WorldWideScience

Sample records for lill neste mesilane

  1. Den Lille Leder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Martin; Ussing, Lene Faber

    En lille lommebog, der i fem trin hjælper dig som projektleder til succesfulde projekter i entreprenørbranchen. "Den lille leder" indeholder udvalgte ledelsesteorier, der er relevante for projektledere i byggebranchen.......En lille lommebog, der i fem trin hjælper dig som projektleder til succesfulde projekter i entreprenørbranchen. "Den lille leder" indeholder udvalgte ledelsesteorier, der er relevante for projektledere i byggebranchen....

  2. Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel er en oversigt over indholdet af næringsstoffer i næsten 600 af de mest anvendte fødevarer i den danske kost. Herudover rummer bogen anvisninger til anvendelsen af fødevaredata....

  3. Le Grand Lille (Frans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussiere, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Lille occupe une place particuliere dans l'Europe des metropoles. Fille de l'eau dont elle tire son nom, Insula, son histoire est d'abord celle d'une lutte incessante pour domestiquer une nature inhospitaliere et transformer un site ingrat en un paysage urbain attractif. Se situer au coeur de l'echi

  4. Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel er en oversigt over indholdet af næringsstoffer i næsten 600 af de mest anvendte fødevarer i den danske kost. Herudover rummer bogen anvisninger til anvendelsen af fødevaredata....

  5. Kild Eestit Lille'is

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    25. aprillist 10. maini Põhja-Prantsusmaal Lille'is toimuvast Eesti kultuurifestivalist "Vivre l'Estonie", millega tähistatakse Eesti Vabariigi 90. sünnipäeva. Toimub Aldo Järvsoo rahvarõivastest inspireeritud moeetendus, esinevad Leigarid, Ro:Toro, Brüsseli eestlaste segakoor Beene ja laulja Lembe Lokk. Filmiõhtul Ilmar Raagi film "Klass" ning James Tusty film "Laulev revolutsioon", Liina Keevalliku installatsioonid

  6. Kunstimuuseum Lille'is (Prantsusmaa) / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Lille'i 19. sajandil ehitatud kunstimuuseumi hoonele uue tiiva lisamisest ja hoone rekonstrueerimisest. Uus tiib on kuuekorruseline klaaskuup. Õhuline fassaad koosneb mitmest kihist, mis kokku mängivad. Arhitektid Jean Marc Ibos ja Myrto Vitart

  7. Kurja lilled, kurja kunstnikud / Teet Veispak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veispak, Teet, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstnike Liidu 6. aastanäituse projekt "Kurja lilled" Hobusepea galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja HOP galeriis, kuraator Elin Kard. Eksponeeritakse Kaido Ole, Marko Mäetamme, Jüri Ojaveri, Marco Laimre, Kaarel Eelma, Sirja-Liisa Vahtra, Jaan Paavle, Kristin Kalamehe, Liina Siibi, Merike Estna, Maksim Surini, Kadi Estlandi, Killu Sukmiti jt. töid

  8. Lille mäele tuleb suveks Flauerpauer / Jaanika Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Jaanika

    2008-01-01

    Tartus Lille Maja hoovis avatakse suvekohvik Flauerpauer. Kohviku väliskujunduse autoriteks on Tartu kõrgema kunstikooli tudengid Tiit Joala ja Oliver Kuusmann, sisekujunduse autoriks Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilane Kudrun Vunk. Kommenteerib Hele Riit-Vällik

  9. Uhiuus orkester Tallinn Sinfonietta / Ivo Lille ja Risto Joost ; intervjueerinud Kristina Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lille, Ivo, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Kontserdiagentuurist HIMusic Agency ja Tallinn Sinfoniettast räägivad dirigent R. Joost ja I. Lille. Avakontserdist Vene Kultuurikeskuses, kus oli kavas Mozarti sümfooniad 1, 10 ja 40 ning kontsertaariad bulgaaria soprani Sonya Youncheva esituses

  10. Uhiuus orkester Tallinn Sinfonietta / Ivo Lille ja Risto Joost ; intervjueerinud Kristina Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lille, Ivo, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Kontserdiagentuurist HIMusic Agency ja Tallinn Sinfoniettast räägivad dirigent R. Joost ja I. Lille. Avakontserdist Vene Kultuurikeskuses, kus oli kavas Mozarti sümfooniad 1, 10 ja 40 ning kontsertaariad bulgaaria soprani Sonya Youncheva esituses

  11. "Ma sinna istutaks need lilled punased..." : [luuletused] / [Ptshelovodova, Nadezhda] Muš Nadii ; tlk. Arvo Valton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muš Nadii, pseud., 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Ma sinna istutaks need lilled punased..." ; "Ei kõik hinged tõuse taevasse..." ; Kuum öö ; Kas tunned ; Ojamaa ; Magnoolia ; 24.02.2005 ; Päike vaatab tagasi. Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles

  12. Kõrged külalised Lille'i ülikoolist / Risto Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Risto

    2007-01-01

    Maaülikooliga käisid tutvumas ja koostöösidemeid sõlmimas Prantsusmaa Lille'i ülikooli õppeprorektor Francis Meilliez, välissuhete prorektor Jacky Lesage ning õppeosakonna juhataja Arnaud Gauthier

  13. Erotitsheski konspekt / Vladimir Makarenko, Mihhail Duhhomjonok, Ado Lill ; interv. Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarenko, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Näitusel "Art-delikatess" osalevate kunstnikega nende töödest erootikanäitusel galeriis Magnon Tallinnas. Vestlevad Vladimir Makarenko, Mihhail Duhhomjonok, Ado Lill, Valeri Vinogradov, Anatoli Strahhov, Slava Semerikov, Andrei Balashov

  14. [Publications of medical thesis defended in Lille school of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Triangular Nests!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. I.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)

  16. Le mobilier domestique à Lille au XVIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Canneva-Tétu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L'exposition « Lille au XVIIe siècle » présentée au musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille du 15 septembre au 27 décembre 2000 a fourni l'occasion de dresser un premier état des connaissances sur le mobilier civil lillois entre 1600 et 1715. Ce court essai s'appuie sur quelques exemples recensés dans les collections publiques lilloises.

  17. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  18. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  19. Mellem behovsorientering og regulering - diskurser om det omsorg for det lille barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Oline

    2013-01-01

    En artikel der på baggrund af feltarbejde i den danske sundhedsplejen søger at indfange, hvor diskursen om omsorg for det lille barn befinder sig i spændingsfeltet mellem at regulere barnet eller at følge dets signaler og behov....

  20. Lille SOL - Sprog og leg for de yngste 0-3 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben

    Lille Sol – Sprog og leg for de yngste er en inspirationskilde til en lang række lege, som børn og voksne kan udvikle i fællesskab. Indgangsvinklen er at videreudvikle sprogmiljøer og afsætte tid og rammer til leg, der kan virke befordrende for børns sproglige udvikling. Som udgangspunkt for valget...

  1. From bibliometric analysis to research policy: the use of SIGAPS in Lille University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Patrick; Lefranc, Helene; Dufresne, Eric; Beuscart, Regis

    2006-01-01

    In French hospitals, the progressive setting up of the new rating systems has obliged the university hospitals to justify a certain amount of activities such as research, training or moreover recourse, which are specific missions of the university hospitals. In order to justify research activities, the Lille University Hospital has developed for now three years SIGAPS, a full-web bibliometric software which census and analyse, the scientific publications referenced in the Medline database. After data downloading, each article is classified on a 6 levels "quality scale derived from the impact factors. The system then performs, for a researcher or a team, a report allowing a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Started in Lille in November 2004, the inventory and analysis of data is now ending. For the period 2001-2004, 2814 articles have been published in 700 different journals. The total number of articles increased from 688 in 2001 to 757 in 2004. The mean impact factor was equal to 2.26 and 15.5 % of articles were classified as A, 20.9% as B. Those results confirm the high level of research of the University Hospital of Lille, in agreement with two other national studies which ranks our establishment at the 6th position for medical research activities among the French University Hospitals. Currently a similar evaluation has now began in the 9 other university hospital which have subscribed to the SIGAPS project. We works currently on new indicators as patents, thesis or conferences, or access to other databases as Sciencedirect or Scopus via the RIS format. The next step in the project is the implementation of a meta-base which will federate the information provided by each SIGAPS system. This meta-base will then allow us to perform comparisons between different hospitals, determine the national "sites of excellence" and create some clinical and research networks.

  2. American Samoa ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in American Samoa. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting...

  3. [On Michel Foucault's unpublished lectures on Ludwig Binswanger's existential analysis (Lille 1953-54)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to analyze Michel Foucault's position toward phenomenological psychology and psychopathology during the 1950s, in light of the new documentary sources available today. Our investigation is especially focused on one of the courses given by Foucault at the University of Lille between 1952 and 1954, namely, the course on "Binswanger and phenomenology" (1953-54). The analysis of this course, which was conceived by Foucault within the context of a philosophical reflection on the anthropological problem of psychopathology, will finally allow us to re-ascribe Foucault the place he deserves in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry".

  4. Laval on mürri ja kaneeli hõngu / Märt-Matis Lill ; interv. Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Märt-Matis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi trupi Club Guy kontsertetendusest "Myrrh and Cinnamon" Kanuti Gildi saalis., mis tuli esmakodselt ettekandele A. Pärdile pühendatud festivalil "Aestonishing music", kontsertetenduses kasutatud eesti heliloojate Pärdi, Tüüri, Sumera, Lille muusikast. Koreograafid G. Welzman ja R. Haver

  5. Laval on mürri ja kaneeli hõngu / Märt-Matis Lill ; interv. Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Märt-Matis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Hollandi trupi Club Guy kontsertetendusest "Myrrh and Cinnamon" Kanuti Gildi saalis., mis tuli esmakodselt ettekandele A. Pärdile pühendatud festivalil "Aestonishing music", kontsertetenduses kasutatud eesti heliloojate Pärdi, Tüüri, Sumera, Lille muusikast. Koreograafid G. Welzman ja R. Haver

  6. Two light automated transport systems in course of construction: Lille and Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barwell, F.T.

    1982-10-01

    Noise and vibration control in light-electric-rail systems can be mitigated by using either the French system of pneumatic tires or the special vehicles developed to improve flange contact between steel wheels and rail as the Canadians have done in Vancouver. The pneumatic tires used in Lille, France also have the advantage of better adhesion on steep grades, but the possibility of hydroplaning makes it necessary to use a special tread pattern or to operate under cover. The Vancouver system overcomes the problem on curves with radial axles and during braking with linear induction motors to propel and brake the wheels. Both approaches appear to have provided environmental solutions and met local requirements for unmanned transit systems. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  7. Community mental health service: an experience from the East Lille, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luc Roelandt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years in the Eastern Lille Public Psychiatric sector, there had been progressive development of set up in community psychiatry. This innovative set up conforms to WHO recommendations. The essential priority is to avoid resorting to traditional hospitalisation, and integrating the entire health system into the city, via a network involving all interested partners: users, carers, families and elected representatives. The ambition of this socially inclusive service is to ensure the adaptation and non-exclusion of persons requiring mental health care and to tackle stigma and discrimination. It gives a new perception to psychiatry that is innovative and experimental, and observing human rights, i.e. citizen psychiatry. This experiment also provides lesson to India for effective implementation of its national mental health program.

  8. Lille, de la métropole à la région urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Paris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin des années 1980, le développement de Lille s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une stratégie de métropolisation. Celle-ci passe notamment par l'aptitude des acteurs politiques et économiques locaux à se mobiliser dans une dynamique de gouvernance et ne peut faire l'impasse sur le grand enjeu d'aménagement et de solidarité que représente la nécessité du renouvellement urbain. Ce processus s'articule à un système régional transfrontalier à forte densité et structuré en réseaux de villes très proches.

  9. L’église Saint-Michel de Lille : chronologie d’un chantier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Guillot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Après le démantèlement des fortifications de Lille en 1858, un nouveau quartier est aménagé au sud de la ville, dont un des équipements importants est l’église Saint-Michel, construite entre 1868 et 1874 par l’architecte Alfred Coisel. Très bien documenté, son chantier dévoile un mobilier et un décor exemplaire par son homogénéité et par la place accordée à la peinture murale. Cette étude met en évidence, outre le rôle du peintre Alphonse Colas, des artistes méconnus comme Albéric Duyver et Marie Carin. L’iconographie, qui révèle un des plus importants cycles consacrés à l’archange saint Michel, est également extrêmement caractéristique de son temps.After the demolition of the fortifications at Lille, in 1858, a new quarter developed to the south of the city. One of the important features of this new neighbourhood was the Saint-Michel church, built between 1868 and 1874 to the designs of the architect Alfred Coisel. The building of this church is exceptionally well documented and reveals church furnishings and decoration of an exemplary nature in terms of homogeneity and the special place given over to mural paintings. This study underlines the role of the painter Alphonse Colas, but also the contribution of other, less well known artists such as Albéric Duyver and Marie Carin. The iconographical theme is one of the most important cycles of its time devoted to the archangel Saint Michel, and is highly characteristic of the period.

  10. Recruitment study nest card

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey on waterfowl nests in Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. Visits were made to each nest on an approximately weekly basis, and the stage of the eggs...

  11. Simulated nest study guide

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The instructions outlined here will provide uniform methods for measuring total predator activity in blocks of nesting cover or at special kinds of nest sites. The...

  12. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  13. PyMultiNest: Python interface for MultiNest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    PyMultiNest provides programmatic access to MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) and PyCuba, integration existing Python code (numpy, scipy), and enables writing Prior & LogLikelihood functions in Python. PyMultiNest can plot and visualize MultiNest's progress and allows easy plotting, visualization and summarization of MultiNest results. The plotting can be run on existing MultiNest output, and when not using PyMultiNest for running MultiNest.

  14. Kaks kanget: Forgotten Sunrise ning Tharaphitha enne ja nüüd / Anders Melts, Ants Lill ; intervjueerinud Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise laulja Anders Melts ja pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita laulja-kitarrist Ants Lill. Ansamblitest ja nende esimestest heliplaatidest, mis üllitati hiljuti uuesti plaadifirma Nailboard Records poolt: Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ja minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  15. Kaks kanget: Forgotten Sunrise ning Tharaphitha enne ja nüüd / Anders Melts, Ants Lill ; intervjueerinud Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise laulja Anders Melts ja pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita laulja-kitarrist Ants Lill. Ansamblitest ja nende esimestest heliplaatidest, mis üllitati hiljuti uuesti plaadifirma Nailboard Records poolt: Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ja minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  16. Florence Nightingale som symbolsk overgangsfigur i lærebøger for sygeplejersker - et lille stykke sygeplejehistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen er et lille indlæg om, hvordan man har anvendt Florence Nightingale i danske lærebøger for sygeplejersker som en legitimeringsfigur i forbindelse med forandringer inden for det danske hospitalsvæsen. Perioden, der behandles, er tiden før og efter skiftet til den kliniske medicin i Danmar....... Skiftet fra den klassifikatoriske til den kliniske medicin sker i Danmakr i midten af 1800-tallet. Analysen er inspireret af den franske filosof Michel Foucault....

  17. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv......, deres oplevelser, glæder og skuffelser. 14 sange, der ligeledes følger familiens liv gennem årstidernes skiften. Til sangene er der såvel noder som becifringer En CD Her er sangene først fuldt arrangeret med musik, børne- og voksenstemmer. Dernæst kommer musikken alene, således at Cd'en også kan bruges...... som akkompagnement, når man synger sangene. Materialet kan bruges på mange måder: Rent pædagogisk kan det bruges til at lære om årets gang og månedernes navne og rækkefølge Som en oplagt mulighed for at lære nye børnevenlige årstids sange i forskellige genre Som samtalestof med gode...

  18. Validation of a Spanish Version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio García-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To date, no rating scales for detecting apathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients have been validated in Spanish. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of Lille apathy rating scale (LARS in a cohort of PD patients from Spain. Participants and Methods. 130 PD patients and 70 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the study. Apathy was measured using the Spanish version of LARS and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability and validity (construct, content, and criterion validity were measured. Results. Interrater reliability was 0.93. Cronbach’s α for LARS was 0.81. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.97. The correlation between LARS and NPI scores was 0.61. The optimal cutoff point under the ROC curve was -14, whereas the value derived from healthy controls was -11. The prevalence of apathy in our population tested by LARS was 42%. Conclusions. The Spanish version of LARS is a reliable and useful tool for diagnosing apathy in PD patients. Total LARS score is influenced by the presence of depression and cognitive impairment. However, both disorders are independent identities with respect to apathy. The satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale make it an appropriate instrument for screening and diagnosing apathy in clinical practice or for research purposes.

  19. [Platelet transfusion and allergic transfusion reactions: experiences at Lille Hospital over a four year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibaut, B; Vannier, V; Renom, P; Goudemand, J

    2000-04-01

    Among the immediate transfusion reactions caused by the utilization of blood products, those suggesting immuno-allergic mechanisms posed problems for frequency, gravity, laboratory diagnosis and safety. We report here the Lille Hospital's experience over a four-year period concerning these manifestations after platelet concentrate transfusion. Eight hundred and fifty-two immediate transfusion reactions have been declared, of which 230 were allergic, which appeared in 181 patients (27%). Among the most frequent clinical signs, rash was often described (158 cases: 68.7%); less frequent were respiratory problems such as dyspnea (34 cases: 14.8%) and hypotensive reactions (18 cases: 7.8%). Seven patients presented severe reactions (3%). Twenty percent of them presented multiple allergic reactions and in 43.2%, the recurrence was more serious than the initial problem in spite of preventive medication; the use of washed blood components was necessary. The age of platelet concentrates does not appear to play a part in provoking these events (67% of platelet concentrates had been collected within four days). These allergic transfusion reactions posed problems for those who prescribe medication, because they are frequent, sometimes serious, can recur and at present, the proposed medication prevention is not always efficient.

  20. Morphology of nested fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Safran, S.A.; Homyonfer, M.; Tenne, R. (Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel))

    1995-03-06

    We introduce a continuum model which shows that dislocations and/or grain boundaries are intrinsic features of nested fullerenes whose thickness exceeds a critical value to relieve the large inherent strains in these structures. The ratio of the thickness to the radius of the nested fullerenes is determined by the ratio of the surface to curvature and dislocation (or grain boundary) energies. Confirming experimental evidence is presented for nested fullerenes with small thicknesses and with spherosymmetric shapes.

  1. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  2. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  3. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America Savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  4. Late Holocene vegetation and land-use history in Denmark: a multi-decadally resolved record from Lille Vildmose, northeast Jutland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Broekens, P.M.; Innes, J.; van Geel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A pollen analysis of a peat profile collected from Lille Vildmose, Denmark has been used to reconstruct vegetation and land-use change from the late Iron Age (ca. 690 cal. AD) to the present day. ‘Wiggle-matching’ of 34 AMS 14C dates has enabled a precise (decadal scale) chronology to be

  5. Late Holocene vegetation and land-use history in Denmark: a multi-decadally resolved record from Lille Vildmose, northeast Jutland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Broekens, P.M.; Innes, J.; van Geel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A pollen analysis of a peat profile collected from Lille Vildmose, Denmark has been used to reconstruct vegetation and land-use change from the late Iron Age (ca. 690 cal. AD) to the present day. ‘Wiggle-matching’ of 34 AMS 14C dates has enabled a precise (decadal scale) chronology to be established

  6. La couleur à Lille au xviie siècle, de Philippe IV à Louis XIV The colour of Lille in the seventeenth century, from Philippe IV to Louis XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Poncelet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pays polychrome, de pierres blanches ou bleues et de briques roses, jaunes ou noires, la Flandre manie depuis le Moyen Âge les jeux colorés de matériaux. Sa capitale wallonne, Lille, est la ville méridionale des Pays‑Bas catholiques où s’acclimatent les plantes de la compagnie des Indes néerlandaises et où se déroulent les « joyeuses entrées » des comtes, ducs de Bourgogne, archiducs et autres rois d’Espagne. Cette tradition de luxuriance se traduit à l’âge d'or bourguignon par une efflorescence de couleurs sur les édifices qui durera jusqu’à la prise de Lille par Louis XIV en 1667. Les portes « espagnoles » affichent leurs briques émaillées de couleur. L’hospice Comtesse placarde son retable de pierres peintes sur sa façade d’entrée. La Vieille Bourse colore ses façades au modèle d’un cabinet d’ébénisterie avec ses incrustations de pierres nacrées et de brique luisantes comme les écailles de tortue. Le style franco‑lillois transmettra ce goût pour la couleur à travers la reconstitution du centre ville au xviie siècle, ce dont témoigne le plan-relief de 1743. Les restaurations depuis une dizaine d’années retrouvent cette tradition de joie urbaine dans les autres « grand-places » des villes du Nord.A polychromatic land of white and blue stone and pink, yellow and black brick, Flanders has sought colour combinations in building materials since the Middle Ages. Its French-speaking capital, Lille, was the city in the south of the Catholic Netherlands where plants imported by the Dutch East Indies Company acclimatized and where the ‘Joyous Entry’ celebrations of the counts, Dukes of Burgundy, archdukes and kings of Spain took place. During the golden age of Burgundy, this tradition of luxuriance was reflected in the increasing use of colours on buildings, a trend that would endure until the siege of Lille by Louis XIV in 1667. The ‘Spanish’ gates display brickwork enamelled in

  7. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.

  8. Feathering Your Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda Carol; Decker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The first-grade classroom was like a natural history museum. Bird nests of every shape and size lay on top of bookshelves that lined two walls. Methods students, who were visiting the classroom in preparation for the science lessons they would teach there, were immediately inspired by the collection. They used the collection as a springboard for…

  9. Simulated nests in wildlife management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many of us have studied game bird nests. Usually we hoped to learn something about nesting cover, cover management and the birds and animals which seemed to eat the...

  10. Nest and nest site characterisitcs of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We summarized biological and ecologic characteristics of 2490 nests of 16 species of upland-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands found during 1963 through 1991. Nest initiation and hatch dates, clutch sizes, nest fates, causes of failure, success rates of nests among major habitat types and land uses, and vegetation measurements at nest sites are analyzed.

  11. Muusikamaailm : Telemanni festival Magdeburgis. Suurkontsert Lille'is. Straussi ooperi tähtpäev. Kahelt konkursilt. Viini festival tuleb põnev / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Märtsis 2000. a. toimuvast Telemanni festivalist Magdeburgis Saksamaal. Lille"is Prantsusmaal toimunud kontserdist, kus oli ettekandel D. Milhaud" muusika P. Claudeli näidendile "Les Choephores". R. Straussi ooperi "Naine ilma varjuta" uuslavastusest Viini Riigiooperis. Prantsusmaal Besanconis toimunud 46. rahvusvahelisest noorte dirigentide konkursist, 4. H. Dutilleux" nimelisest noorte heliloojate konkursist Pariisis. 14. mail. 2000 avatavatest Viini pidunädalatest (Wiener Festwochen)

  12. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  13. 2004欧洲文化之都:创意城市里尔%European Capital of Culture in 2004: Creative Lille

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗朗·德雷阿诺; 让·玛利·埃尔耐克; 赵淑美

    2012-01-01

    文章概述了法国里尔从举办欧洲文化之都“里尔2004”盛会开始,通过各种文化创意途径促进城市经济发展、提升城市声望、实现城市转型的种种经验.文化不仅让公众分享到了更加美好的城市生活,更为里尔在国际领域的迅猛发展创造了机会.%the paper briefly introduces how Lille began to conduct "Lille 2004" , a mega event of being European capital of culture, and its experiences of promoting urban economic development, enhancing the city' s prestige and realizing urban transformation through various creative cultural approaches. Culture itself not only allows the public to share the better urban life, but also creates opportunities for Lille to develop rapidly in the global arena.

  14. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  15. El papel de las redes sociales en la actividad económica: el caso de los restauradores de Lille.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elorie, Fabien

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is rooted in two fields of research: economic sociology and network analysis. The network approach we develop here is not an ego-network approach based on the individual level of analysis, but is a socio-centric approach based on the meso-social level of analysis. We focus our attention on the objective structures that govern markets. We rely on the empirical case of three hundred restaurants’ owners situated in the area of Lille in the North of France. Our population reconstitutes an inter-organisational complete network. First, we explain how we have empirically constructed this population. Second, we present this restaurant industry, on the one hand as an interface of production (White and, on the other hand as a field (Bourdieu. Third, we show how these economic and social structures are connected with the relational structure. In our view, the relational structure relates to a social exchange system of social resources (Lazega. Finally, our approach suggests a heterodox conception of how is running a market.

  16. [Management of aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Recommendations of Lille University Hospital--4th version--November 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, S; Leroy, O; de Botton, S; Yakoub-Agha, I; Durand-Joly, I; Leroy-Cotteau, A; Beaucaire, G

    2005-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients. The arrival of new antifungal agents motivated the redaction of guidelines, regularly updated, by a Lille University hospital multidisciplinary task force. These guidelines assess diagnostic and therapeutic issues. The main recommended diagnosis tool is the chest CT scan, ordered at the smallest suspicion and, also, measure of the blood and broncho alveolar lavage fluid galactomannan. Treatment guidelines assess prophylaxis, empirical and documented therapy. Primary prophylaxis is warranted in only two cases, pulmonary graft or stem cell transplant in patients with chronic GVH and receiving corticosteroids. Empirical therapy should use one of the available amphotericin B formulations, chosen according to the patient history. Caspofungin is another choice. Documented therapy, depending on presentation, can be a single drug or a combination. First line therapy for single drug is i.v. voriconazole. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B are another choice. A combination therapy can be used as a first line treatment, for multiple lesions, or as salvage therapy. It must include caspofungin, associated with liposomal amphotericin B or voriconazole. A tight cooperation with thoracic surgeons is recommended.

  17. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  18. Nested subgraphs of complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Sole, Ricard V [ICREA-Complex Systems Lab, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Dr Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Mendes, Jose F F [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: bernat.corominas@upf.edu

    2008-09-26

    We analytically explore the scaling properties of a general class of nested subgraphs in complex networks, which includes the K-core and the K-scaffold, among others. We name such a class of subgraphs K-nested subgraphs since they generate families of subgraphs such that ...S{sub K+1}(G) subset or equal S{sub K}(G) subset or equal S{sub K-1}(G).... Using the so-called configuration model it is shown that any family of nested subgraphs over a network with diverging second moment and finite first moment has infinite elements (i.e. lacking a percolation threshold). Moreover, for a scale-free network with the above properties, we show that any nested family of subgraphs is self-similar by looking at the degree distribution. Both numerical simulations and real data are analyzed and display good agreement with our theoretical predictions.

  19. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  20. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  1. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  2. Lille mand, stor kanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    I fredagens første valgduel på TV2 kører Løkke effektivt frem med en ordentlig kanon af en elefantbøsse, men skrider i svinget med sine fortielser og fordrejninger. Thorning møder velforberedt op med relevante fakta og konkrete eksempler, men forfalder til intern socialdemokrat-lingo. Kort sagt...

  3. Den lille galskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses symbolization as a specific psychological method informed by psychodynamic theory. The point of departure is taken in a critique of modern society as disenchanted in the sense that a one-sided appreciation of reason has displaced and delegitimized irrational modes....... Finally, the article discusses practices of symbolization in a broader cultural context....

  4. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan nødve...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  5. Pensionilepe Venemaaga / Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilles, Eli

    2007-01-01

    16. oktoobril 2007 jõustunud Eesti ja Venemaa vahelisest pensionilepingust, mis puudutab Eestis elavaid Vene kodanikest pensionäre, kes 1991. aastani töötasid mujal NSV Liidus ja Venemaal ning kelle tööstaaži siiani Eestis arvesse ei võetud

  6. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...

  7. Pensionilepe Venemaaga / Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilles, Eli

    2007-01-01

    16. oktoobril 2007 jõustunud Eesti ja Venemaa vahelisest pensionilepingust, mis puudutab Eestis elavaid Vene kodanikest pensionäre, kes 1991. aastani töötasid mujal NSV Liidus ja Venemaal ning kelle tööstaaži siiani Eestis arvesse ei võetud

  8. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancucci, L.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  9. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...... Exformatics, a danish provider of case and workflow management systems. We formalize the semantics by giving first a map from Nested to (flat) DCR Graphs with milestones, and then extending the previously given mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata to include the milestone relation....

  10. Patterns of magpie nest utilization by a nesting raptor community in a secondary forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhou; Haitao Wang; Yu Liu; Fumin Lei; Wei Gao

    2009-01-01

    For a total of 9 years, we examined the patterns of a nesting raptor community that utilized European Magpie (Pica pica) nests in the Zuojia Natural Reserve, northeast China. Eight raptor species and two other bird species were recorded nesting in magpie nests. The reuse rate of abandoned magpie nests was 51.6%, and the number of reused nests was positively correlated with their availability. Raptors utilized 83.3% of the reused abandoned magpie nests. Nests followed for more than 1 year were reused by raptors an average of 1.13 times. Inter-specific nest usurpation was common, with 17.3% of new magpie nests being usurped by raptors, and four cases of usurpation occurred among different raptor species. At the community level, 8 of 11 raptor species took over magpie nests to breed in the study area, and 91.9% of their nests came from magpie nests. European Magpies represent the core species in the nest web of the local raptor community that utilizes magpie nests. At the forest stand level, closer proximity to forest edges and greater distances from occupied raptor nests were the best predictors of nest reuse. At the nest-site level, arbor density and canopy coverage were the best predictors of nest reuse.

  11. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Instantiation Schemes for Nested Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Echenim, Mnacho

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates under which conditions instantiation-based proof procedures can be combined in a nested way, in order to mechanically construct new instantiation procedures for richer theories. Interesting applications in the field of verification are emphasized, particularly for handling extensions of the theory of arrays.

  13. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    Use of nest boxes is an important part of the behavioural repertoire of laying hens kept under commercial conditions. A special form of nest box use is gregarious nesting, which occurs when a hen given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site...... experiences in selection of nest locations, causing the found decrease in frequency of gregarious nesting after age 20 weeks. A general preference for corner and end nest boxes is suggested to have triggered the initial use of the left nest box by the first hens coming into lay and to have maintained...... risk of broken or dirty eggs. The main objectives were to investigate the use of nest boxes according to their position and the occurrence of gregarious nesting with age. Twelve groups of 15 Isa Warren hens were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes only differing...

  14. Influence of Habitat Types on Prairie Nesting Waterfowl Nest Density and Nest Success in Northeastern North Dakota, 2010 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nest density and nest success of ducks in native and non-native grasslands within the Devils Lake WMD, Northeastern North Dakota. Waterfowl representing 8 species of...

  15. Importance Nested Sampling and the MultiNest Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Feroz, F; Cameron, E; Pettitt, A N

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian inference involves two main computational challenges. First, in estimating the parameters of some model for the data, the posterior distribution may well be highly multi-modal: a regime in which the convergence to stationarity of traditional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques becomes incredibly slow. Second, in selecting between a set of competing models the necessary estimation of the Bayesian evidence for each is, by definition, a (possibly high-dimensional) integration over the entire parameter space; again this can be a daunting computational task, although new Monte Carlo (MC) integration algorithms offer solutions of ever increasing efficiency. Nested sampling (NS) is one such contemporary MC strategy targeted at calculation of the Bayesian evidence, but which also enables posterior inference as a by-product, thereby allowing simultaneous parameter estimation and model selection. The widely-used MultiNest algorithm presents a particularly efficient implementation of the NS technique for...

  16. Valorização de bairros antigos e ressignificação da alteridade: o exemplo de Wazemmes em Lille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafid Hammouche

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a dinâmica urbana em bairros submetidos à gentrificação, mais precisamente aquela de Wazemmes, bairro perto do centro da cidade de Lille, no Norte da Franca. Em Wazemmes ocorreram mudanças sensíveis nas ultimas décadas. O bairro tornou-se um espaço cosmopolita, onde convive uma população de grande diversidade. Conta com uma ação publica em domínios variados, sobretudo nos registros social e cultural. De um espaço difamado em razão da delinquência, e do medo por causa da forte presença de imigrantes, e agora valorizado, tornando-se um lugar emblemático quanto a sua urbanidade e sua etnicidade.

  17. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Duck nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the 1991 duck nest survey at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Key areas of the refuge were nest searched during the period between May 25th and July...

  18. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  19. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  20. An Undecidable Nested Recurrence Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Celaya, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Roughly speaking, a recurrence relation is nested if it contains a subexpression of the form ... A(...A(...)...). Many nested recurrence relations occur in the literature, and determining their behavior seems to be quite difficult and highly dependent on their initial conditions. A nested recurrence relation A(n) is said to be undecidable if the following problem is undecidable: given a finite set of initial conditions for A(n), is the recurrence relation calculable? Here calculable means that for every n >= 0, either A(n) is an initial condition or the calculation of A(n) involves only invocations of A on arguments in {0,1,...,n-1}. We show that the recurrence relation A(n) = A(n-4-A(A(n-4)))+4A(A(n-4)) +A(2A(n-4-A(n-2))+A(n-2)). is undecidable by showing how it can be used, together with carefully chosen initial conditions, to simulate Post 2-tag systems, a known Turing complete problem.

  1. Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Perdigão, Luís M A; Esmail, Ayad M S; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Anderson, Harry L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in template-directed synthesis make it possible to create artificial molecules with protein-like dimensions, directly from simple components. These synthetic macromolecules have a proclivity for self-organization that is reminiscent of biopolymers. Here, we report the synthesis of monodisperse cyclic porphyrin polymers, with diameters of up to 21 nm (750 C–C bonds). The ratio of the intrinsic viscosities for cyclic and linear topologies is 0.72, indicating that these polymers behave as almost ideal flexible chains in solution. When deposited on gold surfaces, the cyclic polymers display a new mode of two-dimensional supramolecular organization, combining encapsulation and nesting; one nanoring adopts a near-circular conformation, thus allowing a second nanoring to be captured within its perimeter, in a tightly folded conformation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that nesting occurs in combination with stacking when nanorings are deposited under vacuum, whereas when they are deposited directly from solution under ambient conditions there is stacking or nesting, but not a combination of both.

  2. Nesting behavior of the poo-uli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, C.B.; Pratt, T.K.; Ecton, A.M.; Engilis, A.; Fluetsch, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    We describe two sequential nestings of a pair of Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma), a Hawaiian honeycreeper nearing extinction. Similarities to nesting of most other honeycreepers included: nest site in ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) canopy; breeding in March through June; monogamous breeding system with the putative male helping build the nest, feeding the putative female throughout each nesting event, and feeding the chicks, but not incubating or brooding; and complete nest sanitation. Notable differences were the paucity of songs and calls by the parents and inclusion of snails in the diet of nestlings. Clutch size was probably two eggs for both nests. High winds, rain, or both influenced parental behavior: the female stayed longer on the nest and took shorter recesses in poor weather. Weather did not affect rates at which the male fed the female on the nest; however, the feeding rate increased from the egg to the chick stage probably because food was passed on to the chicks. At nest #2, parents fed young chicks (<14 days old) more often in good than in poor weather; data were insufficient for old chicks. Weather is usually poor throughout the year in the relictual range of the Poo-uli and is likely to impact nesting success. The first nest failed in poor weather. The second fledged a single young 21 days old. Diet of nestlings appeared to consist of a higher proportion of insect larvae than that of older birds, which are reported to eat mostly snails.

  3. On the Denesting of Nested Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    We present the basic theory of denesting nested square roots, from an elementary point of view, suitable for lower level coursework. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for direct denesting, where the nested expression is rewritten as a sum of square roots of rational numbers, and for indirect denesting, where the nested expression is…

  4. A démarche estratégica: a metodologia de gestão do Centro Hospitalar Regional Universitário de Lille, França The strategic management: the methodology applied by the "Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire"(CHRU at Lille, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Uribe Rivera

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma apresentação geral do enfoque da "démarche" estratégica (o processo estratégico, aplicado pelo Centro Hospitalar Regional Universitário (CHRU de Lille, França. Este é um método de gestão hospitalar, baseado na análise estratégica das melhores alternativas de racionalização da missão hospitalar. Considera um ambiente de competição, onde é necessário estruturar redes de cuidados com base na negociação dos projetos de estabelecimento. O autor apresenta as fases e os principais instrumentos metodológicos do enfoque e faz uma avaliação preliminar de possibilidades.This work is a general presentation of the "Démarche Stratégique", a strategic process applied by the "Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire" (CHRU at Lille, France. The hospital management methodology relies on the strategic analysis of the best alternatives for rationalizing the hospital mission. It takes into account a competitive environment, in which it is necessary to structure health care networks based on the negotiation of inpatient care goals. The author presents the phases and main methodological tools of the approach, as well as a preliminary evaluation of its potentials.

  5. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Castellano

    Full Text Available Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and

  6. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... experienced by hens in distinguishing between nest boxes in long rows of identical boxes. Heterogeneity of nest boxes has therefore been suggested as a method to reduce gregarious nesting. To test this hypothesis two experiments were performed. Twelve groups of 13–15 ISA Warren hens 27 weeks of age were...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  7. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  8. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Franck A; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio) that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  9. DNest3: Diffusive Nested Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Brendon

    2016-04-01

    DNest3 is a C++ implementation of Diffusive Nested Sampling (ascl:1010.029), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics. Relative to older DNest versions, DNest3 has improved performance (in terms of the sampling overhead, likelihood evaluations still dominate in general) and is cleaner code: implementing new models should be easier than it was before. In addition, DNest3 is multi-threaded, so one can run multiple MCMC walkers at the same time, and the results will be combined together.

  10. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  11. Polytypic Functions Over Nested Datatypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hinze

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of polytypic programming is intimately connected with the initial algebra semantics of datatypes. This is both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because the underlying theory is beautiful and well developed. It is a curse because the initial algebra semantics is restricted to so-called regular datatypes. Recent work by R. Bird and L. Meertens [3] on the semantics of non-regular or nested datatypes suggests that an extension to general datatypes is not entirely straightforward. Here we propose an alternative that extends polytypism to arbitrary datatypes, including nested datatypes and mutually recursive datatypes. The central idea is to use rational trees over a suitable set of functor symbols as type arguments for polytypic functions. Besides covering a wider range of types the approach is also simpler and technically less involving than previous ones. We present several examples of polytypic functions, among others polytypic reduction and polytypic equality. The presentation assumes some background in functional and in polytypic programming. A basic knowledge of monads is required for some of the examples.

  12. Eggs in the Freezer: Energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird species. All species chose thermally favourable nesting sites in a higher proportion than expected on the basis of habitat availability. Site choice did not differ between species. Depth to frozen ground, measured near the nests, decreased in the course of the season at similar non-species-specific speeds, but this depth increased with species size. Nest cup depth and nest scrape depth (nest cup without the lining) were unrelated to body mass (we applied an exponent of 0.73, to account for metabolic activity of the differently sized species). Cup depth divided by diameter2 was used as a measure of nest cup shape. Small species had narrow and deep nests, while large species had wide shallow nests. The thickness of nest lining varied between 0.1 cm and 7.6 cm, and decreased significantly with body mass. We reconstruct the combined effect of different nest properties on the egg cooling coefficient using previously published quantitative relationships. The predicted effect of nest cup depth and lining depth on heat loss to the frozen ground did not correlate with body mass, but the sheltering effect of nest cup diameter against wind and the effects of lining material on the cooling coefficient increased with body mass. Our results suggest that small arctic shorebirds invest more in the insulation of their nests than large species. PMID:22701596

  13. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  14. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  15. Optimal Nesting for Continuous Shape Stamping Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimal nesting problem for minimizing the scrap in continuous shape stamping processes. The shape sliding technique is used to propose a new approach, OVERLAP-and-ESCAPE, to solve the problem of continuously nesting shapes onto a metal coil of fixed or selectable width. The approach is used to construct the objective function of the mathematical model of the problem using the Simulated Annealing Algorithm to determine the globally minimal configurations for the nesting problems. Some representative cases are studied and the results are encouraging. An automatic nesting software package for manufacturing bicycle chain link blanks is also described.

  16. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering; Dorge; G?ran; H?gstedt; Terje; Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge(Perdix hodgsoniae)which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings.Method: A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area.Results: Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north(1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south(0.11–0.34/ km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentilla fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak(Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples.Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots.Conclusions: Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites are

  17. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dorge; Gran Hgstedt; Terje Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background:Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings. Method:A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area. Results:Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north (1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south (0.11–0.34/km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentil a fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak (Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples. Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots. Conclusions:Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites

  18. Nested Trampoline Resonators for Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Matthew J; Luna, Fernando; Buters, Frank M; Eerkens, Hedwig J; Welker, Gesa; Perock, Blaise; Heeck, Kier; de Man, Sven; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating novel trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) Si$_3$N$_4$ with a distributed bragg reflector (DBR) mirror. We construct a nested double resonator structure that generates approximately 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface, eliminating the strong mounting dependence of the quality factor observed with single resonators. With the consistency provided by this isolation scheme we reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400,000 at room temperature. In addition these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181,000 $\\pm$ 1,000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  19. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  20. 1989 Waterfowl Nesting Study and Nesting Summary 1984-1989 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1989 nesting season marked the sixth consecutive and final year that Big Stone personnel have conducted waterfowl nesting research. In addition, an experimental...

  1. Frog Foam Nest Protein Diversity and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissa, Denise Cavalcante; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira De; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lopes, José Luiz De Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cascon, Paulo; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-08-01

    Some amphibian species have developed a breeding strategy in which they deposit their eggs in stable foam nests to protect their eggs and larvae. The frog foam nests are rich in proteins (ranaspumin), especially surfactant proteins, involved in the production of the foam nest. Despite the ecological importance of the foam nests for evolution and species conservation, the biochemical composition, the long-term stability and even the origin of the components are still not completely understood. Recently we showed that Lv-RSN-1, a 23.5-kDa surfactant protein isolated from the nest of the frog Leptodacylus vastus, presents a structural conformation distinct from any protein structures yet reported. So, in the current study we aimed to reveal the protein composition of the foam nest of L. vastus and further characterize the Lv-RSN-1. Proteomic analysis showed the foam nest contains more than 100 of proteins, and that Lv-RSN-1 comprises 45% of the total proteins, suggesting a key role in the nest construction and stability. We demonstrated by Western blotting that Lv-RSN-1 is mainly produced only by the female in the pars convoluta dilata, which highlights the importance of the female preservation for conservation of species that depend on the production of foam nests in the early stages of development. Overall, our results showed the foam nest of L. vastus is composed of a great diversity of proteins and that besides Lv-RSN-1, the main protein in the foam, other proteins must have a coadjuvant role in building and stability of the nest.

  2. Aromatic Plants in Eurasian Blue Tit Nests: The ‘Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Bárbara A.; Anabela F. Belo; Rabaça, João E.

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Nest Protection Hypothesis’ suggests that some birds add aromatic plants to their nests to repel or kill ectoparasites. This behavior has been described for several species, including the Eurasian Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We studied the reproductive performance, based on 26 nests (in nest boxes), of this species in mixed forested areas of Quercus spp. and Pinus pinea in the Parque Florestal de Monsanto, the largest park of Lisbon, Portugal. The frequency of aromatic plant...

  3. Florida harvester ant nest architecture, nest relocation and soil carbon dioxide gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2013-01-01

    Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed.

  4. Chapter 6: Characteristics of Marbled Murrelet Nest Trees and Nesting Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Hamer; S. Kim Nelson

    1995-01-01

    We summarize the characteristics of 61 tree nests and nesting stands of the Marbled Murrelet ( Brachyramphus marmoratus ) located from 1974 to 1993 in Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Evidence of breeding 30-60 km inland was common in California, Oregon, and Washington. Nesting greater distances from the coast may have...

  5. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  6. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest-site selection between co-occurring avocets and terns, and indicate the effects of physical characteristics and social factors on selection of nesting habitat are dependent on the spatial scale examined. Moreover, these results indicate that islands with abundant area between 0.5 m and 1.5

  7. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  8. 7 CFR 29.6027 - Nested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nested. 29.6027 Section 29.6027 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6027 Nested. Any tobacco which has been loaded, packed, or arranged...

  9. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  10. a 530-590 GHZ Schottky Heterodyne Receiver for High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy with Lille's Fast-Scan Fully Solid-State DDS Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Maestrini, Alain; Defrance, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy, especially at THz and mm-wave ranges require the advances in instrumentation techniques to provide high resolution of the recorded spectra with precise frequency measurement that facilitates the mathematical treatment. We report the first implementation of a Schottky heterodyne receiver, operating at room temperature and covering the range between 530 and 590 GHz, for molecular laboratory spectroscopy. A 530-590 GHz non-cryogenic Schottky solid-state receiver was designed at LERMA, Observatoire de Paris and fabricated in partnership with LPN- CNRS (Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures), and was initially developed for ESA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), intended to observe Jupiter and its icy moon atmospheres. It is based on a sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixer, designed and fabricated at LERMA-LPN, pumped by a Local Oscillator (LO), consisting of a frequency Amplifier/Multiplier chains (AMCs) from RPG (Radiometer Physics GmBh). The performance of the receiver was demonstrated by absorption spectroscopy of CH_3CH_2CN with Lille's fast-scan DDS spectrometer. A series of test measurements showed the receiver's good sensitivity, stability and frequency accuracy comparable to those of 4K QMC bolometers, thus making room-temperature Schottky receiver a competitive alternative to 4K QMC bolometers to laboratory spectroscopy applications. We will present the first results with such a combination of a compact room temperature Schottky heterodyne receiver and a fast-scan DDS spectrometer. J. Treuttel, L. Gatilova, A. Maestrini et al., 2016, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Tech., 6, 148-155. This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  11. Dinosaurs nesting on a red beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P. Martin; Peitz, Christian; Gallemi, Jaume; Cousin, Rémi

    1998-07-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Basturs locality (Tremp Basin, northern Spain) preserves numerous dinosaur eggs ( Megaloolithus cf. M. mammilare Vianey-Liaud, 1994). The locality was recently studied by Sanz et al. (1995) as well as by us. However, we have to disagree with several conclusions by Sanz et al. and suggest alternative interpretations incorporating data from other localities (Coll de Nargó). The dinosaurs at Basturs did not nest at the beach, nor is there evidence for colonial nesting and territorial behaviour. However, the locality superbly documents nesting site fidelity with an estimated occupation time of over 10 000 years.

  12. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  13. 1988 Duck nesting study: Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer, 1988, we conducted a duck nesting study to determine nest success for ducks at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). We calculated nest...

  14. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  15. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  16. Estimating stage-specific daily survival probabilities of nests when nest age is unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Estimation of daily survival probabilities of nests is common in studies of avian populations. Since the introduction of Mayfield's (1961, 1975) estimator, numerous models have been developed to relax Mayfield's assumptions and account for biologically important sources of variation. Stanley (2000) presented a model for estimating stage-specific (e.g. incubation stage, nestling stage) daily survival probabilities of nests that conditions on “nest type” and requires that nests be aged when they are found. Because aging nests typically requires handling the eggs, there may be situations where nests can not or should not be aged and the Stanley (2000) model will be inapplicable. Here, I present a model for estimating stage-specific daily survival probabilities that conditions on nest stage for active nests, thereby obviating the need to age nests when they are found. Specifically, I derive the maximum likelihood function for the model, evaluate the model's performance using Monte Carlo simulations, and provide software for estimating parameters (along with an example). For sample sizes as low as 50 nests, bias was small and confidence interval coverage was close to the nominal rate, especially when a reduced-parameter model was used for estimation.

  17. Spatial dynamics of nesting behavior: lizards shift microhabitats to construct nests with beneficial thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angilletta, Michael J; Sears, Michael W; Pringle, Robert M

    2009-10-01

    Because temperature affects the growth, development, and survival of embryos, oviparous mothers should discriminate carefully among available nesting sites. We combined a radiotelemetric study of animal movements with a spatial mapping of environmental temperatures to test predictions about the nesting behavior of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). Females made large excursions from their typical home ranges to construct nests in exposed substrates. These excursions appeared to be related solely to nesting because all females returned to forested habitat immediately afterward. On average, <1% (range = 0-8%, n = 19) of the area used by a female during nesting was contained within the area used before and after nesting. The selection of nesting sites matched predictions based on laboratory studies of embryonic performance; specifically, females nested in extremely open habitat at a mean of 6 cm depth. Spatial mapping of soil temperatures revealed that temperatures of nesting areas exceeded those of areas typically used by females, indicating that females preferred to construct warm nests that speed embryonic growth and development. However, this behavior could reduce the survivorship of females because of the need to rapidly navigate unfamiliar and exposed terrain.

  18. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  19. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Biddle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  20. Alcid Nesting Habitat on the Maine Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maine supports an extensive seabird population because of the abundance of relatively inaccessible rocky coastal islands which are ideal nesting grounds for many...

  1. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical diagnosis. Instead, empty nest syndrome is a phenomenon in which parents experience feelings of sadness and loss when the last child leaves home. Although you might actively encourage your ...

  2. Annual survival of Florida nesting loggerheads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 30 PAT tags were deployed on nesting loggerhead turtles at Juno Beach, FL in June 2012. There have been three premature pop-offs, one of which appeared to be a...

  3. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  4. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  5. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Nesting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chesapeake Bay population of breeding bald eagles increased dramatically in 1981 in not only the number of breeding pairs but in the number of nests hatching...

  6. Island's terns nest again after unsuccessful start

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For five consecutive summers the Trustees of Reservations have directed a program on Nantucket for the protection of the terns which nest in several colonies around...

  7. Duck-nesting Studies: Lower Souris Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report an attempt has been made to summarize some of the notes made during the nesting studies at the Lower Souris Refuge in 1937. While assisting Mr....

  8. Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle Activity Report 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper presents results from the 9th Annual Study (using Army Corp of Engineers funds) of nesting by the Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) along...

  9. Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle Activity Report 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper presents results from the sixth annual study of nesting along the Atlantic Oceanfront by the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta carettd) in Virginia Beach,...

  10. Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle Activity Report 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper presents results from the seventh annual study (using Army Corp of Engineers funds;) of nesting along the Atlantic Ocean coastline by the loggerhead sea...

  11. Linear Maps Preserving Idempotence on Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lian CUI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the rank-1-preserving linear maps on nest algebras of Hilbertspace operators. We obtain several characterizations of such linear maps and apply them to show that a weakly continuous linear bijection on an atomic nest algebra is idempotent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism, and in turn, if and only if it is an automorphism or an anti-automorphism.

  12. Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel (dir., 2010, Le changement climatique : Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère, Presses Universitaire du Septentrion, Lille, 358 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rocher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage « Le changement climatique. Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère », édité par les Presses Universitaire du Septentrion dans la collection Environnement et société, coordonné par Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel, rassemble autour de la question du changement climatique plusieurs contributions de chercheurs en géographie, pour la plupart membres du laboratoire TVES de Lille. Ce livre apporte un éclairage original et intéressant, alliant des études de cas comportant un fo...

  13. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility...... in nesting strategy. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether gregarious nesting due to behavioural flexibility in nesting strategy is an anti-predator response. Twelve groups of 14–15 Isa Warren hens age 44 weeks were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes...

  14. Nest-site limitation and nesting resources of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Russell; Philpott, Stacy M

    2009-06-01

    Urbanization impacts biodiversity, yet few studies examine general impacts of urbanization on insects. Furthermore, few studies examine availability and limitation of potential cavity nesting sites for ants, an important regulating factor in ant communities that may vary in different urban habitats. We compared three urban habitat types (gardens, vacant lots, and forests) in Toledo, OH, to examine availability and ant preferences for different cavity nesting resources (small and large hollow twigs and cavities). We added 72 artificial large hollow twigs (83 by 6 mm), small hollow twigs (140 by 2 mm), and spherical hollow cavities (6.52-31.1 cm(3) in volume, 1-mm opening) to six sites from May to August 2007 to determine whether nest-site limitation impacts ant communities. We collected natural nests to compare natural abundance and occupancy of cavity nests in different urban habitats. We opened artificial and natural nests to calculate the percentage occupied by cavity-nesting ants. Across all habitats, small twigs represented 81.1% of natural nests, spherical nests represented 10.1%, and large twigs 8.2%. Ants occupied 8.1% of natural large twigs, 14.6% of cavities, and 4.1% of small twigs. For artificial nests, 21.5% of large twigs, 1% of small twigs, and 1% of spheres were occupied. The high percentage of occupied artificial large twigs could imply this is a preferred and limiting resource in urban habitats. The results show that certain types of nesting resources may be an important factor mediating ant communities in urban green spaces.

  15. Nesting Activity of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta at Göksu Delta, Turkey during 2004 and 2008 nesting seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih H. Durmus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta. This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5% nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008 and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6% were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9% hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 – 143. The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main problems are negatively affecting loggerhead turtle population at Göksu Delta are dense jackal predation both adult and eggs and inundation in nests. The average nesting effort here (mean: 119.5 nests/season confirms that Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in Turkey.

  16. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  17. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose and... active or inactive nest where necessary to alleviate a safety emergency; (ii) An inactive eagle nest...

  18. Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-09-15

    This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions.

  19. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Polak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi–natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding.

  20. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  1. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  2. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson’s Hawks in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselman, Will M.; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Swainson’s hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson’s hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson’s hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, SDist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%–42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson’s hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson’s hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson’s hawks arriving to the breeding grounds. PMID:26327440

  3. Nest-site selection, nesting behaviour and spatial ecology of female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrink, Xander; Warner, Jonathan K; Downs, Colleen T

    2017-02-01

    Nesting biology and ecology have been investigated for Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), but information on behaviour and movement patterns of nesting females during nest guarding is scant. Consequently, we investigated the home ranges, nest-site selection strategies, movement patterns, activity levels and nest fidelity of four nesting females using telemetry. Gravid females selected winter basking/breeding areas close (351±2m) to nest-sites. Mean home range and core-use areas of nesting females were 8539±4752m(2), and 4949±3302m(2) respectively. Mean home range (0.85ha) was significantly smaller than those of non-nesting females (108.4ha) during nesting season. Activity levels and mean daily movements while nesting were 8.1±2.5% and 213±64m, respectively, and increased to 47.9±11.7% and 2176±708m post-nesting. Overall levels of nest fidelity were 82.8±11.7%, (day 78.1±15.9%; night 87.3±7.8%). Highest nest fidelity recorded during incubation was 99.7% over 96days. Telemetry data from nesting females were helpful for elucidating spatial and behavioural patterns during the nest guarding period, and provided novel insights into this biologically important event.

  4. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  5. Ashtabula Breakwater Common Tern (Sterna Hirundo) Nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    purchased from GG Telecom, Victoriaville, QC, Canada and connected to the solar panel system to help document activities at the site. Volunteers...blocks. Large 8’ x 8’ x 4’ blocks were used to form the base or toe of the structure, and smaller angled blocks were used to create the side slope...to nest. In addition to placing the blocks on top of the wall, lengths of angle iron were bolted down to attach the nesting blocks to those below

  6. PolyChord: nested sampling for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, W J; Lasenby, A N

    2015-01-01

    PolyChord is a novel nested sampling algorithm tailored for high dimensional parameter spaces. In addition, it can fully exploit a hierarchy of parameter speeds such as is found in CosmoMC and CAMB. It utilises slice sampling at each iteration to sample within the hard likelihood constraint of nested sampling. It can identify and evolve separate modes of a posterior semi-independently and is parallelised using openMPI. PolyChord is available for download at: http://ccpforge.cse.rl.ac.uk/gf/project/polychord/

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens’ welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  9. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Zaytsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007. Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI, a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, 1999. The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008, the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface.However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python / C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python / C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches.In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011. Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike.

  10. Ants' learning of nest entrance characteristics (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2014-02-01

    Young workers, experimentally removed from their nest and set in front of it, are not very good at finding the nest entrance and entering the nest. I examined how young ants learn their nest entrance characteristics, dealing only with the entrance sensu stricto, not with its vicinity. I observed that young ants have the innate behavior of trying to exit and re-enter their nest. I found that they are imprinted with the nest entrance odor while they are still living inside their nest and that they learn the visual aspect of their nest entrances, thanks to operant conditioning, when they exit their nest and succeed in re-entering in the course of their first short trips outside.

  11. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used......Under natural conditions, the feral hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) will choose a nest location away from the flock, whereas under commercial conditions, the domestic hen will often choose the same nest as other hens have used or are still using. Simultaneous nest sharing causes several welfare...

  12. Crossings and nestings in colored set partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Marberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several years ago, Chen, Deng, Du, Stanley, and Yan introduced the notion of $k$-crossings and $k$-nestings for set partitions, and proved that the sizes of the largest $k$-crossings and $k$-nestings in the partitions of an $n$-set possess a symmetric joint distribution. The present work extends these results to $r$-colored set partitions, by which we mean set partitions whose arcs are labeled by an $r$-element set. A $k$-crossing or $k$-nesting in this context is a sequence or arcs, all with the same color, which form a $k$-crossing or $k$-nesting in the usual sense. To prove our extension, we produce a bijection from $r$-colored set partitions to certain sequences of $r$-partite partitions, which in the uncolored case specializes to a novel description of the map from set partitions to vacillating tableaux given by Chen et al. Among other applications, we explain how our construction implies recent results of Chen and Guo on colored matchings, and also an analogous symmetric joint distribution of crossings ...

  13. A Serialization Graph Construction for Nested Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    allowing replacement of entire subtrees of nested activity by single actions as well as the reordering of actions in a history . Also, they do not...systems. 28 [11] N. Lynch, M. Merritt, W. Weihl, and A. Fekete. A theory of atomic transactions. In International Conference on Database Theory, Bruges

  14. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  15. Activity patterns of nesting Mexican Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Delaney; Teryl G. Grubb; Paul Beier

    1999-01-01

    We collected 2,665 hr of behavioral information using video surveillance on 19 Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) pairs between 25 April and 26 July 1996. Prey deliveries per day increased as the nesting season progressed, with an average of 2.68 prey deliveries during incubation, 4.10 items during brooding, and 4.51 items during the...

  16. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  17. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  18. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further re- search in numerical contact angle estimates.

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  20. Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle Activity Report 2000 and 1980-2000 Nesting Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper presents results from the 8th Annual Study (using Army Corp of Engineers funds) of nesting by the Atlantic Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) along...

  1. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector points in this...

  2. Exceptional sea turtle nest records in 2011 suggest an underestimated nesting potential in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report seven nesting events by loggerhead sea turtles in Sicily (Italy in 2011. In comparison to past records, this number is relatively high and may be at least in part due to an awareness campaign carried out in 2011 to solicit such reports. This suggests that Sicily may host a much higher nesting activity than previously thought and higher monitoring effort is recommended, especially in certain coastal tracts. Sand temperatures and incubation periods indicate that the beaches monitored so far in the southern coast are not optimal for development, resulting in low hatching success, and produce a majority of males. Five 2011 nests and two past nests from the same area had mtDNA haplotype CC-A2.1, the most common in the Mediterranean.

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California....

  4. Timing of nest vegetation measurement may obscure adaptive significance of nest-site characteristics: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark D; Monroe, Adrian P; Burger, Loren Wes; Martin, James A

    2017-02-01

    Advances in understanding avian nesting ecology are hindered by a prevalent lack of agreement between nest-site characteristics and fitness metrics such as nest success. We posit this is a result of inconsistent and improper timing of nest-site vegetation measurements. Therefore, we evaluated how the timing of nest vegetation measurement influences the estimated effects of vegetation structure on nest survival. We simulated phenological changes in nest-site vegetation growth over a typical nesting season and modeled how the timing of measuring that vegetation, relative to nest fate, creates bias in conclusions regarding its influence on nest survival. We modeled the bias associated with four methods of measuring nest-site vegetation: Method 1-measuring at nest initiation, Method 2-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate, Method 3-measuring at nest termination for successful nests and at estimated completion for unsuccessful nests, and Method 4-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate while also accounting for initiation date. We quantified and compared bias for each method for varying simulated effects, ranked models for each method using AIC, and calculated the proportion of simulations in which each model (measurement method) was selected as the best model. Our results indicate that the risk of drawing an erroneous or spurious conclusion was present in all methods but greater with Method 2 which is the most common method reported in the literature. Methods 1 and 3 were similarly less biased. Method 4 provided no additional value as bias was similar to Method 2 for all scenarios. While Method 1 is seldom practical to collect in the field, Method 3 is logistically practical and minimizes inherent bias. Implementation of Method 3 will facilitate estimating the effect of nest-site vegetation on survival, in the least biased way, and allow reliable conclusions to be drawn.

  5. Does nest site availability limit the density of hole nesting birds in small woodland patches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available By providing nest boxes, previous studies have shown that nest sites are in short supply and limit the populations of several small passerines, including the Great Tit Parus major, the Blue Tit P. caeruleus, and the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Can this influence their distribution over a range of small woodland patch sizes in a heterogeneous landscape? To investigate this, a study was conducted in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape, with a mixture of wooded patches and cropped fields, in southern Sweden. The descriptive part of the study involved mapping territories of the three species in 135 patches. These species avoided small (<1 ha, Pied Flycatcher or very small (<0.2 ha, the two tit species forest patches in this landscape. In an experimental part, a subset of 34 patches, 0.01 to 24 ha in size was used. Territories were mapped in a first year as a control. In a second year, patches were matched by size and vegetation and nest-boxes were provided in one patch of each pair. Territories were again mapped. Providing nestboxes increased the density of breeding Great Tits in patches of all sizes and expanded their use of very small patches. The nest-boxes increased the density of Pied Flycatchers in large patches but not in small patches. So, is the lack of territories in small patches due to shortage of nest sites? The outcome of the experiment suggests nest site limitation as a cause of the observed Great Tit discrimination against very small habitat patches. The lack of Pied Flycatchers in small patches must however have another basis than lack of nest sites. The effect of providing nest-boxes on Blue Tit distribution was inconclusive.

  6. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  7. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  8. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  9. Nest site preferences of the Woodlark (Lullula arborea) and its association with artificial nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Roman; Bosco, Laura; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jacot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The Woodlark is an insectivorous bird, which is listed as a priority species in Switzerland. In Valais, a stronghold of this species in the country, the birds breed in intensively managed vineyards and show a preference for parcels with ground vegetation during territory establishment. As a ground-breeder, the species is highly vulnerable to nest predation by avian and mammal predators. The aims of our study were firstly to investigate nest site preferences of the woodlark within vineyards and secondly to compare the predation risk of artificial nests dependent of ground vegetation structure. Our results point out that the Woodlark prefers patches of tall and dense ground cover within vegetated vineyard parcels and avoids parcels that have been treated with herbicides. In a follow-up experiment we conducted a study comparing the predation rate of artificial nests between bare parcels (40% vegetated area). Artificial nests equipped with one quail egg were distributed pairwise between two adjacent parcels that fulfilled the upper criteria and were monitored by trail cameras during 10-12 days. Predation rate was generally low (4 predation events) and only occurred in bare parcels. These data indicate that conspicuousness of avian nests may be decreased in vegetated parcels and that the amount of vegetation can lower the predation risk on ground breeding birds - another indication for the importance of ground vegetation for a successful conservation of the endangered Woodlark in Swiss vineyards.

  10. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Niesing, F; Wolff, L L

    2006-08-01

    This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. They were constructed more often during the summer. T. lactitarse had two types of life cycles: direct development (without diapause), and delayed development (with diapause during winter). Natural enemies included Chrysididae, Sarcophagidae, Dolichopodidae and Ichneumonidae. Out of 1,353 identified spider prey, 1,313 belonged to the Araneidae family.

  11. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae in trap-nests in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. T. Buschini

    Full Text Available This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. They were constructed more often during the summer. T. lactitarse had two types of life cycles: direct development (without diapause, and delayed development (with diapause during winter. Natural enemies included Chrysididae, Sarcophagidae, Dolichopodidae and Ichneumonidae. Out of 1,353 identified spider prey, 1,313 belonged to the Araneidae family.

  12. Nest predators, nest-site selection andnest success ofthe Emei Shan Liocichla (Liocichla omeiensis), a vulnerable babbler endemic tosouthwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqiang Fu; Benping Chen; Simon D Dowell; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Emei Shan Liocichla (Liocichla omeiensis) is a globally vulnerable babbler, endemic to southwest-ern China. We investigated its nest predators, nest-site selection and nest success at the Laojunshan National Nature Reserve in Sichuan, China in order to identify the precise nesting-habitat requirements of the species, and to test whether the nest-site-selection cues, preferred by the Emei Shan Liocichla, are positively associated with nest success. Methods: We used infrared cameras to determine nest predators. We compared the microhabitat attributes between nest and random sites, as well as successful and failed nests. We used Binary Logistic Regression to determine the most important variables affecting nest-site selection of the Emei Shan Liocichla. We used the nest survival analysis in Program MARK to estimate daily nest survival rates (DSR). Nest success was calculated using the Mayifeld method. Results: In total 56 nests were found. The DSR for all nests that contained at least one egg was 0.9564± 0.0091 (95 % CI 0.9346–0.9711) (n= 40), while the total nest success was 27.5 %. We identiifed four categories of predators in 10 nest predation events, i.e. squirrels (n= 5), snakes (n= 3), raptors (n= 1) and wasps (n= 1). We found that: (1) nest predation was the primary reason for nest failure of the Emei Shan Liocichla, (2) tree cover, bamboo cover, liana abun-dance and distance to forest edge or gap were the most important variables affecting nest-site selection of this spe-cies, and (3) the nest-site-selection variables we measured appeared not to be positively associated with nest success. Conclusions: Our ifndings suggest that the Emei Shan Liocichla tended to select nest sites near forest edges or gaps with good concealment and that nest-site selection by this species was nonrandom but not necessarily adap-tive. Reducing forest-edge development and protecting bamboo stands should be effective for conservation of this species.

  13. Cytosine arabinoside, vinblastine, diethylstilboestrol and 2-aminoanthracene tested in the in vitro human TK6 cell line micronucleus test (MNvit) at Institut Pasteur de Lille in support of OECD draft test guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice; Marzin, Daniel

    2010-10-29

    The reference genotoxic agents Cytosine arabinoside, Vinblastine, Diethylstilboestrol and 2-Aminoanthracene were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells, without cytokinesis block, at the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Lille, France. This was done in support of the toxicity measures recommended in the late 2007 version of the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the testing of chemicals. All four reference agents were positive in the assay at concentrations giving approximately 50% toxicity or less as assessed by draft Test Guideline 487 recommended measures, relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts. Accordingly, this work supports the premise that relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts are appropriate measures of toxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.

  14. Patterns of artificial nest depredation in a large floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Melinda G.; Gutreuter, Steven J.; Klaas, Erwin E.

    2000-01-01

    We used artificial bird nests to examine the relative effects of local habitat features and the surrounding landscape on the probability of songbird nest depredation in floodplain forests of the Upper Mississippi River. We found that the probability of depredation increased with size of floodplain forest plots. In small plots, the probability of depredation tended to increase away from the forest edge. Small patches of floodplain forest within a large river system can provide valuable nesting habitat for songbirds. We suggest that depredation pressure may be lower due to isolation effects. The probability of nest depredation increased with increasing canopy cover surrounding the nest tree and decreasing cover around the nest. Managers seeking to discourage nest predators in floodplain forests should consider managing for habitats that supply dense cover for nest concealment and an open tree canopy.

  15. 2012 waterfowl nesting study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on a 2012 duck nesting study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, where nest drag plots were surveyed within management units. Duck production estimates...

  16. 1972 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1972 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. The 1972 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the...

  17. 1971 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1971 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. In general, the Chesapeake Bay region nesting...

  18. Potential Kittlitz's Murrelet Nesting Habitat in North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Using nest records and locations to identify landscape-scale parameters (distance to coast, elevation, slope, and land cover) that provide potential nesting habitat,...

  19. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  20. Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge : duck nesting success report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report summarizing the fourth consecutive year of data collection for duck nesting success at Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge during the 1990 nesting...

  1. Nest sites selection by sympatric cavity-nesting birds in miombo woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Nyirenda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and habitat fragmentation have long been known as drivers of wildlife depletion but information on their specific impacts on cavity-nesting birds in the miombo woodlands has been lacking. A comparative study of disturbed and undisturbed sites was conducted in miombo woodlands of Zambia to assess impacts of environmental stressors on birds. Foot patrols were employed to locate, identify and count host trees and cavities for cavity-nesting birds on twenty 200 m × 200 m sample plots. Undisturbed forests had three times more cavities (the nesting sites for birds, while there were 24.6% fewer abandoned cavities in undisturbed forests than in disturbed forests. The rate of cavity abandonment was about twice as high in human-dominated forests compared to undisturbed forests (61.3% c.f. 31.9%. Cavity-nesting birds preferred larger (> 36.0 cm diameter at breast height and taller (> 5.0 m trees for nest placement, especially in human-dominated forests. A number of cavity-nesting birds preferred Brachystegia spiciformis (zebrawood, Julbernadia paniculata (munsa, Parinari curatellifolia (mobola-plum and Uapaca kirkiana (mahobohobo as host trees to 14 other miombo tree species. Arnot’s Chat (Myrmecocichla arnoti had a wider selection of host trees for cavity-nesting than the other 40 cavity-nesting birds in the study areas. Anthropogenic activities such as uncontrolled firewood collection, wild fires, logging, and land clearing for agriculture negatively influenced wood abundance and diversity, with potential implications for persistence of cavity-nesting birds. The negative impacts of anthropogenic activities could be counteracted by conservation strategies such as implementation of sound forest policies, integrative land use practices, sustainable livelihood security and stakeholders’ awareness of the need to safeguard forest-dependent avifauna.Conservation implications: This comparative study unravels specific anthropogenic impacts on

  2. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species

  3. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...... decomposition method that is unaffected by the rescaling or attenuation bias that arise in cross-model comparisons in nonlinear models. It recovers the degree to which a control variable, Z, mediates or explains the relationship between X and a latent outcome variable, Y*, underlying the nonlinear probability...

  4. Broadband DOA Estimation Based on Nested Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-bo Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation is a crucial problem in electronic reconnaissance. A novel broadband DOA estimation method utilizing nested arrays is devised in this paper, which is capable of estimating the frequencies and DOAs of multiple narrowband signals in broadbands, even though they may have different carrier frequencies. The proposed method converts the DOA estimation of multiple signals with different frequencies into the spatial frequency estimation. Then, the DOAs and frequencies are pair matched by sparse recovery. It is possible to significantly increase the degrees of freedom (DOF with the nested arrays and the number of sources can be more than that of sensor array. In addition, the method can achieve high estimation precision without the two-dimensional search process in frequency and angle domain. The validity of the proposed method is verified by theoretic analysis and simulation results.

  5. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  6. Recursive Polynomial Remainder Sequence and the Nested Subresultants

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    We give two new expressions of subresultants, nested subresultant and reduced nested subresultant, for the recursive polynomial remainder sequence (PRS) which has been introduced by the author. The reduced nested subresultant reduces the size of the subresultant matrix drastically compared with the recursive subresultant proposed by the authors before, hence it is much more useful for investigation of the recursive PRS. Finally, we discuss usage of the reduced nested subresultant in approxima...

  7. Imperfect nesting in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    2002-03-01

    Recently, we have shown that unconventional charge density wave (UCDW) is the most likely candidate for the unidentified low-temperature phase (LTP) in α-(ET)2 salts. In particular, UCDW describes reasonably well the temperature dependence of the threshold electric field of LTP in α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4. Here, we shall show that the imperfect nesting in UCDW is crucial to further improve the theoretical description of the threshold electric field.

  8. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  9. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-09-13

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo, a mini-app for Truchas, which is the ASC code for casting and additive manufacturing. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further research in contact angle estimates and surface tension calculations.

  10. DIAMONDS: a new Bayesian nested sampling tool*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsaro Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of high-quality asteroseismic data provided by the NASA Kepler Mission, we developed a new code, termed DIAMONDS (high-DImensional And multi-MOdal NesteD Sampling, for fast Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison by means of the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, an efficient and powerful method very suitable for high-dimensional problems (like the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations and multi-modal problems (i.e. problems that show multiple solutions. We applied the code to the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations observed in a challenging F-type star. By means of DIAMONDS one is able to detect the different backgrounds in the power spectrum of the star (e.g. stellar granulation and faculae activity and to understand whether one or two oscillation peaks can be identified or not. In addition, we demonstrate a novel approach to peak bagging based on multi-modality, which is able to reduce significantly the number of free parameters involved in the peak bagging model. This novel approach is therefore of great interest for possible future automatization of the entire analysis technique.

  11. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  12. Nest Success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Davis

    Full Text Available Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus is a species of concern for which little demographic information exists. To help fill this information gap, we investigated factors affecting nest success in two populations of Gunnison Sage-Grouse. We assessed the relative effects of (1 vegetation characteristics (e.g., shrub height, shrub cover, grass cover, and grass height, (2 temporal factors (e.g., year, timing of incubation initiation, and nest age, (3 precipitation, and (4 age of the nesting female (yearling or adult on nest success rates. We found 177 nests in the Gunnison Basin population (that contains 85-90% of the species from 2005-2010 and 20 nests in the San Miguel population (that contains < 10% of the species from 2007-2010. Temporal factors had the greatest impact on nest success compared to vegetation characteristics, precipitation, and female age. Nest success varied considerably among years ranging from 4.0%-60.2% in Gunnison Basin and from 12.9%- 51.9% in San Miguel. Nests that were initiated earlier in the breeding season had higher nest success (at least one egg hatches. Daily nest survival rates decreased during the course of incubation. None of the vegetation characteristics we examined were strongly related to nest success.

  13. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...

  14. Communal nesting and kinship in degus (Octodon degus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hurtado, María José; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Lacey, Eileen A.; Chang, Ann T.

    Communal nesting is a fundamental component of many animal societies. Because the fitness consequences of this behavior vary with the relatedness among nest mates, understanding the kin structure of communally nesting groups is critical to understanding why such groups form. Observations of captive degus (Octodon degus) indicate that multiple females nest together, even when supplied with several nest boxes. To determine whether free-living degus also engage in communal nesting, we used radiotelemetry to monitor spatial relationships among adult females in a population of O. degus in central Chile. These analyses revealed that females formed stable associations of > 2-4 individuals, all of whom shared the same nest site at night. During the daytime, spatial overlap and frequency of social interactions were greatest among co-nesting females, suggesting that nesting associations represent distinct social units. To assess kinship among co-nesting females, we examined genotypic variation in our study animals at six microsatellite loci. These analyses indicated that mean pairwise relatedness among members of a nesting association (r=0.25) was significantly greater than that among randomly selected females (r=-0.03). Thus, communally nesting groups of degus are composed of female kin, making it possible for indirect as well as direct fitness benefits to contribute to sociality in this species.

  15. Trap-nests for stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Menezes, Cristiano; Egea Soares, Ademilson Espencer; Imperatriz Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Most stingless bee species build their nests inside tree hollows. In this paper, we present trap-nest containers which simulate nesting cavities so as to attract swarms of stingless bees. Although regularly used by stingless bee beekeepers in Brazil, this technique to obtain new colonies has not yet

  16. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....

  17. A Local Characterization of Lie Homomorphisms of Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Miao-xia; ZHANG Jian-hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, linear maps preserving Lie products at zero points on nest algebras are studied. It is proved that every linear map preserving Lie products at zero points on any finite nest algebra is a Lie homomorphism. As an application, the form of a linear bijection preserving Lie products at zero points between two finite nest algebras is obtained.

  18. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  19. Ground nesting in recultivated forest habitats - a study with artificial nests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purger, J.J.; Meszaros, L.A.; Purger, D. [University of Pecs, Pecs (Hungary). Faculty of Science

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out in the outskirts of the town of Pecs (southern Hungary) in a recultivated former coal mine. Bordered by Turkey Oak forests, this open area forms a wedge-shaped clearing in that woodland. Since trees and taller shrubs are rare in the area, it is mainly ground nesting bird species that occur in the clearing. In order to discover whether it is more advantageous to nest in the recultivated area (clearing) than in the nearby forest or at its edges, 150 artificial ground nests were constructed. On 7 May 2002, one quail egg and a plasticine egg of similar size were placed in each of the artificial nests. After a week it was found that 24% of nests in the clearing, 30% of those in the forest edge, and 44% of the ones inside the forest had suffered depredation. The proportions of damaged plasticine and quail eggs inside the forest and at the forest edge were similar, whereas the quail eggs in the clearings were significantly less damaged than plasticine eggs. Of all the experimental eggs, significantly more plasticine eggs (29%) were damaged than quail eggs (17%), which suggests that small-bodied predators are unable to break the quail eggs. 18% of the plasticine eggs attacked, and 72% of the quail eggs attacked were removed from the nest by the predator. Among the predators, small mammals were dominant in the clearing and inside the forest, and birds at the forest edge. Based on the predation of quail eggs, the survival chances of ground nests in the clearing are greater than at the forest edge or inside the forest.

  20. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... revealed that some hens were location conservative, i.e. continued laying in a corner location (or as close to that as possible), whereas others were isolation conservative, i.e. continued laying in the most isolated nest box despite it being positioned in a different area of the pen....... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  1. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota’s Bakken Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator—prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife. PMID:28081245

  2. Nest-site competition between invasive and native cavity nesting birds and its implication for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charter, Motti; Izhaki, Ido; Ben Mocha, Yitzchak; Kark, Salit

    2016-10-01

    Nesting cavities are often a limited resource that multiple species use. There is an ongoing discussion on whether invasive cavity nesting birds restrict the availability of this key limited resource. While the answer to this question has important conservation implications, little experimental work has been done to examine it. Here, we aimed to experimentally test whether alien cavity nesting birds affect the occupancy of cavities and the resulting breeding success of native cavity breeders in a large urban park located in Tel Aviv, Israel. Over three breeding seasons, we manipulated the entry size of nest boxes and compared the occupancy and breeding success of birds in nest boxes of two treatments. These included nest boxes with large-entrance and small-entrance holes. The large-entrance holes allowed access for both the native and invasive birds (the two main aliens in the park are the common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets). The smaller-entrance boxes, on the other hand, allowed only the smaller sized native cavity breeders (great tits and house sparrows) to enter the boxes but prevented the alien species from entering. We found that the large-entrance nest boxes were occupied by five different bird species, comprising three natives (great tit, house sparrow, Scops owl) and two invasive species (common myna, rose-ringed parakeet) while the small-entrance boxes were only occupied by the two native species. The alien common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets occupied 77.5% of the large-entrance nest boxes whereas native species, mainly great tits, occupied less than 9% of the large-entrance boxes and 36.5% of the small-entrance boxes. When examining the occupancy of those cavities that were not occupied by the aliens, natives occupied both the small and large-entrance nest boxes equally. Three quarters (78%) of the great tits breeding in the large-entrance boxes were usurped by common mynas during the breeding season and as a result breeding success was

  3. Effects of Nest Spacing on Nest Occupation, Mating Success and Mating Behaviour in the Two-spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    I investigated hoe different spacing of breeding sited affects different aspects of mating behaviour in the two-spotted goby. I found that clumped nest spacing affects nest occupations and reproductive success negatively. Clumped nest spacing incresed male agonistic behaviour and led to a higher variance in reproductive success.

  4. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  5. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley;

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  6. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  7. Resource redistribution in polydomous ant nest networks: local or global?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel W.; Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2014-01-01

    An important problem facing organisms in a heterogeneous environment is how to redistribute resources to where they are required. This is particularly complex in social insect societies as resources have to be moved both from the environment into the nest and between individuals within the nest. Polydomous ant colonies are split between multiple spatially separated, but socially connected, nests. Whether, and how, resources are redistributed between nests in polydomous colonies is unknown. We analyzed the nest networks of the facultatively polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris. Our results indicate that resource redistribution in polydomous F. lugubris colonies is organized at the local level between neighboring nests and not at the colony level. We found that internest trails connecting nests that differed more in their amount of foraging were stronger than trails between nests with more equal foraging activity. This indicates that resources are being exchanged directly from nests with a foraging excess to nests that require resources. In contrast, we found no significant relationships between nest properties, such as size and amount of foraging, and network measures such as centrality and connectedness. This indicates an absence of a colony-level resource exchange. This is a clear example of a complex behavior emerging as a result of local interactions between parts of a system. PMID:25214755

  8. Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumours and nested stromal epithelial tumours of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sunayana; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumour of liver (DNSTL), nested stromal-epithelial tumour (NSET) and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumour (CNSET) are recently described entities with similar morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. These are rare entities with only three large case series described till date. These tumours commonly present in the paediatric age group. NSETs, in addition have been described to be associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and Cushingoid features. It is important to discuss this rare group of tumours with a low malignant potential as the most common radiological differential diagnosis is hepatoblastoma, which has a relatively poorer prognosis. Thus, a pathologist needs to keep this entity in mind, so as to offer a correct histological diagnosis.

  9. Grassland birds orient nests relative to nearby vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, S.T.; Ball, I.J.; Fondell, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    We studied orientation of nest sites relative to nearby vegetation for dabbling ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera; Blue-winged Teal, A. discors; Gadwall, A. strepera; Mallard, A. platyrhynchos; and Northern Shoveler, A. clypeata) and Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in ungrazed grassland habitat during 1995-1997 in westcentral Montana. We estimated an index of vegetation height and density in intercardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW) immediately around nests. All species oriented nests with the least vegetation to the southeast and the most vegetation to either the southwest or northwest. Furthermore, maximum vegetation around nests shifted from the southwest to the northwest with increasing nest initiation date, apparently as a response of individuals tracking seasonal change in the afternoon solar path. Thus, nests were relatively exposed to solar insolation during cool morning hours but were shaded from intense insolation in the afternoon throughout the breeding season. We suggest that nest microhabitat was selected in part to moderate the thermal environment.

  10. Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nest Monitoring: End of Season Report - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2013 Loggerhead sea turtle nesting season resulted in 284 nests with 17,915 emerged hatchlings. Of the 284 nests, 162 (57%) remained in situ with 122 (43%) nests...

  11. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  12. Island characteristics within wetlands influence waterbird nest success and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either 4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.

  13. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  14. Experimental nest site limitation affects reproductive strategies and parental investment in a hole-nesting passerine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacot, A.; Valcu, M.; Van Oers, K.; Kempenaers, B.

    2009-01-01

    In resource defence mating systems, males monopolize a resource that is of primary importance for breeding females. For secondary cavity nesters, the availability of suitable nesting sites is important in determining the strength of intrasexual competition, whereby phenotypic and behavioural traits

  15. Flexibility in nest-site choice and nesting success of Turdus rufiventris (Turdidae) in a montane forest in northwestern argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, S.B.; Monmany, A.C.; Malizia, A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the consequences of nest-site choice on nesting success under differing disturbance levels for the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris). We compared nest-site choice and nest success between a disturbed site and an undisturbed site in a montane subtropical forest in northwestern Argentina. We found no overall difference in daily predation rate (DPR) between the disturbed and undisturbed sites. However, DPR of nests on bromeliads was significantly lower at the microhabitat level than on other types of subtrates at the disturbed site. T. rufiventris used bromeliads for nesting more often than expected by chance at the disturbed site. DPR did not differ between substrates at the undisturbed site and T. rufiventris used all substrates according to their availability. Nests had higher predation at the disturbed site when DPR on non-bromeliad substrates was compared between disturbed and undisturbed sites. Nest fate was independent of nest height. Our results suggest T. rufiventris' flexibility in nest-site choice, as reflected by increased use of the safest sites, i.e., bromeliads, in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site, may allow this species to survive in an otherwise much riskier habitat. Our results illustrate how microhabitat-scale effects can mediate landscape scale effects. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. Nests with numerous SOX10 and MiTF-positive cells in lichenoid inflammation: pseudomelanocytic nests or authentic melanocytic proliferation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudine Yap; Goldberg, Lynne J; Mahalingam, Meera; Bhawan, Jag; Wolpowitz, Deon

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Both melanocytic and cytokeratin immunohistochemical stains may be utilized to differentiate these entities. Unlike true melanocytic nests, pseudomelanocytic nests contain Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1 (MART-1)/ Melan-A-positive cells and cells positive for pan-cytokeratins, CD3 and/or CD68. Recently, rare (1-2 cells/nest) microphthalmia- associated transcription factor (MiTF)-positive cells were also reported in pseudomelanocytic nests. We present a 48-year-old man with a 2 × 3 cm violaceous to hyperpigmented, non-blanching, polygonal patch on the neck. Histopathology showed focal epidermal atrophy, irregularly distributed junctional nests and a lichenoid infiltrate with colloid bodies. Immunoperoxidase studies revealed occasional pan-cytokeratin and MART-1/Melan-A-positive staining in nests as well as focal S-100 protein-positive cells. Importantly, the majority of nests showed numerous cells positive for MiTF and SOX10 (>2 cells/nest and some the majority of cells). This combined staining pattern confounds the above-described immunohistochemical distinction between pseudo and true melanocytic nests. Clinically felt to represent unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans and not malignant melanoma in situ, this lesion highlights the importance of clinicopathologic correlation and suggests either a new melanocytic entity or a novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides.

  17. Characteristic Formulae for Relations with Nested Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aceto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A general framework for the connection between characteristic formulae and behavioral semantics is described in [2]. This approach does not suitably cover semantics defined by nested fixed points, such as the n-nested simulation semantics for n greater than 2. In this study we address this deficiency and give a description of nested fixed points that extends the approach for single fixed points in an intuitive and comprehensive way.

  18. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  19. Nesting ecology of waterbirds at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Montane wetlands provide valuable habitat for nesting waterfowl and other waterbirds in the western United States, but relatively little information is available about the nesting ecology of their waterbird communities. We describe the general nesting ecology of breeding waterbirds at a large, shallow montane wetland in southeast Idaho during 1997-2000. Habitats included upland grasslands and intermittently to semipermanently flooded wetland habitats. We located a total of 1207 nests of 23 bird species: eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), American wigeon (A. americana), green-winged teal (A. crecca), blue-winged teal (A. discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), northern pintail (A. acuta), redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), ruddy duck (Oxyuris jamaicensis), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), American coot (Fulica americana), Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida), American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus), Wilsons snipe (Gallinago delicta), Wilsons phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Most nests were initiated in May-early June and were terminated (hatched or destroyed) by the third week of June. Mean daily survival rate (DSR) for Canada goose nests was 0.954 0.005 (SE) (n = 127 nests), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 21%. Mean DSR for dabbling duck nests over all four years was 0.938 0.006 (n = 141), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 11%. For all other species where we found >10 nests each year (eared grebe, redhead, canvasback, coot, sandhill crane, American avocet, and Wilsons snipe), >50% of nests found hatched at least one young. Success rates for geese, cranes, and ducks were lower than reported for Grays Lake during 1949-1951 and lower than most other wetlands in

  20. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  1. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  2. Nest success of grassland sparrows on reclaimed surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, G.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Brauning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Grasslands resulting from surface mine reclamation support grassland songbird populations in several midwestern and eastern states in the United States, especially where reclaimed mines are large (>1,000ha). However, most reclaimed surface mines in Pennsylvania are small (success is unknown. We evaluated nest success of grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's (A. henslowii), and Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) on 4 reclaimed surface mines (50-180ha) in western Pennsylvania, USA from 2006 to 2007. Overall nest success based on mean covariate values was 0.435 (95% CI = 0.376-0.504) for grasshopper sparrows, 0.396 (95% CI = 0.295-0.533) for Henslow's sparrows, and 0.158 (95% CI = 0.063-0.392) for Savannah sparrows. These estimates of nest success are comparable to those on larger reclaimed mines and other habitats. Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrow nests that were well concealed were less likely to fail than highly visible nests (??visible = -0.028, CI = -0.051 to -0.005 for grasshopper sparrows; ??visible = -0.063, CI = -0.112 to -0.014 for Henslow's sparrows), and nests in areas with surrounding deep litter were more likely to fail than nests in areas with shallow litter (??litterD = -0.145, CI = -0.335 to 0.045 for grasshopper sparrows; ??litterD = -0.676, CI = -1.187 to -0.116 for Henslow's sparrows). Savannah sparrow nests in areas with high visual obstruction by vegetation were less likely to fail than nests in areas with sparse and short vegetation (??VisOb = 0.048, CI = 0.006-0.091). Daily probability of survival for grasshopper sparrow nests was greatest early and late in the breeding season, and Savannah sparrow nest survival followed a decreasing linear trend. Nest survival of Henslow's sparrows was greater on warm days (??temp = 0.197, CI = 0.014-0.379), whereas for Savannah sparrows nest survival decreased on warm days and on days with rain, but for Savannah sparrows confidence intervals of weather effects included zero (??temp = -0

  3. Edible bird's nest: food or medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca S Y

    2013-09-01

    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is derived from the saliva of certain types of swiftlets. It is consumed in many parts of the world for its nutritional and medicinal values. Although many claims have been made on the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of EBN, scientific documentations regarding these effects are very limited in published literature. It is not until recently that the biological effects of EBN are being investigated and evidence-based studies are being conducted. Several studies have found that EBN may enhance cell proliferation and differentiation and various beneficial effects have been reported in vitro as well as in vivo. While these studies point towards the potential use of EBN in the treatment or even prevention of several diseases, the mechanisms of action of EBN remain largely unknown and more explorations are needed. This review is one of the very few scientific reviews on EBN which focuses on recent evidence-based discoveries.

  4. Development of the nested fiber filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, R. D.; Conkle, H. N.; Raghavan, J. K.

    Battelle has tested the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF) as a particulate control device for high temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) applications. Battelle funded initial bench-scale tests which were the basis for patents and a concept applying the NFF. Subsequent parametric tests in a 6-inch diameter reactor established excellent particulate capture performance, greater than 99 percent, for conditions up to 1600 F and 6 atmospheres. Effective cleaning/regeneration of the NFF was achieved in the 6-inch scale with acoustic and mechanical vibration. A pulse combustor was tested in an integrated NFF arrangement because of compatibility with the HTBP conditions. This arrangement provided the basis for larger scale tests under the subject contract. A 6-sq ft test module was designed and installed with an existing fluidized bed combustor for additional development and testing.

  5. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  6. The effect of nesting material on the nest-building and maternal behavior of domestic sows and piglet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Simecková, M; Kratinová, P

    2011-02-01

    Nest building is an important part of maternal behavior in domestic pigs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nesting material sawdust vs. straw on sow behavior 24 h before and after birth of the first piglet (BFP) and piglet production. Sows, housed in farrowing crates, were randomly divided into 2 treatments: sawdust (n = 12) and straw (n = 13). Sawdust and straw were provided during the pre- and parturient period; after parturition, straw was given to both experimental groups. The prepartum nesting period (the time interval between the first and last nest-building records, including all other activity and resting before BFP), the nesting records (number of nesting records), nesting duration (duration of all nesting records), the start and termination of nesting, and the frequency of prepartum postural changes were collected 24 h before BFP. After BFP, number of nesting records and time to first sucking of the litter were collected. Frequency of postural changes and duration of udder access were collected 24 h after BFP during 3 time periods (during parturition, from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP) and the frequency of nursing during 2 time periods (from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP). Piglet BW gain and mortality were estimated 24 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and the probability of the piglet mortality using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Nesting material did not affect (P > 0.10) most of sow prepartum nesting behavior and had no effect (P > 0.10) on the prepartum frequency of postural changes. Sows from the sawdust treatment had a longer nesting period (P 0.10) of the nesting material on piglet BW gain and mortality was found. The results suggest that sawdust compared with straw as nesting material provided to sows before and through parturition does not negatively affect maternal behavior during the 24 h before and after parturition or piglet production. Therefore

  7. Hatchling sex ratio, body weight and nest parameters for Chelonia mydas nesting on Sugözü beaches (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıç, Ç.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between nest parameters, hatchling body mass, and sex ratio of green turtle, Chelonia mydas, embryos and hatchlings at the temperate nesting rookery of Sugözü Beach (Adana–Turkey. Mean nest temperature and distance from the sea were correlated, while mean nest temperature and incubation period were inversely related. There was no apparent relationship between incubation period and hatchling mass. Hatchling and embryo sex ratios, determined by histological examination, showed a 70.5% and 93.5% female bias, respectively. There was no correlation between sex and body weight of hatchlings,

  8. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  9. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

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    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction

  10. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, flood control has led to a drastic reduction in the area of forest habitat and altered the patchwork of forest cover types. Silvicultural management of the remaining fragmented forests has changed to reflect the altered hydrology of the forests, current economic conditions of the area, and demand for forest products. Because forest type and silvicultural management impact forest birds, differences in avian productivity within these forests directly impact bird conservation. To assist in conservation planning, we evaluated daily nest survival, nest predation rates, and brood parasitism rates of forest birds in relation to different forest cover types and silvicultural management strategies within this floodplain. Within bottomland hardwood forests, nest success of blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea, 13%), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 28%), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea, 18%), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 22%), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus, 18%) did not differ from that within intensively managed cottonwood plantations. However, average daily survival of 542 open-cup nests of 19 bird species in bottomland hardwoods (0.9516 + 0.0028, -27% nest success) was greater than that of 543 nests of 18 species in cotlonwood plantations (0.9298 + 0.0035, -15% nest success). Differences in daily nest survival rates likely resulted from a combination of differences in the predator community--particularly fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)--and a marked difference in species composition of birds breeding within these 2 forest types. At least 39% of nests in bottomland hardwood forests and 65% of nests in cottonwood plantations were depredated. Rates of parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were greater in managed cottonwoods (24%) than in bottomland hardwoods (9%). Nest success in planted cottonwood plantations for 18 species combined (-14%), and for yellow-breasted chat (Icteria

  11. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  12. Common loon nest defense against an American mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kyle P.; Destefano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We describe a successful nest defense strategy of an adult Gavia immer (Common Loon) during an attempted predation event by a Nevison vison (American Mink) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge, NH. It is suspected that mink occasionally depredate loon nests, but defense strategies have not been described previously.

  13. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    In nature, mice live in burrows with nest chambers where they breed and may hide from predators. In the laboratory, a shelter or refuge is an easily applicable form of enrichment which may enhance the welfare of laboratory mice by giving them more control over their environment. Six nest boxes made

  14. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  15. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies.

  16. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  17. A new method for wireless video monitoring of bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Paul J. Champlin; Tracey B. Champlin

    2001-01-01

    Video monitoring of active bird nests is gaining popularity among researchers because it eliminates many of the biases associated with reliance on incidental observations of predation events or use of artificial nests, but the expense of video systems may be prohibitive. Also, the range and efficiency of current video monitoring systems may be limited by the need to...

  18. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    . In conclusion, access to different nesting materials reduced the risk of dying in farm mink in relation with factors as e.g. nest quality and maternal behaviour. A decrease in kit mortality from 20% to 5% would give the Danish mink production a profound number of Danish kroner extra per year....

  19. Long-eared owls nesting in Badlands National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah D. Paulson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Long-eared Owls nest at high densities locally over the Great Plains where suitable habitat is limited (Bent 1938), yet , according to Whitney et al. (1978), this species is rare to uncommon in South Dakota. Especially west of the Missouri River, few nesting records have been reported. This paper reports the occurrence of Long-eared Owls in the Badlands National Park...

  20. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  1. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  2. Nesting behavior of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum agamemnom Richards (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MLT Buschini

    Full Text Available Nesting behaviour is extremely diversified among solitary nesting sphecids. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the nesting behaviour of Trypoxylon agamemnon and discuss the advantages of guarding behaviour of males. It was conducted in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava (PR, Brazil from October/2003 to July/2007. To describe the behaviour of T. agamemnon and construct its ethogram, daily observations were made, totalling 410:19 hours observation. Although the males of T. agamemnon stand guard close to the entrance of the nests, we concluded that this behaviour is not ensuring the protection of nests against parasitoids and that, probably, this behaviour ensures them the paternity, but further studies with microsatellite markers will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  3. Nesting behavior of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) agamemnom Richards (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Donatti, A J

    2012-05-01

    Nesting behaviour is extremely diversified among solitary nesting sphecids. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the nesting behaviour of Trypoxylon agamemnon and discuss the advantages of guarding behaviour of males. It was conducted in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava (PR), Brazil from October/2003 to July/2007. To describe the behaviour of T. agamemnon and construct its ethogram, daily observations were made, totalling 410:19 hours observation. Although the males of T. agamemnon stand guard close to the entrance of the nests, we concluded that this behaviour is not ensuring the protection of nests against parasitoids and that, probably, this behaviour ensures them the paternity, but further studies with microsatellite markers will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  5. Vares ja kana : [valmid] / Ivan Krõlov ; tlk. Eduard Kansa, Mart Raud, Timotheos Kuusik, Johannes Semper, G. Õis, Arnold Tulik, Oskar Urgart, Jaan Kärner, Jakob Tamm, Erni Hiir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõlov, Ivan, 1768(1769)-1844

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Vares ja Kana ; Moosekandid ; Vares ja Rebane ; Konn ja Härg ; Pirtsakas Näitsik ; Oraakel ; Rukkilill ; Tuli ja Metsatukk ; Hunt ja Talleke ; Pärdik ja Prillid ; Ahvid ; Tihane ; Eesel ; Kotkas ja Kanad ; Võimumees ja Mõttetark ; Koerte sõprus ; Kasujaotus ; Vaat ; Kvartett ; Teekäijad ja Koerad ; Hunt penilas ; Oja ; Rebane ja Mäger ; Rohutirts ja Sipelgas ; Luiskaja ; Kukk ja Pärlitera ; Jänes jahil ; Hunt ja Kägu ; Haug ja Kass ; Peremees ja Sulane ; Voor ; Elevant maavalitsejaks ; Eesel ja Ööbik ; Külamehe kimbatus ; Elevant ja Mops ; Hunt ja tema Kutsikas ; Kass ja Kokk ; Lõvi ja Sääsk ; Aednik ja Filosoof ; Haned ; Siga ; Vanamees ja kolm noorukit ; Kotkas ja Ämblik ; Lehed ja Juured ; Hunt ja Rebane ; Lohe ; Rästas ; Mehhaanik ; Trishka satter ; Tiik ja Jõgi ; Luik, Haug ja Vähk ; Erak ja Karu ; Mesilane ja Kärbsed ; Lõvi jahisaak ; Talupojad ja Jõgi ; Lilled ; Uudishimulik ; Kaastundlik Rebane ; Kogukonna koosolek ; Demjani kalasupp ; Tihane ja Tuvi ; Hiir ja Rott ; Peegel ja Ahv ; Sääsk ja Karjane ; Talupoeg ja Surm ; Hunt ja Karjased ; Lõvi ja Rebane ; Kamm ; Hunt ja Kurg ; Pilv ; Poiss ja Siug ; Maamees ja Siug ; Kägu ja Tuvike ; Kaks Vaati ; Töökas Karu ; Rebane ja Viinamarjad ; Karu võrgus ; Kirjamees ja Röövel ; Mölder ; Siga Tamme all ; Kärbes ja Mesilane ; Ämblik ja Mesilane ; Rebane ja Eesel ; Siug ja Talleke ; Ööbikud ; Peremes ja Lammas ; Kaks Külameest ; Kaks Koera ; Kass ja Ööbik ; Kalade tants ; Haug ; Habemenoad ; Hiired ; Hunt ja Kass ; Karjane ; Orav ; Damaskuse mõõk ; Koer ja Hobune ; Rebane ; Hundid ja Lambad ; Kägu ja Kukk

  6. Vares ja kana : [valmid] / Ivan Krõlov ; tlk. Eduard Kansa, Mart Raud, Timotheos Kuusik, Johannes Semper, G. Õis, Arnold Tulik, Oskar Urgart, Jaan Kärner, Jakob Tamm, Erni Hiir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõlov, Ivan, 1768(1769)-1844

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Vares ja Kana ; Moosekandid ; Vares ja Rebane ; Konn ja Härg ; Pirtsakas Näitsik ; Oraakel ; Rukkilill ; Tuli ja Metsatukk ; Hunt ja Talleke ; Pärdik ja Prillid ; Ahvid ; Tihane ; Eesel ; Kotkas ja Kanad ; Võimumees ja Mõttetark ; Koerte sõprus ; Kasujaotus ; Vaat ; Kvartett ; Teekäijad ja Koerad ; Hunt penilas ; Oja ; Rebane ja Mäger ; Rohutirts ja Sipelgas ; Luiskaja ; Kukk ja Pärlitera ; Jänes jahil ; Hunt ja Kägu ; Haug ja Kass ; Peremees ja Sulane ; Voor ; Elevant maavalitsejaks ; Eesel ja Ööbik ; Külamehe kimbatus ; Elevant ja Mops ; Hunt ja tema Kutsikas ; Kass ja Kokk ; Lõvi ja Sääsk ; Aednik ja Filosoof ; Haned ; Siga ; Vanamees ja kolm noorukit ; Kotkas ja Ämblik ; Lehed ja Juured ; Hunt ja Rebane ; Lohe ; Rästas ; Mehhaanik ; Trishka satter ; Tiik ja Jõgi ; Luik, Haug ja Vähk ; Erak ja Karu ; Mesilane ja Kärbsed ; Lõvi jahisaak ; Talupojad ja Jõgi ; Lilled ; Uudishimulik ; Kaastundlik Rebane ; Kogukonna koosolek ; Demjani kalasupp ; Tihane ja Tuvi ; Hiir ja Rott ; Peegel ja Ahv ; Sääsk ja Karjane ; Talupoeg ja Surm ; Hunt ja Karjased ; Lõvi ja Rebane ; Kamm ; Hunt ja Kurg ; Pilv ; Poiss ja Siug ; Maamees ja Siug ; Kägu ja Tuvike ; Kaks Vaati ; Töökas Karu ; Rebane ja Viinamarjad ; Karu võrgus ; Kirjamees ja Röövel ; Mölder ; Siga Tamme all ; Kärbes ja Mesilane ; Ämblik ja Mesilane ; Rebane ja Eesel ; Siug ja Talleke ; Ööbikud ; Peremes ja Lammas ; Kaks Külameest ; Kaks Koera ; Kass ja Ööbik ; Kalade tants ; Haug ; Habemenoad ; Hiired ; Hunt ja Kass ; Karjane ; Orav ; Damaskuse mõõk ; Koer ja Hobune ; Rebane ; Hundid ja Lambad ; Kägu ja Kukk

  7. Directed random polymers via nested contour integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Alexei; Bufetov, Alexey; Corwin, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We study the partition function of two versions of the continuum directed polymer in 1 + 1 dimension. In the full-space version, the polymer starts at the origin and is free to move transversally in R, and in the half-space version, the polymer starts at the origin but is reflected at the origin and stays in R-. The partition functions solve the stochastic heat equation in full-space or half-space with mixed boundary condition at the origin; or equivalently the free energy satisfies the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. We derive exact formulas for the Laplace transforms of the partition functions. In the full-space this is expressed as a Fredholm determinant while in the half-space this is expressed as a Fredholm Pfaffian. Taking long-time asymptotics we show that the limiting free energy fluctuations scale with exponent 1 / 3 and are given by the GUE and GSE Tracy-Widom distributions. These formulas come from summing divergent moment generating functions, hence are not mathematically justified. The primary purpose of this work is to present a mathematical perspective on the polymer replica method which is used to derive these results. In contrast to other replica method work, we do not appeal directly to the Bethe ansatz for the Lieb-Liniger model but rather utilize nested contour integral formulas for moments as well as their residue expansions.

  8. Fermi Surface Nesting in UGe_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Allen, J. W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Rossnagel, Kai; Huxley, A. D.; Flouquet, J.

    2004-03-01

    UGe2 is of high current interest in connection with the possible role of ferromagnetic fluctuations in its pressure induced superconductivity, for which the Fermi surface (FS) is thought to be important. The band structure and FS contours of a single crystal have been measured using resonant angle-resolved photoemission near the U 5d to 5f edge. The measured dominant large sheet Fermi surface contour shows good agreement with magneto-oscillatory orbit frequencies, but with a much simpler diamond-like shape as compared to LDA and LDA+U band calculations. The measured FS topology is suggestive of a possible diagonal nesting condition different than previously proposed for SCDW models of the ferromagnetic transition(s) in UGe2 and allows assessment of FS topology-driven models of the ferromagnetic superconductor phase diagram.(e.g. K.G. Sandeman et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167005 (2003). Supported by the U.S. NSF at U. Mich. (DMR-03-02825) and by the DOE at the Advanced Light Source (DE-AC03-76SF00098).

  9. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  10. Effects of timber size-class on predation of artificial nests in extensive forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Per. Angelstam

    1993-01-01

    Depredation on artificial ground and cup nests in even-aged seedling/sapling, pole, and mature stands of continuous northern hardwood forest was studied in the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire, USA from May to June 1988. Track-board nests were used to identify predators of ground nests; plain ground nests and cup nests were used to investigate the...

  11. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7–22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2–4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6–25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily

  12. Nesting ecology of roseate spoonbills at Nueces Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Cromartie, E.

    1982-01-01

    We conducted a study in 1978-1980 of the nesting ecology of Roseate Spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja) in a relatively polluted environment at Nueces Bay, Texas. For 154 marked nests, the average clutch size was 3.0 eggs; 73% of the eggs hatched, and 87% of the nests were successful (hatched at least 1 young). The average nest success rate (total fledglings:total eggs) was 50% or 1.5 fledglings per total nests. Incubation began the day after the first egg was laid, and the incubation period for each egg was 22 days. Eggs hatched in the order that they were laid; the first and second eggs hatched on consecutive days, and the second, third, and fourth eggs hatched every other day. Nest composition and size were highly consistent, but nest placement varied considerably and was dependent on the vegetative configuration of the dredge-material islands. Growth rate of nestlings conformed to a 'standard' growth curve, where body weight of nestlings at fledging equaled that of adults. There was no difference in weight gain among siblings based on actual age. Nestlings fledged at about 6 weeks of age, when feather development was complete. At fledging, the bills of juveniles had almost reached adult width, but bill length was only 67% that of adults. In general, environmental pollutants were low (Nueces Bay, Texas, though the area is surrounded by industries and agricultural lands. Apparently, spoonbills are less sensitive to these contaminants than are other aquatic species

  13. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  14. Extreme sequential polyandry insures against nest failure in a frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Phillip G; Keogh, J Scott

    2009-01-07

    Sequential polyandry may evolve as an insurance mechanism to reduce the risk of choosing a mate that is infertile, closely related, genetically inferior or incompatible, but polyandry also might insure against nest failure in unpredictable environments. Most animals are oviparous, and in species where males provide nest sites whose quality varies substantially and unpredictably, polyandrous females might insure offspring success by distributing their eggs across multiple nests. Here, we test this hypothesis in a wild population of an Australian terrestrial toadlet, a polyandrous species, where males construct nests and remain with broods. We found that females partitioned their eggs across the nests of two to eight males and that more polyandrous females gained a significant increase in mean offspring survivorship. Our results provide evidence for the most extreme case of sequential polyandry yet discovered in a vertebrate and also suggest that insurance against nest failure might favour the evolution of polyandry. We propose that insurance against nest failure might be widespread among oviparous taxa and provide an important explanation for the prevalence of sequential polyandry in nature.

  15. An object-oriented approach to nested data parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation technique for integrating nested data parallelism into an object-oriented language. Data-parallel programming employs sets of data called 'collections' and expresses parallelism as operations performed over the elements of a collection. When the elements of a collection are also collections, then there is the possibility for 'nested data parallelism.' Few current programming languages support nested data parallelism however. In an object-oriented framework, a collection is a single object. Its type defines the parallel operations that may be applied to it. Our goal is to design and build an object-oriented data-parallel programming environment supporting nested data parallelism. Our initial approach is built upon three fundamental additions to C++. We add new parallel base types by implementing them as classes, and add a new parallel collection type called a 'vector' that is implemented as a template. Only one new language feature is introduced: the 'foreach' construct, which is the basis for exploiting elementwise parallelism over collections. The strength of the method lies in the compilation strategy, which translates nested data-parallel C++ into ordinary C++. Extracting the potential parallelism in nested 'foreach' constructs is called 'flattening' nested parallelism. We show how to flatten 'foreach' constructs using a simple program transformation. Our prototype system produces vector code which has been successfully run on workstations, a CM-2, and a CM-5.

  16. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  17. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  18. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2017-01-01

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of duck nest density and predation risk: a multi-scale analysis of 18 years and more than 10,000 nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, John M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Sih, Andrew; Loughman, Daniel L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Oldenburger, Shaun L.; McLandress, M. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Many avian species are behaviorally-plastic in selecting nest sites, and may shift to new locations or habitats following an unsuccessful breeding attempt. If there is predictable spatial variation in predation risk, the process of many individuals using prior experience to adaptively change nest sites may scale up to create shifting patterns of nest density at a population level. We used 18 years of waterfowl nesting data to assess whether there were areas of consistently high or low predation risk, and whether low-risk areas increased, and high-risk areas decreased in nest density the following year. We created kernel density maps of successful and unsuccessful nests in consecutive years and found no correlation in predation risk and no evidence for adaptive shifts, although nest density was correlated between years. We also examined between-year correlations in nest density and nest success at three smaller spatial scales: individual nesting fields (10–28 ha), 16-ha grid cells and 4-ha grid cells. Here, results were similar across all scales: we found no evidence for year-to-year correlation in nest success but found strong evidence that nest density was correlated between years, and areas of high nest success increased in nest density the following year. Prior research in this system has demonstrated that areas of high nest density have higher nest success, and taken together, our results suggest that ducks may adaptively select nest sites based on the local density of conspecifics, rather than the physical location of last year's nest. In unpredictable environments, current cues, such as the presence of active conspecific nests, may be especially useful in selecting nest sites. The cues birds use to select breeding locations and successfully avoid predators deserve continued attention, especially in systems of conservation concern.

  20. Incorporation of cigarette butts into nests reduces nest ectoparasite load in urban birds: new ingredients for an old recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Rodríguez, Monserrat; López-Rull, Isabel; Garcia, Constantino Macías

    2013-02-23

    Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering behaviours. Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, which contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect (if any) of this behaviour remains unclear. Butts from smoked cigarettes retain substantial amounts of nicotine and other compounds that may also act as arthropod repellents. We provide the first evidence that smoked cigarette butts may function as a parasite repellent in urban bird nests. The amount of cellulose acetate from butts in nests of two widely distributed urban birds was negatively associated with the number of nest-dwelling parasites. Moreover, when parasites were attracted to heat traps containing smoked or non-smoked cigarette butts, fewer parasites reached the former, presumably due to the presence of nicotine. Because urbanization changes the abundance and type of resources upon which birds depend, including nesting materials and plants involved in self-medication, our results are consistent with the view that urbanization imposes new challenges on birds that are dealt with using adaptations evolved elsewhere.

  1. Interaction between the solitary bee Chelostoma florisomne and its nest parasite Sapyga clavicornis-empty cells reduce the impact of parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munster-Swendsen, Mikael; Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee......Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee...

  2. 1990 Flathead Valley duck nesting study progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This informal progress report describes predator removal practices in the Lake County area, and observed waterfowl nest success. Species-specific data are...

  3. Inkjet printing of silk nest arrays for cell hosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntivich, Rattanon; Drachuk, Irina; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-04-14

    An inkjet printing approach is presented for the facile fabrication of microscopic arrays of biocompatible silk "nests" capable of hosting live cells for prospective biosensors. The patterning of silk fibroin nests were constructed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of silk polyelectrolytes chemically modified with poly-(l-lysine) and poly-(l-glutamic acid) side chains. The inkjet-printed silk circular regions with a characteristic "nest" shape had diameters of 70-100 μm and a thickness several hundred nanometers were stabilized by ionic pairing and by the formation of the silk II crystalline secondary structure. These "locked-in" silk nests remained anchored to the substrate during incubation in cell growth media to provide a biotemplated platform for printing-in, immobilization, encapsulation and growth of cells. The process of inkjet-assisted printing is versatile and can be applied on any type of substrate, including rigid and flexible, with scalability and facile formation.

  4. 1993 waterfowl nesting success on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on an investigation of nesting success and factors affecting it on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Baseline information on trust species within the...

  5. Wading bird nesting survey Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a wading bird survey conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of the survey include; 1) quantify nest site...

  6. 2005 nest success data : Klettke WPA predator exclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report summarizing nest success at Klettke Waterfowl Production Area predator exclosure on Kulm wetland Management District in 2005. In 2005, the Klettke predator...

  7. Contaminant exposure of white pelicans nesting at Anaho Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reproductive success of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchus) was monitored at a nesting colony on Anaho Island, Pyramid Lake, Nevada in 1996. Eggs...

  8. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1991 breeding...

  9. Application of nested sampling in statistical physics: the Potts model

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeifenberger, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic benchmark study of the nested sampling algorithm on the basis of the Potts model. This model exhibits a first order phase transition for $q>4$ at the critical temperature. The numerical evaluation of the partition function and thermodynamic observables, which involves high dimensional sums of sharply structured multi-modal density functions, represents a major challenge to most standard numerical techniques, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Nested sampling, on the other hand, is particularly suited for such problems. In this paper we will employ both, nested sampling and thermodynamic integration to evaluate the partition function of the Potts model. In both cases individual moves are based on Swendsen-Wang updates. A autocorrelation time analysis of both algorithms shows that the severe slowing down of thermodynamic integration around the critical temperature does not occur in nested sampling. In addition we show, how thermodynamic variables can be computed with high accuracy from th...

  10. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  11. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1990 breeding...

  12. Nest losses in grazed vs. ungrazed waterfowl habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fair number of managers, with student help, have just completed a series of dummy nest studies which sampled grazed and ungrazed habitat. I have examined 40...

  13. History of Waterfowl Nesting on the Patuxent Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of waterfowl counts, waterfowl research, waterfowl nesting, and waterfowl records at Patuxent Research Refuge from 1963 through 2008, as...

  14. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  15. 1970 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1970 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. The 1970 results are most disappointing since...

  16. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1989 breeding...

  17. Inventory and monitoring of red-cockaded woodpecker Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report provides nesting monitoring and group size summary data associated with the red-cockaded woodpecker population at Noxubee NWR in 2012.

  18. EXTREME POINTS IN DIAGONAL-DISJOINT IDEALS OF NEST ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浙; 鲁世杰

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the extreme points of the unit ball of diagonal-disjoint ideals in nest algebras are characterized completely; Furthermore, it is shown that every extreme point of the unit ball of 2 has essential-norm one.

  19. [Proposal] Loggerhead sea turtle nest monitoring on seven refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project is to continue FWS involvement in the long-term, consistent monitoring of loggerhead sea turtle nesting to assess changes in phenological...

  20. Shorebird Nesting Success Report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary study was initiated to establish a baseline of nesting success for one of the most important breeding sites of shorebirds within the Greater Salt...

  1. 1982 Bald Eagle Nest Survey, Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1982 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. For the third year in succession we have...

  2. Black Tern Nesting, Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge, 2009-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Black tern breeding pair surveys have been conducted in Vermont every year since 1990, except during 2006. Initially, there were 3 separate nesting populations of...

  3. Effects Of Predator Exclosures On Nesting Success Of Killdeer

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nests of shorebirds are often destroyed by predators and in some instances predation may cause severe local declines in breeding success and in size of a breeding...

  4. Proposal - Inventory and Monitoring for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to monitor the nesting success and productivity of the red-cockaded woodpecker population at the Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge during...

  5. Nesting birds of the Malheur environmental field station

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to expose the reader to the various birds nesting on the Malheur environmental field station (MEFS). Each species will be discussed...

  6. Variation in nesting behavior of eight species of spider mites, Stigmaeopsis having sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yutaka; Zhang, Yan-Xuan; Mori, Kotaro; Ito, Katsura; Sato, Yukie; Chittenden, Anthony R.; Lin, Jian-Zhen; Chae, Younghae; Sakagami, Takane; Sahara, Ken

    2016-10-01

    Nesting behavior is considered to be an important element of social living in animals. The spider mites belonging to the genus Stigmaeopsis spend their lives within nests produced from silk threads. Several of these species show cooperative sociality, while the others are subsocial. In order to identify the origins of this social behavior, comparisons of nest sizes, nesting behaviors (making nests continuously or separately), and their associated traits (fecal deposition patterns) were made for eight cogeneric Stigmaeopsis species showing various levels of social development. All of these species inhabit bamboo plants (Poaceae). We initially addressed the proximate factor of nest size variation. The variation in nest size of the eight species corresponded well with the variation in dorsal seta sc1 length, suggesting that nest size variation among species may have a genetic basis. The time spent within a nest (nest duration) increased with nest size on the respective host plants. Nest arrangement patterns varied among species showing different sized nests: Large nest builders continuously extended their nests, while middle and small nest-building species built new separate nests, which resulted in different social interaction times among species, and is thought to be closely related to social development. Fecal deposition behaviors also varied among Stigmaeopsis species, suggesting diversity in anti-predatory adaptations. Finally, we discuss how the variation in sociality observed within this genus is likely the result of nest size variation that initially evolved as anti-predator strategies.

  7. Adapted nested force-gradient integrators for the Schwinger model

    CERN Document Server

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry; Günther, Michael; Finkenrath, Jacob; Knechtli, Francesco; Peardon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study a novel class of numerical integrators, the adapted nested force-gradient schemes, used within the molecular dynamics step of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm. We test these methods in the Schwinger model on the lattice, a well known benchmark problem. We derive the analytical basis of nested force-gradient type methods and demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach, namely reduced computational costs compared with other numerical integration schemes in HMC.

  8. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  9. Nesting behavior of Podium denticulatum Smith (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Favi; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    The nesting behavior of Podium denticulatum Smith was studied on the campus of Ribeirão Preto of the Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from September 2003 to August 2005. The wasps established their nests in bamboo canes ranging from 11.4 cm to 26.2 cm in length and from 0.7 cm to 1.8 cm in internal diameter. Podium denticulatum nested almost exclusively in the hot and wet season (September-April), producing at least five generations per year. The cell provisioning was made with adult and nymphal cockroaches (Blattellidae) which were arranged venter-up and with the head inward toward the inner end of the cell. The construction of a temporary closure occurred in cells that took more than one day to be provisioned. The cells provisioned with a greater number of prey were more likely to produce females than males. The nests included 1-6 brood cells separated by mud partitions and arranged in a linear series. The innermost cells of the nests produced females, and the outermost cells produced males. Nests were parasitized by Eulophidae (Melittobia sp.), Chrysididae and Tachinidae.

  10. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas, which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6% were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  11. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Barker, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas), which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6%) were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line) could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  12. Nesting biology of Centris (Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo. Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.

  13. Japanese queenless ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus, prefer the traces of both nestmates and strangers in nest selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Show; Saitow, Yuka; Yamaki, Shōtarō; Hirota, Tadao

    2013-07-01

    Conspecific avoidance may influence the spatial distribution of colonies in some ants. House-hunting ants (Temnothorax albipennis) avoid nesting in areas where non-nestmates have nested previously. However, no reports are available on conspecific avoidance during nest selection in other ants. In the present study, we investigated nest selection in another nomadic species, the Japanese queenless ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus. Two-choice tests revealed that, similar to house-hunting ants, P. punctatus preferred nests soiled by nestmates to clean nests. However, unlike house-hunting ants, P. punctatus also preferred nests soiled by non-nestmates to a clean nest. Given the choice between a nest soiled by nestmates and one soiled by strangers, P. punctatus, unlike house-haunting ants, showed no significant preference. Thus, conspecific avoidance in nest selection was not observed in P. punctatus. Interspecific differences in ecological factors may drive the evolution of different nest selection strategies.

  14. Striped-tailed Yellow-finch nesting success in abandoned mining pits from central Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DT. Gressler

    Full Text Available Suitability of degraded areas as breeding habitats can be tested through assessment of nest predation rates. In this study we estimated nest success in relation to several potential predictors of nest survival in the Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina breeding in abandoned mining pits at Brasília National Park. We monitored 73 nests during the 2007-breeding season. Predation was the main cause of nest failure (n = 48, 66%; while six nests were abandoned (8% and 19 nests produced young (26%. Mayfield’s daily survival rates and nest success were 0.94 and 23%, respectively. Our results from nest survival models on program MARK indicated that daily survival rates increase linearly towards the end of the breeding season and decrease as nests aged. None of the nest individual covariates we tested - nest height, nest size, nest substrate, and edge effect - were important predictors of nest survival; however, nests placed on the most common plant tended to have higher survival probabilities. Also, there was no observer effect on daily survival rates. Our study suggests that abandoned mining pits may be suitable alternative breeding habitats for Striped-tailed Yellow-finches since nest survival rates were similar to other studies in the central cerrado region.

  15. A review of the nest protection hypothesis: does inclusion of fresh green plant material in birds' nests reduce parasite infestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Baumann, James F; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    The use of aromatic plants and their essential oils for ectoparasite treatment is a field of growing interest. Several species of birds regularly introduce aromatic herbs into their nests putatively to reduce parasites. The behaviour is most often seen in cavity nesting birds and after nest building has finished. The plants are included in a non-structural manner and are often strongly aromatic. Various different hypotheses have been proposed regarding the function of this behaviour; from the plants altering some non-living factor in the nest (crypsis, water loss and insulation hypotheses) to them being involved in mate selection (mate hypothesis) or even having a beneficial effect, direct or indirect, on chicks (drug or nest protection hypothesis, NPH). Many studies have been carried out over the years observing and experimentally testing these hypotheses. This review focuses on studies involving the most popular of these hypotheses, the NPH: that plants decrease nest parasites or pathogens, thereby conveying positive effects to the chicks, allowing the behaviour to evolve. Studies providing observational evidence towards this hypothesis and those experimentally testing it are discussed.

  16. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; da Silva, Luís P; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes. PMID:25478150

  17. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  18. Reproductive ecology of American Oystercatchers nesting on shell rakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Thibault, Janet M.; Collins, S.A.; Spinks, Mark D.; Sanders, Felicia J.

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of nesting habitat for coastal birds has led to the use of nontraditional nesting habitat. The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a "Species of High Concern'' by the U. S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and is declining in the southern portion of its U. S. breeding range, where ~ 50% of breeding oystercatchers nest on shell substrate instead of beachfront habitat. We measured daily survival rates during incubation and chick rearing in shell rake habitats over five breeding seasons in the Cape Romain region of South Carolina, USA. Of 354 nesting attempts monitored, 16.1% hatched at least one egg. During incubation, daily survival rate was 0.938, corresponding to 22.8% success to hatching (nest success). For broods, daily survival was 0.991, or 74.0% success from hatching to fledging. Productivity in the Cape Romain region is primarily being lost during the incubation phase, when nests are exposed to overwash and predation. Mobile chicks may, however, be able to avoid flood events or predators by relocating to higher or more protected portions of a shell rake. Based on comparative data for American Oystercatchers from elsewhere in their range, it does not appear that shell rakes in the Cape Romain region are inferior breeding habitat. Our data suggest that conservation actions targeting nest and chick loss from flooding and predation have the greatest opportunity to enhance reproductive success in this core breeding area, and that an assessment of the availability, structure, avian use, and protection status of shell rakes is warranted.

  19. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Giroux

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”, as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  20. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Anders P.; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N.; Forsman, Jukka T.; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E.; Gosler, Andrew G.; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R.; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A.; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G.; Norte, Ana C.; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S.; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T.; da Silva, Luís P.; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J.; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of

  1. Predicting nest success from habitat features in aspen forests of the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather M. Struempf; Deborah M. Finch; Gregory Hayward; Stanley Anderson

    2001-01-01

    We collected nesting data on bird use of aspen stands in the Routt and Medicine Bow National Forests between 1987 and 1989. We found active nest sites of 28 species of small nongame birds on nine study plots in undisturbed aspen forests. We compared logistic regression models predicting nest success (at least one nestling) from nest-site or stand-level habitat...

  2. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest...

  3. Breeding phenology of birds: mechanisms underlying seasonal declines in the risk of nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi L Borgmann

    Full Text Available Seasonal declines in avian clutch size are well documented, but seasonal variation in other reproductive parameters has received less attention. For example, the probability of complete brood mortality typically explains much of the variation in reproductive success and often varies seasonally, but we know little about the underlying cause of that variation. This oversight is surprising given that nest predation influences many other life-history traits and varies throughout the breeding season in many songbirds. To determine the underlying causes of observed seasonal decreases in risk of nest predation, we modeled nest predation of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri in northern California as a function of foliage phenology, energetic demand, developmental stage, conspecific nest density, food availability for nest predators, and nest predator abundance. Seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was not associated with seasonal changes in energetic demand, conspecific nest density, or predator abundance. Instead, seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was associated with foliage density (early, but not late, in the breeding season and seasonal changes in food available to nest predators. Supplemental food provided to nest predators resulted in a numerical response by nest predators, increasing the risk of nest predation at nests that were near supplemental feeders. Our results suggest that seasonal changes in foliage density and factors associated with changes in food availability for nest predators are important drivers of temporal patterns in risk of avian nest predation.

  4. Assessing nest-building behavior of mice using a 3D depth camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2015-08-15

    We developed a novel method to evaluate the nest-building behavior of mice using an inexpensive depth camera. The depth camera clearly captured nest-building behavior. Using three-dimensional information from the depth camera, we obtained objective features for assessing nest-building behavior, including "volume," "radius," and "mean height". The "volume" represents the change in volume of the nesting material, a pressed cotton square that a mouse shreds and untangles in order to build its nest. During the nest-building process, the total volume of cotton fragments is increased. The "radius" refers to the radius of the circle enclosing the fragments of cotton. It describes the extent of nesting material dispersion. The "radius" averaged approximately 60mm when a nest was built. The "mean height" represents the change in the mean height of objects. If the nest walls were high, the "mean height" was also high. These features provided us with useful information for assessment of nest-building behavior, similar to conventional methods for the assessment of nest building. However, using the novel method, we found that JF1 mice built nests with higher walls than B6 mice, and B6 mice built nests faster than JF1 mice. Thus, our novel method can evaluate the differences in nest-building behavior that cannot be detected or quantified by conventional methods. In future studies, we will evaluate nest-building behaviors of genetically modified, as well as several inbred, strains of mice, with several nesting materials.

  5. Correlates of nest-defense behavior of common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Nest-defense behavior was studied at seven Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) colonies in southern coastal New Jersey during June and July 1981. Data were collected weekly on numbers of adults, nests, eggs, and young in relation to the frequency and intensity of dive attacks on a human intruder by nesting terns. I explored the relationships between attack behavior and colony size/density, seasonality, and brood survival. The results provide little support for social facilitation since neither colony size (range 30-250 nests) nor density was related to mean attack frequency; however, in larger colonies, fewer birds participated in dive attacks. Although the intensity of attacks was strongly seasonal, patterns were very different among colonies and peak attack rates did not always coincide with peak hatching periods. Defense levels declined late in the season in most colonies regardless of whether brood survival was high or low. Colonies with individuals that attacked early in the season had higher overall nesting success than in colonies where individuals showed little early season aggression.

  6. Commitments to aggression and nest sites in male Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, P M

    1981-06-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish construct nests that are relatively isolated from conspecific males. Following nest construction, the presence of a male opponent elicits (a) nest fixation, (b) further nest building, and (c) Betta's agonistic sequence, i.e., attacks alternating with flight movements, along with gill displays occurring near the opponent. The form of a male-male encounter depends upon the distance between a resident's nest and the opponent as well as upon the individual differences in combatants' tolerance for the presence of a conspecific nearby. Also, the intensity of aggression early in an encounter is positively correlated with the intensity of subsequent fighting. Male Bettas appear to compete for space through the use of aggressive behavior and to coordinate their fighting activities by means of visual signals. An incentive model of visual communication is proposed in which visual cues emanating from a displaying male opponent elicit attack with an intensity that is directly proportional to the persistence of the opponent and inversely proportional to the distance between fish.

  7. Hydrodynamic modeling of Singapore's coastal waters: Nesting and model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, G. M. Jahid; van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Ooi, Seng Keat

    2016-01-01

    The tidal variation in Singapore's coastal waters is influenced by large-scale, complex tidal dynamics (by interaction of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea) as well as monsoon-driven low frequency variations, requiring a model with large spatial coverage. Close to the shores, the complex topography, influenced by headlands and small islands, requires a high resolution model to simulate tidal dynamics. This can be achieved through direct nesting or multi-scale nesting, involving multiple model grids. In this paper, we investigate the effect of grid resolution and multi-scale nesting on the tidal dynamics in Singapore's coastal waters, by comparing model results with observations using different statistical techniques. The results reveal that the intermediate-scale model is generally sufficiently accurate (equal to or better than the most refined model), but also that the most refined model is only more accurate when nested in the intermediate scale model (requiring multi-scale nesting). This latter is the result of the complex tidal dynamics around Singapore, where the dominantly diurnal tidal currents are decoupled from the semi-diurnal water level variations. Furthermore, different techniques to quantify model accuracy (harmonic analysis, basic statistics and more complex statistics) are inconsistent in determining which model is more accurate.

  8. Does habitat fragmentation influence nest predation in the shortgrass prairie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.N.; Skagen, S.K.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat fragmentation and vegetation structure of shortgrass prairie and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands on predation rates of artificial and natural nests in northeastern Colorado. The CRP provides federal payments to landowners to take highly erodible cropland out of agricultural production. In our study area, CRP lands have been reseeded primarily with non-native grasses, and this vegetation is taller than native shortgrass prairie. We measured three indices of habitat fragmentation (patch size, degree of matrix fragmentation, and distance from edge), none of which influenced mortality rates of artificial or natural nests. Vegetation structure did influence predation rates of artificial nests; daily mortality decreased significantly with increasing vegetation height. Vegetation structure did not influence predation rates of natural nests. CRP lands and shortgrass sites did not differ with respect to mortality rates of artificial nests. Our study area is only moderately fragmented; 62% of the study area is occupied by native grassland. We conclude that the extent of habitat fragmentation in our study area does not result in increased predation in remaining patches of shortgrass prairie habitat.

  9. Homing to nest baskets by wild female mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, H.A.; Lee, F.B.

    1974-01-01

    A high rate of homing to nest baskets by adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was observed in prairie potholes of North Dakota. One hundred and thirteen female mallards were caught on nest baskets, banded, and marked with nasal saddles. Forty-six percent homed at least once to nest baskets in the marshes where they were previously captured. Two-thirds of the returnees were observed in the same baskets where they had been caught. The observed rate of homing by previously successful nesters (52 percent) was significantly (P old ducklings that hatched in nest baskets were recaptured as nesting adults in baskets. Five of these hens returned to their natal marshes, and two others were found within 2 km of their natal marshes. Band recovery data indicated that 91 percent of the hunting mortality occurred within 10 km of the banding locations. Information on estimated rate of annual survival and the observed rate of homing suggests that nearly all surviving marked adults returned to within 10 km of the marshes where they were banded.

  10. Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, María V; Martínez, José E; Calvo, José F

    2014-01-01

    Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively). Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species), to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding attempts.

  11. Exploring Multi-Modal Distributions with Nested Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Feroz, F

    2013-01-01

    In performing a Bayesian analysis, two difficult problems often emerge. First, in estimating the parameters of some model for the data, the resulting posterior distribution may be multi-modal or exhibit pronounced (curving) degeneracies. Secondly, in selecting between a set of competing models, calculation of the Bayesian evidence for each model is computationally expensive using existing methods such as thermodynamic integration. Nested Sampling is a Monte Carlo method targeted at the efficient calculation of the evidence, but also produces posterior inferences as a by-product and therefore provides means to carry out parameter estimation as well as model selection. The main challenge in implementing Nested Sampling is to sample from a constrained probability distribution. One possible solution to this problem is provided by the Galilean Monte Carlo (GMC) algorithm. We show results of applying Nested Sampling with GMC to some problems which have proven very difficult for standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MC...

  12. Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...

  13. Nest architecture shapes the collective behaviour of harvester ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-10-01

    Structures influence how individuals interact and, therefore, shape the collective behaviours that emerge from these interactions. Here I show that the structure of a nest influences the collective behaviour of harvester ant colonies. Using network analysis, I quantify nest architecture and find that as chamber connectivity and redundancy of connections among chambers increase, so does a colony's speed of recruitment to food. Interestingly, the volume of the chambers did not influence speed of recruitment, suggesting that the spatial organization of a nest has a greater impact on collective behaviour than the number of workers it can hold. Thus, by changing spatial constraints on social interactions organisms can modify their behaviour and impact their fitness.

  14. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    . The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed...... that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest...... between FCM in droppings and eggshell irregularities, also supporting the use of eggshell irregularities as a potential non-invasive welfare indicator. However, the pattern of the stress response varied between indicators and correlations were generally few and inconsistent, highlighting the complexity...

  15. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  16. Small suburban cities of Lille Metropolis for the well-being of metropolitan? / Les petites villes periurbaines de la metropole lilloise au service du bien-etre des metropolitains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurène Wiesztort

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities, main biotope of the Man in the World, glean more and more agricultural lands and natural spaces beyond the distant peripheries. Historic processes such as the mass urbanization or the industrialization based on the exploitation of subsoil resources, have taken over many natural spaces that were destroyed or erased or exploited for economic purposes. The region Nord Pas-de-Calais (France has a rate of arti cialisation of the very high ground, it’s fragmented territory and upset by two world con icts and a intense mining period. So, today, meadows of three quarter of peoples of the region consider that there isn’t enough nature in the heart of their city. Within the framework of the métropolisation, this feeling is accentuated due to urban sprawl, which is more and more important. Since the 1990s, we speak about sustainable development as about a new philosophy that would lead us to a more balanced world between will economic, social, cultural and environmental policies. The region is very invested in the domain, because of the speci cities of its territory. The objective of this investigation was to account for forms that can take the environmental territorial policies and / or whose issues the welfare of citizens through new recreational spaces in nature. Are small towns “used” to ll the void nature of large cities ?. Methodologically, I have chosen to address this issue by studying the case of Lille Metropolis, relying on both eldwork four years during my thesis as well as on two inquiries which I led on the regional territory in 2006 and 2011. This research has helped to highlight the medium-sized cities, small towns and rural municipalities play a major role in territorial policies such as green and blue weft. They are the key to meet the demand of urban natural spaces. Taking this into consideration, the region will thinking about the nature of hearts with many vocations: ecological (biodiversity reserves, social (parks and

  17. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time.

  18. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Halupka

    Full Text Available Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  19. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...... that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with that of Termitomyces and tested its interaction with Termitomyces. The C-source use of both fungi largely...

  20. Imperfect nesting and transport properties in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Maki, Kazumi; Virosztek, Attila

    2002-10-01

    We consider the effect of imperfect nesting in quasi-one-dimensional unconventional density waves (DW's). The phase diagram is very close to those in a conventional DW's. The linear and non-linear aspects of the electric conductivity are discussed. At T=0 the frequency dependent electric conductivity develops a small dip at low frequencies. The threshold electric field depends strongly on the imperfect nesting parameter, allowing us to describe very well the measured threshold electric field in the low temperature phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  1. Efficient use of iterative solvers in nested topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Stolpe, Mathias; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the analysis equations. In this study, it is suggested to reduce this computational cost by using an approximation to the solution of the analysis problem, generated by a Krylov...... subspace iterative solver. By choosing convergence criteria for the iterative solver that are strongly related to the optimization objective and to the design sensitivities, it is possible to terminate the iterative solution of the nested equations earlier compared to traditional convergence measures...

  2. Don't Mess with the NEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, M

    2012-03-15

    NEST stands for Nuclear Emergency Support Team. The NEST Mission Statement as first established: (1) Conduct, direct, coordinate search and recovery operations for nuclear material, weapons or devices; and (2) Assist in identification and deactivation of Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) and Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs). Then in 1980 a very sophisticated improvised explosive device was found at Harvey's Casino at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The FBI and Bomb Squads were unprepared and it detonated. As a result the additional phrase 'and Sophisticated Improvised Explosive Devices (SIEDs)' was added to the Mission Statement.

  3. Must lill heidab suure varju / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2007-01-01

    Brian De Palma krimimüsteerium "Must daalia" ("The Black Dahlia"), mis põhineb James Ellroy samanimelisel romaanil : operaator Vilmos Zsigmond : osades Josh Hartnett, Aaron Eckhart, Hilary Swank, Scarlett Johansson : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Film noir'i stilistika kasutamisest filmis

  4. Kan naturvidenskaben forklare den lille forskel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Astrid Elkjær

    2013-01-01

    I moderne kønsforskning er flere forskere begyndt at bruge neurovidenskabelige resultater til at belyse og forklare forskelle mellem kønnene. Et eksempel på denne tendens er professor Hans Bonde fra Københavns Universitet, der bl.a. er kendt for sin forskning inden for maskulinitet. I dette indlæg...

  5. Kevadfestival kutsub metsa ja kontserdisaali / Iren Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Iren

    2008-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini toimuva Türi Kevadfestivali raames: koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendus 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas (autoriteks kirjanik Leelo Tungal ja helilooja Tõnis Kaumann), Kadri-Ann Sumera kontsert pealkirjaga "Metsastseenid" 29. mail, Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamine, ansambli Svetilen kontsert 30. mail Türi kirikus, regilaulude laulmine Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, festivali lõppkontsert Türi kirikus 1. juunil (esineb organist Ulla Krigul)

  6. Seksist, linnast ja moest / Mervi Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Mervi

    2008-01-01

    USA 1998. aastal ekraanile jõudnud menusari "Seks ja linn" on mõjutanud sarja populaarsuse kasvuga kogu moetööstust ja muutunud globaalseks moekuulutajaks. Sarja stilist on Patricia Field, kes tegev ka 2008.a. kevadel esilinastuva mängufilmi "Sex and The City. The Movie" juures

  7. Must lill heidab suure varju / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2007-01-01

    Brian De Palma krimimüsteerium "Must daalia" ("The Black Dahlia"), mis põhineb James Ellroy samanimelisel romaanil : operaator Vilmos Zsigmond : osades Josh Hartnett, Aaron Eckhart, Hilary Swank, Scarlett Johansson : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Film noir'i stilistika kasutamisest filmis

  8. Folginoppeid / Märt-Matis Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Märt-Matis, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Muljeid Viljandi pärimusmuusikafestivalilt. Pikemalt soomlase J. Karjalaise, indiaanlase Lendava Kotka, rootsi löökpillimängija Petter Berndaleni, india interpreetide Shubhendra Rao ja Satyajit Talwalkari kontsertidest

  9. Kevadfestival kutsub metsa ja kontserdisaali / Iren Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Iren

    2008-01-01

    Üritustest 29. maist kuni 1. juunini toimuva Türi Kevadfestivali raames: koomilise laulumängu "Lopi ja Lapi" esietendus 31. mail Oisu rahvamajas (autoriteks kirjanik Leelo Tungal ja helilooja Tõnis Kaumann), Kadri-Ann Sumera kontsert pealkirjaga "Metsastseenid" 29. mail, Alo Põldmäe loodusfotode näituse "Muusikaline Neeruti" avamine, ansambli Svetilen kontsert 30. mail Türi kirikus, regilaulude laulmine Jaak Johansoni ja Riina Roose eestvedamisel ürituse "Ööülikool" raames 30. mail, festivali lõppkontsert Türi kirikus 1. juunil (esineb organist Ulla Krigul)

  10. Palacio de justicia de Lille – Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willerval, J.

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a general description of this important building, and also a more detailed discussion of particular aspects of it. There is also a technical commentary of the structure, both in its general and particular nature, and the architectural as well as aesthetic aspects if it are considered. The whole design has formal and structural features that are unusual and noteworthy.Se describe el conjunto total y después se especifican las par tes del edificio del Palacio de Justicia, señalando las dependencias que contiene y la función de cada una. En una segunda parte del artículo se comenta técnicamente la estructura de la obra, también por partes y según su nivel, dando, a la vez, detalles arquitectónicos y estéticos. El conjunto edificado reúne características específicas formales y estructurales que lo destacan y hacen digno de especial atención y mención.

  11. Jõustuvad muutused suurperede toetustes / Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilles, Eli

    2007-01-01

    1. juulist 2007 tõstetakse lapsetoetust alates pere kolmandast lapsest 900 kroonini. Peretoetustest, sünnitushüvitisest, vanemahüvitisest, riiklikest peretoetustest ja maksusoodustustest. Ilmunud ka Oma Saar 2. juuli 2007, lk. 1, pealkiri kujul: Lasterikaste perede toetus muutus ; Türi Rahvaleht 13. juuli 2007, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Suurperede toetused kasvavad

  12. Jõustuvad muutused suurperede toetustes / Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilles, Eli

    2007-01-01

    1. juulist 2007 tõstetakse lapsetoetust alates pere kolmandast lapsest 900 kroonini. Peretoetustest, sünnitushüvitisest, vanemahüvitisest, riiklikest peretoetustest ja maksusoodustustest. Ilmunud ka Oma Saar 2. juuli 2007, lk. 1, pealkiri kujul: Lasterikaste perede toetus muutus ; Türi Rahvaleht 13. juuli 2007, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Suurperede toetused kasvavad

  13. Piisavalt hullumeelne Andres Metspalu / Anne Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Anne, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Pärnu 7. sept., lk. 5-6, Linnaleht : Tartu 7. sept., lk. 8-9. Tartu Ülikooli biotehnoloogia professor Andres Metspalu on mitu aastat olnud Euroopa Inimesegeneetika Ühingu president ning Kanadas asuva rahvusvahelise biopankade konsortsiumi P3G juhatuse liige. Lisa: Kuumad geenid

  14. The path to the nest of spiders The path to the nest of spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Luz Bayer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Italo Calvino writes in his preface to The Path to the Nest of Spiders that the novel answers to the "ripeness of the time" since ht wrote it after wartime, a period when everyone had a tale to tell. He tells us that this is a story in which iobody is a hero and nobody has the class consciousness necessary to unify them in the struggle. Calvino acknowledges that it was difficult to conciliate his experiences with the postwar literary movement which he calls Neo-expresSionism, a term which, he thinks, describes better Italian Neo-realism. This is a book with a full realistic depictior of the incongruousness of the whole situation, showing rumen beings driven by loneliness, aggressiveness, unfulfilment and failure to meet, their nerves frayed by the War. It reveals human beings in their weaknesses, subjected to deterministic fates changing roles according to circumstance. Partisans shift to the Nazi side and inform on their f rmer allies and vice-versa, being later chased in revenge. The novel has as its setting Italy under Fascism and unde German occupation, the Italian people being divided betw en the fascists of the "Black Brigade" and the "Partisa4s" who belonged to the Resistance. Although this is a pOlitical book, it has universal appeal. At the same time that it livens up historical facts about the period, it moves our feelings. Calvino's book is about World War II as it is viewed and felt by a small outcast, Pin, who makes considerable efforts to be accepted and understood by adults. In his daily life Pinsuffers the consequences Of the war. His aggressive disposition reflects the environment which he has been brought up in: since he was born, his country has been at war. Besides that, his only sister is a whore, whom he hates and despises. Italo Calvino writes in his preface to The Path to the Nest of Spiders that the novel answers to the "ripeness of the time" since ht wrote it after wartime, a period when everyone had a tale to tell

  15. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  16. Nesting Biology and Behavior of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae in Central Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting biology of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 was studied in the Khugnu- Khaan Mountains of Khugnu-Tarna National Park, central Mongolia in 2014 using nest traps. Euodynerus dantici is univoltine in the study site, with one generation per growth season. Nest architecture and its structural parts were described in details. The inner cells of the nests were longer and contained a proportionately larger amount of food than the shorter outer cells. Females developed in inner cells and males developed in outer cells. Developmental stages of E. dantici is studied with details of pupation period. All basic behavioral elements of nesting females are described. A nest parasitoid, Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae was reared from E. dantici nests for the fi rst time. For provisioning, caterpillars of the family Noctuidae (Lepidoptera were hunted by females. Diversity in nest architecture is possibly a result of nest parasite pressure

  17. Multilevel Analysis Methods for Partially Nested Cluster Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores multilevel modeling approaches for 2-group randomized experiments in which a treatment condition involving clusters of individuals is compared to a control condition involving only ungrouped individuals, otherwise known as partially nested cluster randomized designs (PNCRTs). Strategies for comparing groups from a PNCRT in the…

  18. Xylaria species associated with nests of Odontotermes formosanus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yu-Ming; Hsieh, Huei-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Nine species of Xylaria were collected in Taiwan from nests of Odontotermes formosanus, the only known macrotermitine termite in Taiwan. These include six newly described species, X. acuminatilongissima, X. atrodivaricata, X. brunneovinosa, X. griseosepiacea, X. intraflava and X. ochraceostroma, and three previously known species, X. cirrata, X. escharoidea and X. nigripes. We obtained cultures and ITS sequences from the nine species found in Taiwan and describe anamorphs for eight of them. Before the current study teleomorph-anamorph connections in the Xylaria species associated with termite nests have been established unequivocally in X. escharoidea only. Xylaria angulosa, X. fimbriata, X. kedahae, X. micrura, X. radicans, X. reinkingii and X. tolosa also are considered and annotated because they were reported to grow on ground and likely are associated with termite nests. Epitypifications are made for X. cirrata, X. escharoidea and X. nigripes. Xylaria sanchezii is considered a nomen dubium. Photographs are presented for most of the aforementioned species. A dichotomous key to 25 Xylaria species growing on termite nests or ground also is given.

  19. Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, Alfons; Langerak, Rom; Pol, van de Jaco; Weber, Michael; Wijs, Anton; Bultan, T.; Hsiung, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    The LTL Model Checking problem is reducible to finding accepting cycles in a graph. The Nested Depth-First Search (NDFS) algorithm detects accepting cycles efficiently: on-the-fly, with linear-time complexity and negligible memory overhead. The only downside of the algorithm is that it relies on an

  20. Improved Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Sami; Laarman, Alfons; Petrucci, Laure; Pol, van de Jaco; Ramesh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents CNDFS, a tight integration of two earlier multi-core nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithms for LTL model checking. CNDFS combines the different strengths and avoids some weaknesses of its predecessors. We compare CNDFS to an earlier ad-hoc combination of those two algorithm

  1. Repeatability in nest construction by male three-spined sticklebacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rushbrook, B. J.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Barber, I.

    Structures built by animals may convey useful information about the builder that may be used by conspecifics in quality assessment. In fish, nest construction has been suggested to reflect qualities of individual builders, but little is known about how consistent individual differences are over

  2. Sea turtle nesting distributions and oceanographic constraints on hatchling migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Bane, John M; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2010-12-07

    Patterns of abundance across a species's reproductive range are influenced by ecological and environmental factors that affect the survival of offspring. For marine animals whose offspring must migrate long distances, natural selection may favour reproduction in areas near ocean currents that facilitate migratory movements. Similarly, selection may act against the use of potential reproductive areas from which offspring have difficulty emigrating. As a first step towards investigating this conceptual framework, we analysed loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nest abundance along the southeastern US coast as a function of distance to the Gulf Stream System (GSS), the ocean current to which hatchlings in this region migrate. Results indicate that nest density increases as distance to the GSS decreases. Distance to the GSS can account for at least 90 per cent of spatial variation in regional nest density. Even at smaller spatial scales, where local beach conditions presumably exert strong effects, at least 38 per cent of the variance is explained by distance from the GSS. These findings suggest that proximity to favourable ocean currents strongly influences sea turtle nesting distributions. Similar factors may influence patterns of abundance across the reproductive ranges of diverse marine animals, such as penguins, eels, salmon and seals.

  3. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic conceptual idea to obtain bulk 3D negative index metamaterials, which exhibit isotropic properties. The design is based on the nested structures approach, when one element providing magnetic response is inserted into another design with negative dielectric constant. Both...

  4. Using Gesture to Teach Seneca in a Language Nest School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Melissa Elayne

    2014-01-01

    Seneca elder Sandy Dowdy and her granddaughter Autumn Crouse direct a language nest school for children aged two to five years in a small longhouse-shaped building, "Ganöhsesge:kha:' Hë:nödeyë:sta'":, or the Faithkeepers School, on the Seneca Allegany Territory in upstate New York. They practice immersion teaching and use forms of…

  5. Behavior of greedy sparse representation algorithms on nested supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We study the links between recovery properties of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and the whole General MP class for sparse signals with nested supports, i.e., supports that share an inclusion relationship. In particular, we show that the support recovery optimality of those algorithms is not l...

  6. Nested Genetic Algorithm for Resolving Overlapped Spectral Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A nested genetic algorithm, including genetic parameter level and genetic implemented level for peak parameters, was proposed and applied for resolving overlapped spectral bands. By the genetic parameter level, parameters of genetic algorithm were optimized; moreover, the number of overlapped peaks was determined simultaneously. Then parameters of individual peaks were computed with the genetic implemented level.

  7. NEST-SITE SELECTION IN THE CAPE SUGARBIRD We dedicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fluctuations in wind-speed, an average value was determined for five .... where k is a constant (6,17 x 10-8) having units so that Hc is in cal em-I min-l (porter ...... predators constitute a major force limiting birds nesting on or near the ground.

  8. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count <1800/mm(3) was observed in 60%, and positive C-reactive protein in 46%. Thirty neonates had positive blood culture, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%) was the predominant organism. Nested urine PCR was positive in 38 (76%) and detected bacterial DNA in 8 neonates with negative blood cultures. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents.

  9. Comparison of nest shapes and densities of two sympatric species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of nest shapes and densities of two sympatric species of ... there are significant, though small, differences in height, diameter, number of caps, surface ... the addition of a first cap decreases the volume/surface ratio but a second or ...

  10. Improved Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Sami; Laarman, Alfons; Petrucci, Laure; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Ramesh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents CNDFS, a tight integration of two earlier multi-core nested depth-first search (NDFS) algorithms for LTL model checking. CNDFS combines the different strengths and avoids some weaknesses of its predecessors. We compare CNDFS to an earlier ad-hoc combination of those two

  11. Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, Alfons; Langerak, Romanus; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Wijs, Anton; Bultan, T.; Hsiung, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    The LTL Model Checking problem is reducible to finding accepting cycles in a graph. The Nested Depth-First Search (NDFS) algorithm detects accepting cycles efficiently: on-the-fly, with linear-time complexity and negligible memory overhead. The only downside of the algorithm is that it relies on an

  12. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  13. Unit 9 Bird Nesting Survey : Biological Summary Report : May 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the second year of the proposed 3 year survey project in Unit 9 of the Monte Vista NWR to look at breeding and nesting birds that use wet meadow/ wetland...

  14. Efficient use of iterative solvers in nested topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Stolpe, Mathias; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    by a Krylov subspace iterative solver. By choosing convergence criteria for the iterative solver that are strongly related to the optimization objective and to the design sensitivities, it is possible to terminate the iterative solution of the nested equations earlier compared to traditional convergence...

  15. Efficient Thread Labeling for Monitoring Programs with Nested Parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ok-Kyoon; Kim, Sun-Sook; Jun, Yong-Kee

    It is difficult and cumbersome to detect data races occurred in an execution of parallel programs. Any on-the-fly race detection techniques using Lamport's happened-before relation needs a thread labeling scheme for generating unique identifiers which maintain logical concurrency information for the parallel threads. NR labeling is an efficient thread labeling scheme for the fork-join program model with nested parallelism, because its efficiency depends only on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. This paper presents an improved NR labeling, called e-NR labeling, in which every thread generates its label by inheriting the pointer to its ancestor list from the parent threads or by updating the pointer in a constant amount of time and space. This labeling is more efficient than the NR labeling, because its efficiency does not depend on the nesting depth for every fork and join operation. Some experiments were performed with OpenMP programs having nesting depths of three or four and maximum parallelisms varying from 10,000 to 1,000,000. The results show that e-NR is 5 times faster than NR labeling and 4.3 times faster than OS labeling in the average time for creating and maintaining the thread labels. In average space required for labeling, it is 3.5 times smaller than NR labeling and 3 times smaller than OS labeling.

  16. Nest success of snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) in the Southern high plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, S.T.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, D.A.; Johnson, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) nesting on edges of saline lakes within the Southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas are threatened by habitat degradation due to reduced artesian spring flow, making many saline lakes unsuitable for nesting and migrating shorebirds. Factors influencing nest success were evaluated, current nest success estimates in the SHP of Texas were compared to estimates obtained ten years prior, and causes and timing of nest failures determined. Overall, 215 nests were monitored from three saline lakes in 20082009, with nest success estimates from Program MARK ranging from 7-33% ( x??= 22%). The leading causes of nest failures were attributed to predation (40%) and weather (36%). Nest success was negatively influenced by number of plants within 707-cm 2 plot, positively influenced by percent surface water availability, and at one saline lake, negatively influenced by day during the nesting season (i.e., nest success declined later in the nesting season). When compared to estimates ten years prior (19981999), mean nest success has declined by 31%. If nesting Snowy Plovers continue to experience increased predation rates, decreased hydrological integrity, and habitat alterations, populations will continue to decline throughout this region.

  17. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  18. Nested-grid simulation of mercury over North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new high-resolution (1/2° latitude by 2/3° longitude nested-grid mercury (Hg simulation over North America employing the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Emissions, chemistry, deposition, and meteorology are self-consistent between the global and nested domains. Compared to the global model (4° latitude by 5° longitude, the nested model shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial and temporal variability of Hg wet deposition over North America observed by the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN in 2008–2009. The nested simulation resolves features such as land/ocean contrast and higher deposition due to orographic precipitation, and predicts more efficient convective rain scavenging of Hg over the southeast United States. However, the nested model overestimates Hg wet deposition over the Ohio River Valley region (ORV by 27%. We modify anthropogenic emission speciation profiles in the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI to account for the rapid in-plume reduction of reactive to elemental Hg (IPR simulation. This leads to a decrease in the model bias to +3% over the ORV region. Over the contiguous US, the correlation coefficient (r between MDN observations and our IPR simulation increases from 0.63 to 0.78. The IPR nested simulation generally reproduces the seasonal cycle in surface concentrations of speciated Hg from the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet and Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Network (CAMNet. In the IPR simulation, annual mean reactive gaseous and particulate-bound Hg are within 80% and 10% of observations, respectively. In contrast, the simulation with unmodified anthropogenic Hg speciation profiles overestimates these observations by factors of 2 to 4. The nested model shows improved skill at capturing the horizontal variability of Hg observed over California during the ARCTAS aircraft campaign. We find that North American anthropogenic emissions account for 10–22% of Hg wet

  19. Nest and brood attentiveness in female black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation rhythms and brood attentiveness of radio-marked Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in southcentral Maine during 1977-1980. Recess duration and frequency differed between three females nesting near wetlands (x = 82 min, 2.3 recesses/day) and two nesting at upland sites(x = 183 min, I. I recesses/day), but incubation constancy was similar for all birds (x = 86.7%). A fourth wetland-nesting female apparently responded to the absence of down and concealing cover at the nest site by taking shorter and fewer recesses (x= 34 min, 1.0 recesses/day) than did other wetland-nesters with typical nests. Wetland-nesters took longer recesses with increasing air temperature and following long incubation sessions. After their ducklings were two weeks old, two brood-rearing females began leaving their broods to forage on nearby wetlands. Duration of rearing recess (x = 56 min) and total recess time (x = 94 min/day) were less during this mid-rearing stage than during the latter part of rearing (x = 265 min, 488 min/day). The two hen-brood bonds terminated at 43 and 48 days. We suggest that small endogenous nutrient reserves and the low density of invertebrate foods, typical of Black Duck breeding habitat, were critical factors affecting the evolution of Black Duck incubation behavior. Bouts of inattention during brood rearing may have also evolved in relation to food requirements; by foraging on wetlands away from their broods, females avoid competing with offspring for common food resources.

  20. Interacting effects of aromatic plants and female age on nest-dwelling ectoparasites and blood-sucking flies in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, G; Merino, S; Martínez-de la Puente, J; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Rivero-de Aguilar, J; Del Cerro, S

    2012-06-01

    Some avian species incorporate aromatic plants to their nests. The "nest protection hypothesis", which posits that volatile secondary compounds contained in these plants may have antiparasite properties, has not received full support. All previous tests of this hypothesis have only considered effects on nest-dwelling ectoparasites, but not on blood-sucking flies. The "drug hypothesis" posits that aromatic plants may stimulate nestling immune system, development, or condition. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in wild blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, a species that adds aromatic plants to their nests. We supplemented aromatic plants to half of a sample of nests, while adding grass to the other half of nests. We quantified abundance of two groups of blood-sucking flies (blackflies and biting midges) at two different stages of the reproductive period, and abundance of three nest-dwelling ectoparasites (fleas, mites, and blowflies). Experimental supplementation of aromatic plants reduced abundance of fleas only in nests of yearling females and not in nests of older females. Blackflies and biting midges were both more numerous in nests of yearling females than in nests of older females. Mass of aromatic plants added by females was negatively related with abundance of fleas in control nests but not in experimental nests supplied with aromatic plants. Mass of plants added by females was also positively related with abundance of blackflies during the nestling stage. Finally, aromatic plants did not affect nestling growth or immune responses. We conclude that several factors such as female experience and their ability to add plants to the nest interact to explain effects of aromatic plants on different parasites.

  1. Sunrise nest attendance and aggression by least Bell's vireos fail to deter cowbird parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Bryan L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2004-01-01

    We video-recorded three, natural, brood-parasitism events by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) at nests of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus). All instances occurred near dawn, during both egg-laying and incubation stages of the nesting cycle. In each case, an adult vireo was on the nest when the female cowbird arrived. Both members of each parasitized pair vigorously attacked the intruding cowbird, but in no encounter did a pair of vireos successfully defend its nest from parasitism. Thus, Least Bell's Vireos in our study were unable to prevent a female cowbird from parasitizing their nests once the cowbird had reached the nest.

  2. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera:

  3. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the two most widely practiced methods for optimal reservoir operation have been dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). These two methods suffer from the so called "dual curse" which prevents them to be used in reasonably complex water systems. The first one is the "curse of dimensionality" that denotes an exponential growth of the computational complexity with the state - decision space dimension. The second one is the "curse of modelling" that requires an explicit model of each component of the water system to anticipate the effect of each system's transition. We address the problem of optimal reservoir operation concerning multiple objectives that are related to 1) reservoir releases to satisfy several downstream users competing for water with dynamically varying demands, 2) deviations from the target minimum and maximum reservoir water levels and 3) hydropower production that is a combination of the reservoir water level and the reservoir releases. Addressing such a problem with classical methods (DP and SDP) requires a reasonably high level of discretization of the reservoir storage volume, which in combination with the required releases discretization for meeting the demands of downstream users leads to computationally expensive formulations and causes the curse of dimensionality. We present a novel approach, named "nested" that is implemented in DP, SDP and reinforcement learning (RL) and correspondingly three new algorithms are developed named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP) and nested RL (nRL). The nested algorithms are composed from two algorithms: 1) DP, SDP or RL and 2) nested optimization algorithm. Depending on the way we formulate the objective function related to deficits in the allocation problem in the nested optimization, two methods are implemented: 1) Simplex for linear allocation problems, and 2) quadratic Knapsack method in the case of nonlinear problems. The novel idea is to include the nested

  4. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  5. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockweit, Jeremy T; Franklin, Alan B; Bakken, George S; Gutiérrez, R J

    2012-01-01

    Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c)) of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests), at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c) in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C) to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C) under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  6. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Rockweit

    Full Text Available Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests, at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  7. Neighbourhood society: nesting dynamics, usurpations and social behaviour in solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Černá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific cleptoparasitism represents a facultative strategy advantageous for reducing time and energy costs. However, only a few studies about nesting dynamics have described intraspecific cleptoparasitic behaviour in obligate solitary bees. We focused on nesting dynamics with the characterisation of nest owner replacements and frequency of true usurpation in four aggregating species belonging to different phylogenetic lineages--Andrena vaga (Andrenidae, Anthophora plumipes (Apidae, Colletes cunicularius (Colletidae, and Osmia rufa (Megachilidae. Our study, based on the regular observation of individually marked females, shows that nest owner replacement affects 10-45% of nests across all of the studied species and years. However, 39-90% of these nests had been abandoned before owner change and thus true nest usurpations represent only a part of observed nest replacement cases. Females tend to abandon their nests regularly and found new ones when they live long enough, which is in accordance with risk-spreading strategy. We suggest that the original facultative strategy of observed solitary bees during nest founding is not cleptoparasitism per se but rather reuse of any pre-existing nest (similar to "entering" strategy in apoid wasps. This is supported by gradual increase of nests founded by "entering" during the season with an increase in the number of available nests. Although the frequent reuse of conspecific nests results in frequent contact between solitary females, and rarely, in the short-term coexistence of two females in one nest, we detected unexpectedly low level of conflict in these neighbourhood societies. We suggest that nesting dynamics with regular nest switching and reusing reduces long-term and costly intraspecific aggression, a key factor for the origin and evolution of sociality.

  8. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  9. Common blackbirdsTurdus merula use anthropogenic structures as nesting sites in an urbanized landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Qin HUANG; Sisi LAN; Qin ZHANG; Shuihua CHEN

    2015-01-01

    The common blackbirdTurdus merula is one of the most highly urbanized bird species. However, to date, the use of anthropogenic structures as nesting sites in the common blackbird is rarely documented, and the factors influencing its use of the anthropogenic structures as nesting sites remain unclear. In this study, we systematically quantified and determined the factors in-fluencing the use of anthropogenic structures as nesting sites in common blackbirds in a highly urbanized city of Hangzhou, Chi-na. We searched for nests of common blackbirds during four breeding seasons from 2010 to 2013. Among the 60 nests found, 34 nests were in anthropogenic structures such as wall ledges, air condition mounts, window canopies, cable poles, guardrails, eaves, balcony frames, flowerpots and flower shelves on balconies. We found that the available anthropogenic nest sites and the availa-ble nesting trees were main factors determining the use of anthropogenic structures as nesting sites in common blackbirds. In ur-ban environments, the amount of available anthropogenic nesting sites increased significantly, whereas the number of natural nesting sites reduced greatly. Our results suggest that common blackbirds can adjust their nest sites in response to urbanization and such nesting behavior shifts may aid them to colonize urban environments. From a management viewpoint, our results indi-cate that behavioral flexibility should be taken into account for effective urban wildlife management and conservation [Current Zoology 61 (3): 435–443, 2015].

  10. Does nest luminosity play a role in recognition of parasitic eggs in domed nests? A case study of the red bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Cherry, Michael I.

    2014-12-01

    Certain light environments may hinder egg discrimination by hosts of foreign eggs, which could in some circumstances lead to the acceptance of non-mimetic eggs by hosts. We measured light parameters at red bishop ( Euplectes orix) nests and used a model of avian visual processing to quantify the detectability of eggs in the light environment in which they are perceived. We found that the overall amount of light was very variable between red bishop nests and always sufficient for colour discrimination. A model of avian visual processing revealed that nest luminosity had no influence on host responses towards eggs which were painted dark brown. Dark eggs do not appear to be cryptic in red bishop nests and can be distinguished with ease, whereas natural red bishop eggs are usually accepted, despite the domed structure of the nest. We found little variation in both chromatic and achromatic contrasts between host and artificial eggs, indicating that there was very little variation in the light quality inside nests. We suggest that nest luminosity is likely to play a role in egg recognition in situations when light reaches threshold values for colour discrimination, i.e. in scotopic as opposed to photopic vision. Rejection rates for dark eggs were higher than for bright (conspecific) foreign eggs. More investigation of domed nest-building species is required, as this type of nest appears to have a highly variable light environment, dependent on both nest structure and habitat.

  11. Monitoring of Nesting Spectacled Eiders on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta NWR, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting spectacled eiders were monitored for the 20th consecutive year on Kigigak Island, Alaska in 2011. Clutch size, hatch date, and final nest status were...

  12. Report of Black Duck Nesting on the Blackwater River Migratory Bird Refuge 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this investigation is to determine the extent of nesting in the area by ducks and the amount of destruction during the nesting season by predacious...

  13. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2012-12-01

    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes.

  14. A survey of potential raptor nesting sites in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During June 1989, selected areas of the southern Askinuk Mountains were surveyed for raptor nests. Ten nests were located on rock outcroppings at seven locations....

  15. Evaluation of the 100 meter protective zone for bald eagle nests in southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in southeast Alaska have been protected by a 100 m buffer zone since 1968. Nests near logging developments were surveyed...

  16. Nested by design: model fitting and interpretation in a mixed model era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Freckleton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ...‐effects models offer a powerful framework to do so. Nested effects can usually be fitted using the syntax for crossed effects in mixed models, provided that the coding reflects implicit nesting...

  17. Nesting survey for Aleutian Canada geese at Nizki-Alaid, Alaska in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting success was high in 1990, and moderate numbers of subadult birds, which may nest in future years, were present. Furthermore, a translocation of 38 geese...

  18. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-01-01

    .... Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests...

  19. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1990. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  20. A survey for cliff-nesting birds of prey along the Noatak River, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to locate peregrine falcon nesting sites and to locate nest sites of other raptor species and assess their location in...

  1. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1989. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  2. Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) nest records Kashunuk River and Kigigak Island, Alaska, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing nest records for Spectacled Eiders near the Kashunuk River and on Kigigak Island, within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Nests were visited...

  3. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  4. Clustered nested sampling: efficient Bayesian inference for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, R; Hobson, M P

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian model selection provides the cosmologist with an exacting tool to distinguish between competing models based purely on the data, via the Bayesian evidence. Previous methods to calculate this quantity either lacked general applicability or were computationally demanding. However, nested sampling (Skilling 2004), which was recently applied successfully to cosmology by Muhkerjee et al. 2006, overcomes both of these impediments. Their implementation restricts the parameter space sampled, and thus improves the efficiency, using a decreasing ellipsoidal bound in the $n$-dimensional parameter space centred on the maximum likelihood point. However, if the likelihood function contains any multi-modality, then the ellipse is prevented from constraining the sampling region efficiently. In this paper we introduce a method of clustered ellipsoidal nested sampling which can form multiple ellipses around each individual peak in the likelihood. In addition we have implemented a method for determining the expectation...

  5. Experimental demonstration of an inertial collimation mechanism in nested outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchak, R; Pelka, A; Pikuz, S; Falize, E; Vinci, T; Koenig, M; Loupias, B; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Fatenejad, M; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D Q; Blackman, E G

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between a central outflow and a surrounding wind is common in astrophysical sources powered by accretion. Understanding how the interaction might help to collimate the inner central outflow is of interest for assessing astrophysical jet formation paradigms. In this context, we studied the interaction between two nested supersonic plasma flows generated by focusing a long pulse high-energy laser beam onto a solid target. A nested geometry was created by shaping the energy distribution at the focal spot with a dedicated phase plate. Optical and X-ray diagnostics were used to study the interacting flows. Experimental results and numerical hydrodynamic simulations indeed show the formation of strongly collimated jets. Our work experimentally confirms the "shock-focused inertial confinement" mechanism proposed in previous theoretical astrophysics investigations.

  6. NANOFIBROUS MATS WITH BIRD'S NEST PATTERNS BY ELECTROSPINNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu Ye; Xiao-jun Huang; Zhi-kang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun material with bio-inspired ordered architectures and patterns is very interesting,yet remains a challenge.We report here that nanofibrous mats with bird's nest patterned structures can be directly electrospun from chlorinated polypropylene solutions doped with an ionic liquid.The solution viscosity and the ionic liquid content are two dominant factors to influence the lopological morphology of the nanofibrous mats.The patterned structures can be further modulated by the collection time of electrospinning,the humidity of environment and the design of collector.We suggest the electrostatic repulsion between the residual charges of the mat surface and the upcoming nanofibers plays a key role in the formation of the bird's nest patterns.

  7. Optimization and Evaluation of Nested Queries and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Guravannavar, Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Many database applications perform complex data retrieval and update tasks. Nested queries, and queries that invoke user-defined functions, which are written using a mix of procedural and SQL constructs, are often used in such applications. A straight-forward evaluation of such queries involves repeated execution of parameterized sub-queries or blocks containing queries and procedural code. An important problem that arises while optimizing nested queries as well as queries with joins, aggregates and set operations is the problem of finding an optimal sort order from a factorial number of possible sort orders. We show that even a special case of this problem is NP-Hard, and present practical heuristics that are effective and easy to incorporate in existing query optimizers. We also consider iterative execution of queries and updates inside complex procedural blocks such as user-defined functions and stored procedures. Parameter batching is an important means of improving performance as it enables set-orientate...

  8. Towards a streaming model for nested data parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederik Meisner; Filinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    -flattening execution strategy, comes at the price of potentially prohibitive space usage in the common case of computations with an excess of available parallelism, such as dense-matrix multiplication. We present a simple nested data-parallel functional language and associated cost semantics that retains NESL......'s intuitive work--depth model for time complexity, but also allows highly parallel computations to be expressed in a space-efficient way, in the sense that memory usage on a single (or a few) processors is of the same order as for a sequential formulation of the algorithm, and in general scales smoothly......-processable in a streaming fashion. This semantics is directly compatible with previously proposed piecewise execution models for nested data parallelism, but allows the expected space usage to be reasoned about directly at the source-language level. The language definition and implementation are still very much work...

  9. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  10. The mathematics of non-linear metrics for nested networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Jie; Shi, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of data from international trade and ecological networks has shown that the non-linear fitness-complexity metric is the best candidate to rank nodes by importance in bipartite networks that exhibit a nested structure. Despite its relevance for real networks, the mathematical properties of the metric and its variants remain largely unexplored. Here, we perform an analytic and numeric study of the fitness-complexity metric and a new variant, called minimal extremal metric. We rigorously derive exact expressions for node scores for perfectly nested networks and show that these expressions explain the non-trivial convergence properties of the metrics. A comparison between the fitness-complexity metric and the minimal extremal metric on real data reveals that the latter can produce improved rankings if the input data are reliable.

  11. Extraction of Flat and Nested Data Records from Web Pages

    CERN Document Server

    Hiremath, P S

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of identification and extraction of flat and nested data records from a given web page. With the explosive growth of information sources available on the World Wide Web, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information, since web pages are often cluttered with irrelevant content like advertisements, navigation-panels, copyright notices etc., surrounding the main content of the web page. Hence, it is useful to mine such data regions and data records in order to extract information from such web pages to provide value-added services. Currently available automatic techniques to mine data regions and data records from web pages are still unsatisfactory because of their poor performance. In this paper a novel method to identify and extract the flat and nested data records from the web pages automatically is proposed. It comprises of two steps : (1) Identification and Extraction of the data regions based on visual clues information. (2) Identificatio...

  12. Temperature variation in nests of Caiman crocodilus (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando H. Escobedo Galván

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Caiman crocodilus is a widely distributed species in the Neotropics; however, studies of incubation temperatures in wildlife are uncommon. Incubation temperature in four nests of Caiman crocodilus were measured with a digital thermometer, in the National Wildlife Refuge Caño Negro, Costa Rica. Average temperatures in these four nests (no. 1-4 were 32.13 + 0.92 °C (no. 1, 32.46 + 0.77 °C (no. 2, 33.60 + 0.95 °C (no. 3, and 31.78 + 2.30 °C (no. 4. Temperature variations recorded showed higher temperatures than those reported from other studies in Caño Negro. The temperatures registered in this study will lead to a higher proportion of males within the caiman population, reducing the number of future reproducing females and, therefore, in the population viability.

  13. PolyChord: next-generation nested sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, W J; Lasenby, A N

    2015-01-01

    PolyChord is a novel nested sampling algorithm tailored for high-dimensional parameter spaces. This paper coincides with the release of PolyChord v1.3, and provides an extensive account of the algorithm. PolyChord utilises slice sampling at each iteration to sample within the hard likelihood constraint of nested sampling. It can identify and evolve separate modes of a posterior semi-independently, and is parallelised using openMPI. It is capable of exploiting a hierarchy of parameter speeds such as those present in CosmoMC and CAMB, and is now in use in the CosmoChord and ModeChord codes. PolyChord is available for download at: http://ccpforge.cse.rl.ac.uk/gf/project/polychord/

  14. DNest4: Diffusive Nested Sampling in C++ and Python

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2016-01-01

    In probabilistic (Bayesian) inferences, we typically want to compute properties of the posterior distribution, describing knowledge of unknown quantities in the context of a particular dataset and the assumed prior information. The marginal likelihood, also known as the "evidence", is a key quantity in Bayesian model selection. The Diffusive Nested Sampling algorithm, a variant of Nested Sampling, is a powerful tool for generating posterior samples and estimating marginal likelihoods. It is effective at solving complex problems including many where the posterior distribution is multimodal or has strong dependencies between variables. DNest4 is an open source (MIT licensed), multi-threaded implementation of this algorithm in C++11, along with associated utilities including: i) RJObject, a class template for finite mixture models, (ii) A Python package allowing basic use without C++ coding, and iii) Experimental support for models implemented in Julia. In this paper we demonstrate DNest4 usage through examples ...

  15. Can hedgerow management mitigate the impacts of predation on songbird nest survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jenny C; Gruar, Derek; Stoate, Chris; Szczur, John; Peach, Will J

    2016-12-15

    Nest predators can have significant impacts on songbird reproductive success. These impacts may be amplified by habitat simplification and here we test whether sympathetic management of farmland hedgerows can reduce nest depredation, especially by corvids. We test whether songbirds select nest sites according to structural features of hedgerows (including nest visibility and accessibility), and whether these features influence nest predation risk. Songbirds selected nesting sites affording higher vegetation cover above the nest, increased visibility on the nest-side of the hedgerow and reduced visibility on the far side of the hedge. Nest survival was unrelated to corvid abundance and only weakly related (at the egg stage) to corvid nest proximity. Nest survival at the chick stage was higher where vegetation structure restricted access to corvid-sized predators (averaging 0.78 vs. 0.53), and at nests close to potential vantage points. Overall nest survival was sensitive to hedgerow structure (accessibility) particularly at low exposure to corvid predation, while the overall impact of corvid exposure was dependent on the relationship involving proximity to vantage points. Nest survival over the chick stage was much higher (0.67) in stock-proof, trimmed and mechanically cut hedgerows, (which tended to provide lower side visibility and accessibility) than in recently laid, remnant or leggy hedgerows (0.18). Long-term reductions in the management of British hedgerows may therefore be exposing nesting songbirds to increased predation risk. We recommend regular rotational cutting of hedgerows to maintain a dense woody structure and thereby reduce songbird nest predation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncertain nest fates in songbird studies and variation in Mayfield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, J.C.; Andersen, D.E.; Cuthbert, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Determining whether nesting attempts are successful can be difficult. Yet, current protocols for estimating nesting success do not address how uncertain nest fates should be handled. We examined the problem of nest-fate uncertainty as it relates to Mayfield estimation of nesting success and in analyses of factors that influence success. We used data from Minnesota to illustrate the potential effect of uncertain fate; 40% of Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus; n = 127) nests and 30% of Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus; n = 144) nests had uncertain fates. How this uncertainty is incorporated into Mayfield estimates of success varied widely among researchers. In a survey of researchers who use the Mayfield method, 9 of 22 respondents (of 40 contacted) excluded nests with uncertain fate. Excluding uncertain fates is counter to how Mayfield first described his estimator and can result in severe downward bias. The remaining respondents (59%) included nests with uncertain fate but varied in how they terminated the exposure period. We developed a simulation model that calculated Mayfield estimates using different approaches and compared them with a known rate of nesting success. Magnitude of bias in Mayfield estimates varied considerably in our simulations. The approach with the least bias terminated exposure with the last observed active date for nests with uncertain fate, and with the midpoint between last observed active and first observed inactive dates for nests with known fate. In addition, information necessary to interpret and compare Mayfield estimates often is not reported. These values, including variance estimates and the period lengths used to estimate survival rates, should be reported with Mayfield estimates. Finally, nest fate is commonly used as a categorical variable in studies of factors affecting nesting success. In this approach, however, nests with uncertain fate must be excluded. An alternative approach is Cox regression, which incorporates nests with

  17. Bird predation on nest of a social wasp in Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Henriques, Raimundo Paulo; Torre Palma, Alexandre Ramlo

    2015-01-01

    Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIvarez del Toro 1950, Skutch 1959, Windsor 1976). Many of the observations are recorded in tropical forest on nests of Polybia and Metapolybia. In this note we present the first observations on the predation by the curIcrestedjay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) upon the nest of a social wasp (Apoica pallens) in cerrados of Central Brazil. Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIva...

  18. A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; James M. McCormick; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    During a study of red cockaded woodpecker (P icoides borealis) nesting in eastern Texas, we discovered a single breeding pair of woodpeckers with two simultaneous nests in nest trees that were 24 m apart. Incubation of eggs in each nest tree was at least 13 d and may have been as long as 16 d. The breeding male incubated and fed a nestling in one...

  19. The Role of Non-Foraging Nests in Polydomous Wood Ant Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Samuel; Robinson, Elva J H

    2015-01-01

    A colony of red wood ants can inhabit more than one spatially separated nest, in a strategy called polydomy. Some nests within these polydomous colonies have no foraging trails to aphid colonies in the canopy. In this study we identify and investigate the possible roles of non-foraging nests in polydomous colonies of the wood ant Formica lugubris. To investigate the role of non-foraging nests we: (i) monitored colonies for three years; (ii) observed the resources being transported between non-foraging nests and the rest of the colony; (iii) measured the amount of extra-nest activity around non-foraging and foraging nests. We used these datasets to investigate the extent to which non-foraging nests within polydomous colonies are acting as: part of the colony expansion process; hunting and scavenging specialists; brood-development specialists; seasonal foragers; or a selfish strategy exploiting the foraging effort of the rest of the colony. We found that, rather than having a specialised role, non-foraging nests are part of the process of colony expansion. Polydomous colonies expand by founding new nests in the area surrounding the existing nests. Nests founded near food begin foraging and become part of the colony; other nests are not founded near food sources and do not initially forage. Some of these non-foraging nests eventually begin foraging; others do not and are abandoned. This is a method of colony growth not available to colonies inhabiting a single nest, and may be an important advantage of the polydomous nesting strategy, allowing the colony to expand into profitable areas.

  20. The Role of Non-Foraging Nests in Polydomous Wood Ant Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Samuel; Robinson, Elva J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A colony of red wood ants can inhabit more than one spatially separated nest, in a strategy called polydomy. Some nests within these polydomous colonies have no foraging trails to aphid colonies in the canopy. In this study we identify and investigate the possible roles of non-foraging nests in polydomous colonies of the wood ant Formica lugubris. To investigate the role of non-foraging nests we: (i) monitored colonies for three years; (ii) observed the resources being transported between non...

  1. A voxelization approach to navigate through nested geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Brent Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High energy physics experiment software typically implements a detailed description of the geometry of the relevant detector. As modern detectors increase in complexity, modelling them becomes more challenging. Typically such models are built as a nested hierarchy of O(10000) volumes reaching a depth of 10 - 20. It is desirable to develop data structures and algorithms which allow fast and efficient navigation though a given detector geometry model. We investigate the feasibility of voxelisation techniques to this end.

  2. Nested Nanotherapeutics for Drug Synergy Enhancement in Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    different phases, but also partitioning. Modeling results suggest that release from the core and shell saturated at 46% and 92%, respectively...mammary fat pad, and received nested nanoparticles once a week for the duration of 3 weeks. As can be observed from the figure, control tumors grew...Blanco, E;* Serda, R.E.* The physiology of cardiovascular disease and innovative liposomal platforms for therapy. Int J Nanomedicine, 2013, 8, 629

  3. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis.Methods: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their...

  4. Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger

  5. Nested sampling for materials: the case of hard spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Partay, Livia B.; Bartok, Albert P.; Csanyi, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    The recently introduced nested sampling algorithm allows the direct and efficient calculation of the partition function of atomistic systems. We demonstrate its applicability to condensed phase systems with periodic boundary conditions by studying the three dimensional hard sphere model. Having obtained the partition function, we show how easy it is to calculate the compressibility and the free energy as functions of the packing fraction and local order, verifying that the transition to cryst...

  6. Sensitivitas dan Spesifisitas Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Mendeteksi DNA Coxiella burnetii (SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF NESTED POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DETECTION OF COXIELLA BURNETII DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trioso Purnawarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR to detect Coxiella burnetii(C. burnetii DNA were studied. The primer system which consists of external primers (OMP1 and OMP2and internal primers (OMP3 and OMP4, was designed from the nucleotide sequence of the com I geneencoding for 27 kDa outer membrane protein and used to specifically amplify a 501 bp and 438 bp fragment.This nested PCR assay was 50 fold more sensitive than that of using PCR external primer only. TheNested PCR has a detection limit as low as 300 pg/?l. Specificity studies showed that nested PCR onlydetected C. burnetii DNA and did not happened Brucella abortus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Campylobacter Jejuni DNA. Nested PCR has high senstively and specificaly diagnostic method of C.burnetii as agent of Q fever disease.

  7. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  8. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis.Methods: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performedwith two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus.Results: Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3 , Aspergillus flavus (n=2, Penicillium sp (n=3 and Alternaria sp. (n=1. Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor.Conclusion: Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementarydiagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  9. Design of nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizoli, Paulo V., E-mail: trevizoli@polo.ufsc.br; Lozano, Jaime A.; Peixer, Guilherme F.; Barbosa Jr, Jader R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an experimentally validated analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays for magnetic cooling applications. The procedure aims at maximizing the magnetic flux density variation in the core of the array for a given set of design parameters, namely the inner diameter of the internal magnet, the air gap between the magnet cylinders, the number of segments of each magnet and the remanent flux density of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnet grade. The design procedure was assisted and verified by 3-D numerical modeling using a commercial software package. An important aspect of the optimal design is to maintain an uniform axial distribution of the magnetic flux density in the region of the inner gap occupied by the active magnetocaloric regenerator. An optimal nested Halbach cylinder array was manufactured and experimentally evaluated for the magnetic flux density in the inner gap. The analytically calculated magnetic flux density variation agreed to within 5.6% with the experimental value for the center point of the magnet gap. - Highlights: • An analytical procedure to design nested Halbach cylinder arrays is proposed. • An optimal magnet configuration was built based on the analytical procedure. • The procedure was validated with 3D COMSOL simulations and experimental data.

  10. A Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm for the Leather Nesting Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leather nesting problem is a cutting and packing optimization problem that consists in finding the best layout for a set of irregular pieces within a natural leather hide with an irregular surface and contour. In this paper, we address a real application of this problem related to the production of car seats in the automotive industry. The high quality requirements imposed on these products combined with the heterogeneity of the leather hides make the problem very complex to solve in practice. Very few results are reported in the literature for the leather nesting problem. Furthermore, the majority of the approaches impose some additional constraints to the layouts related to the particular application that is considered. In this paper, we describe a variable neighborhood search algorithm for the general leather nesting problem. To evaluate the performance of our approaches, we conducted an extensive set of computational experiments on real instances. The results of these experiments are reported at the end of the paper.

  11. A nested sampling particle filter for nonlinear data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2014-04-15

    We present an efficient nonlinear data assimilation filter that combines particle filtering with the nested sampling algorithm. Particle filters (PF) utilize a set of weighted particles as a discrete representation of probability distribution functions (PDF). These particles are propagated through the system dynamics and their weights are sequentially updated based on the likelihood of the observed data. Nested sampling (NS) is an efficient sampling algorithm that iteratively builds a discrete representation of the posterior distributions by focusing a set of particles to high-likelihood regions. This would allow the representation of the posterior PDF with a smaller number of particles and reduce the effects of the curse of dimensionality. The proposed nested sampling particle filter (NSPF) iteratively builds the posterior distribution by applying a constrained sampling from the prior distribution to obtain particles in high-likelihood regions of the search space, resulting in a reduction of the number of particles required for an efficient behaviour of particle filters. Numerical experiments with the 3-dimensional Lorenz63 and the 40-dimensional Lorenz96 models show that NSPF outperforms PF in accuracy with a relatively smaller number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

  12. Nested governance for effective REDD+: Institutional and political arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kashwan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Forest Enhancement (REDD+ has become a central focus of global climate change mitigation efforts. Even though the international demand for forest-based carbon sequestration is the key driver of REDD+, forest protection strategies must be implemented on the ground. This cross-scale nature of REDD+ explains why scholars and policy makers increasingly favor nested governance arrangements over either fully centralized or fully decentralized REDD+ governance. The focus of the literature on nested REDD+ governance has mostly been on monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon emission reductions across sub-national, national, and international levels. We build on Ostrom’s principle of ‘nested enterprises’ to argue that REDD+ must be designed to systematically and formally link national policy reforms with the organization and execution of sub-national (regional and local forest conservation efforts led by forest users. We also contribute new insights on the political dimensions of nestedness in REDD+, with important roles for inter-community forestry associations and forest rights movements.

  13. Stigmergic construction and topochemical information shape ant nest architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Anaïs; Gautrais, Jacques; Perna, Andrea; Sbaï, Chaker; Combe, Maud; Kuntz, Pascale; Jost, Christian; Theraulaz, Guy

    2016-02-01

    The nests of social insects are not only impressive because of their sheer complexity but also because they are built from individuals whose work is not centrally coordinated. A key question is how groups of insects coordinate their building actions. Here, we use a combination of experimental and modeling approaches to investigate nest construction in the ant Lasius niger. We quantify the construction dynamics and the 3D structures built by ants. Then, we characterize individual behaviors and the interactions of ants with the structures they build. We show that two main interactions are involved in the coordination of building actions: (i) a stigmergic-based interaction that controls the amplification of depositions at some locations and is attributable to a pheromone added by ants to the building material; and (ii) a template-based interaction in which ants use their body size as a cue to control the height at which they start to build a roof from existing pillars. We then develop a 3D stochastic model based on these individual behaviors to analyze the effect of pheromone presence and strength on construction dynamics. We show that the model can quantitatively reproduce key features of construction dynamics, including a large-scale pattern of regularly spaced pillars, the formation and merging of caps over the pillars, and the remodeling of built structures. Finally, our model suggests that the lifetime of the pheromone is a highly influential parameter that controls the growth and form of nest architecture.

  14. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  15. The urban transportation plan and air pollution: the mythical dimension of a public debate in the Lille (France) urban area; Le plan de deplacements urbains et la pollution de l'air: la dimension mythique du debat public dans l'agglomeration lilloise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratosin, St. [GERICO, Groupement des Equipes de Recherche Intedisciplinaire en communication, UFR Infocom, Universite Charles-de-Gaulle, Lille 3, 59 - Roubaix (France)

    2000-07-01

    The urban transportation plan and air pollution: the mythical dimension of a public debate in the Lille (France) urban area. The paper highlights the conditions for the public production of the urban transportation plan as a means for controlling and reducing air pollution in a democratic context where - on behalf of liberty, transparency and the right to information - inconsistency becomes a claim to which the technicians and politicians in charge of developing decision-making tools are faced inescapably. More precisely, it is aimed at clarifying the mythical dimension of the public consultation process about the measures to be undertaken to reduce and control urban air pollution, which is an everyday reality with multiple and disconcerting facets directly related to urban trip reality within the framework of the urban transportation plan. Thus, that the layout and the organisation of the urban trip reality constitutes an approach based on a number of symbolic operations: the definition of the consultation object by multiple signification layers, reviewing the self-reliant 'objectivity' of the consultation as compared to the so-called 'subjectivity' of the participation, the elusive lag between the 'true' and the apparently 'true', the intensity with which the trips in the metropolis are presented at a prescribed time, the distance between the dream and the reality, the absence of causal analysis, the dysfunction as a reason... French rules governing debate in the public decision-making impose an attempt to gather in a same system the contradictory dimensions of representation and participation. The proposed analysis is based on a number of documents, interviews and observations - from 1996 to 1999 - concerning the procedure used for developing the urban transportation plan in the Lille metropolis. (author)

  16. Switch to diester preen waxes may reduce avian nest predation by mammalian predators using olfactory cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J.; Piersma, Th.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognised that nest depredation by olfactory-searching mammals greatly influences the reproductive success of ground-nesting birds. Yet adaptations of birds to diminish smell during nesting have rarely been investigated. Recently, a remarkable shift in the composition of uropygial

  17. Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  18. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (mean mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  19. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    .... Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m...

  20. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms.

  1. On the nest of Cryptomys Hottentotus in the Kruger National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sc.(Rand, G. De Graaff

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the structure of a nest of the mole rat, Cryptomys hotfentotus. In the Pretoriuskop area this species uses the gifbol fBop/ione disticha, grass roots and the sekelbos (Dichrosfachys nyassana as the main material for nest construction. The presence of invertebrates in the nest (such as mites and beetles is mentioned.

  2. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon a

  3. Nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation and their embedding in a decision support platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delipetrev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem traditionally solved with dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms. The thesis presents novel algorithms for optimal reservoir operation named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP), nested reinforcement le

  4. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    of males paired to sham-manipulated controls. Nest defence was assessed by placing a dummy predator on the nest box. Males of ornament-reduced females defended the nest less but did not feed the chicks less than males paired to control females. Our results only partially support male differential...

  5. Tactic changes in dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus sneaker males: effects of body size and nest availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, T; Kaneko, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2013-02-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine the effects of nest availability and body size on changes in male mating tactics from sneaking to nest-holding in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus. In the field, the body size of nest-holding males decreased from early to mid-breeding season, suggesting the possibility of a change in the tactics of sneaker males to nest-holding. Many sneaker males did not use vacant spawning nests even when size-matched nests were available, but they continued to reproduce as sneakers. Similarly, in aquarium experiments with available vacant nests, some sneaker males became nest-holders irrespective of their body size, but some did not. These results showed that nest availability is not a limiting factor for changes in tactics by sneaker males in this species. Because tactic-unchanged sneaker males were co-housed with larger nest-holding males in the tanks, the body size of nearby nest-holding males may have affected the decision to change tactics for sneaker males. Moreover, smaller individuals among tactic-changed males tended to spend more time until spawning, probably because they had relatively larger costs and smaller benefits of reproduction as nest-holding males compared to larger males.

  6. Nest Survival of American Coots Relative to Grazing, Burning, and Water Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E. Austin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  7. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  8. Survey of Coastal Nesting Colonies of Cormorants, Gulls, Night-Herons, Egrets, and Ibises in Massachusetts, 2006-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — State summary of nesting information for wading birds and other colonial nesting birds in Massachusetts during the 2006-2008 nesting season.

  9. Evaluation of nest site preferences of a nest dismantler,the Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the fledging of the young.One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited,and sites are often reused.Methods:By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations,we determined the nest habitat preference of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan,China.We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected.Results:We found that nest tree height,diameter at breast height,live crown ratio,tree rank,and presence of overstory were significantly higher at nesting locations than random locations;slope,leaf litter cover percentage and depth,presence of understory and midstory,and number of trees per hectare were significantly lower at nest sites than random sites.Drongos preferred to use some tree species,such as Metasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollissima,and Pterocarya stenoptera for nesting.Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground.Conclusion:Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nestdismantling behavior in this species.

  10. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  11. Nest visits and capture events affect breeding success of Yellow-billed and Pacific loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Wright, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of breeding success are essential for understanding population dynamics and for managing populations. Unfortunately, research activities to collect these data can negatively impact the breeding success of the study species and bias estimates of breeding success. Despite the potential for negative impacts, few studies have documented the effect of capturing incubating adults on nest survival or compared nest survival following different capture methods. In this study we evaluate the impacts of investigator disturbance associated with captures and nest visits on nest survival of Yellow-billed Loons (Gavia adamsii) and Pacific Loons (Gavia pacifica) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), an area of conservation concern, in 2011–2013. In an effort to reduce capture-related nest failures, we developed a new suspended dive net technique to catch territorial aquatic birds while off their nests. We then compared nest survival following suspended dive net captures to bow-net trap captures of breeding adult loons. Daily nest survival following bow-net trap or suspended dive net capture was about 30% lower than when adults were not captured. The effect of captures on nest survival was similar between bow-net trap and suspended dive net capture methods. Nest visits without captures also negatively impacted nest survival, although less than captures. If not accounted for, nest visitation biased daily survival rates of nests downward 6%. Effects of investigator disturbance did not differ by species or between years. Our results suggest that any source of disturbance that displaces incubating adult loons could potentially reduce nest survival. To maximize breeding success, human disturbance factors should be limited near loon nests.

  12. Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation.

  13. The effect of bubble nest size on sexual selection in wild Siamese fighting fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullica Jaroensutasinee

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bubble nest size was tested on male contest and female preference in wild Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan, a sexually dimorphic fish that exhibits paternal care. Females presented with two potential mates of different bubble nest areas did not prefer larger bubble nest males. Larger bubble nest males were not more successful in male contests. There were no differences in fighting duration. Comparing agonistic behaviour between large and small bubble nest males, there were no differences between these two males concerning any agonistic behaviours during fighting.

  14. Ecological aspects of nesting in Caiman crocodilus chiapasius (Bocourt 1876) in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Desales, G.A.; Monroy-Vilchis, O.; Charruau, P.; Zarco-Gonzalez, M.M.

    2016-07-01

    Studies on caiman, Caiman crocodilus chiapasius, in Mexico are scarce. The present study was conducted to evaluate the key characteristics regarding the reproductive ecology of caiman in Mexico. We conducted nest searches from April to September 2014. We observed that nests were built in June and that hatching occurred in September and October. The phase of the moon had an effect on nesting events. The height of the nest, the distance to the nearest tree, and the distance from the top of the nest to the first egg were related to hatching success and incubation temperature. (Author)

  15. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  16. Higher nest predation risk in association with a top predator: mesopredator attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosinotto, Chiara; Thomson, Robert L; Hänninen, Mikko; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2012-10-01

    Breeding close to top predators is a widespread reproductive strategy. Breeding animals may gain indirect benefits if proximity to top predators results in a reduction of predation due to suppression of mesopredators. We tested if passerine birds gain protection from mesopredators by nesting within territories of a top predator, the Ural owl (Strix uralensis). We placed nest boxes for pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Ural owl nest sites and in control sites (currently unoccupied by owls). The nest boxes were designed so that nest predation risk could be altered (experimentally increased) after flycatcher settlement; we considered predation rate as a proxy of mesopredator abundance. Overall, we found higher nest predation rates in treatment than in control sites. Flycatcher laying date did not differ between sites, but smaller clutches were laid in treatment sites compared to controls, suggesting a response to perceived predation risk. Relative nest predation rate varied between years, being higher in owl nest sites in 2 years but similar in another; this variation might be indirectly influenced by vole abundance. Proximity to Ural owl nests might represent a risky habitat for passerines. High predation rates within owl territories could be because small mesopredators that do not directly threaten owl nests are attracted to owl nest sites. This could be explained if some mesopredators use owl territories to gain protection from their own predators, or if top predators and mesopredators independently seek similar habitats.

  17. Nesting of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Ferreira Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first data on incubation temperature of Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812 in a natural environment, and provides information on nest predation, hatching success and size of offspring born in the nests on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River. Thirty-one P. geoffroanus nests were found, of which eleven were completely predated, mainly by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. Incubation was completed in nine out of the 17 nests protected by netting. The nests presented an average of 13.1 eggs and were distributed over the various geomorphological sectors of the nine sampled beaches. The size and weight of the hatchlings varied significantly between nests, and the incubation period in protected nests lasted for 76.5 days, less than reported for controlled incubation in the laboratory. Daily variation in incubation temperature in the three nests monitored for temperature was lower in those situated in fine sand sediments. Incubation temperature varied from 22 to 39 C and may have affected hatching success, which reached 60.8% in protected nests. Nest distribution in different geomorphological sectors indicated the plasticity of P. geoffroanus in terms of variation in nesting environment, which partly explains the species' broad geographical distribution.

  18. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  19. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  20. Entering behavior of Gasteruption brachychaetum Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae into a nest of Hylaeus Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Colletidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cruz Macedo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Hylaeus aff. guaraniticus (Schrottky, 1906 were parasited by females of Gasteruption brachychaetum Schrottky, 1906 in trap nests in São Paulo (Brazil. This is thefirst host record of a Gasteruptiidae in the Neotropical Region. The behavior of a G.brachychaetum female entering a host's nest is described as follows: an inquiline female hovered near the host's nest, landed and detected that a female of H. aff. guaraniticus was inside the nest, waited for the host female to fly out, entered backwards into the nest, remained there for almost six minutes, and then went out the nest. The development time of immature stages of G.brachychaetum varied between 16 and 299 days.

  1. The use of artificial nests by weaver ants: a preliminary field observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    populations or destroy colonies. The ants, however, show adaptive nesting behavior, which may mitigate storm impact. This study tested whether Oecophylla smaragdina was willing to use plastic bottles as safe artificial nesting sites, and whether adoption of artificial nests was seasonally related to harsh...... weather. Bottles were used for nesting throughout the stormy rainy season in a pomelo plantation with an open canopy, whereas in a mango plantation with a denser canopy the ants, after initial colonisation, left the bottles again at the end of the rainy season, especially in the calmer part...... of the plantation. This suggests that exposure to harsh weather triggered the use of artificial nests. It was also found that ants preferred to nest in bottles covered with aluminum foil compared to transparent bottles. These findings document an opportunistic nesting behavior of weaver ants and suggest...

  2. Landscape-moderated bird nest predation in hedges and forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martin; Schlinkert, Hella; Holzschuh, Andrea; Fischer, Christina; Scherber, Christoph; Trnka, Alfréd; Tscharntke, Teja; Batáry, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Landscape-scale agricultural intensification has caused severe declines in biodiversity. Hedges and forest remnants may mitigate biodiversity loss by enhancing landscape heterogeneity and providing habitat to a wide range of species, including birds. However, nest predation, the major cause of reproductive failure of birds, has been shown to be higher in forest edges than in forest interiors. Little is known about how spatial arrangement (configuration) of hedges affects the avian nest predation. We performed an experiment with artificial ground and elevated nests (resembling yellowhammer and whitethroat nests) baited with quail and plasticine eggs. Nests were placed in three habitat types with different degrees of isolation from forests: forest edges, hedges connected to forests and hedges isolated from forests. Nest predation was highest in forest edges, lowest in hedges connected to forests and intermediate in isolated hedges. In the early breeding season, we found similar nest predation on ground and elevated nests, but in the late breeding season nest predation was higher on ground nests than on elevated nests. Small mammals were the main predators of ground nests and appeared to be responsible for the increase in predation from early to late breeding season, whereas the elevated nests were mainly depredated by small birds and small mammals. High predation pressure at forest edges was probably caused by both forest and open-landscape predators. The influence of forest predators may be lower at hedges, leading to lower predation pressure than in forest edges. Higher predation pressure in isolated than connected hedges might be an effect of concentration of predators in these isolated habitats. We conclude that landscape configuration of hedges is important in nest predation, with connected hedges allowing higher survival than isolated hedges and forest edges.

  3. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest.

  4. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  5. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple, and empty nest group (living alone. More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%. There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE, and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China.

  6. A Minimally Invasive Method for Sampling Nest and Roost Cavities for Fungi: a Novel Approach to Identify the Fungi Associated with Cavity-Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel Lindner; John K. Cianchetti; Adam T. Grisé; Nicholas J. Brazee; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Relationships among cavity-nesting birds, trees, and wood decay fungi pose interesting management challenges and research questions in many systems. Ornithologists need to understand the relationships between cavity-nesting birds and fungi in order to understand the habitat requirements of these birds. Typically, researchers rely on fruiting body surveys to identify...

  7. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Multiple nested basin boundaries in nonlinear driven oscillators☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxiang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Luo, Guanwei

    2017-03-01

    A special type of basins of attraction for high-period coexisting attractors is investigated, which basin boundaries possess multiple nested structures in a driven oscillator. We analyze the global organization of basins and discuss the mechanism for the appearance of layered structures. The unstable periodic orbits and unstable limit cycle are also detected in the oscillator. The basin organization is governed by the ordering of regular saddles and the regular saddle connections are the interrupted by the unstable limit cycle. Wada basin boundary with different Wada number is discovered. Wada basin boundaries for the hidden and rare attractors are also verified.

  9. Diffusion Combustion in a Tube-Nested Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji, Seko; Ryosuke, Matsumoto; Yoshitomo, Shintani; Isao, Ishihara; Mamoru, Ozawa

    2004-01-01

    An advanced-type compact water-tube boiler has been designed on the basis of the new concept of cooling flame by water-tube bank in the furnace, and is referred to as "tube-nested combustor". It realized drastic reduction in boiler size as well as in the NO_x emission. In this present study, aiming at further improvement of boiler efficiency and reduction of NO_x emission, the combustion characteristics in the furnace were investigated by using the test boiler of 0.5t/h steam output. Experime...

  10. A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Holger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nested effects models (NEMs are a class of probabilistic models that were designed to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure from a large set of observable effects caused by active interventions into the signalling pathway. We give a more flexible formulation of NEMs in the language of Bayesian networks. Our framework constitutes a natural generalization of the original NEM model, since it explicitly states the assumptions that are tacitly underlying the original version. Our approach gives rise to new learning methods for NEMs, which have been implemented in the /Bioconductor package nem. We validate these methods in a simulation study and apply them to a synthetic lethality dataset in yeast.

  11. Rigorous Performance Bounds for Quadratic and Nested Dynamical Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuhou; Lidar, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.

  12. Stabilization of moduli in spacetime with nested warping

    CERN Document Server

    Arun, Mathew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absence, so far, of any graviton signatures at the LHC imposes severe constraints on the Randall-Sundrum scenario. Although a generalization to higher dimensions with nested warpings has been shown to avoid these constraints, apart from incorporating several other phenomenologically interesting features, moduli stabilization in such models has been an open question. We demonstrate here how both the moduli involved can be stabilized, employing slightly different mechanisms for the two branches of the theory. This also offers a dynamical mechanism to generate and stabilize the UED scale.

  13. Nested cycles in large triangulations and crossing-critical graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Velez, Cesar; Thomas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We show that every sufficiently large plane triangulation has a large collection of nested cycles that either are pairwise disjoint, or pairwise intersect in exactly one vertex, or pairwise intersect in exactly two vertices. We apply this result to show that for each fixed positive integer $k$, there are only finitely many $k$-crossing-critical simple graphs of average degree at least six. Combined with the recent constructions of crossing-critical graphs given by Bokal, this settles the question of for which numbers $q>0$ there is an infinite family of $k$-crossing-critical simple graphs of average degree $q$.

  14. Application of termite nest for adsorption of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, B R; Reis, J O M; Rezende, E I P; Mangrich, A S; Wisniewski, A; Dick, D P; Romão, L P C

    2013-11-15

    This work proposes the use of tree termite nest as an adsorbent for the reduction/removal of Cr(VI) present in aqueous solution. In laboratory experiments, adsorption of Cr(VI) was sensitive to pH in the range investigated (2-5), with maximum adsorption capacity achieved at pH 2 (3.70 ± 0.04 mg g(-1), representing 93.2% removal of Cr). The termite nest was characterized by off-line pyrolysis GC/MS (py-GC/MS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Pyrolysis of the adsorbent produced a complex mixture of aromatic compounds, including the guaiacyl and syringilic derivatives that are characteristic of lignocellulosic materials. Infrared spectroscopy revealed deprotonation of the carboxylic acid group of the biomass with increasing pH, which was associated with a decrease in the capacity for adsorption of Cr(VI). The EPR g-factor for the termite nest samples varied between 2.0037 and 2.0038, indicating the presence of organic free radicals that were responsible for the redox reaction. A second line with g-factor values of 1.9790, only observed for the samples after contact with Cr(VI) solutions at different pH values, was assigned to Cr(III)-Cr(III) exchange coupled pairs, which explained the capacity of the adsorbent to retain a large portion of the Cr(III) ions produced after reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Fixed-bed column experiments showed that the termite nest had a maximum adsorption capacity of 18.60 mg Cr g(-1), an adsorption efficiency varying between 60.8 and 97.4%, and a desorption efficiency varying between 54.5 and 91.4%, for three successive cycles. The adsorbent presented excellent performance in the removal of chromium under acidic conditions, with the advantage that it could be regenerated and reused. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parametric design of tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jake J

    2015-05-01

    This paper provides an optimal parametric design for tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils, which are used to generate a uniform magnetic field with controllable magnitude and direction. Circular and square coils, both with square cross section, are considered. Practical considerations such as wire selection, wire-wrapping efficiency, wire bending radius, choice of power supply, and inductance and time response are included. Using the equations provided, a designer can quickly create an optimal set of custom coils to generate a specified field magnitude in the uniform-field region while maintaining specified accessibility to the central workspace. An example case study is included.

  16. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.

  17. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Setting Shandong province of China. Participants A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. Results CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). Conclusions CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. PMID:27381206

  18. Are nest sites actively chosen? Testing a common assumption for three non-resource limited birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, A. E.; Elliot, S. L.; Hart, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    Many widely-accepted ecological concepts are simplified assumptions about complex situations that remain largely untested. One example is the assumption that nest-building species choose nest sites actively when they are not resource limited. This assumption has seen little direct empirical testing: most studies on nest-site selection simply assume that sites are chosen actively (and seek explanations for such behaviour) without considering that sites may be selected randomly. We used 15 years of data from a nestbox scheme in the UK to test the assumption of active nest-site choice in three cavity-nesting bird species that differ in breeding and migratory strategy: blue tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit ( Parus major) and pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca). Nest-site selection was non-random (implying active nest-site choice) for blue and great tits, but not for pied flycatchers. We also considered the relative importance of year-specific and site-specific factors in determining occupation of nest sites. Site-specific factors were more important than year-specific factors for the tit species, while the reverse was true for pied flycatchers. Our results show that nest-site selection, in birds at least, is not always the result of active choice, such that choice should not be assumed automatically in studies of nesting behaviour. We use this example to highlight the need to test key ecological assumptions empirically, and the importance of doing so across taxa rather than for single "model" species.

  19. Retirement investment theory explains patterns in songbird nest-site choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Refsnider, Jeanine M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    When opposing evolutionary selection pressures act on a behavioural trait, the result is often stabilizing selection for an intermediate optimal phenotype, with deviations from the predicted optimum attributed to tracking a moving target, development of behavioural syndromes or shifts in riskiness over an individual's lifetime. We investigated nest-site choice by female golden-winged warblers, and the selection pressures acting on that choice by two fitness components, nest success and fledgling survival. We observed strong and consistent opposing selection pressures on nest-site choice for maximizing these two fitness components, and an abrupt, within-season switch in the fitness component birds prioritize via nest-site choice, dependent on the time remaining for additional nesting attempts. We found that females consistently deviated from the predicted optimal behaviour when choosing nest sites because they can make multiple attempts at one fitness component, nest success, but only one attempt at the subsequent component, fledgling survival. Our results demonstrate a unique natural strategy for balancing opposing selection pressures to maximize total fitness. This time-dependent switch from high to low risk tolerance in nest-site choice maximizes songbird fitness in the same way a well-timed switch in human investor risk tolerance can maximize one's nest egg at retirement. Our results also provide strong evidence for the adaptive nature of songbird nest-site choice, which we suggest has been elusive primarily due to a lack of consideration for fledgling survival.

  20. Nesting ecology of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G.J. Swanepoel

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the nesting behaviour of Crocodylus niloticus along the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park were collected over a period of six years (1993 to 1998. A total of 165 nests were investigated for soil type, exposure to sunlight, distance to and above water, presence of other nests and vegetation. An attempt was made to determine important factors in the placement of nests, and exposure to sunlight, vegetation and distance to water seemed to be crucial in selecting a nesting site. During the last two seasons 20 nests were opened and the nest contents recorded. Some 795 eggs were measured and the data compared to similar studies in Africa. No significant differences were found. A strong correlation was found between egg mass, length and female size with larger females producing larger eggs. Rainfall influenced the size of nesting females as only larger females (>3 m TL nested during the dry year. Breeding females along the Olifants were overall larger (TL than in Zimbabwe with 2.1 m as the smallest and 4.1 as the largest females that nested.

  1. Nest platforms increase aggressive behavior in common loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, John N., III; Walcott, Charles; Piper, Walter H.

    2008-02-01

    Artificial manipulations of habitat, such as those that incorporate adding nesting boxes or platforms for birds, often enhance the breeding success of threatened animals. However, such alterations are likely to have unintended behavioral and ecological effects that might negatively impact the target species or others in its community. We conducted a controlled study to investigate the effect of artificial nesting platforms on aggressive behavior and reproductive success of male common loons ( Gavia immer). Males residing on territories to which platforms were added produced longer territorial “yodels” (reflecting willingness to escalate a contest), experienced increased levels of confrontation and aggression with territorial intruders, and experienced increased rates of territorial displacement by intruders. Surprisingly, males of treatment territories also experienced lower productivity. Therefore, in addition to providing novel empirical support of sequential assessment models of animal contests that predict contest escalation with increasing resource quality, this study is one of a few to show that tools used to mitigate habitat loss can negatively impact reproductive fitness in a threatened species.

  2. Demonstration of EnergyNest thermal energy storage (TES) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoivik, Nils; Greiner, Christopher; Tirado, Eva Bellido; Barragan, Juan; Bergan, Pâl; Skeie, Geir; Blanco, Pablo; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental results from the EnergyNest 2 × 500 kWhth thermal energy storage (TES) pilot system installed at Masdar Institute of Science & Technology Solar Platform. Measured data are shown and compared to simulations using a specially developed computer program to verify the stability and performance of the TES. The TES is based on a solid-state concrete storage medium (HEATCRETE®) with integrated steel tube heat exchangers cast into the concrete. The unique concrete recipe used in the TES has been developed in collaboration with Heidelberg Cement; this material has significantly higher thermal conductivity compared to regular concrete implying very effective heat transfer, at the same time being chemically stable up to 450 °C. The demonstrated and measured performance of the TES matches the predictions based on simulations, and proves the operational feasibility of the EnergyNest concrete-based TES. A further case study is analyzed where a large-scale TES system presented in this article is compared to two-tank indirect molten salt technology.

  3. Nested sampling as a tool for LISA data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gair, Jonathan R [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Porter, Edward K, E-mail: jgair@ast.cam.ac.u [APC, UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-05-01

    Nested sampling is a technique for efficiently computing the probability of a data set under a particular hypothesis, also called the Bayesian Evidence or Marginal Likelihood, and for evaluating the posterior. MULTINEST is a multi-modal nested sampling algorithm which has been designed to efficiently explore and characterize posterior probability surfaces containing multiple secondary solutions. We have applied the MULTINEST algorithm to a number of problems in gravitational wave data analysis. In this article, we describe the algorithm and present results for several applications of the algorithm to analysis of mock LISA data. We summarise recently published results for a test case in which we searched for two non-spinning black hole binary merger signals in simulated LISA data. We also describe results obtained with MULTINEST in the most recent round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge (MLDC), in which the algorithm was used to search for and characterise both spinning supermassive black hole binary inspirals and bursts from cosmic string cusps. In all these applications, the algorithm found the correct number of signals and efficiently recovered the posterior probability distribution. Moreover, in most cases the waveform corresponding to the best a-posteriori parameters had an overlap in excess of 99% with the true signal.

  4. Wyner-Ziv Coding Based on Multidimensional Nested Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Cong; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) addresses the compression of correlated sources without communication links among them. This paper is concerned with the Wyner-Ziv problem: coding of an information source with side information available only at the decoder in the form of a noisy version of the source. Both the theoretical analysis and code design are addressed in the framework of multi-dimensional nested lattice coding (NLC). For theoretical analysis, accurate computation of the rate-distortion function is given under the high-resolution assumption, and a new upper bound using the derivative of the theta series is derived. For practical code design, several techniques with low complexity are proposed. Compared to the existing Slepian-Wolf coded nested quantization (SWC-NQ) for Wyner-Ziv coding based on one or two-dimensional lattices, our proposed multi-dimensional NLC can offer better performance at arguably lower complexity, since it does not require the second stage of Slepian-Wolf coding.

  5. Nested Association Mapping for Identification of Functional Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baohong; Sleper, David A.; Beavis, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of functional markers (FMs) provides information about the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. An approach that combines the strengths of linkage and association mapping, referred to as nested association mapping (NAM), has been proposed to identify FMs in many plant species. The ability to identify and resolve FMs for complex traits depends upon a number of factors including frequency of FM alleles, magnitudes of their genetic effects, disequilibrium among functional and nonfunctional markers, statistical analysis methods, and mating design. The statistical characteristics of power, accuracy, and precision to identify FMs with a NAM population were investigated using three simulation studies. The simulated data sets utilized publicly available genetic sequences and simulated FMs were identified using least-squares variable selection methods. Results indicate that FMs with simple additive genetic effects that contribute at least 5% to the phenotypic variability in at least five segregating families of a NAM population consisting of recombinant inbred progeny derived from 28 matings with a single reference inbred will have adequate power to accurately and precisely identify FMs. This resolution and power are possible even for genetic architectures consisting of disequilibrium among multiple functional and nonfunctional markers in the same genomic region, although the resolution of FMs will deteriorate rapidly if more than two FMs are tightly linked within the same amplicon. Finally, nested mating designs involving several reference parents will have a greater likelihood of resolving FMs than single reference designs. PMID:20551444

  6. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  7. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Gavin M; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  8. Linking snake habitat use to nest predation risk in grassland birds: the dangers of shrub cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Page E; Jackrel, Sara L; With, Kimberly A

    2010-03-01

    Extremes in rangeland management, varying from too-frequent fire and intensive grazing to the suppression of both, threaten rangeland ecosystems worldwide. Intensive fire and grazing denude and homogenize vegetation whereas their suppression increases woody cover. Although habitat loss is implicated in grassland bird declines, degradation through intensive management or neglect also decreases breeding habitat and may reduce nesting success through increased rates of nest predation. Snakes are important nest predators, but little is known about how habitat use in snakes relates to predation risk for grassland birds nesting within tallgrass prairie subjected to different grazing and fire frequencies. We evaluated nest survival in the context of habitat used by nesting songbirds and two bird-eating snakes, the eastern yellowbelly racer Coluber constrictor flaviventris and Great Plains ratsnake Pantherophis emoryi. Daily nest survival rates decreased with increasing shrub cover and decreasing vegetation height, which characterize grasslands that have been neglected or intensively managed, respectively. Discriminant function analysis revealed that snake habitats were characterized by higher shrub cover, whereas successful nests were more likely to occur in areas with tall grass and forbs but reduced shrub cover. Because snakes often use shrub habitat, birds nesting in areas with increased shrub cover may be at higher risk of nest predation by snakes in addition to other predators known to use shrub habitat (e.g., mid-sized carnivores and avian predators). Depredated nests also occurred outside the discriminant space of the snakes, indicating that other predators (e.g., ground squirrels Spermophilus spp. and bullsnakes Pituophis catenifer) may be important in areas with denuded cover. Targeted removal of shrubs may increase nest success by minimizing the activity of nest predators attracted to shrub cover.

  9. Bird nest predation in a southern Tunisian oasis habitat: No evidence of “edge effect”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhriss, Jihen; Selmi, Slaheddine; Nouira, Saïd

    2009-03-01

    Numerous ornithological studies conducted in patchy habitats have linked high intensity of nest predation with habitat edges. This "edge effect" hypothesis was primarily investigated in temperate, boreal and tropical fragmented forests, and there is a need for investigations from different habitat systems. Here we provide the results of one study on bird nest predation in relation to edge context in one oasis in southern Tunisia. Our aim was to assess the importance of nest predation as a source of nest failure in the studied oasis and to test if the edge effect hypothesis applies in this habitat system. We found that although predation represents an important source of nest failure in all studied species, the edge effect hypothesis does not seem to apply in the studied oasis. Indeed, daily nest predation rate did not vary with edge context for all studied species, which could be explained by the fact that nest predator guild is mainly composed of small species that use oasis interior and edges in similar ways. The effects of predators coming from the surrounding areas do not seem to significantly increase nest predation rates in oasis edges compared to oasis interior. We also found that nest predation rates were similar for all bird species, suggesting that among-species differences in nest concealment and nesting behaviour did not seem to account for nest survival in the studied oasis. However, further more detailed species-level studies are needed to test this hypothesis and to identify more accurately the determinants of nest predation in the oasis habitat.

  10. Nesting ecology of Chelonia mydas Testudines: Cheloniidae on the Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Azanza Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nesting colony of green sea turtles Chelonia mydas at Guanahacabibes Peninsula Biosphere Reserve and National Park is one of the largest in the Cuban archipelago; however, little information about its nesting ecology is available. Temporal and spatial variation in nesting and reproductive success as well as morphometric characteristics of gravid females were used to ecologically characterize this colony. Nine beaches of the Southernmost coast of Guanahacabibes Peninsula were monitored for 14 years 1998-2012 to determine green turtle nesting activity, from May to September peak nesting season in this area. Beach dimensions were measured to determine nest density using the length and the area. Afterward the beaches were divided in two categories, index and secondary. Females were measured and tagged to compare new tagged females 823 with returning tagged females 140. Remigration interval was also determined. Temporal variation was identified as the annual number of nesting emergences and oviposits per female, with apparent peaks in reproductive activity on a biennial cycle in the first six years followed by periods of annual increase in nest number 2003-2008 and periods of decreasing number of nests 2010-2012. We also found intra-seasonal variation with the highest nesting activity in July, particularly in the second half of the month. The peak emergence time was 22:00-02:00hr. In terms of spatial variation, smaller beaches had the highest nest density and nesting was more frequent 6-9m from the high tide line, where hatchling production was maximized although hatchling success was high on average, above 80. Morphometric analysis of females was made and newly tagged turtles were smaller on average than remigrants. Our results are only a first attempt at characterizing Guanahacabibes populations but have great value for establishing conservation priorities within the context of national management plans, and for efficient monitoring and

  11. Nesting ecology of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) on the Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza Ricardo, Julia; Ibarra Martín, Maria E; González Sansón, Gaspar; Abreu Grobois, F Alberto; Eckert, Karen L; Espinosa López, Georgina; Oyama, Ken

    2013-12-01

    The nesting colony of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Guanahacabibes Peninsula Biosphere Reserve and National Park is one of the largest in the Cuban archipelago; however, little information about its nesting ecology is available. Temporal and spatial variation in nesting and reproductive success as well as morphometric characteristics of gravid females were used to ecologically characterize this colony. Nine beaches of the Southernmost coast of Guanahacabibes Peninsula were monitored for 14 years (1998-2012) to determine green turtle nesting activity, from May to September (peak nesting season in this area). Beach dimensions were measured to determine nest density using the length and the area. Afterward the beaches were divided in two categories, index and secondary. Females were measured and tagged to compare new tagged females (823) with returning tagged females (140). Remigration interval was also determined. Temporal variation was identified as the annual number of nesting emergences and oviposits per female, with apparent peaks in reproductive activity on a biennial cycle in the first six years followed by periods of annual increase in nest number (2003-2008) and periods of decreasing number of nests (2010-2012). We also found intra-seasonal variation with the highest nesting activity in July, particularly in the second half of the month. The peak emergence time was 22:00-02:00 hr. In terms of spatial variation, smaller beaches had the highest nest density and nesting was more frequent 6-9m from the high tide line, where hatchling production was maximized although hatchling success was high on average, above 80%. Morphometric analysis of females was made and newly tagged turtles were smaller on average than remigrants. Our results are only a first attempt at characterizing Guanahacabibes' populations but have great value for establishing conservation priorities within the context of national management plans, and for efficient monitoring and protection

  12. Evaluating nest supplementation as a recovery strategy for the endangered rodents of the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Simons, Theodore R.; Gardner, Beth; Maurer, Andrew S.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli) and Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola) are federally endangered subspecies endemic to the tropical hardwood hammocks of Key Largo, Florida. Woodrats are considered generalists in habitat and diet, yet a steady decline in natural stick nests and capture rates over the past several decades suggests that they are limited by the availability of nesting habitat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. The more specialized Key Largo cotton mouse appears to rely on old growth hammock, a habitat type that is rare following past land clearing. In 2004, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service started building supplemental nest structures to restore habitat quality and connectivity for these endangered rodents, but nest use requires evaluation. We used camera traps and occupancy models to evaluate the factors influencing woodrat and cotton mouse use of the supplemental nests. We detected woodrats at 65 and cotton mice at 175 of 284 sampled nest structures, with co-occurrence at 38 nests. Woodrat nest use followed a gradient from low nest use in the north to high nest use in the south, which might relate to the proximity of free-ranging domestic cat (Felis catus) colonies in residential developments. Cotton mouse nest use, however, was related positively to mature hammock and related negatively to disturbed areas (e.g. scarified lands). The two species occurred independently of each other. Stick-stacking behavior was observed at supplemental nests and, although it was correlated with detection of woodrats, it was not a strong predictor of their occurrence. We suggest that nest supplementation can be an important tool for species recovery as habitat quality continues to improve with succession.

  13. Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.A.; Lacroix, D.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

  14. The distribution and nest-site preference of Apis dorsata binghami at Maros Forest, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Teguh Nagir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant honey bee, Apis dorsata binghami is subspecies of Apis dorsata. This species of bee was only found in Sulawesi and its surrounding islands. This study is aimed to study the distribution and characteristics of nest and nesting trees, nesting behavior of Apis dorsata binghami in the forests of Maros, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The distributions of nests were observed using a survey method to record the species and characteristics of nesting trees, as well as the conditions around the nest. Results showed that 102 nests (17 active nests, 85 abandoned combs of A. d. binghami were found. We found 34 species belong to 27 genera in 17 families of plants as nesting sites of giant honey bee. The common tree species used as nesting sites were Ficus subulata (Moraceae, Adenanthera sp. (Fabaceae, Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae, Artocarpus sericoarpus (Moraceae, Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae, Knema cinerea (Myristicaceae, Litsea mappacea (Lauraceae, and Palaquium obovatum (Sapotaceae. The nests were found in 0-11 meters (11 nests, 11-20 meters (40 nests, and more than 21 meters (51 nests from ground level. The nests of giant honey bee were found in sturdy and woody branches, hard to peel, the slope of the branches was <60°, and nests were protected by liane plants, foliage, or both them.

  15. Nest observations of the long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Benton County, Oregon, with notes on their food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1970-01-01

    A nesting pair of long-eared owls was found 10 miles north of Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon, on 24 April, 1969. The pair was observed and photographed until 30 May, when the young left the nest. This is the third record of nesting Asio otus west of the Oregon Cascades. Gabrielson and Jewett (1940) reported that Pope collected eggs from a nest...

  16. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  17. Lesser prairie-chicken nest site selection, microclimate, and nest survival in association with vegetation response to a grassland restoration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Dixon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict that the region of the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) will experience increased maximum and minimum temperatures, reduced frequency but greater intensity of precipitation events, and earlier springs. These climate changes along with different landscape management techniques may influence the persistence of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act and a priority species under the GPLCC, in positive or negative ways. The objectives of this study were to conduct (1) a literature review of lesser prairie-chicken nesting phenology and ecology, (2) an analysis of thermal aspects of lesser prairie-chicken nest microclimate data, and (3) an analysis of nest site selection, nest survival, and vegetation response to 10 years of tebuthiuron and/or grazing treatments. We found few reports in the literature containing useful data on the nesting phenology of lesser prairie-chickens; therefore, managers must rely on short-term observations and measurements of parameters that provide some predictive insight into climate impacts on nesting ecology. Our field studies showed that prairie-chickens on nests were able to maintain relatively consistent average nest temperature of 31 °C and nest humidities of 56.8 percent whereas average external temperatures (20.3–35.0 °C) and humidities (35.2–74.9 percent) varied widely throughout the 24 hour (hr) cycle. Grazing and herbicide treatments within our experimental areas were designed to be less intensive than in common practice. We determined nest locations by radio-tagging hen lesser prairie-chickens captured at leks, which are display grounds at which male lesser prairie-chickens aggregate and attempt to attract a female for mating. Because nest locations selected by hen lesser prairie-chicken are strongly associated with the lek at which they were captured, we assessed nesting habitat use on the basis of hens

  18. Nested quantization index modulation for reversible watermarking and its application to healthcare information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lu-Ting; Chen, Jwu-E; Shieh, Yaw-Shih; Hsin, Hsi-Chin; Sung, Tze-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Digital watermarking has attracted lots of researches to healthcare information management systems for access control, patients' data protection, and information retrieval. The well-known quantization index modulation-(QIM-) based watermarking has its limitations as the host image will be destroyed; however, the recovery of medical images is essential to avoid misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose the nested QIM-based watermarking, which is preferable to the QIM-based watermarking for the medical image applications. As the host image can be exactly reconstructed by the nested QIM-based watermarking. The capacity of the embedded watermark can be increased by taking advantage of the proposed nest structure. The algorithm and mathematical model of the nested QIM-based watermarking including forward and inverse model is presented. Due to algorithms and architectures of forward and inverse nested QIM, the concurrent programs and special processors for the nested QIM-based watermarking are easily implemented.

  19. Nesting fidelity and molecular evidence for natal homing in the freshwater turtle, Graptemys kohnii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Steven; Ewert, Michael A; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Neiman, Maurine; Nelson, Craig E

    2005-07-07

    Numerous studies of sea turtle nesting ecology have revealed that females exhibit natal homing, whereby they imprint on the nesting area from which they hatch and subsequently return there to nest as adults. Because freshwater turtles comprise the majority of reptiles known to display environmental sex determination (ESD), the study of natal homing in this group may shed light on recent evolutionary models of sex allocation that are predicated on natal homing in reptiles with ESD. We examined natal homing in Graptemys kohnii, a freshwater turtle with ESD, using mitochondrial sequencing, microsatellite genotyping and mark and recapture of 290 nesting females. Females showed high fidelity to nesting areas, even after being transplanted several kilometres away. A Mantel test revealed significant genetic isolation by distance with respect to nesting locations (r=0.147; psex ratios.

  20. Tupinambis merianae as nest predators of crocodilians and turtles in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Rochford, Michael; Reed, Robert; Ketterlin Eckles, Jennifer; Vinci, Joy; Edwards, Jake; Wasilewki, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Tupinambis merianae, is a large, omnivorous tegu lizard native to South America. Two populations of tegus are established in the state of Florida, USA, but impacts to native species are poorly documented. During summer 2013, we placed automated cameras overlooking one American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nest, which also contained a clutch of Florida red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys nelsoni) eggs, and one American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) nest at a site in southeastern Florida where tegus are established. We documented tegu activity and predation on alligator and turtle eggs at the alligator nest, and tegu activity at the crocodile nest. Our finding that one of the first two crocodilian nests to be monitored was depredated by tegus suggests that tegus should be further evaluated as a threat to nesting reptiles in Florida.

  1. Encroachment of Human Activity on Sea Turtle Nesting Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, D.; Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C.; Tuttle, B.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.

    2008-12-01

    The encroachment of anthropogenic lighting on sea turtle nesting sites poses a serious threat to the survival of these animals [Nicholas, 2001]. This danger is quantified by combining two established data sets. The first is the Nighttime Lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center [Elvidge et al., 1997]. The second is the Marine Turtle Database produced by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). The technique used to quantify the threat of encroachment is an adaptation of the method described in Aubrecht et al. [2008], which analyzes the stress on coral reef systems by proximity to nighttime lights near the shore. Nighttime lights near beaches have both a direct impact on turtle reproductive success since they disorient hatchlings when they mistake land-based lights for the sky-lit surf [Lorne and Salmon, 2007] and the lights are also a proxy for other anthropogenic threats. The identification of turtle nesting sites with high rates of encroachment will hopefully steer conservation efforts to mitigate their effects [Witherington, 1999]. Aubrecht, C, CD Elvidge, T Longcore, C Rich, J Safran, A Strong, M Eakin, KE Baugh, BT Tuttle, AT Howard, EH Erwin, 2008, A global inventory of coral reef stressors based on satellite observed nighttime lights, Geocarto International, London, England: Taylor and Francis. In press. Elvidge, CD, KE Baugh, EA Kihn, HW Kroehl, ER Davis, 1997, Mapping City Lights with Nighttime Data from the DMSP Operational Linescan System, Photogrammatic Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63:6, pp. 727-734. Lorne, JK, M Salmon, 2007, Effects of exposure to artificial lighting on orientation of hatchling sea turtles on the beach and in the ocean, Endangered Species Research, Vol. 3: 23-30. Nicholas, M, 2001, Light Pollution and Marine Turtle Hatchlings: The Straw that Breaks the Camel's Back?, George Wright Forum, 18:4, p77-82. Witherington, BE, 1999, Reducing Threats To Nesting Habitat, Research and Management Techniques for

  2. Nest survival is influenced by parental behaviour and heterospecifics in a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax using intensive video-monitoring methods to quantify incubation behaviours. We modelled nest survival as a function of both extrinsic factors and incubation behaviours over a 3-year period (2010–12) on Alcatraz Island, USA. Model-averaged parameter estimates indicated that nest survival increased as a function of greater incubation constancy (% of time spent incubating eggs within a 24-h period), and average daily precipitation throughout the nesting stage. Common Ravens Corvus corax are the only known nest predator of Night-Herons on Alcatraz Island, as on many other coastal Pacific islands. We also investigated the effects of heterospecific nesting of California Gulls Larus californicus and Western Gulls Larus occidentalis in a mixed-species colony with Night-Herons, based on nesting proximity data collected over a 2-year period (2011–12). This second analysis indicated that, in addition to incubation behaviours, nesting heterospecifics are an important factor for explaining variation in Night-Heron nest survival. However, contrary to our original expectation, we found that Night-Herons experienced increased nest survival with increasing distance from gull colony boundaries. These results may apply to other areas with multiple colonial nesting species and similar predator communities and climatic patterns.

  3. Hatching success of Caspian terns nesting in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The average clutch size of Caspian Terns nesting in a colony in the Lower Laguna Madre near Laguna Vista, Texas, USA in 1984 was 1.9 eggs per nest. Using the Mayfield method for calculating success, one egg hatched in 84.1% of the nests and 69.8% of the eggs laid hatched. These hatching estimates are as high or higher than estimates from colonies in other areas.

  4. Comparison of the prelaying behavior of nest layers and litter layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, M; Kruschwitz, A; Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B; Stuhec, I

    2008-03-01

    The Swiss Animal Welfare Act decrees that the housing conditions of farm animals must guarantee animal welfare. In the process of developing a method to test nest boxes for their suitability for laying hens, we conducted an investigation using preference testing. It was aimed at verifying the occurrence of different types of layers within the same laying strain and to investigate the choice of a nest site. At the onset of lay, 24 individually housed hens were given the choice of 2 nest sites: a nest box or a litter tray. The chosen nest site and the behavior of the hen, 1 h prior to oviposition, were recorded at 3 stages during the period in which the first 20 eggs were laid. The majority (17) of the hens laid consistently in the nest box, and 7 hens laid consistently in the litter tray. Litter layers spent more time exploring during the hour prior to oviposition than did nest layers, and their final nest visit (when an egg was laid) was shorter. There was no significant difference in the number of entries into the chosen nest site between layers of the 2 types. As expected, the level of restlessness of hens decreased with laying experience. In the hour prior to oviposition, the frequency of foraging and resting increased, whereas the frequency of exploring and nest seeking decreased, and the number of nest-site visits declined. We conclude that there may be at least 2 different types of laying hens that show different nest-site preferences, with concomitantly different prelaying behavior.

  5. Nesting fidelity and molecular evidence for natal homing in the freshwater turtle, Graptemys kohnii

    OpenAIRE

    Freedberg, Steven; Ewert, Michael A; Ridenhour, Benjamin J.; Neiman, Maurine; Nelson, Craig E

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies of sea turtle nesting ecology have revealed that females exhibit natal homing, whereby they imprint on the nesting area from which they hatch and subsequently return there to nest as adults. Because freshwater turtles comprise the majority of reptiles known to display environmental sex determination (ESD), the study of natal homing in this group may shed light on recent evolutionary models of sex allocation that are predicated on natal homing in reptiles with ESD. We examined...

  6. Raccoon removal reduces sea turtle nest depredation in the Ten Thousand Islands of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Percival, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Predation by raccoons, Procyon lotor marinus (L.), is the primary cause of sea turtle nest loss in the Ten Thousand Islands archipelago. Four islands within Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge were surveyed for sea turtle nesting activity from 1991-95. Raccoons depredated 76-100% of nests on Panther Key from 1991-94, until 14 raccoons were removed in 1995 resulting in 0% depredation and 2 more were removed in 1996 resulting in 0% depredation. Raccoon removal may be an effective management option for increasing sea turtle nest survival on barrier islands.

  7. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Julie M; Limpus, Colin J; Hofmeister, Kate M; Allen, Benjamin L; Burnett, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland's southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19-52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0-4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches.

  8. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Julie M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hofmeister, Kate M.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Burnett, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland’s southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19–52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0–4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches. PMID:28187181

  9. Management and protection protocols for nesting sea turtles on Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. The southeast U.S. population of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) has increased since the species was listed as federally threatened in 1978. Since standardized monitoring began in North Carolina in 1995, the number of nests at Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) fluctuated from year to year, and was lowest in 1996 and 1997 (39 nests) and highest in 2003 (101 nests). Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have nested in small numbers at CAHA, sporadically over time. 2. Hatching success of sea turtle nests typically approaches 80%. At CAHA hatching success from 1999-2003 was low when hurricanes hit during the nesting season (30%-38%), and ranged from 52%-70% otherwise. Hatching success at CAHA is usually correlated with hatching success in the surrounding subpopulation (north Florida to North Carolina). 3. Inclement weather, predation, and human recreation can negatively impact nesting rate and hatching success. 4. Currently there is little protection from recreation at CAHA for nesting females and nests that have not been found by monitors. We propose three management options to provide such protection, and to increase protection for known nests and hatchlings. We propose an adaptive management framework for assessing the effectiveness of these management options in improving sea turtle nesting rate and nest and hatchling survival. 5. We recommend continued efforts to trap and remove mammalian predators from all sea turtle habitat. We further recommend intensive monitoring and surveillance of protected areas to determine the extent and timing of threats to nests and broods, including nest overwash, predation, and disturbance or vandalism by humans. 6. Continue to relocate nests and assist stranded turtles according to North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission guidelines. 7. Artificial light sources pose a serious threat to sea turtles in some parts of CAHA, which must be remedied immediately

  10. Electron scale nested quadrupole Hall field in Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    This Letter presents the first evidence of a new and unique feature of spontaneous reconnection at multiple sites in electron current sheet, viz. nested quadrupole structure of Hall field at electron scales, in Cluster observations. The new nested quadrupole is a consequence of electron scale processes in reconnection. Whistler response of the upstream plasma to the interaction of electron flows from neighboring reconnection sites produces a large scale quadrupole Hall field enclosing the quadrupole fields of the multiple sites, thus forming a nested structure. Electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an electron current sheet yields mechanism of the formation of nested quadrupole.

  11. Identifying Kittlitz's Murrelet nesting habitat in North America at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Jonathan J.; Kissling, Michelle L.; Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Lawonn, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, non-colonial seabird endemic to marine waters of Alaska and eastern Russia that may have experienced significant population decline in recent decades, in part because of low reproductive success and terrestrial threats. Although recent studies have shed new light on Kittlitz's Murrelet nesting habitat in a few discrete areas, the location and extent of suitable nesting habitat throughout most of its range remains unclear. Here, we have compiled all existing nest records and locations to identify landscape-scale parameters (distance to coast, elevation, slope, and land cover) that provide potential nesting habitat in four regions: northern Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Peninsula Mountains and Kodiak Island, and Pacific Coastal Mountains (including nearshore interior Canada). We produced a final map classifying 12% (70,411 km2) of the lands assessed as potential Kittlitz's Murrelet nesting habitat, with dense but distinct patches in northern Alaska and a more uninterrupted, narrow band extending across the Pacific Coastal Mountains, Alaska Peninsula Mountains, and Aleutian Islands. The extent of habitat-capable parameter values varied regionally, indicating that the Kittlitz's Murrelet may be able to use a variety of habitats for nesting, depending on availability. Future nesting habitat studies could employ spatially random sampling designs to allow for quantitatively robust modeling of nesting habitat and predictive extrapolation to areas where nests have not been located but likely exist.

  12. Greater sage-grouse nest predators in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse, populations have declined across their range due to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat. Habitat alterations can lead not only to vegetative changes but also to shifts in animal behavior and predator composition that may influence population vital rates, such as nest success. For example, common ravens Corvus corax are sage-grouse nest predators, and common raven abundance is positively associated with human-caused habitat alterations. Because nest success is a central component to sage-grouse population persistence, research that identifies factors influencing nest success will better inform conservation efforts. We used videography to unequivocally identify sage-grouse nest predators within the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, USA, from 2009 to 2011 and used maximum likelihood to calculate daily probability of nest survival. In the Virginia Mountains, fires, energy exploration, and other anthropogenic activities have altered historic sage-grouse habitat. We monitored 71 sage-grouse nests during the study, placing video cameras at 39 nests. Cumulative nest survival for all nests was 22.4% (95% CI, 13.0–33.4%), a survival rate that was significantly lower than other published results for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Depredation was the primary cause for nest failure in our study (82.5%), and common ravens were the most frequent sage-grouse nest predator, accounting for 46.7% of nest depredations. We also successfully documented a suite of mammalian and reptilian species depredating sage-grouse nests, including some predators never previously confirmed in the literature to be sage-grouse nest predators (i.e., bobcats Lynx rufus and long-tailed weasels Mephitis frenata). Within the high elevation, disturbed habitat of the Virginia Mountains, low sage-grouse nest success may be limiting sage-grouse population growth. These results suggest that management actions that

  13. Land cover associations of nesting territories of three sympatric buteos in shortgrass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, S.; O'Connell, T. J.; Leslie, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Buteo hawks nest sympatrically in the southern Great Plains of the United States. Dietary overlap among them is broad and we tested the hypothesis these species partition their breeding habitat spatially. We compared land cover and topography around 224 nests of the three species breeding in shortgrass prairie in 2004 and 2005. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) nested almost exclusively in riparian timber surrounded by prairie (95% prairie land cover around nests) and disproportionately used areas with greater topographic relief within prairie landscapes. Swainson's Hawks (B. swainsoni) commonly nested in low-relief areas dominated by small-grain production agriculture but generally used habitats in proportion to availability. Most nest sites of Ferruginous Hawks (B. regalis) were in prairie (78% prairie land cover around nests), but some were in areas that were at least partially agricultural. Ferruginous Hawks had at least two times more sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) around their nests than their two congeners. We conclude that sympatric breeding Buteos on the southern Great Plains spatially partitioned nest sites according to subtle differences in land cover and topography.

  14. Nesting habits of Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Northern Cerrado of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gracy C. A.; Carreira, Léa M. M.; Rêgo, Márcia M. C.; Patrícia M. C. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical bee Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha is a solitary bee that nests in pre-existing cavities that occur in the rain forest. This study describes the nesting biology of C. dichrootricha and its preference for nesting in Cerrado and gallery forest habitats. The study was conducted from January 2012 and December 2013, in Mirador State Park in the municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra, Maranhão State, Brazil. For this, wooden trap-nests of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm in diameter w...

  15. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  16. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  17. Nest-site selection pattern of Grusjaponensis in Zhalong Nature Reserve of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-ming; ZOU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    Nest-site selection patterns of Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and the effects of environmental variables were studied during the years of 2002-2008 in Zhalong Nature Reserve, Qiqihar city,northeast China. The nest-site selection pattern of Red-crowned cranes included two orders and three choices: the choice of nest-site habitat type within the macro-habitat order, nest zone selection and nest-site micro-habitat selection within the micro-habitat order. Various habitats (such as Carex swamps and reed fire districts) can be selected as the nest sites for Red-crowned cranes, of which reed swamps (93.15%) are given a preference. Factor Analysis reveals that the micro-habitat selection are affected by four main factors: fire, security (concealment / disturbance),incubation (conditions, nest-material), and food. Further analysis reveals that Red-crowned cranes have certain adaptability to the changes of nesting habitat quality in the Zhalong wetlands. In conclusion, fire, reeds,and water were the most important variables for nest-site habitat selection of Red-crowned Cranes in Zhalong Nature Reserve.

  18. Microhabitat characteristics of Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, nests at Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We examined microsite characteristics at 21 Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) nests and land cover types in which they occurred in Wapusk National Park, Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nests were located in four of six physiographic-vegetation land-cover types. Regardless of land-cover type, all but one nest was built on a pressure ridge or mound. Nests were built midway between the bottom and top of ridges or mounds with steeper slopes than was randomly available. Longspur nests had a distinctive southwest orientation (P < 0.001). Longspurs selected nest sites that consisted of comparatively greater amounts of shrub species and lesser amounts of moss than were randomly available. Nests were generally well concealed by vegetation (mean = 67.0%) and concealment was negatively associated with amount of graminoid species at the nest (P = 0.0005). Our nesting habitat data may facilitate a better understanding of breeding Lapland Longspur habitat requirements, and potential impacts of habitat degradation by increasing Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) populations in the study area.

  19. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  20. Nesting biology of three grassland passerines in the northern tallgrass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, J.A.; Svedarsky, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Basic nesting information on grassland passerines is needed for improving grassland bird management. Among the information needs are (1) the suitability of nesting habitat, (2) periods during the breeding season in which birds are most vulnerable to disturbances, and (3) how to fit grasslands into a prioritization scheme for conservation. Comparisons of nesting parameters among grassland species will help identify important management considerations. We describe and compare nest-site characteristics, nesting phenology, clutch size, hatching and fledging success, and brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) for three grassland passerine species nesting in tallgrass prairie of northwestern Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota. During 1998-2002, we found 793 Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida), 687 Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and 315 Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) nests. These species differed in many aspects of their breeding ecology. Clay-colored and Savannah sparrows initiated their nests almost 2 weeks earlier than Bobolinks, with peak nesting occurring in June. Clutch size was lower (3.77 ?? 0.03 SE) for Clay-colored Sparrows than Savannah Sparrows (4.13 ?? 0.05) and Bobolinks (5.25 ?? 0.08). The number of host eggs hatched per nest was higher in Bobolinks (3.46 ?? 0.20) than in Clay-colored Sparrows (2.52 ?? 0.09) and Savannah Sparrows (2.41 ?? 0.11), but the number of young fledged per Bobolink nest (1.97) was similar to that of Savannah Sparrows (2.01). Clay-colored Sparrows fledged only 1.35 host young per nest. Mayfield nest success was higher for Savannah Sparrows (31.4%) than for Clay-colored Sparrows (27.4%) or Bobolinks (20.7%). The main cause of nest failure was nest predation: predation in Clay-colored Sparrows (47.9%) was higher than in Savannah Sparrows (33.5%) but similar to Bobolinks (41.8%). Brood parasitism was lower in Clay-colored Sparrows (5.1%) than in Bobolinks (10.8%), and intermediate (6.7%) in