should be maintained along a line (a straight line rather than from side to side. It is also necessary to ensure an adequate range of motion in the hip and ankle joints with respect to the sagittal axis.

  10. Relationship between Lower Limb Angular Kinematic Variables and the Effectiveness of Sprinting during the Acceleration Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Konieczny, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Mateusz; Grzesik, Kamila; Winiarski, Sławomir; Rokita, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reach a high running velocity over a short distance is essential to a high playing performance in team games. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between running time over a 10-meter section of a 30-meter sprint along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity that were observed in the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The possible presence may help to optimize motion efficiency during acceleration sprint phase. Eighteen girls involved in team sports were examined in the study. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using the Noraxon MyoMotion system. Statistically significant relationships were found between running time over a 10-meter section and the kinematic variables of hip and ankle joints. An excessively large flexion in hip joints might have an unfavorable effect on running time during the acceleration phase. Furthermore, in order to minimize running time during the acceleration phase, stride should be maintained along a line (a straight line) rather than from side to side. It is also necessary to ensure an adequate range of motion in the hip and ankle joints with respect to the sagittal axis.

  11. Kinematic analysis and simulation of a substation inspection robot guided by magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Luan, Yiqing; Wang, Haipeng; Li, Li; Li, Jianxiang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the magnetic navigation system used by substation inspection robot, the kinematic characteristics is analyzed based on a simplified magnetic guiding system model, and then the simulation process is executed to verify the reasonability of the whole analysis procedure. Finally, some suggestions are extracted out, which will be helpful to guide the design of the inspection robot system in the future.

  12. Relativistic Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  13. Estimation of kinematic parameters in CALIFA galaxies: no-assumption on internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; CALIFA Team

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple approach to homogeneously estimate kinematic parameters of a broad variety of galaxies (elliptical, spirals, irregulars or interacting systems). This methodology avoids the use of any kinematical model or any assumption on internal dynamics. This simple but novel approach allows us to determine: the frequency of kinematic distortions, systemic velocity, kinematic center, and kinematic position angles which are directly measured from the two dimensional-distributions of radial velocities. We test our analysis tools using the CALIFA Survey

  14. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation?A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges’ g) standardized mean differences ...

  15. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    -subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis.......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated...... in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped...

  16. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  17. Inverse kinematic control of LDUA and TWRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, T.C.; Burks, B.L.; Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1995-01-01

    A general inverse kinematic analysis is formulated particularly for the redundant Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS). The developed approach is applicable to the inverse kinematic simulation and control of LDUA, TWRMS, and other general robot manipulators. The 4 x 4 homogeneous Cylindrical coordinates-Bryant angles (C-B) notation is adopted to model LDUA, TWRMS, and any robot composed of R (revolute), P (prismatic), and/or S (spherical) joints

  18. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  19. From fins to limbs to fins: limb evolution in fossil marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W

    2002-10-15

    Limb osteology and ontogenetic patterns of limb ossification are reviewed for extinct lineages of aquatically adapted diapsid reptiles. Phylogenies including these fossil taxa show that paddle-like limbs were independently derived, and that the varied limb morphologies were produced by evolutionary modifications to different aspects of the limb skeleton. Ancient marine reptiles modify the limb by reducing the relative size of the epipodials, modifying the perichondral and periosteal surface of elements distal to the propodials, and evolving extremes of hyperphalangy and hyperdactyly. Developmental genetic models illuminate gene systems that may have controlled limb evolution in these animals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leardini

    Full Text Available It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  1. Upper-limb biomechanical analysis of wheelchair transfer techniques in two toilet configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Ying; Boninger, Michael L; Bass, Sarah R; Koontz, Alicia M

    2018-06-01

    Using proper technique is important for minimizing upper limb kinetics during wheelchair transfers. The objective of the study was to 1) evaluate the transfer techniques used during toilet transfers and 2) determine the impact of technique on upper limb joint loading for two different toilet configurations. Twenty-six manual wheelchair users (23 men and 3 women) performed transfers in a side and front wheelchair-toilet orientation while their habitual transfer techniques were evaluated using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. A motion analysis system and force sensors were used to record biomechanical data during the transfers. More than 20% of the participants failed to complete five transfer skills in the side setup compared to three skills in the front setup. Higher quality skills overall were associated with lower peak forces and moments in both toilet configurations (-0.68 perform these skills correctly (p ≤ 0.04). In the front setup, positioning the wheelchair within three inches of the transfer target was associated with reduced peak trailing forces and moments across all three upper limb joints (p = 0.02). Transfer skills training, making toilet seats level with the wheelchair seat, positioning the wheelchair closer to the toilet and mounting grab bars in a more ideal location for persons who do sitting pivot transfers may facilitate better quality toilet transfers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Analysis of temporal dynamics in imagery during acute limb ischemia and reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Regan, John; Spain, Tammy A.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Rodriquez, Maricela; Luthra, Rajiv; Forsberg, Jonathon; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion injuries present major challenges for both military and civilian medicine. Improved methods for assessing the effects and predicting outcome could guide treatment decisions. Specific issues related to ischemia and reperfusion injury can include complications arising from tourniquet use, such as microvascular leakage in the limb, loss of muscle strength and systemic failures leading to hypotension and cardiac failure. Better methods for assessing the viability of limbs/tissues during ischemia and reducing complications arising from reperfusion are critical to improving clinical outcomes for at-risk patients. The purpose of this research is to develop and assess possible prediction models of outcome for acute limb ischemia using a pre-clinical model. Our model relies only on non-invasive imaging data acquired from an animal study. Outcome is measured by pathology and functional scores. We explore color, texture, and temporal features derived from both color and thermal motion imagery acquired during ischemia and reperfusion. The imagery features form the explanatory variables in a model for predicting outcome. Comparing model performance to outcome prediction based on direct observation of blood chemistry, blood gas, urinalysis, and physiological measurements provides a reference standard. Initial results show excellent performance for the imagery-base model, compared to predictions based direct measurements. This paper will present the models and supporting analysis, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  3. Kinematics of machinery through hyperworks

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2011-01-01

    Using animations, this book explains the theory of machines concepts and the evolution of Kinematics. The book adopts HyperWorks MotionSolve to perform the analysis and visualizations, though the book is independent of the requirement of any software.

  4. Recurrence Quantification Analysis of Sentence-Level Speech Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric S; Tiede, Mark; Riley, Michael A; Whalen, D H

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to assessing sentence-level speech variability rely on measures that quantify variability across utterances and use normalization procedures that alter raw trajectory data. The current work tests the feasibility of a less restrictive nonlinear approach-recurrence quantification analysis (RQA)-via a procedural example and subsequent analysis of kinematic data. To test the feasibility of RQA, lip aperture (i.e., the Euclidean distance between lip-tracking sensors) was recorded for 21 typically developing adult speakers during production of a simple utterance. The utterance was produced in isolation and in carrier structures differing just in length or in length and complexity. Four RQA indices were calculated: percent recurrence (%REC), percent determinism (%DET), stability (MAXLINE), and stationarity (TREND). Percent determinism (%DET) decreased only for the most linguistically complex sentence; MAXLINE decreased as a function of linguistic complexity but increased for the longer-only sentence; TREND decreased as a function of both length and linguistic complexity. This research note demonstrates the feasibility of using RQA as a tool to compare speech variability across speakers and groups. RQA offers promise as a technique to assess effects of potential stressors (e.g., linguistic or cognitive factors) on the speech production system.

  5. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Teng Woo

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g standardized mean differences (SMD = 0.31-0.66 were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS, in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries, and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open. A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61, and in older adults (SMD = 0.30. The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05 under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20. Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  6. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31-0.66) were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS), in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries), and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open). A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS) enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61), and in older adults (SMD = 0.30). The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS) showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05) under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20). Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  7. Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group

  8. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  9. One-leg hop kinematics 20 years following anterior cruciate ligament rupture: Data revisited using functional data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Pini, Alessia; Vantini, Simone; Strandberg, Johan; Abramowicz, Konrad; Schelin, Lina; Häger, Charlotte K

    2015-12-01

    Despite interventions, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures can cause long-term deficits. To assist in identifying and treating deficiencies, 3D-motion analysis is used for objectivizing data. Conventional statistics are commonly employed to analyze kinematics, reducing continuous data series to discrete variables. Conversely, functional data analysis considers the entire data series. Here, we employ functional data analysis to examine and compare the entire time-domain of knee-kinematic curves from one-leg hops between and within three groups. All subjects (n=95) were part of a long-term follow-up study involving anterior cruciate ligament ruptures treated ~20 years ago conservatively with physiotherapy only or with reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy, and matched knee-healthy controls. Between-group differences (injured leg, treated groups; non-dominant leg, controls) were identified during the take-off and landing phases, and in the sagittal (flexion/extension) rather than coronal (abduction/adduction) and transverse (internal/external) planes. Overall, surgical and control groups demonstrated comparable knee-kinematic curves. However, compared to controls, the physiotherapy-only group exhibited less flexion during the take-off (0-55% of the normalized phase) and landing (44-73%) phase. Between-leg differences were absent in controls and the surgically treated group, but observed during the flight (4-22%, injured leg>flexion) and the landing (57-85%, injured legFunctional data analysis identified specific functional knee-joint deviations from controls persisting 20 years post anterior cruciate ligament rupture, especially when treated conservatively. This approach is suggested as a means for comprehensively analyzing complex movements, adding to previous analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maria Boldrini FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases. Vault kinematic variables could be diversifying according to the approach or position of the vaulting, but little has been studied about the biomechanical differences, comparing and describing behaviours at different stages. The aim of this study was to organize critical, objective and to systematize the most relevant kinematic variables to performance on vaulting. A Meta analysis over the basis Pubmed, Sport Discus and Web of Science were performed about this issue. From the selected references, we described and analyzed the kinematics of the table vault. Vault can be characterized in seven phases of analysis. Most of the studies are descriptive, and some do not descript all phases. Differences among vault variables according to group vaults, technical level and gender were analysed only in recent studies. There still gaps of knowledge about kinematic variables of table vault, in order to provide comprehensive information about all possibilities of vaults in this gymnastic event. It is concluded that kinematic variables of table vault depends upon vault group and may be considered to the improvement of technical performance. More researches are needed to approach the coaching interface with biomechanics applicable knowledge.

  11. Adolescent Neuroblastoma of Lower Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of neural crest origin, commonly seen in children with upper abdomen involvement. Rarely neuroblastomas present in adolescents and adults involving lower limb. Histopathologically neuroblastoma of lower limb can be confused with other small round cell tumour especially with Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. A 16 year old male presented with 15x11cm swelling, pain and multiple discharging sinuses of right leg since 4 months. Routine haematological and biochemical analysis were within normal limits. Radiology of right leg showed large soft tissue swelling encompassing the pathological fracture of tibia and bowing of fibula. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed malignant small round cell tumour. Histopathology revealed poorly differentiated neuroblastoma of lower limb. The immunohistochemistry of Synaptophysin and Chromogranin were positive and CD 99 was negative. Neuroblastoma diagnosed at unusual site with uncommon age has poor prognosis. Hence, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma as one of the differential diagnosis in evaluating the soft tissue tumours of lower limb.

  12. Intraobserver and intermethod reliability for using two different computer programs in preoperative lower limb alignment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kenawey

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Computer assisted lower limb alignment analysis is reliable whether using graphics editing program or specialized planning software. However slight higher variability for angles away from the knee joint can be expected.

  13. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2005-02-01

    To clarify the functional roles of lower-limb joint moments and their contribution to support and propulsion tasks while walking in water compared with that on land. Sixteen healthy, young subjects walked on land and in water at several different speeds with and without additional loads. Walking in water is a major rehabilitation therapy for patients with orthopedic disorders. However, the functional role of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water is still unclear. Kinematics, electromyographic activities in biceps femoris and gluteus maximums, and ground reaction forces were measured under the following conditions: walking on land and in water at a self-determined pace, slow walking on land, and fast walking in water with or without additional loads (8 kg). The hip, knee, and ankle joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The contribution of the walking speed increased the hip extension moment, and the additional weight increased the ankle plantar flexion and knee extension moment. The major functional role was different in each lower-limb joint muscle. That of the muscle group in the ankle is to support the body against gravity, and that of the muscle group involved in hip extension is to contribute to propulsion. In addition, walking in water not only reduced the joint moments but also completely changed the inter-joint coordination. It is of value for clinicians to be aware that the greater the viscosity of water produces a greater load on the hip joint when fast walking in water.

  14. EMG-Based Estimation of Limb Movement Using Deep Learning With Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Hu, Jie; Peng, Yinghong

    2017-10-25

    A novel model based on deep learning is proposed to estimate kinematic information for myoelectric control from multi-channel electromyogram (EMG) signals. The neural information of limb movement is embedded in EMG signals that are influenced by all kinds of factors. In order to overcome the negative effects of variability in signals, the proposed model employs the deep architecture combining convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The EMG signals are transformed to time-frequency frames as the input to the model. The limb movement is estimated by the model that is trained with the gradient descent and backpropagation procedure. We tested the model for simultaneous and proportional estimation of limb movement in eight healthy subjects and compared it with support vector regression (SVR) and CNNs on the same data set. The experimental studies show that the proposed model has higher estimation accuracy and better robustness with respect to time. The combination of CNNs and RNNs can improve the model performance compared with using CNNs alone. The model of deep architecture is promising in EMG decoding and optimization of network structures can increase the accuracy and robustness. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player Grigor•Dimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chuan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov’s Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages. The results showed that: (1 During the stage of tossing the ball and lifting the racket, the tossing height of the ball was at minimum appropriately, while the elbow extension of the tossing arm was stright, and the angle of his left knee was 95.4°, which is beneficial to making greater kicking power; (2 At the back-swing stage, Dimitrov’s both feet made a great range of pedal and stretch quickly, and the “scratch-back” posture is obvious, and momentum caused by the kicking and coxae-turning was rather large; (3 When hitting the ball, the contact point was accurate and the speed of the racket head was high, which passed a relatively large initial momentum to the ball; (4 Dimitrov’s entire service action was integral and coordinate, smooth and powerful, which was in accordance relatedly with kinematic characteristics

  16. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  17. Kinematical analysis of the data from three-particle reactions by statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, J.; Nocken, U.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical procedure to unfold the kinematics of coincidence spectra from three-particle reactions is presented which is used to protect the coincidence events on the kinematical curve. The width of the projection intervals automatically matches the experimental resolution.. The method is characterized by its consistency thus also permitting a reasonable projection of sum-coincidences. (Auth.)

  18. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bergeron, P., E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: benstrickland@ou.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-03-20

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find {approx}10{sup 5} eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  19. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Bergeron, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find ∼10 5 eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  20. Kinematics and design of a class of parallel manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Roger Barry

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the kinematic analysis and design of a class of three degree-of-freedom, spatial parallel manipulators. The class of manipulators is characterized by two platforms, between which are three legs, each possessing a succession of revolute, spherical, and revolute joints. The class is termed the "revolute-spherical-revolute" class of parallel manipulators. Two members of this class are examined. The first mechanism is a double-octahedral variable-geometry truss, and the second is termed a double tripod. The history the mechanisms is explored---the variable-geometry truss dates back to 1984, while predecessors of the double tripod mechanism date back to 1869. This work centers on the displacement analysis of these three-degree-of-freedom mechanisms. Two types of problem are solved: the forward displacement analysis (forward kinematics) and the inverse displacement analysis (inverse kinematics). The kinematic model of the class of mechanism is general in nature. A classification scheme for the revolute-spherical-revolute class of mechanism is introduced, which uses dominant geometric features to group designs into 8 different sub-classes. The forward kinematics problem is discussed: given a set of independently controllable input variables, solve for the relative position and orientation between the two platforms. For the variable-geometry truss, the controllable input variables are assumed to be the linear (prismatic) joints. For the double tripod, the controllable input variables are the three revolute joints adjacent to the base (proximal) platform. Multiple solutions are presented to the forward kinematics problem, indicating that there are many different positions (assemblies) that the manipulator can assume with equivalent inputs. For the double tripod these solutions can be expressed as a 16th degree polynomial in one unknown, while for the variable-geometry truss there exist two 16th degree polynomials, giving rise to 256

  1. A review of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.

  2. Conceptual design and kinematic analysis of a novel parallel robot for high-speed pick-and-place operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qizhi; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the conceptual design, kinematic analysis and workspace identification of a novel four degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) high-speed spatial parallel robot for pick-and-place operations. The proposed spatial parallel robot consists of a base, four arms and a 1½ mobile platform. The mobile platform is a major innovation that avoids output singularity and offers the advantages of both single and double platforms. To investigate the characteristics of the robot's DOFs, a line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is adopted in mobility analysis. In addition, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the constraint conditions to identify the correct solution are also provided. On the basis of the proposed concept, the workspace of the robot is identified using a set of presupposed parameters by taking input and output transmission index as the performance evaluation criteria.

  3. Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.

  4. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  5. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan, E-mail: vaziri@coe.neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  6. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rossi

    Full Text Available We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.

  7. 6th International Workshop on Computational Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Computational kinematics is an enthralling area of science with a rich spectrum of problems at the junction of mechanics, robotics, computer science, mathematics, and computer graphics. The covered topics include design and optimization of cable-driven robots, analysis of parallel manipulators, motion planning, numerical methods for mechanism calibration and optimization, geometric approaches to mechanism analysis and design, synthesis of mechanisms, kinematical issues in biomechanics, construction of novel mechanical devices, as well as detection and treatment of singularities. The results should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. students from the fields of mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science, and computer graphics. Indexed in Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S).

  8. Brief biomechanical analysis on the walking of spinal cord injury patients with a lower limb exoskeleton robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jun-Young; Park, Hyunsub; Yang, Hyun-Dae; Chae, Mingi

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a brief biomechanical analysis on the walking behavior of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. It is known that SCI patients who have serious injuries to their spines cannot walk, and hence, several walking assistance lower limb exoskeleton robots have been proposed whose assistance abilities are shown to be well customized. However, these robots are not yet fully helpful to all SCI patients for several reasons. To overcome these problems, an exact analysis and evaluation of the restored walking function while the exoskeleton is worn is important. In this work, walking behavior of SCI patients wearing the rehabilitation of brain injuries (ROBIN) lower-limb walking assistant exoskeleton was analyzed in comparison to that of normal unassisted walking. The analysis method and results presented herein can be used by other researchers to improve their robots.

  9. Development of three-dimensional shoulder kinematic and electromyographic exposure variation analysis methodology in violin musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jonathan F; Leduc, Robert E; Kahnert, Emily K; Ludewig, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 11 male and 19 female violinists performed 30-second random-ordered slow and fast musical repertoire while right shoulder three-dimensional kinematic, and upper trapezius and serratus anterior surface electromyography (EMG) data were summarised using exposure variation analysis (EVA), a bivariate distribution of work time spent at categories of signal amplitude, and duration spent at a fixed category of amplitude. Sixty-two per cent of intraclass correlation coefficients [1,1] for all kinematic and EMG variables exceeded 0.75, and 40% of standard error of the measurement results were below 5%, confirming EVA reliability. When fast repertoire was played, increases in odds ratios in short duration cells were seen in 23 of 24 possible instances, and decreases in longer duration cells were seen in 17 instances in all EVA arrays using multinomial logistic regression with random effects, confirming a shift towards shorter duration. A reliable technique to assess right shoulder kinematic and EMG exposure in violinists was identified. A reliable method of measuring right shoulder motion and muscle activity exposure variation in violinists was developed which can be used to assess ergonomic risk in other occupations. Recently developed statistical methods enabled differentiation between fast and slow musical performance of standardised musical repertoire.

  10. Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (pfoot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a quadruped walking robot with parallel leg mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Sang, Lingfeng; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Dianfan; Yu, Hongnian

    2013-09-01

    It is desired to require a walking robot for the elderly and the disabled to have large capacity, high stiffness, stability, etc. However, the existing walking robots cannot achieve these requirements because of the weight-payload ratio and simple function. Therefore, Improvement of enhancing capacity and functions of the walking robot is an important research issue. According to walking requirements and combining modularization and reconfigurable ideas, a quadruped/biped reconfigurable walking robot with parallel leg mechanism is proposed. The proposed robot can be used for both a biped and a quadruped walking robot. The kinematics and performance analysis of a 3-UPU parallel mechanism which is the basic leg mechanism of a quadruped walking robot are conducted and the structural parameters are optimized. The results show that performance of the walking robot is optimal when the circumradius R, r of the upper and lower platform of leg mechanism are 161.7 mm, 57.7 mm, respectively. Based on the optimal results, the kinematics and dynamics of the quadruped walking robot in the static walking mode are derived with the application of parallel mechanism and influence coefficient theory, and the optimal coordination distribution of the dynamic load for the quadruped walking robot with over-determinate inputs is analyzed, which solves dynamic load coupling caused by the branches’ constraint of the robot in the walk process. Besides laying a theoretical foundation for development of the prototype, the kinematics and dynamics studies on the quadruped walking robot also boost the theoretical research of the quadruped walking and the practical applications of parallel mechanism.

  12. Microarray Analysis of microRNA Expression during Axolotl Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Edna C.; Campbell, Leah J.; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression) of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum (“Amex”) miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3′UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes. PMID:23028429

  13. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression during axolotl limb regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna C Holman

    Full Text Available Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum ("Amex" miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3'UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes.

  14. Does the Powers™ strap influence the lower limb biomechanics during running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuel, Henrike; Herrington, Lee; Liu, Anmin; Jones, Richard K

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has reported a prevalence of running related injuries in 25.9% to 72% of all runners. A greater hip internal rotation and adduction during the stance phase in running has been associated with many running related injuries, such as patellofemoral pain. Researchers in the USA designed a treatment device 'the Powers™ strap' to facilitate an external rotation of the femur and to thereby control abnormal hip and knee motion during leisure and sport activities. However, to date no literature exists to demonstrate whether the Powers™ strap is able to reduce hip internal rotation during running. 22 healthy participants, 11 males and 11 females (age: 27.45±4.43 years, height: 1.73±0.06m, mass: 66.77±9.24kg) were asked to run on a 22m track under two conditions: without and with the Powers™ strap. Three-dimensional motion analysis was conducted using ten Qualisys OQUS 7 cameras (Qualisys AB, Sweden) and force data was captured with three AMTI force plates (BP600900, Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc.USA). Paired sample t-tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval on all lower limb kinematic and kinetic data. The Powers™ strap significantly reduced hip and knee internal rotation throughout the stance phase of running. These results showed that the Powers™ strap has the potential to influence hip motion during running related activities, in doing so this might be beneficial for patients with lower limb injuries. Future research should investigate the influence of the Powers™ strap in subjects who suffer from running related injuries, such as patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the instability problems in rock slopes surrounding historical Safranbolu by kinematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Keskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Safranbolu which has high probability for slope-induced disasters is a very worthwhile settlement for our country and also for the world with its historical and cultural heritage. Finding out potential hazards that may affect the wealth of this world heritage city is very crucial. The historic Safranbolu is surrounded by very steep rock slopes, and occasionally instability occurs in the rock mass that forms these slopes. The rock blocks that are relaesed in various causes and shapes can damage the historic town living spaces by creating a source for the rock fallings and moving down the slope in these very steep slopes. The rock slopes were evaluated by kinematic analysis in order to reduce the mentioned damages and to reveal potential hazards. In the study, characteristics of mass that causes rock fallings are analysed, kinematic controlled instability types are determined considering the obtained data and characteristic of slopes.

  16. Kinematic analysis of subtalar eversion during gait in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Cavaliere, Maria Lúcia; Pinto, Sérgio; de Oliveira Barbosa, José Silvio; Batista, Luiz Alberto

    2016-08-01

    To analyse the subtalar eversion range of motion during walking in women with fibromyalgia. Twenty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia were directed to walk barefoot at comfortable and self-paced speed on a 7m walkway. Subtalar eversion range of motion was measured using the difference between the maximum and minimum values of subtalar eversion in stance phase. A range of motion between 4°-6° was considered as reference values for subtalar eversion during gait. Descriptive statistics were performed. In both right and left lower limb analysis of subtalar eversion range of motion, five women showed joint hypomobility, and twelve showed hypermobility. Only one patient performed unaltered subtalar eversion range of motion in both lower limbs. Both joints expressed high variability, and there were no significant differences between the right and left sides. The findings suggest that biomechanical function of the subtalar joint eversion during the loading response phase of gait in women with fibromyalgia, by excessive rigidity or complacency joint, tends to be impaired. This finding suggests that the indication of walking as an auxiliary strategy in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia should be preceded by thorough examination of the mechanical conditions of the subtalar joint of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY NEW STAR CANDIDATES IN NEARBY YOUNG STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan; Baron, Frédérique; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method based on a Bayesian analysis to identify new members of nearby young kinematic groups. The analysis minimally takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, and color of a star, but other observables can be readily added (e.g., radial velocity, distance). We use this method to find new young low-mass stars in the β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups and in the TW Hydrae, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Starting from a sample of 758 mid-K to mid-M (K5V-M5V) stars showing youth indicators such as Hα and X-ray emission, our analysis yields 214 new highly probable low-mass members of the kinematic groups analyzed. One is in TW Hydrae, 37 in β Pictoris, 17 in Tucana-Horologium, 20 in Columba, 6 in Carina, 50 in Argus, 32 in AB Doradus, and the remaining 51 candidates are likely young but have an ambiguous membership to more than one association. The false alarm rate for new candidates is estimated to be 5% for β Pictoris and TW Hydrae, 10% for Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus, and 14% for AB Doradus. Our analysis confirms the membership of 58 stars proposed in the literature. Firm membership confirmation of our new candidates will require measurement of their radial velocity (predicted by our analysis), parallax, and lithium 6708 Å equivalent width. We have initiated these follow-up observations for a number of candidates, and we have identified two stars (2MASSJ01112542+1526214, 2MASSJ05241914-1601153) as very strong candidate members of the β Pictoris moving group and one strong candidate member (2MASSJ05332558-5117131) of the Tucana-Horologium association; these three stars have radial velocity measurements confirming their membership and lithium detections consistent with young age.

  18. Functional Ability Improved in Essential Tremor by IncobotulinumtoxinA Injections Using Kinematically Determined Biomechanical Patterns - A New Future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Samotus

    Full Text Available Effective treatment for functional disability caused by essential tremor is a significant unmet need faced by many clinicians today. Current literature regarding focal therapy by botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A injections uses fixed dosing regimens, which cannot be individualized, provides only limited functional benefit and unacceptable muscle weakness commonly occurs. This 38-week open label study, the longest to-date, demonstrates how kinematic technology addressed all these issues by guiding muscle selection.Participants (n = 24 were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 16, 22, 32, and 38 and injected with incobotulinumtoxinA at weeks 0, 16, and 32. Clinical assessments including UPDRS tremor items, Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM tremor rating scale assessing tremor severity, writing and functional ability, quality of life questionnaire (QUEST and objective kinematic assessments were completed at every visit. Participants performed two postural and two weight-bearing scripted tasks with motion sensors placed over the wrist, elbow and shoulder joints. These sensors captured angular tremor amplitude (RMS units and acceleration joint motion that was segmented into directional components: flexion-extension (F/E, pronation-supination and radial-ulnar at the wrist, F/E at the elbow, and F/E and adduction-abduction at the shoulder. Injection parameters were determined using kinematics, followed by the clinician's determination of which muscles would contribute to the specific upper limb tremor biomechanics and dosing per participant.Multi-joint biomechanical recordings allowed individualized muscle selection and showed significant improvement in whole-arm function, FTM parts A-C scores, at week 6 which continued throughout the study. By week 38, the total FTM score statistically significantly reduced from 16.2±4.6 at week 0 to 9.5±6.3 (p<0.0005. UPDRS item 21 score rating action tremor was significantly reduced from 2.6±0.5 at week 0 to 1.6±1.1 (p = 0.01 at week 32

  19. Real-time patient-specific finite element analysis of internal stresses in the soft tissues of a residual limb: a new tool for prosthetic fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, S; Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Kristal, A; Oppenheim, U; Siev-Ner, I; Gefen, A

    2007-01-01

    Fitting of a prosthetic socket is a critical stage in the process of rehabilitation of a trans-tibial amputation (TTA) patient, since a misfit may cause pressure ulcers or a deep tissue injury (DTI: necrosis of the muscle flap under intact skin) in the residual limb. To date, prosthetic fitting typically depends on the subjective skills of the prosthetist, and is not supported by biomedical instrumentation that allows evaluation of the quality of fitting. Specifically, no technology is presently available to provide real-time continuous information on the internal distribution of mechanical stresses in the residual limb during fitting of the prosthesis, or while using it and this severely limits patient evaluations. In this study, a simplified yet clinically oriented patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the residual limb was developed for real-time stress analysis. For this purpose we employed a custom-made FE code that continuously calculates internal stresses in the residual limb, based on boundary conditions acquired in real-time from force sensors, located at the limb-prosthesis interface. Validation of the modeling system was accomplished by means of a synthetic phantom of the residual limb, which allowed simultaneous measurements of interface pressures and internal stresses. Human studies were conducted subsequently in five TTA patients. The dimensions of bones and soft tissues were obtained from X-rays of the residual limb of each patient. An indentation test was performed in order to obtain the effective elastic modulus of the soft tissues of the residual limb. Seven force sensors were placed between the residual limb and the prosthetic liner, and subjects walked on a treadmill during analysis. Generally, stresses under the shinbones were approximately threefold higher than stresses at the soft tissues behind the bones. Usage of a thigh corset decreased the stresses in the residual limb during gait by approximately 80%. Also, the stresses

  20. Numerical simulation for the design analysis of kinematic Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis for kinematic Stirling engines was presented. • The analysis integrated thermal, mechanical and thermodynamic interactions. • The analyses considered geometrical and operational parameters. • The results allowed to map the performance of the engine. • The analysis allow the design assessment of Stirling engines. - Abstract: The Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative system that presents good theoretical properties. These include a high thermodynamic efficiency, low emissions levels thanks to a controlled external heat source, and multi-fuel capability among others. However, the performance of actual prototypes largely differs from the mentioned theoretical potential. Actual engine prototypes present low electrical power outputs and high energy losses. These are mainly attributed to the complex interaction between the different components of the engine, and the challenging heat transfer and fluid dynamics requirements. Furthermore, the integration of the engine into decentralized energy systems such as the Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP) entails additional complications. These has increased the need for engineering tools that could assess design improvements, considering a broader range of parameters that would influence the engine performance when integrated within overall systems. Following this trend, the current work aimed to implement an analysis that could integrate the thermodynamics, and the thermal and mechanical interactions that influence the performance of kinematic Stirling engines. In particular for their use in Combined Heat and Power systems. The mentioned analysis was applied for the study of an engine prototype that presented very low experimental performance. The numerical methodology was selected for the identification of possible causes that limited the performance. This analysis is based on a second order Stirling engine model that was previously developed and validated. The

  1. Adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    Background: Positive adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb play important roles in the rehabilitation process. Objectives: To study the different facets of adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees and to assess the possible role of different background and

  2. Upper limb assessment using a Virtual Peg Insertion Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the initial evaluation of a Virtual Peg Insertion Test developed to assess sensorimotor functions of arm and hand using an instrumented tool, virtual reality and haptic feedback. Nine performance parameters derived from kinematic and kinetic data were selected and compared between two groups of healthy subjects performing the task with the dominant and non-dominant hand, as well as with a group of chronic stroke subjects suffering from different levels of upper limb impairment. Results showed significantly smaller grasping forces applied by the stroke subjects compared to the healthy subjects. The grasping force profiles suggest a poor coordination between position and grasping for the stroke subjects, and the collision forces with the virtual board were found to be indicative of sensory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that the analyzed parameters could be valid indicators of impairment. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Comparative Analysis of Cartilage Marker Gene Expression Patterns during Axolotl and Xenopus Limb Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Mitogawa

    Full Text Available Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum can completely regenerate lost limbs, whereas Xenopus laevis frogs cannot. During limb regeneration, a blastema is first formed at the amputation plane. It is thought that this regeneration blastema forms a limb by mechanisms similar to those of a developing embryonic limb bud. Furthermore, Xenopus laevis frogs can form a blastema after amputation; however, the blastema results in a terminal cone-shaped cartilaginous structure called a "spike." The causes of this patterning defect in Xenopus frog limb regeneration were explored. We hypothesized that differences in chondrogenesis may underlie the patterning defect. Thus, we focused on chondrogenesis. Chondrogenesis marker genes, type I and type II collagen, were compared in regenerative and nonregenerative environments. There were marked differences between axolotls and Xenopus in the expression pattern of these chondrogenesis-associated genes. The relative deficit in the chondrogenic capacity of Xenopus blastema cells may account for the absence of total limb regenerative capacity.

  4. One foot out the door: limb function during swimming in terrestrial versus aquatic turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vanessa K Hilliard; Vest, Kaitlyn G; Rivera, Angela R V; Espinoza, Nora R; Blob, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Specialization for a new habitat often entails a cost to performance in the ancestral habitat. Although aquatic lifestyles are ancestral among extant cryptodiran turtles, multiple lineages, including tortoises (Testudinidae) and emydid box turtles (genus Terrapene), independently specialized for terrestrial habitats. To what extent is swimming function retained in such lineages despite terrestrial specialization? Because tortoises diverged from other turtles over 50 Ma, but box turtles did so only 5 Ma, we hypothesized that swimming kinematics for box turtles would more closely resemble those of aquatic relatives than those of tortoises. To test this prediction, we compared high-speed video of swimming Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii), box turtles (Terrapene carolina) and two semi-aquatic emydid species: sliders (Trachemys scripta) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). We identified different kinematic patterns between limbs. In the forelimb, box turtle strokes most resemble those of tortoises; for the hindlimb, box turtles are more similar to semi-aquatic species. Such patterns indicate functional convergence of the forelimb of terrestrial species, whereas the box turtle hindlimb exhibits greater retention of ancestral swimming motions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Kinematic top analyses at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassmann, H.; CDF Collaboration

    1995-03-01

    We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup {minus}1} of data from the 1992--1993 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup {minus}1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{bar t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+ {ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+ {ge} 3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks, in agreement with expectations from top, but not compatible with expectations from backgrounds. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992--1993 collider run.

  6. Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data

    KAUST Repository

    Alfano, Marco; Lubineau, Gilles; Paulino, Glá ucio Hermogenes

    2015-01-01

    Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.

  7. Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data

    KAUST Repository

    Alfano, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.

  8. Reducing Circumduction and Hip Hiking During Hemiparetic Walking Through Targeted Assistance of the Paretic Limb Using a Soft Robotic Exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Louis N; Bae, Jaehyun; Kudzia, Pawel; Long, Andrew; Hendron, Kathryn; Holt, Kenneth G; OʼDonnell, Kathleen; Ellis, Terry D; Walsh, Conor J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on common poststroke gait compensations of a soft wearable robot (exosuit) designed to assist the paretic limb during hemiparetic walking. A single-session study of eight individuals in the chronic phase of stroke recovery was conducted. Two testing conditions were compared: walking with the exosuit powered versus walking with the exosuit unpowered. Each condition was 8 minutes in duration. Compared with walking with the exosuit unpowered, walking with the exosuit powered resulted in reductions in hip hiking (27 [6%], P = 0.004) and circumduction (20 [5%], P = 0.004). A relationship between changes in knee flexion and changes in hip hiking was observed (Pearson r = -0.913, P Exosuit assistance of the paretic limb during walking produces immediate changes in the kinematic strategy used to advance the paretic limb. Future work is necessary to determine how exosuit-induced reductions in paretic hip hiking and circumduction during gait training could be leveraged to facilitate more normal walking behavior during unassisted walking.

  9. Analysis of lower limb force in foot work exercise of Pilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Neis Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Pilates is a physical exercise method that uses the resistance of springs to modulate the overload from exercises. Objective: To characterize the force versus time curve of the foot work exercise; verify and compare the force applied by the same limb during the foot work exercise against the resistance of two types of springs with different elastic constants, and verify and compare the asymmetry of force applied by right and left lower limbs during the foot work exercise against the resistance of the same type of spring. Methods: Twenty healthy adult individuals familiarized with Pilates were evaluated. Two extensometric force plates adapted to the Reformer apparatus were used. Each participant performed 10 repetitions of the exercise against the resistance of two pairs of springs with different elastic constants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used with significance levels of p < 0.05. Results: The exercise's standard curve showed that the peak force is reached in the point of maximum hip and knee extension during the execution of the exercise. There were differences between force production by the same limb for different springs (p < 0.001 and between left and right limb when spring with lower elastic constant was used (p = 0.006. No differences were found between right and left limb when spring with higher elastic constant was used (p = 0.108. Conclusion: The knowledge of the force versus time curve and the quantification of unilateral force are important elements in the evaluation and prescription of exercises.

  10. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  11. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  12. Kinematic Analysis of Volleyball Attack in the Net Center with Various Types of Take-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahálka, František; Malý, Tomáš; Malá, Lucia; Ejem, Miloslav; Zawartka, Marek

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and compare kinematics in two types of execution of attack hit, the goofy approach and regular approach. The research group consisted of players from the Czech Republic's top league (n = 12, age 28.0 ± 4.3 years, body height 196.6 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 89.7 ± 6.7 kg) divided into two groups according to the individual type of approach in the attack. Analysis of movement was performed by 3D kinematics video analysis, space coordinates were calculated by the DLT (Direct Linear Transformation) method together with interpretation software TEMA Bio 2.3 (Image Systems AB, Sweden). The players started their run-up from a distance of about 4 - 4.5 m from the net with similar maximal vertical velocity (2.91 - 2.96 m⋅s -1 ). The trajectory of players with goofy approach seemed to be convenient for the rotation of shoulders and hips in the moment of ball contact. Differences between both groups were observed. Players with a goofy approach had a longer flight phase compared to regularly approaching players.

  13. The role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.; Parker, W.E.; Moses, D.J.; Lacey, R.; Alexander, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of reversed kinematics in nuclear reactions studies are discussed, with particular emphasis on the origin of double solutions in the reaction kinematics. This possibility for double solutions does not exist in normal kinematics, and provides the basis for a new method of imposing important experimental constraints on the uniqueness of fitting complex observations. By gating on one or the other of the two solutions, light particle kinematics can be greatly influenced in coincidence measurements. The power of the method is illustrated with data for the reaction 1030 MeV 121 Sb+ 27 Al, where charged particle emissions arise from several different sources. (orig.)

  14. Analysis and Development of Walking Algorithm Kinematic Model for 5-Degree of Freedom Bipedal Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wahyudi Setiono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A design of walking diagram and the calculation of a bipedal robot have been developed. The bipedal robot was designed and constructed with several kinds of servo bracket for the legs, two feet and a hip. Each of the bipedal robot leg was 5-degrees of freedom, three pitches (hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint and two rolls (hip joint and ankle joint. The walking algorithm of this bipedal robot was based on the triangle formulation of cosine law to get the angle value at each joint. The hip height, height of the swinging leg and the step distance are derived based on linear equation. This paper discussed the kinematic model analysis and the development of the walking diagram of the bipedal robot. Kinematics equations were derived, the joint angles were simulated and coded into Arduino board to be executed to the robot.

  15. A multi-subject evaluation of uncertainty in anatomical landmark location on shoulder kinematic description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer, Joseph E; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Mell, Amy G; Laz, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    An accurate assessment of shoulder kinematics is useful for understanding healthy normal and pathological mechanics. Small variability in identifying and locating anatomical landmarks (ALs) has potential to affect reported shoulder kinematics. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of landmark location variability on scapular and humeral kinematic descriptions for multiple subjects using probabilistic analysis methods, and to evaluate the consistency in results across multiple subjects. Data from 11 healthy subjects performing humeral elevation in the scapular plane were used to calculate Euler angles describing humeral and scapular kinematics. Probabilistic analyses were performed for each subject to simulate uncertainty in the locations of 13 upper-extremity ALs. For standard deviations of 4 mm in landmark location, the analysis predicted Euler angle envelopes between the 1 and 99 percentile bounds of up to 16.6 degrees . While absolute kinematics varied with the subject, the average 1-99% kinematic ranges for the motion were consistent across subjects and sensitivity factors showed no statistically significant differences between subjects. The description of humeral kinematics was most sensitive to the location of landmarks on the thorax, while landmarks on the scapula had the greatest effect on the description of scapular elevation. The findings of this study can provide a better understanding of kinematic variability, which can aid in making accurate clinical diagnoses and refining kinematic measurement techniques.

  16. Altered spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine in people with chronic neck pain during functional task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on the spinal kinematics and muscle activation of the cervical and thoracic spine during functional task would add to our understanding of the performance and interplay of these spinal regions during dynamic condition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chronic neck pain on the three-dimensional kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine during an overhead reaching task involving a light weight transfer by the upper limb. Synchronized measurements of the three-dimensional spinal kinematics and electromyographic activities of cervical and thoracic spine were acquired in thirty individuals with chronic neck pain and thirty age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls. Neck pain group showed a significantly decreased cervical velocity and acceleration while performing the task. They also displayed with a predominantly prolonged coactivation of cervical and thoracic muscles throughout the task cycle. The current findings highlighted the importance to examine differential kinematic variables of the spine which are associated with changes in the muscle recruitment in people with chronic neck pain. The results also provide an insight to the appropriate clinical intervention to promote the recovery of the functional disability commonly reported in patients with neck pain disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison in three dimensional gait kinematics between young and older adults on land and in shallow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jabbar, Khalid; Kudo, Shigetada; Goh, Kee Wee; Goh, Ming Rong

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated in three-dimensional space, firstly whether the aquatic medium and secondly ageing, had any effect on the lower limb's joint angles during aquatic-based gait. Three-dimensional joint kinematics of the lower limb of 51 healthy male participants [25 young group (24.6±4.9 years, 172.1±5.5cm, 69.8±10.3kg) and 26 older group (58.5±5.1 years, 167.9±5.1cm, 70.8±12.1kg)] were quantified during land and shallow water walking. Participants walked at their self-selected comfortable speed in both mediums. The results suggested that the properties of water - hydrodynamic drag, and buoyancy - affected the gait kinematics for both groups. Both age groups used more of their hip flexion in the aquatic environment to help them propel forward instead of using the ankle plantarflexion. The effect of age during the aquatic-based gait was identified in ankle adduction angle and knee abduction/adduction angle at initial contact. Only the older group elicited a significantly smaller ankle adduction angle during the aquatic-based gait when compared to the land-based gait. Only the young group elicited a significantly larger knee abduction/adduction angle at initial contact during the aquatic-based gait when compared to the land-based gait. These findings can facilitate professionals in the area of aquatic rehabilitation to better customise aquatic-based walking exercise programmes to suit their client's specific needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A micro-kinematic framework for vorticity analysis in polyphase shear zones using integrated field, microstructural and crystallographic orientation-dispersion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckenberg, S. C.; Michels, Z. D.; Parsons, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from integrated field, microstructural and textural analysis in the Burlington mylonite zone (BMZ) of eastern Massachusetts to establish a unified micro-kinematic framework for vorticity analysis in polyphase shear zones. Specifically, we define the vorticity-normal surface based on lattice-scale rotation axes calculated from electron backscatter diffraction data using orientation statistics. In doing so, we objectively identify a suitable reference frame for rigid grain methods of vorticity analysis that can be used in concert with textural studies to constrain field- to plate-scale deformation geometries without assumptions that may bias tectonic interpretations, such as relationships between kinematic axes and fabric forming elements or the nature of the deforming zone (e.g., monoclinic vs. triclinic shear zones). Rocks within the BMZ comprise a heterogeneous mix of quartzofeldspathic ± hornblende-bearing mylonitic gneisses and quartzites. Vorticity axes inferred from lattice rotations lie within the plane of mylonitic foliation perpendicular to lineation - a pattern consistent with monoclinic deformation geometries involving simple shear and/or wrench-dominated transpression. The kinematic vorticity number (Wk) is calculated using Rigid Grain Net analysis and ranges from 0.25-0.55, indicating dominant general shear. Using the calculated Wk values and the dominant geographic fabric orientation, we constrain the angle of paleotectonic convergence between the Nashoba and Avalon terranes to 56-75º with the convergence vector trending 142-160° and plunging 3-10°. Application of the quartz recrystallized grain size piezometer suggests differential stresses in the BMZ mylonites ranging from 44 to 92 MPa; quartz CPO patterns are consistent with deformation at greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions. We conclude that crustal strain localization in the BMZ involved a combination of pure and simple shear in a sinistral reverse transpressional

  19. Global-local optimization of flapping kinematics in hovering flight

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Hajj, M. R.; Mook, Dean T.; Stanford, Bret K.; Bé ran, Philip S.; Watson, Layne T.

    2013-01-01

    The kinematics of a hovering wing are optimized by combining the 2-d unsteady vortex lattice method with a hybrid of global and local optimization algorithms. The objective is to minimize the required aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. The hybrid optimization is used to efficiently navigate the complex design space due to wing-wake interference present in hovering aerodynamics. The flapping wing is chosen so that its chord length and flapping frequency match the morphological and flight properties of two insects with different masses. The results suggest that imposing a delay between the different oscillatory motions defining the flapping kinematics, and controlling the way through which the wing rotates at the end of each half stroke can improve aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. Furthermore, our optimization analysis identified optimal kinematics that agree fairly well with observed insect kinematics, as well as previously published numerical results.

  20. Global-local optimization of flapping kinematics in hovering flight

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    The kinematics of a hovering wing are optimized by combining the 2-d unsteady vortex lattice method with a hybrid of global and local optimization algorithms. The objective is to minimize the required aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. The hybrid optimization is used to efficiently navigate the complex design space due to wing-wake interference present in hovering aerodynamics. The flapping wing is chosen so that its chord length and flapping frequency match the morphological and flight properties of two insects with different masses. The results suggest that imposing a delay between the different oscillatory motions defining the flapping kinematics, and controlling the way through which the wing rotates at the end of each half stroke can improve aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. Furthermore, our optimization analysis identified optimal kinematics that agree fairly well with observed insect kinematics, as well as previously published numerical results.

  1. Overground-Propulsion Kinematics and Acceleration in Elite Wheelchair Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, David S; Pinder, Ross A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Robertson, William S P

    2018-02-01

    Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport-classification scores. Based on their sporting classification scores, which reflect combined trunk, arm, and hand function, 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analyzed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups before completing five 5-m sprints from a stationary position. Inertial measurement units and video analysis were used to monitor key kinematic variables. Significant differences in kinematic variables were evident across the classification groups, particularly for the first stroke-contact angle (1-way ANOVA F 2,122  = 51.5, P propulsion approaches exist across classification groups, with this information potentially informing individual wheelchair setups and training programs.

  2. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng [Yanshan University, Hebei (China)

    2015-10-15

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  3. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  4. Limb anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    of limb development has been conserved for more than 300 millions years, with all the necessary adaptive modifications occurring throughout evolution, we also take into consideration the evolutionary aspects of limb development in terms of genetic repertoire, molecular pathways, and morphogenetic events....

  5. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Albury, Alexander W; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2017-07-01

    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial ( n  = 5) and transfemoral ( n  = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls ( n  = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function.

  6. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  7. Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.

  8. Precision analysis of a multi-slice ultrasound sensor for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Abdullah; Lambert, Andrew J; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, J M; Smith, P N

    2012-01-01

    Currently the standard clinical practice for measuring the motion of bones in a knee joint with sufficient precision involves implanting tantalum beads into the bones to act as fiducial markers prior to imaging using X-ray equipment. This procedure is invasive in nature and exposure to ionizing radiation imposes a cancer risk and the patient's movements are confined to a narrow field of view. In this paper, an ultrasound based system for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of knee joints is proposed. The results of an initial analysis show that this system can provide the precision required for non-invasive motion analysis while the patient performs normal physical activities.

  9. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  10. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  11. Kinematic analysis on rail development into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The vehicle manipulator system for blanket maintenance is used as a main driving mechanism for rail development, and three driving mechanisms d1, d2 (or d2') and d3 are used as cycle sequence of the repeated operations for rail development. This repeated operation can develop the articulated rail into the vacuum vessel. The rail development scenario, kinematic analysis model for rail development without any driving mechanisms in the rail joints, equations defined the angular between two rail links, identification of rail link at repeated operation, numerical analysis results on rail deployment under the forced position control of l i+1 , new rail development scenario using two driving mechanisms d1 and d2''under one cycle sequence of the repeated operations, and rail development test are reported. (S.Y.)

  12. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: An explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke G . M. Kloosterman, PT, MSc; Govert J. Snoek, MD, PhD; Mirjam Kouwenhoven, MD; Anand V. Nene, MD, PhD; Michiel J. A. Jannink, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shou...

  13. Kinematics and Application of a Hybrid Industrial Robot – Delta-RST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Serial robots and parallel robots have their own pros and cons. While hybrid robots consisting of both of them are possible and expected to retain their merits and minimize the disadvantages. The Delta-RST presented here is such a hybrid robot built up by integrating a 3-DoFs traditional Delta parallel structure and a 3-DoFs RST robotic wrist. In this paper, we focus on its kinematics analysis and its applications in industry. Firstly, the robotic system of the Delta-RST will be described briefly. Then the complete and systemic kinematics of this kind of robot will be presented in detail, followed by simulations and applications to demonstrate the correctness of the analysis, as well as the effectiveness of the developed robotic system. The closed-form kinematic analysis results are universal for similar hybrid robots constructing with the Delta parallel mechanism and serial chains.

  14. Peak knee biomechanics and limb symmetry following unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Associations of walking gait and jump-landing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven J; Blackburn, J Troy; Luc-Harkey, Brittney; Harkey, Matthew S; Stanley, Laura E; Frank, Barnett; Padua, Darin; Marshall, Stephen W; Spang, Jeffrey T; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Aberrant walking-gait and jump-landing biomechanics may influence the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and increase the risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury, respectively. It remains unknown if individuals who demonstrate altered walking-gait biomechanics demonstrate similar altered biomechanics during jump-landing. Our aim was to determine associations in peak knee biomechanics and limb-symmetry indices between walking-gait and jump-landing tasks in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Thirty-five individuals (74% women, 22.1 [3.4] years old, 25 [3.89] kg/m 2 ) with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed 5-trials of self-selected walking-gait and jump-landing. Peak kinetics and kinematics were extracted from the first 50% of stance phase during walking-gait and first 100 ms following ground contact for jump-landing. Pearson product-moment (r) and Spearman's Rho (ρ) analyses were used to evaluate relationships between outcome measures. Significance was set a priori (P ≤ 0.05). All associations between walking-gait and jump-landing for the involved limb, along with the majority of associations for limb-symmetry indices and the uninvolved limb, were negligible and non-statistically significant. There were weak significant associations for instantaneous loading rate (ρ = 0.39, P = 0.02) and peak knee abduction angle (ρ = 0.36, p = 0.03) uninvolved limb, as well as peak abduction displacement limb-symmetry indices (ρ= - 0.39, p = 0.02) between walking-gait and jump-landing. No systematic associations were found between walking-gait and jump-landing biomechanics for either limb or limb-symmetry indices in people with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction who demonstrate high-involved limb loading or asymmetries during jump-landing may not demonstrate similar biomechanics during

  15. Uncertainty estimation and multi sensor fusion for kinematic laser tracker measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Laser trackers are widely used to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in the kinematic measurement include approximations specified by the manufacturers, various analytical adjustment methods and the Kalman filter. In this paper a new, real-time technique is proposed, which estimates the 4D-path (3D-position + time) uncertainty of an arbitrary path in space. Here a hybrid system estimator is applied in conjunction with the kinematic measurement model. This method can be applied to processes, which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. The new approach is compared with the Kalman filter and a manufacturer's approximations. The comparison was made using data obtained by tracking an industrial robot's tool centre point with a Leica laser tracker AT901 and a Leica laser tracker LTD500. It shows that the new approach is more appropriate to analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter, as it reduces overshoots and decreases the estimated variance. In comparison with the manufacturer's approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour with an improved description of the real measurement process and a reduction in estimated variance. This approach is therefore well suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour as well as the fusion among laser trackers.

  16. Reverse Kinematic Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis of the Space Shuttle AFT Propulsion System (APS) POD Lifting Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The space shuttle Aft Propulsion System (APS) pod requires precision alignment to be installed onto the orbiter deck. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) used to perform this task cannot be manipulated along a single Cartesian axis without causing motion along the other Cartesian axes. As a result, manipulations required to achieve a desired motion are not intuitive. My study calculated the joint angles required to align the APS pod, using reverse kinematic analysis techniques. Knowledge of these joint angles will allow the ground support team to align the APS pod more safely and efficiently. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to estimate the accuracy associated with this approach and to determine whether any inexpensive modifications can be made to further improve accuracy.

  17. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  18. Kinematic anharmonicity of internal rotation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataev, V.A.; Pupyshev, V.I.; Godunov, I.A.

    2017-01-01

    The methods of analysis the strongly coupled vibrations are proposed for a number of molecules of aromatic and heterocyclic carbonyl (and some others) compounds. The qualitative principles are formulated for molecular systems with a significant kinematic anharmonicity.

  19. Nuclear reaction studies using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reaction studies with reversed kinematics refer to studies of nuclear reactions induced by a heavy projectile colliding with lighter target nuclei. The technique of using reversed kinematics is costly in terms of the available center-of-mass energy. Most of the projectile's energy goes into forward motion of the reaction products in the laboratory system. Examples are presented where the use of reversed kinematics techniques has provided new information on certain reaction processes. A list of kinematic properties and advantages they may afford is shown. Clearly the possible studies listed can be done without using reversed kinematics but because of the difficulty associated with some of these studies they were never performed until more energetic heavier beams have become available and the reversed kinematics technique was utilized

  20. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  1. In-vivo analysis of ankle joint movement for patient-specific kinematic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Carlo; De Benedictis, Carlo; Franco, Walter; Maffiodo, Daniela; Leardini, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    In this article, a method for the experimental in-vivo characterization of the ankle kinematics is proposed. The method is meant to improve personalization of various ankle joint treatments, such as surgical decision-making or design and application of an orthosis, possibly to increase their effectiveness. This characterization in fact would make the treatments more compatible with the specific patient's joint physiological conditions. This article describes the experimental procedure and the analytical method adopted, based on the instantaneous and mean helical axis theories. The results obtained in this experimental analysis reveal that more accurate techniques are necessary for a robust in-vivo assessment of the tibio-talar axis of rotation.

  2. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  3. Contralateral limb during total contact casting. A dynamic pressure and thermometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D G; Liswood, P J; Todd, W F

    1995-12-01

    The authors draw attention to the importance of evaluation of the contralateral limb when treating unilateral sequelae secondary to distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. Plantar pressure measurements of the contralateral limb during total contact casting are reviewed. The results of thermometric evaluation before and after initiation of repetitive stress were reviewed. The results suggest that the patient walking in a total contact cast may experience a reduced focal pressure on the contralateral limb when compared with uncasted walking and three-point walking with crutches. Dermal thermometry may be a highly sensitive tool in evaluating even mild increases in repetitive stress. To explain this decrease in contralateral stress, the authors examine the features inherent to the total contact cast and propose the concept of proprioceptive stability.

  4. Amusement Park Physics in Panggon Lunjak (Trampoline: Analysis of Kinematics and Energy Use Video Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Panggon Lunjak (trampoline is one of the famous amusement parks among the people that we can use as a recreation to enjoy a pleasant sensation. Without us knowing the amusement park that we often encounter is actually the result of the application of science and technology, especially in the field of physics, because it is amusement park for student of science is a real laboratory or the giant laboratory that we can use as a study of physics concepts and as research materials. Panggon Lunjak (trampoline motion is very close to the harmonic  motion where the resulting graph of the sinus so that on the graph will be in the analysis of  kinematics and energy phenomena, so that research on simple harmonic motion materials is not limited to research using pendulum motion and spring load motion which is often exemplified as research on harmonic motion. The purpose of this study is to analyze the physical aspects of Panggon Lunjak (trampoline motion based on the laws of physics on the concept of kinematics and analyze energy, Where the mechanical energy of addition between potential energy and kinetic energy (Conservation of energy. The analysis is done by using video tracking. Based on the analysis done using people as a mass, the result of the amplitude, the spring constant, angular frequency, and the law of conservation of energy on the Panggon Lunjak (trampoline is true. This analysis activity will be well used as a physics learning for students.

  5. Experience of an orthoplastic limb salvage team after the Haiti earthquake: analysis of caseload and early outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clover, A James P

    2011-06-01

    After the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, a British orthoplastic limb salvage team was mobilized. The team operated in a suburb of Port-au-Prince from January 20, 2010. This analysis gives an overview of the caseload and early outcomes.

  6. Kinematic Model of NAO Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš D. Jovanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents synthesis of kinematic model of NAO humanoid robot of Aldebaran Robotics. NAO humanoid robot has complex kinematic structure with 25 active degrees of freedom (DOF. Humanoid system is formed through 5 mutually depended kinematic chains. After that we applied standard aspects of kinematic chains synthesis and Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of each of 5 chains of robotic structure were introduced. Also, mutual relationships between chains were described, as well as their physical and structural dependence. Generated kinematic model will be the starting point for further dynamical modeling of NAO humanoid robot and motion synthesis on actual platform.

  7. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel serial-parallel dynamic simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Lian Dong; Yu, Jingjing [Parallel Robot and Mechatronic System Laboratory of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei (China)

    2016-11-15

    A serial-parallel dynamics simulator based on serial-parallel manipulator is proposed. According to the dynamics simulator motion requirement, the proposed serial-parallel dynamics simulator formed by 3-RRS (active revolute joint-revolute joint-spherical joint) and 3-SPR (Spherical joint-active prismatic joint-revolute joint) PMs adopts the outer and inner layout. By integrating the kinematics, constraint and coupling information of the 3-RRS and 3-SPR PMs into the serial-parallel manipulator, the inverse Jacobian matrix, velocity, and acceleration of the serial-parallel dynamics simulator are studied. Based on the principle of virtual work and the kinematics model, the inverse dynamic model is established. Finally, the workspace of the (3-RRS)+(3-SPR) dynamics simulator is constructed.

  8. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel serial-parallel dynamic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Lian Dong; Yu, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    A serial-parallel dynamics simulator based on serial-parallel manipulator is proposed. According to the dynamics simulator motion requirement, the proposed serial-parallel dynamics simulator formed by 3-RRS (active revolute joint-revolute joint-spherical joint) and 3-SPR (Spherical joint-active prismatic joint-revolute joint) PMs adopts the outer and inner layout. By integrating the kinematics, constraint and coupling information of the 3-RRS and 3-SPR PMs into the serial-parallel manipulator, the inverse Jacobian matrix, velocity, and acceleration of the serial-parallel dynamics simulator are studied. Based on the principle of virtual work and the kinematics model, the inverse dynamic model is established. Finally, the workspace of the (3-RRS)+(3-SPR) dynamics simulator is constructed

  9. Constrained posture in dentistry - a kinematic analysis of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Erbe, Christina; Nowak, Jennifer; Hauck, Imke; Hermanns, Ingo; Ditchen, Dirk; Ellegast, Rolf; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-05

    How a dentist works, such as the patterns of movements performed daily, is also largely affected by the workstation Dental tasks are often executed in awkward body positions, thereby causing a very high degree of strain on the corresponding muscles. The objective of this study is to detect those dental tasks, during which awkward postures occur most frequently. The isolated analysis of static postures will examine the duration for which these postures are maintained during the corresponding dental, respectively non-dental, activities. 21 (11f/10 m) dentists (age: 40.1 ± 10.4 years) participated in this study. An average dental workday was collected for every subject. To collect kinematic data of all activities, the CUELA system was used. Parallel to the kinematic examination, a detailed computer-based task analysis was conducted. Afterwards, both data sets were synchronized based on the chronological order of the postures assumed in the trunk and the head region. All tasks performed were assigned to the categories "treatment" (I), "office" (II) and "other activities" (III). The angle values of each body region (evaluation parameter) were examined and assessed corresponding to ergonomic standards. Moreover, this study placed a particular focus on static positions, which are held statically for 4 s and longer. For "treatment" (I), the entire head and trunk area is anteriorly tilted while the back is twisted to the right, in (II) and (III) the back is anteriorly tilted and twisted to the right (non-neutral position). Static positions in (I) last for 4-10s, static postures (approx. 60%) can be observed while in (II) and (III) in the back area static positions for more than 30 s are most common. Moreover, in (II) the back is twisted to the right for more than 60 s in 26.8%. Awkward positions are a major part of a dentists' work. This mainly pertains to static positions of the trunk and head in contrast to "office work." These insights facilitate the quantitative

  10. Polyphase tertiary fold-and-thrust tectonics in the Belluno Dolomites: new mapping, kinematic analysis, and 3D modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistolini, Filippo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Consonni, Davide; Cortinovis, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The Belluno Dolomites are comprised in the eastern sector of the Southern Alps, which corresponds to the fold-and-thrust belt at the retro-wedge of the Alpine collisional orogen. They are characterized by a complex and polyphase fold-and-thrust tectonics, highlighted by multiple thrust sheets and thrust-related folding. We have studied this tectonics in the Vajont area where a sequence of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary units have been involved in multiple deformations. The onset of contractional tectonics in this part of the Alps is constrained to be Tertiary (likely Post-Eocene) by structural relationships with the Erto Flysch, whilst in the Mesozoic tectonics was extensional. We have recognized two contractional deformation phases (D1 and D2 in the following), of which only the second was mentioned in previous studies of the area and attributed to the Miocene Neoalpine event. D1 and D2 are characterized by roughly top-to-WSW (possibly Dinaric) and top-to-S (Alpine) transport directions respectively, implying a 90° rotation of the regional-scale shortening axis, and resulting in complex thrust and fold interference and reactivation patterns. Geological mapping and detailed outcrop-scale kinematic analysis allowed us to characterize the kinematics and chronology of deformations. Particularly, relative chronology was unravelled thanks to (1) diagnostic fold interference patterns and (2) crosscutting relationships between thrust faults and thrust-related folds. A km-scale D1 syncline, filled with the Eocene Erto Flysch and "decapitated" by a D2 thrust fault, provides the best map-scale example of crosscutting relationships allowing to reconstruct the faulting history. Due to the strong competence contrast between Jurassic carbonates and Tertiary flysch, in this syncline spectacular duplexes were also developed during D2. In order to quantitatively characterize the complex interference pattern resulting from two orthogonal thrusting and folding events, we

  11. Kinematic Analysis of the Standing Long Jump in Children 6- to 12-Years-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Santos, Jorge R.; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Castro-Piñero, Jose

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic variables that determine the performance of the standing long jump in children 6- to 12-years-old. There were 121 healthy children (58 girls) recorded while they performed the standing long jump test. All kinematic variables showed a significant correlation with calculated jump distance and…

  12. Rollover footwear affects lower limb biomechanics during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghany, Saeed; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Barry; Hatton, Anna Lucy; Liu, Anmin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of rollover footwear on walking speed, metabolic cost of gait, lower limb kinematics, kinetics, EMG muscle activity and plantar pressure. Twenty subjects (mean age-33.1 years, height-1.71 m, body mass-68.9 kg, BMI 23.6, 12 male) walked in: a flat control footwear; a flat control footwear weighted to match the mass of a rollover shoe; a rollover shoe; MBT footwear. Data relating to metabolic energy and temporal aspects of gait were collected during 6 min of continuous walking, all other data in a gait laboratory. The rollover footwear moved the contact point under the shoe anteriorly during early stance, increasing midfoot pressures. This changed internal ankle dorsiflexion moments to plantarflexion moments earlier, reducing ankle plantarflexion and tibialis anterior activity after initial contact, and increasing calf EMG activity. In mid stance the rollover footwear resulted in a more dorsiflexed ankle position but less ankle movement. During propulsion, the rollover footwear reduced peak ankle dorsiflexion, peak internal plantarflexor ankle moments and the range of ankle plantarflexion. Vertical ground reaction loading rates were increased by the rollover footwear. There were no effects on temporal or energy cost of gait and no effect of elevated shoe weight. Investigating all proposed effects of this footwear concurrently has enabled a more valid investigation of how the footwear effects are interrelated. There were concurrent changes in several aspects of lower limb function, with greatest effects at the foot and ankle, but no change in the metabolic cost of walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Machine. Project pilot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Bautista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examines the most relevant kinetic and kinematics variables in two bench press exercises; Smith Machine (PMS vs. free weights (PBL. Two trained subjects participated in the research following informed consent. To determine the maximum load (1-RM, two incremental protocols were used for PMS and PBL. Subject 1 (S-1 produced force values of 770N and 837N, peak force of 28ms and 12ms, in PBL and PMS respectively. Values for subject 2 (S-2 were 693N and 849N, PMF of 60ms and 66ms for PBL and PMS respectively. Detailed analyses of the following variables were performed; velocity curves for each load, the “sticking period”, the distances of grip width, and changes in bar inclination during the ascent phase of the lift were examined. The key findings of this research, and the basis for future research demonstrate that PBL is recommended as a training exercise, while more reliable information regarding force variables can be attained through using PMS in measurement sessions. Key Words: Bench Press, smith machine, free weight, strength assessment, upper limb.

  14. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  15. Characterization of age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies in a new dynamic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed motor commands to achieve good performance. The efficiency of this motor control mechanism can be compromised by pathological disorders or by muscular-skeletal modifications such as the ones due to the natural aging process. In this respect, the present study aimed at identifying the age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies during adaptation and de-adaptation processes in velocity dependent force fields. Methods Eight young and eight elderly healthy subjects were included in the experiment. Subjects were instructed to perform pointing movements in the horizontal plane both in a null field and in a velocity dependent force field. The evolution of smoothness and hand path were used to characterize the performance of the subjects. Furthermore, the ability of modulating the interactive torque has been used as a paradigm to explain the observed discoordinated patterns during the adaptation process. Results The evolution of the kinematics during the experiments highlights important behavioural differences between the two groups during the adaptation and de-adaptation processes. In young subjects the improvement of movement smoothness was in accordance with the expected learning trend related to the consolidation of the internal model. On the contrary, elders did not show a coherent learning process. The kinetic analysis pointed out the presence of different strategies for the compensation of the external perturbation: older people required an increased involvement of the shoulder with a different modulation of joint torque components during the evolution of the experiments. Conclusion The results

  16. 3D gait analysis with and without an orthopedic walking boot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgin, H; Hall, K; Luzadre, A; Kayfish, E

    2018-01-01

    Orthopedic walking boots have been widely used in place of traditional fiberglass casts for a variety of orthopedic injuries and post-surgical interventions. These walking boots create a leg length discrepancy (LLD). LLD has been shown to alter the kinematics and kinetics of gait and are associated with lumbar and lower limb conditions such as: foot over pronation, low back pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joints. Past gait analyses research with orthopedic boots is limited to findings on the ipsilateral limb. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine bilateral gait kinematics & kinetics with and without a walking boot. Forty healthy participants (m=20, f=20, age 20.7±1.8 yrs., ht. 171.6±9.5cm, wt. 73.2±11.0kg, BMI 24.8±3.2) volunteered. An eight camera Vicon Motion Capture System with PIG model and two AMTI force plates were utilized to record the walking trial conditions: (1) bilateral tennis shoes (2) boot on right foot, tennis shoe on left foot (3) boot on right foot, barefoot on left foot. Data were processed in Nexus 2.2.3 and exported to Visual 3D for analysis. When wearing the boot, there were significant differences in most joint angles and moments, with larger effects on long limb. The walking boot alters the gait in the same way as those with existing LLD, putting them at risk for development of secondary knee, hip, and low back pain during treatment protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower limb spasticity assessment using an inertial sensor: a reliability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpi, I; Colombo, R; Caroli, A; Meazza, E; Maggioni, G; Pistarini, C

    2013-01-01

    Spasticity is a common motor impairment in patients with neurological disorders that can prevent functional recovery after rehabilitation. In the clinical setting, its assessment is carried out using standardized clinical scales. The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of inertial sensors for an objective measurement of quadriceps spasticity and evaluate its test–retest and inter-rater reliability during the implementation of the Wartenberg pendulum test. Ten healthy subjects and 11 patients in vegetative state with severe brain damage were enrolled in this study. Subjects were evaluated three times on three consecutive days. The test–retest reliability of measurement was assessed in the first two days. The third day was devoted to inter-rater reliability assessment. In addition, the lower limb muscle tone was bilaterally evaluated at the knee joint by the modified Ashworth scale. The factorial ANOVA analysis showed that the implemented method allowed us to discriminate between healthy and pathological conditions. The fairly low SEM and high ICC values obtained for the pendulum parameters indicated a good test–retest and inter-rater reliability of measurement. This study shows that an inertial sensor can be reliably used to characterize leg kinematics during the Wartenberg pendulum test and provide quantitative evaluation of quadriceps spasticity. (paper)

  18. Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Based on Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot-assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three-dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patient's EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patient's motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post-stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot-assisted training with motor imagery-based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.

  19. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  20. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Most classifications of mass movements in rock slopes use relatively simple, idealized geometries for the basal sliding surface, like planar sliding, wedge sliding, toppling or columnar failures. For small volumes, the real sliding surface can be often well described by such simple geometries. Extended and complex rock surfaces, however, can exhibit a large number of mass movements, also showing various kind of kinematisms. As a consequence, the real situation in large rock surfaces with a complicate geometry is generally very complex and a site depending analysis, such as fieldwork and compass, cannot be comprehensive of the real situation. Since the outstanding development of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in recent years, rock slopes can now be investigated and mapped through high resolution point clouds, reaching the resolution of few mm's and accuracy less than a cm in most advanced instruments, even from remote surveying. The availability of slope surface digital data can offer a unique chance to determine potential kinematisms in a wide distributed area for all the investigated geomorphological processes. More in detail the proposed method is based on the definition of least squares fitting planes on clusters of points extracted by moving a sampling cube on the point cloud. If the associated standard deviation is below a defined threshold, the cluster is considered valid. By applying geometric criteria it is possible to join all the clusters lying on the same surface; in this way discontinuity planes can be reconstructed, rock mass geometrical properties are calculated and, finally, potential kinematisms established. The Siq of Petra (Jordan), is a 1.2 km naturally formed gorge, with an irregular horizontal shape and a complex vertical slope, that represents the main entrance to Nabatean archaeological site. In the Siq, discontinuities of various type (bedding, joints, faults), mainly related to geomorphological evolution of the slope, lateral stress

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  2. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  3. Relationship between agility and lower limb muscle strength, targeting university badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Takuya; Tashiro, Yuto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Yu; Zeidan, Hala; Yokota, Yuki; Kawagoe, Mirei; Nakayama, Yasuaki; Bito, Tsubasa; Shimoura, Kanako; Tatsumi, Masataka; Nakai, Kengo; Nishida, Yuichi; Yoshimi, Soyoka; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Targeting university badminton players, this study investigated the relationship between agility, which is associated with performance in badminton, and lower limb muscle strength, and examined which muscles influence agility. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 23 male university badminton players were evaluated for side-shuffle test scores and lower limb strength. The relationships between agility, lower limb strength, and duration of experience playing badminton were evaluated using a correlation analysis. Moreover, the relationship between agility and lower limb strength was evaluated by partial correlation analysis, adjusting for the effects of experience of each badminton player. [Results] The agility score correlated with hip extension and ankle plantar flexion strength, with adjustment for badminton experience. [Conclusion] This study suggests that hip extension training and improvement in ankle plantar flexion strength may improve agility.

  4. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  5. Medial knee joint contact force in the intact limb during walking in recently ambulatory service members with unilateral limb loss: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross H. Miller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation have a high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA in their intact limb as they age. This risk may be related to joint loading experienced earlier in life. We hypothesized that loading during walking would be greater in the intact limb of young US military service members with limb loss than in controls with no limb loss. Methods Cross-sectional instrumented gait analysis at self-selected walking speeds with a limb loss group (N = 10, age 27 ± 5 years, 170 ± 36 days since last surgery including five service members with transtibial limb loss and five with transfemoral limb loss, all walking independently with their first prosthesis for approximately two months. Controls (N = 10, age 30 ± 4 years were service members with no overt demographical risk factors for knee OA. 3D inverse dynamics modeling was performed to calculate joint moments and medial knee joint contact forces (JCF were calculated using a reduction-based musculoskeletal modeling method and expressed relative to body weight (BW. Results Peak JCF and maximum JCF loading rate were significantly greater in limb loss (184% BW, 2,469% BW/s vs. controls (157% BW, 1,985% BW/s, with large effect sizes. Results were robust to probabilistic perturbations to the knee model parameters. Discussion Assuming these data are reflective of joint loading experienced in daily life, they support a “mechanical overloading” hypothesis for the risk of developing knee OA in the intact limb of limb loss subjects. Examination of the evolution of gait mechanics, joint loading, and joint health over time, as well as interventions to reduce load or strengthen the ability of the joint to withstand loads, is warranted.

  6. Simplified method for elastic plastic analysis of material presenting bilinear kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified method for elastic plastic analysis is presented. Material behavior is assumed to be elastic plastic with bilinear kinematic hardening. The proposed method give a strain-stress field fullfilling material constitutive equations, equations of equilibrium and continuity conditions. This strain-stress is obtained through two linear computations. The first one is the conventional elastic analysis of the body submitted to the applied load. The second one use tangent matrix (tangent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) for the determination of an additional stress due to imposed initial strain. Such a method suits finite elements computer codes, the most useful result being plastic strains resulting from the applied loading (load control or deformation control). Obviously, there is not unique solution, for stress-strain field is not depending only of the applied load, but of the load history. Therefore, less pessimistic solutions can be got by one or two additional linear computations [fr

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.

  8. Kinematic analysis of the knee joint by cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Akisada, Masayoshi; Anno, Izumi; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Kuno, Shin-ya; Miyakawa, Shunpei; Inouye, Tamon; Kose, Katsumi.

    1989-01-01

    In order to obtain the MR imaging of a moving knee joint, we developed a drive system of the knee. A reciprocating reversible motor with a rope and pulleys drove a knee brace with the knee bending and extending every two seconds. Using photo sensor probe for gating cine acquisition, we got 16-time frames/cycle MR images. Such as articular cartilage, ligaments and synovial fluid, the fine components of a moving knee joint were clearly seen. In a dynamic display, these cine images demonstrated 'actual' movement of the knee joint. Moving joint fluid and defect of anterior cruciate ligament were demonstrated in the case of knee injury. These findings were not seen on static images. Cine MR imaging was also helpful for evaluating the chronic joint disease and ligament reconstruction. Through the use of the present drive system and cine acquisition, dynamic MR imaging of a moving knee joint is clearly demonstrated and it may provide useful information in the kinematic analysis of the normal and pathologic knee. (author)

  9. Kinematics of the symbiotic system R Aqr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, S.; Corral, L. J.; Steffen, W.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of the kinematical analysis of the symbiotic system R Aqr. We obtained high dispersion spectra with the MES spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (MEZCAL). The used filter were Ha + [NII], (λc = 6575Å, Δλ = 90Å). We analyse the [NII] λλ6583 line. When the observations are compared with previous ones by Solf (1992) we detected an important change in the projected velocities of the observed knots, supporting the idea of a precessing jet. We are working also in a 3-D kinematic model for the object using the measured velocities and the state of the model is presented.

  10. Implementation of a kinematic fit of single top-quark production in association with a W boson and its application in a neural-network-based analysis in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loddenkoetter, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    In order to provide discrimination between the Wt-channel signal and its backgrounds for analyses that try to measure single top-quark production in the Wt-channel, a kinematic fit to the lepton+jets decay mode of the Wt-channel has been implemented using the KLFitter package. The fit has been validated by studying its performance in terms of the efficiency of the fit to correctly assign the final-state quarks of the fit model to the measured jets as a function of various parameters, as well as the improvement of the energy resolutions of the fitted particles due to the fit. By combining the output variables of the kinematic fitter using neural networks, it has been shown that the fit results are suitable to identify the decay mode of the top quark in Wt events and to identify whether the kinematic fit succeeded in correctly assigning the final-state quarks to the measured jets. In order to demonstrate the value of the kinematic fit for analysis, another neural network - again using strictly results of the kinematic fit as input - has been trained to separate to the Wt-channel signal from its backgrounds. A separation power comparable to a conventional neural-network-based Wt-channel analysis has been achieved.

  11. Implementation of a kinematic fit of single top-quark production in association with a W boson and its application in a neural-network-based analysis in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddenkoetter, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    In order to provide discrimination between the Wt-channel signal and its backgrounds for analyses that try to measure single top-quark production in the Wt-channel, a kinematic fit to the lepton+jets decay mode of the Wt-channel has been implemented using the KLFitter package. The fit has been validated by studying its performance in terms of the efficiency of the fit to correctly assign the final-state quarks of the fit model to the measured jets as a function of various parameters, as well as the improvement of the energy resolutions of the fitted particles due to the fit. By combining the output variables of the kinematic fitter using neural networks, it has been shown that the fit results are suitable to identify the decay mode of the top quark in Wt events and to identify whether the kinematic fit succeeded in correctly assigning the final-state quarks to the measured jets. In order to demonstrate the value of the kinematic fit for analysis, another neural network - again using strictly results of the kinematic fit as input - has been trained to separate to the Wt-channel signal from its backgrounds. A separation power comparable to a conventional neural-network-based Wt-channel analysis has been achieved.

  12. Body image and self-esteem in lower-limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Lukas A; Sevelda, Florian; Fraberger, Georg; Bluder, Olivia; Kickinger, Wolfgang; Holzer, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Limb amputation is often an inevitable procedure in the advanced condition of various diseases and poses a dramatic impact on a patient's life. The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of lower-limb amputations on aesthetic factors such as body image and self-esteem as well as quality of life (QoL). 298 patients (149 uni- or bilateral lower-limb amputees and 149 controls) were included in this cross-sectional study in three centers. Demographic data was collected and patients received a 118-item questionnaire including the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), the Rosenberg Self-esteem (RSE) scale and the SF-36 Health Survey (QoL). ANOVA and student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Unilateral lower-limb amputees showed a significant lower MBSRQ score of 3.07±0.54 compared with 3.41±0.34 in controls (pbody image and QoL. Self-esteem seems to be an independent aspect, which is not affected by lower-limb amputation. However, self-esteem is influenced significantly by phantom pain sensation.

  13. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan M. Dehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain.A geometria das zonas de cisalhamento no CinturãoParaíba do Sul no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, delineia uma estrutura-em-leque com direção NE. Estaszonas de cisalhamento mergulham para SE no flanco norte, e para NW no flanco sul da estrutura. Esta geometria tem sido interpretada de duas formas: (a implantação de um regime transpressivo ou (b dobramento tardio de superfícies de empurrão originalmente sub-horizontais. A lineação de estiramento mineral mostra caimento para ENE-ESE, no flanco norte, e para NNE-NE, no flanco sul, onde ocorre a Zona

  14. Single cell analysis of caspase-3 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells during mouse limb development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel; Matalová, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2014), PP58 ISSN 2052-1219. [European Calcified Tissue Society Congress /41./. 17.05.2014-20.05.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * caspase-3 * mouse limb development Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Inverse Kinematic Analysis and Evaluation of a Robot for Nondestructive Testing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The robot system has been utilized in the nondestructive testing field in recent years. However, only a few studies have focused on the application of ultrasonic testing for complex work pieces with the robot system. The inverse kinematics problem of the 6-DOF robot should be resolved before the ultrasonic testing task. A new effective solution for curved-surface scanning with a 6-DOF robot system is proposed in this study. A new arm-wrist separateness method is adopted to solve the inverse problem of the robot system. Eight solutions of the joint angles can be acquired with the proposed inverse kinematics method. The shortest distance rule is adopted to optimize the inverse kinematics solutions. The best joint-angle solution is identified. Furthermore, a 3D-application software is developed to simulate ultrasonic trajectory planning for complex-shape work pieces with a 6-DOF robot. Finally, the validity of the scanning method is verified based on the C-scan results of a work piece with a curved surface. The developed robot ultrasonic testing system is validated. The proposed method provides an effective solution to this problem and would greatly benefit the development of industrial nondestructive testing.

  16. Knee functional recovery and limb-to-limb symmetry restoration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya Hussein

    perturbation training using mechanical device provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee mechanics, knee functional performance, and neuromuscular activation pattern in patients with ACL rupture. The second aim of this study was to measure whether the mechanical perturbation training provides an effect similar to that of manual perturbation training on gait mechanics, knee functional performance, muscle co-contraction, and neuromuscular activation pattern in athletes with an acute ACL rupture who are managed non-surgically. The findings of this work revealed that mechanical perturbation training provides effects similar to the manual perturbation training on knee kinematics and kinetics during walking and performance-based and patient-reported measures. Gait limb-to-limb asymmetries continue persist after the training regardless of the treatment group which may indicate that patients require participating in an extended rehabilitation program. Additionally, Perturbation training attempts to resolve the neuromuscular deficits and restore a balance in muscle activation and strength between knee flexors and extensors to enhance the dynamic stability of the knee joint. There are moderate to strong relationships between time duration of muscles' activities and the muscle co-contraction that may reflect neuromuscular adaptations to provide dynamic knee stability.

  17. Derivation of three closed loop kinematic velocity models using normalized quaternion feedback for an autonomous redundant manipulator with application to inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses the orientation tracking control problem for a kinematically redundant, autonomous manipulator moving in a three dimensional workspace. The orientation error is derived using the normalized quaternion error method of Ickes, the Luh, Walker, and Paul error method, and a method suggested here utilizing the Rodrigues parameters, all of which are expressed in terms of normalized quaternions. The analytical time derivatives of the orientation errors are determined. The latter, along with the translational velocity error, form a dosed loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator using normalized quaternion and translational position feedback. An analysis of the singularities associated with expressing the models in a form suitable for solving the inverse kinematics problem is given. Two redundancy resolution algorithms originally developed using an open loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator are extended to properly take into account the orientation tracking control problem. This report furnishes the necessary mathematical framework required prior to experimental implementation of the orientation tracking control schemes on the seven axis CESARm research manipulator or on the seven-axis Robotics Research K1207i dexterous manipulator, the latter of which is to be delivered to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993.

  18. Derivation of three closed loop kinematic velocity models using normalized quaternion feedback for an autonomous redundant manipulator with application to inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses the orientation tracking control problem for a kinematically redundant, autonomous manipulator moving in a three dimensional workspace. The orientation error is derived using the normalized quaternion error method of Ickes, the Luh, Walker, and Paul error method, and a method suggested here utilizing the Rodrigues parameters, all of which are expressed in terms of normalized quaternions. The analytical time derivatives of the orientation errors are determined. The latter, along with the translational velocity error, form a dosed loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator using normalized quaternion and translational position feedback. An analysis of the singularities associated with expressing the models in a form suitable for solving the inverse kinematics problem is given. Two redundancy resolution algorithms originally developed using an open loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator are extended to properly take into account the orientation tracking control problem. This report furnishes the necessary mathematical framework required prior to experimental implementation of the orientation tracking control schemes on the seven axis CESARm research manipulator or on the seven-axis Robotics Research K1207i dexterous manipulator, the latter of which is to be delivered to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993

  19. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of a serial-link robot for inspection process in EAST vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Xuebing, E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yuan Jianjun; Zhang Weijun [Research Institute of Robotics, Mechanical Engineering School, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.800, Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang District, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang Yang; Song Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serial-link robot FIVIR is proposed for inspection of EAST PFCs between plasma shots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FIVIR is a function modular design and has specially designed curvilinear mechanism for axes 4-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-H coordinate systems, forward and inverse kinematic model can be easily established and solved for the FIVIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FIVIR can fulfill the required workspace and has a good dynamic performance in the inspection process. - Abstract: The present paper introduces a serial-link robot which is named flexible in-vessel inspection robot (FIVIR) and developed for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The task of the robot is to carry process tools, such as viewing camera and leakage detector, to inspect the components installed inside of EAST vacuum vessel. The FIVIR can help to understand the physical phenomena which could be happened in the vacuum vessel during plasma operation and could be one part of EAST remote handling system if needed. The FIVIR was designed with the consideration of having easy control and a good mechanics property which drives it resulted in function modular design. The workspace simulation and kinematic analysis are given in this paper. The dynamic behavior of the FIVIR is studied by multi-body system simulation using ADAMS software. The study result shows the FIVIR has ascendant kinematic and dynamic performance and can fulfill the design requirement for inspection process in EAST vacuum vessel.

  20. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of a serial-link robot for inspection process in EAST vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xuebing; Yuan Jianjun; Zhang Weijun; Yang Yang; Song Yuntao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A serial-link robot FIVIR is proposed for inspection of EAST PFCs between plasma shots. ► The FIVIR is a function modular design and has specially designed curvilinear mechanism for axes 4–6. ► The D-H coordinate systems, forward and inverse kinematic model can be easily established and solved for the FIVIR. ► The FIVIR can fulfill the required workspace and has a good dynamic performance in the inspection process. - Abstract: The present paper introduces a serial-link robot which is named flexible in-vessel inspection robot (FIVIR) and developed for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The task of the robot is to carry process tools, such as viewing camera and leakage detector, to inspect the components installed inside of EAST vacuum vessel. The FIVIR can help to understand the physical phenomena which could be happened in the vacuum vessel during plasma operation and could be one part of EAST remote handling system if needed. The FIVIR was designed with the consideration of having easy control and a good mechanics property which drives it resulted in function modular design. The workspace simulation and kinematic analysis are given in this paper. The dynamic behavior of the FIVIR is studied by multi-body system simulation using ADAMS software. The study result shows the FIVIR has ascendant kinematic and dynamic performance and can fulfill the design requirement for inspection process in EAST vacuum vessel.

  1. Comparative analysis of phenotypes features in two common genetic variants of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sharkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of differential diagnosis of the two most common genetic variants the limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A and DMD, developed on the basis of a comprehensive survey of 85 patients with a diagnosis specification using techniques of DNA analysis. It is shown that the accurate diagnosis of LGMD genetic types should be based on the results of the clinical and genealogical, biochemical and molecular genetic analysis. The proposed algorithm will significantly reduces the economic and time costs with expensive DNA testing.

  2. Limb salvage surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2013-05-01

    The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  3. Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Based on Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot‐assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three‐dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot‐assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patientʹs EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patientʹs motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post‐stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot‐assisted training with motor imagery‐ based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.

  4. Management of the multiple limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J H; Jones, L E; Cornet, J; Cittarelli, T

    2002-09-10

    Multiple limb amputations involving at least one upper extremity are very uncommon. The amputation of both an upper and lower limb is even more uncommon. Due to the rarity of these amputations therapists are uncertain regarding the most appropriate treatment methods. While the majority of the protocols used for single limb amputations are appropriate for these multiple limb amputees, there are differences. Loss of multiple limbs creates a problem of overheating for the individual. Loss of an arm and leg results in difficulty donning the prostheses and difficulty using crutches and parallel bars during mobilization. A review is given of 16 multiple limb amputees seen in our rehabilitation centre in the last 15 years. Return to work was seen in one third and was not related to the number of the amputations. A higher proportion of these multiple limb amputations occur through alcoholism or attempted suicide behaviour than occurs with either single upper limb amputations or lower limb amputations. This existing behaviour can create a management problem for the rehabilitation team during rehabilitation. Guidelines as to appropriate prosthetic and preprosthetic care are provided to assist the practitioner who has the acute and long term care of these patients. All multiple limb amputees should be referred to a specialized rehabilitation centre to discuss prosthetic options and long term rehabilitation requirements. This paper does not discuss bilateral lower limb amputations when not combined with an upper limb amputation.

  5. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  6. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.

  7. Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.

  8. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Colin J; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group). Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz) during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz) attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s) than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028). Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010) and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011) practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s). Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s) had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001) and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02). Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  9. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin