Sample records for liikenteen hiilidioksidipaeaestoejen vaehentaemisessae

  1. Environmental costs of transport; Liikenteen paeaestoekustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gynther, L.; Tervonen, J.; Hippinen, I.; Loven, K.; Salmi, J.; Soares, J.; Torkkeli, S.; Tikka, T.


    This study presents the estimated total environmental costs of airborne pollutants in road, rail and water transport in Finland and the unit costs of emissions used in socio-economic impact assessments of the transport system. The estimations are based on emission inventory for the year 2007 and the results are shown in prices of 2010. The study updates previous estimates dating back ten years. The total environmental cost of airborne pollutants in transport is estimated at 900 million euros. This is composed of 820 million euros attributable to fuel use and street dust, 54 million euros to the front end of fuel chains and 26 million euros to waste from water transport. The share of road transport in the total cost is 695 million euros, water transport 190 million euros and rail transport just under 15 million euros. The assessment covers the impacts of pollutants on health (increased mortality and morbidity) and flora (crop losses and decreased forest growth) as well as the cost of climate change. In addition to fuel emissions, also street dust is included in the analysis. In water transport the evaluation is extended to solid and liquid waste. In addition to fuel use, also other steps in the fuel chains, namely production, transport, refining and distribution, are covered by the study. The environmental unit costs of primary particles, sulphates and nitrates vary geographically and between different transport modes. The differences are particularly distinctive for particle emissions from road transport. The environmental unit costs of hydrocarbons and greenhouse gasses are the same for all transport modes in all traffic environments and all parts of the country. The impact assessment and monetary valuation of airborne pollutants was principally carried out by using the Impact Pathway Method. The method starts with an emissions inventory and estimation of the consequent pollutant concentrations followed by assessment of physical impacts, and finally monetary valuation. The monetary valuation of climate change was made by combining damage cost estimates and values presented for economic regulation of climate emissions. The waterborne stressors from water transport were valued by abatement costs. The same method was applied to street dust. The previous similar study, dating back to 2003, estimated the environmental costs of road, rail and water transport in Finland at 1.1 billion euros in prices of 2010 (excluding street dust and solid and liquid waste burdening the Baltic Sea). Thereafter, the costs associated with health and nature impacts have declined whereas the cost of climate change has increased. Considering the increased traffic volumes in the 2000's, decline or stabilisation of environmental costs could be considered a favourable outcome. Technical development has lowered the emissions' impacts on health and nature and it even compensates for the growth in mileage. However, another significant factor contributing to lower damage costs is that the monetary value chosen for a life year lost is lower than previously. Nevertheless, technical development has not managed to curb energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (orig.)

  2. Environmental Report 2012; Helsingin seudun liikenteen ympaeristoeraportti 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskovaara, A.


    This environmental report summarizes the key environmental impacts of HSL's activities and HSL's work to mitigate these impacts in 2012. HSL's activities comply with a Quality and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 9001 and 14001 standards. In HSL's activities, important environmental aspects relate to the wellbeing of people: health, living conditions and comfort as well as air quality and energy consumption. Taking environmental issues into account and promoting low-emission transport play a pivotal role in HSL's strategy. A concrete emissions target is reducing carbon emissions by 50 % by 2018. An even tougher target has been set for reducing local emissions (- 80 %). Other objectives in promoting a sustainable transport system include, for example, curbing congestion and improving the competitiveness of public transport relative to the car. Environmentally friendly transport system is promoted in accordance with the Helsinki Region Transport System Plan (HLJ 2011). Helsinki region municipalities and the State signed a Letter of Intent on Land Use, Housing and Transport (MAL) for 2012-2015 on 20 June. The key objectives of the Letter of Intent are creating a compact urban structure, promoting housing market development and sustainable modes of transport, as well as utilizing rail services in the area, in particular. In terms of transport, the Helsinki Region Transport System Plan HLJ 2011 served as a basis for the preparation of the agreement. Emissions from bus services have decreased thanks to new vehicles and the use of biofuels. Almost half (45%) of the buses used on HSL's services are low-emissions vehicles (Environmentally Enhanced Vehicle, EEV). At the beginning of 2012, the first hybrid buses entered into service in the Helsinki region. The buses have proven reliable, and hybrid technology has provided a 25 % reduction in fuel consumption and emissions. Also, Finland got its first electric bus at the beginning of September. The bus will be tested for three years in both summer and winter conditions, as well as in the test laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). A trial service of Kutsuplus buses operating on flexible routes and schedules was launched in October 2012. Kutsuplus is a completely new demand-responsive public transport service. The service is first of the kind in Finland and anywhere in the world, as far as we know. Passengers can order a Kutsuplus bus to pick them up from the closest bus stop with a smartphone or another mobile device. The service will be opened to the wider public in phases during 2013. The aim is to increase the number of vehicles gradually from ten to one hundred by the end of 2015. HSL promoted smart travel by encouraging people to make environmentally friendly mobility choices. HSL offered mobility management services to companies, carried out campaigns to attract new commuter voucher and Travel Card customers, developed its online services as well as a mobility management concept for schools. (orig.)

  3. Traffic safety and environmental impacts. Synergies and conflicts; Liikenteen turvallisuuden ja ympaeristoevaikutusten synergiat ja vastakkainasettelut

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    Pollanen, M.; Ahlroth, J.; Aalto, E.; Liimatainen, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Transport Research Centre Verne


    The improvement of safety and mitigation of harmful environmental effects are two key goals in developing sustainable transport. In part, the same measures can improve safety and mitigate environmental impacts. On the other hand, measures for improving safety may aggravate harmful environmental effects, and vice versa. The objective of this study is to describe the synergies and conflicts related to the objectives of improving the safety and mitigating the environmental impacts of transport and, in particular, the measures taken in pursuit of these objectives. The study conducted as a literature review complemented with expert interviews and workshops. The study focused on examining measures that could be implemented in Finland. Measures at transport system level for influencing traffic volumes and the use of different means of passenger and goods transport, as well as safety and environmental measures in road, rail, water and air traffic, were the subject of separate investigation. More than 200 measures for influencing the safety and environmental impacts of transport were reviewed in the study. A large portion of these measures only have a significant effect on one or the other of these subjects of study: the impact of safety measures is primarily directed at safety, while environmental measures mainly affect the environment. The core synergies between transport and the environment relate to vehicle mileage, since a reduced mileage translates to improved safety and reduced environmental impacts, such as lower energy consumption and fewer emissions. On the transport system level, output can be influenced by measures such as promoting remote work, alleviating the need for travel by using electronic services, and increasing the utilization of capacity in goods transport. The choice of transport mode has a large impact on safety, since different modes of transport entail significantly different risks and environmental impacts. Increasing the attractiveness of public transport is an example of a synergetic measure with positive effects on both safety and the environment. Significant synergies are also achieved by promoting the renewal of vehicle stock, improving the smoothness and reliability of rail transport, reducing speed limits on highways and adopting intelligent speed adaptation systems, promoting a Single European Sky and educating, monitoring and encouraging anticipatory and economical driving habits in road and rail traffic. The greatest conflicts are related to winter traffic: the antiskid treatment of roads and streets, limiting the use of studded tyres, heating switches in rail traffic, the anti-freeze treatment of aeroplanes, and the winter maintenance of runways. Other contradictory measures include vegetation control, increasing the attractiveness of bicycling and calming traffic flow through the use of elevated pedestrian crossings and bumps. Based on the results of the study, the synergies between safety and the environment can be reinforced and the conflicts mitigated. The implementation of the most synergetic measures can be promoted by combining the perspectives of safety and the environment also in the justifications for the measures. (orig.)

  4. Carbon footprint of construction, operation and maintenance of waterways and traffic; Merenkulun ja liikenteen hiilijalanjaelki. Osa 1: Merenkulun hiilijalanjaelki, Osa 2: Tie-, rata- ja meriliikenteen hiilijalanjaeljet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illman, J.; Kumpulainen, A.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.


    In 2010, the Finnish Transport Agency launched a project to study the carbon footprint of the construction, use and maintenance of Finland's transport network infrastructure. This report presents the results of the second phase, where the carbon footprint was calculated for the coastal ports and fairways used for merchant shipping (part 1 of this report). In addition, the carbon footprint of traffic operating on the road and rail networks and on the coastal fairways was calculated (part 2 of this report). The carbon footprints of four Finnish coastal merchant shipping ports and the fairways leading into them were calculated during a 100-year period. Based on these four cases and statistics the rest of the coastal ports were categorised into four groups: passenger ports, unitized cargo ports, bulk ports and liquid bulk ports. Based on this categorisation the carbon footprint for the infrastructure of coastal merchant shipping was estimated. A carbon footprint tool was developed to enable the modelling of the impacts of different port and fairway planning parameters on the life-cycle emissions. The main source of emissions in the selected cases was the energy used during the use phase: the fuel used by the machinery or the electricity consumed during the operation of the port. In the construction of the examined ports and fairways, the materials used, their transportation and installation do not have a significant impact on the life-cycle emissions. The carbon footprint of Finland's coastal merchant shipping ports and fairways (35 ports and 3 230 km of fairways) during the 100-year period was estimated at 150 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The emissions of ports vary between 1 900-15 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The largest sources of emissions do not always originate from the use phase as in the selected cases. The emissions of construction and maintenance can be larger than of the use phase in ports that occupy a large area of land in relation to the amount of traffic flowing through them. In the second part of this project, emissions caused by traffic operating on the road and rail networks and waterways were calculated. The sources of emissions were first identified and categorised into primary and secondary emissions. Primary emissions include the greenhouse gas emissions from fuels used by vehicles. Secondary emissions result from operations that enable traffic to flow such as the energy used by gas stations and railway stations or the construction and maintenance of parking areas. It was concluded that the emissions caused by traffic are significantly larger than those of constructing, using and maintaining the transport infrastructure. The infrastructure of the road network has a carbon footprint of 511 000 tCO{sub 2}/a, while the emissions of traffic on the network are around 8,3 MtCO{sub 2}/a. The emissions of the main railway infrastructure are approximately 142 000 tCO{sub 2}/a and railway traffic has a carbon footprint of 315 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. For waterways the infrastructure emissions are 150 000 tCO{sub 2}/a and the emissions caused by traffic 2,4 MtCO{sub 2}/a. The share of secondary emissions of total emissions remains small. (orig.)

  5. Opiskelijoiden esteet kansainväliselle liikkuvuudelle


    Hoppula, Sami


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää Rovaniemen ammattikorkeakoulun tekniikan ja liikenteen sekä luonnonvara-alan toisen ja kolmannen vuoden opiskelijoiden esteitä kansainväliselle liikkuvuudelle. Opiskelijoilta kysyttiin heidän näkemyksiään niin henkilökohtaisista kuin koulutusalakohtaisistakin esteistä. Lisäksi tutkimuslomakkeella kysyttiin, mitä asioita opiskelijat kokevat tärkeäksi kansainväliseen liikkuvuuteen hakeutumiselle sekä mistä asioista he toivovat sa...