WorldWideScience

Sample records for light element isotopic

  1. IR laser enrichment of light elements isotopes - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Infra-red multiple photon dissociation (IR MPD) of poly-atomic molecules has made considerable progress since its discovery in the early seventies. Since the process was found to be isotopically selective; the possibility of laser isotope separation (LIS) created a lot of initial excitement. While the early investigations were concerned with the fundamental dynamics and potential applications of the phenomenon, serious efforts for the isotope enrichment process have been made only during the last decade. These efforts focussed on aspects to improve both the enrichment factor and throughput in various systems. Many research groups have achieved a good measure of success for scaling up the process for various light elements like carbon, oxygen, silicon and sulphur whose isotopes are quite important in medicine and technology. Significant results have been reported especially for the separation of carbon isotopes wherein macroscopic operating scales have been already realised. This talk will give-a summary of our work carried out at BARC and highlight the current efforts for scaling up the process for carbon isotopes enrichment. This would include the design aspects of a large photochemical reactor with multi-pass, refocusing optics for efficient photon utilization. It will also cover the development of a cryogenic distillation set up and a preparative gas chromatograph for a large scale separation and collection of the isotopically enriched photoproduct in the post irradiation stage. Based on the experience gained and infra structure developed, plans are afoot to separate oxygen and sulphur isotopes using a similar approach

  2. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic separator for light and middle isotope elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, R.

    1952-01-01

    We describe a separator of isotope with a 60 deg magnetic sector that permits, thanks to a process of neutralization of the space charge, to use efficiently intense ion beams. The ion source for solid is essentially constituted by a discharge of hot cathode in a magnetic field and provides an ion beam focused of more than 10 mA. The result of the first separations (Zn, Sb, Hg) indicates that the isotopes of various elements can be obtained in quantities varying from 10 to 100 mg/24 hours. (author) [fr

  4. On the enrichment of low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements by gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, V.D.; Morozov, O.E.; Zaozerskiy, Yu.P.; Shmelev, G.M.; Shipilov, Yu.D.

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the main areas for the application of the isotopes 15 N and 13 C is made. Separation of the nitrogen isotopes in a single gas centrifuge in the form of pure nitrogen, ammonia, and trifluoride of nitrogen as well as the carbon isotopes in the form of carbon dioxide has been studied by means of numerical simulation. The parameters of the centrifugal machine investigated were close to the parameters of the Iguassu machine. The dependence of the efficiency criterion versus the basic parameters of the separation process has been explored in the computational experiments. Comparisons of the calculated results with the experimental data have shown good agreement. The results obtained have demonstrated the possibility of using gas centrifuge technology to enrich successfully the low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements

  5. Electromagnetic separator for light and middle isotope elements; Separateur electromagnetique pour les isotopes d'elements legers et moyens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    We describe a separator of isotope with a 60 deg magnetic sector that permits, thanks to a process of neutralization of the space charge, to use efficiently intense ion beams. The ion source for solid is essentially constituted by a discharge of hot cathode in a magnetic field and provides an ion beam focused of more than 10 mA. The result of the first separations (Zn, Sb, Hg) indicates that the isotopes of various elements can be obtained in quantities varying from 10 to 100 mg/24 hours. (author) [French] 0n decrit un separateur d'isotope a secteur magnetique de 60 deg qui permet, grace a un procede de neutralisation de la charge d'espace, d'utiliser efficacement des faisceaux d'ions intenses. La source d'ions pour solide est essentiellement constituee par une decharge a cathode chaude dans un champ magnetique et fournit un faisceau d'ion focalises de plus de 10 mA. Le resultat des premieres separations (Zn, Sb, Hg) indique que les isotopes de divers elements peuvent etre obtenus en quantites variant de 10 a 100 mg/24 heures. (auteur)

  6. Separation and sampling technique of light element isotopes by chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shunsaku; Oi, Kenta; Takagi, Norio; Hirotsu, Takafumi; Kano, Hirofumi; Sonoda, Akinari; Makita, Yoji

    2000-01-01

    Lithium and boron isotope separation technique were studied. Granulation of lithium isotope separation agent was carried out by cure covering in solution. Separation of lithium isotope was stepped up by ammonium carbonate used as elusion agent. Styrene and ester resin derived three kinds of agents such as 2-amino-1, 3-propanediol (1, 3-PD), 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (Me-1,3-PD) and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (Tris) were used as absorbent.The ester resin with Tris showed larger amount of adsorption (1.4 mmol/g) than other resins. However, all resins with agent indicated more large adsorption volume of boron than the objective value (0.5 mmol/g). Large isotope shift was shown by the unsymmetrical vibration mode of lithium ion on the basis of quantum chemical calculation of isotope effect on dehydration of hydrated lithium ion. (S.Y.)

  7. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  8. Sequential determination of environmental levels of isotopic thorium, uranium and the light rare earth elements within the terrestrial food chain by induced coupled plasma (ICP) and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Morse, R.; Ford, H.

    1986-01-01

    A radioecological study designed to measure soil to plant and soil to animal (livestock) transfer of Th, U, Ra and the light rare earth elements (REE) in typical and naturally-enhanced radiation environments required the development of radiochemical methods suitable for low-level determinations in a broad suite of environmental matrices including soil, edible vegetables and vegetation, and the major organs and tissues of various livestock. Earlier work has demonstrate the reliability of the methods summarized here for measuring the isotopic thorium and REE content of human feces, and that in the edible portions of various vegetables grown under field conditions. The very high degree of biological discrimination against Th and REE uptake in plants as well as in animal soft tissues necessitated the analysis of typical sample masses of 1-4 kg (fresh weight) to insure reasonably precise (eg., 10-20%) concentration estimates for most of the elements and isotopes of interest. As a result of the ''bone-seeking'' nature and relatively long retention times for these elements in skeletal tissue, typical analytical masses required for analysis of bone range from 40 to 70 g (fresh weight) except for the REE's in which a larger aliquot is recommended when determination is by induced coupled plasma spectrometry

  9. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Reference and intercomparison materials for stable isotopes of light elements. Proceedings of a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 1-3 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The stable isotope composition of elements varies in natural compounds as a consequence of the slightly different physico-chemical behaviour of isotopes. The possibility of measuring the stable isotope relative variations with high precision, using mass spectrometry, promoted the rise of new fields of research in geochemistry and hydrology and, more recently, in environmental studies. The steady growth of these investigations and of their practical applications has emphasized the need for high quality isotopic standards and intercomparison samples, with well determined isotopic composition, for the intercalibration of analytical techniques and results among laboratories. The organization of the Consultants Meeting on Stable Isotope Standards and Intercomparison Materials held in Vienna from 1 to 3 December 1993, the fifth of this type (the previous meetings took place in 1966, 1976, 1983 and 1985), called for a review and a discussion of the characteristics, quality and availability of the existing standards and intercalibration materials, and for an assessment of needs for new materials, in view of recent developments and applications. A large part of the discussions was devoted to the new materials prepared for sulphur isotope analysis and the analytical requirements for highly precise isotopic analysis of CO{sub 2}. The papers presented at the meeting are assembled in this volume. Refs, figs and tabs.

  11. Reference and intercomparison materials for stable isotopes of light elements. Proceedings of a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 1-3 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The stable isotope composition of elements varies in natural compounds as a consequence of the slightly different physico-chemical behaviour of isotopes. The possibility of measuring the stable isotope relative variations with high precision, using mass spectrometry, promoted the rise of new fields of research in geochemistry and hydrology and, more recently, in environmental studies. The steady growth of these investigations and of their practical applications has emphasized the need for high quality isotopic standards and intercomparison samples, with well determined isotopic composition, for the intercalibration of analytical techniques and results among laboratories. The organization of the Consultants Meeting on Stable Isotope Standards and Intercomparison Materials held in Vienna from 1 to 3 December 1993, the fifth of this type (the previous meetings took place in 1966, 1976, 1983 and 1985), called for a review and a discussion of the characteristics, quality and availability of the existing standards and intercalibration materials, and for an assessment of needs for new materials, in view of recent developments and applications. A large part of the discussions was devoted to the new materials prepared for sulphur isotope analysis and the analytical requirements for highly precise isotopic analysis of CO 2 . The papers presented at the meeting are assembled in this volume. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Compound-specific isotope analysis of light elements using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and its application to geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Keita; Matsumoto, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi

    1997-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has been developed recently using gas chromatography/combustion/mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). This paper summarizes principles and progress of GC/C/IRMS, and reviews recent some important works using this new method. GC/C/IRMS is a novel tool for (1) biomarker analysis in sediments and living matter, (2) paleoenvironment analysis including reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes, (3) geochemical cycle study of organic compounds in a terrestrial-marine system, (4) evaluation of maturity and diagenesis of organic matter including petroleum formation, (5) ecological analysis, (6) evaluation of anthropologenic pollution in environment, (7) detection of extraterrestrial organic compounds and the formation mechanism study, (8) tracer studies in environment. (author)

  13. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  14. Shape Coexistence In Light Krypton Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, E.; Goergen, A.; Bouchez, E.; Chatillon, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Theisen, Ch.; Huerstel, A.; Lucas, R.; Wilson, J.N.; Andreoiu, C.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D.; Jones, G.; Becker, F.; Gerl, J.; Blank, B.; Hannachi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Shape coexistence in the light krypton isotopes was studied in a series of experiments at GANIL using various experimental techniques. A new low-lying 0+ state, a so-called shape isomer, was found in delayed conversion-electron spectroscopy after fragmentation reactions. The systematics of such low-lying 0+ states suggests that the ground states of the isotopes 78Kr and 76Kr have prolate deformation, while states with prolate and oblate shape are practically degenerate and strongly mixed in 74Kr, and that the oblate configuration becomes the ground state in 72Kr. This scenario was tested in experiments performing low-energy Coulomb excitation of radioactive 76Kr and 74Kr beams from the SPIRAL facility. Both transitional and diagonal electromagnetic matrix elements were extracted from the observed γ-ray yields. The results find the prolate shape for the ground-state bands in 76Kr and 74Kr and an oblate deformation for the excited 2 2 + state in 74Kr, confirming the proposed scenario of shape coexistence

  15. Assignment of element and isotope factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Element and isotope factors are assigned in the NICS internal accounting system at the Exxon Fuel Fabrication Facility on the basis of coded information included on the material transfer documents. This paper explains more fully the manner in which NICS assigns these factors

  16. Separation of nitrogen isotopes by laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Y; Noguchi, Y; Yamanaka, C [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-06-01

    The separation experiment on nitrogen isotopes by laser light was made. First, the nitrogen isotopes of /sup 14/N and /sup 15/N in NH/sub 3/ molecules were separated by CO/sub 2/ laser and UV light. The separation factor and the enrichment factor were calculated. It was shown that their pressure dependence was in good agreement with the measured values. The separation factor of about 2% was obtained with UV light of 10/sup 6/W/cm/sup 2/.

  17. Radio-isotopic apparatus for analyzing low atomic number elements by fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Andre; Martinelli, Pierre; Daniel, Georges; Laflotte, Jean-Luc

    1969-10-01

    An apparatus is described for analyzing light elements of atomic number between 6 and 24 by X-fluorescence. The samples are excited by means of X or α isotopic sources. Various examples of analytical determinations are given. (author) [fr

  18. Radio-isotope powered light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spottiswoode, N.L.; Ryden, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The light source described comprises a radioisotope fuel source, thermal insulation against heat loss, a biological shield against the escape of ionizing radiation and a material having a surface which attains incandescence when subject to isotope decay heat. There is then a means for transferring this heat to produce incandescence of the surface and thus emit light. A filter associated with the surface permits a relatively high transmission of visible radiation but has a relatively high reflectance in the infra red spectrum. Such light sources require the minimum of attention and servicing and are therefore suitable for use in navigational aids such as lighthouses and lighted buoys. The isotope fuel sources and thus the insulation and shielding and the incandescent material can be chosen for the use required and several sources, materials, means of housing etc. are detailed. Operation and efficiency are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. TOF spectrometer with improved sensitivity for ERDA of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siketic, Z.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF ERDA) is a well established and powerful ion beam analytical technique. It is used for simultaneous and quantitative analysis of elemental depth distributions of light and medium mass elements in both light and heavy matrices. Contrary to silicon particle detectors, the efficiency of the carbon-foil MCP time detectors in TOF system depends on energy and electronic stopping power of analyzing recoil atoms in the C foil and it is often less than 100% for light elements (H, He, Li). This is particularly critical for hydrogen isotopes where detection efficiency can be drastically reduced (∼ 10%). Therefore, TOF ERDA spectrometers were so far not the best choice for depth profiling and quantification of light elements. To improve the detection efficiency of TOF ERDA, the electron emission of C foils (∼ 0.3 μg/cm 2 ) has been enhanced by evaporating a thin LiF layer on the foil. That procedure improved significantly detection efficiency of hydrogen and other light elements, making TOF ERDA spectrometer more suitable for multielemental analysis applications. The capabilities of upgraded spectrometer were demonstrated on samples with well known as well as unknown concentration and depth distribution of H and D.(author)

  20. Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna; Loss, Robert D.; Walczyk, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (ciaaw.org) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (iupac.org) has revised the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements (TICE). The update involved a critical evaluation of the recent published literature. The new TICE 2013 includes evaluated data from the “best measurement” of the isotopic abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotopic abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials.

  1. Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, A.

    1994-09-01

    Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements are reviewed and some of their implications are very briefly discussed. Despite the fact that in most cases the lattice results for weak matrix elements at the moment have only a modest accuracy of about 20--30% they already have important phenomenological repercussions; e.g. for V td /V ts , x s /x d and B → K*γ

  2. Isotopic anomalies in high Z elements: Uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.; Essling, A.M.; Rauh, E.G.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1989-03-01

    Uranium in terrestrial volcanic ejecta from mantle-related sources has been analyzed mass spectrometrically. The objective was to seek supporting evidence for or refutation isotopic variations reported by Fried et al. (1985) for some such samples. The possibility that terrestrial U is not of constant isotopic composition is extraordinary. If true, mechanisms for creating the variation must be sought and the lack of homogenization within the earth addressed. Samples of 100 grams or more were processed in order to minimize reagent and environmental (laboratory) blank interference and to permit isolation of large amounts (several to tens of μg) of U for the mass spectrometer (MS) measurements, which utilizes aliquots of /approximately/1 μg. Aliquants from four volcanic samples gave data which indicate enrichments of 235 U ranging from 0.2% to 5.9% in the 235/238 ratio relative normal uranium ratios. These relative enrichments are consistent with, and in some cases, higher than the 0.18% enrichment reported by Fried et al. (1985) for two volcanic lava samples. However, we were not able to reproduce their results on the Kilauea lava for which they report 0.18% 235 U enrichment. The relative error in our MS ratios is 0.05% -- 0.07%. 1 tab

  3. Light element thermodynamics related to actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Johnson, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The accumulation of waste from the last five decades of nuclear reactor development has resulted in large quantities of materials of very diverse chemical composition. An electrometallurgical (EM) method is being developed to separate the components of the waste into several unique streams suitable for permanent disposal and an actinide stream suitable for retrievable storage. The principal types of nuclear wastes are spent oxide or metallic fuel. Since the EM module requires a metallic feed, and oxygen interferes with its operation, the oxide fuel has to be reduced prior to EM treatment. Further, the wastes contain, in addition to oxygen, other light elements (first- and second-row elements) that may also interfere with the operation of the EM module. The extent that these light elements interfere with the operation of the EM module has been determined by chemical thermodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  4. Heavy element stable isotope ratios. Analytical approaches and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  5. Paradigms in isotope dilution mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry currently stands out as the method providing results with unchallenged precision and accuracy in elemental speciation. However, recent history of isotope dilution mass spectrometry has shown that the extent to which this primary ratio measurement method can deliver accurate results is still subject of active research. In this review, we will summarize the fundamental prerequisites behind isotope dilution mass spectrometry and discuss their practical limits of validity and effects on the accuracy of the obtained results. This review is not to be viewed as a critique of isotope dilution; rather its purpose is to highlight the lesser studied aspects that will ensure and elevate current supremacy of the results obtained from this method

  6. Nuclear shape transition in light gold isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallmeroth, K.; Bollen, G.; Dohn, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kroenert, U.; Heyde, K.; Coster, C. de; Wood, J.L.; Kluge, H.J.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1989-01-01

    The hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of short-lived gold isotopes with 185≤A≤190 and the 11/2 - isomer of 189 Au have been investigated by application of on-line resonance ionization mass spectroscopy. A detection efficiency of ε=10 -8 for gold atoms was observed at a background of about one event per 1000 laser shots. The deduced charge radii show a drastic change between A=187 and A=186 which is interpreted as an onset of strong deformation (β 2 ≅ 0.25) in 186 Au and 185 Au due to the influence of the π1h 9/2 intruder orbital. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of light elements by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, D. K.; Woo, H. J.; Kim, N. B.; Park, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission) method was applied for the measurement of light elements Li - K. A test measurement has been performed for geological, biological, environmental and material samples by using a standard sample for each element. The measurement was performed for the two proton energies of 2.4 and 3.4 MeV, and 3.4MeV was found to yield better result for multielemental analysis. The result shows a fair agreement within 15% for all elements with standard values. The detection limits of Li, B, F and Na are less than 100 ppm, while those of the other elements are from a few hundred ppm to a few percents. (author)

  8. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2005-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures

  10. Neutron-rich isotopes of the lightest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the experimental investigations on the stability of very neutron-rich light nuclei carried out at the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. Results on mass excess measurements are reported for 4 H, 5 H, 6 H, 7 H and for the superheavy helium isotope 9 He. Some results from the joint JINR-Ganil experiment on the search for and study of new neutron-rich light nuclei are also given. Analyzed are new possibilities for the investigation of multineutron decay of light nuclei. 14 refs.; 10 figs

  11. Method for separating the isotopes of a chemical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    A beam of positive or negative primary ions of at least one compound of a chemical element is accelerated in order to pass through collision boxes placed in series. As a result of inelastic collisions of the ions with the molecules of a neutral target gas within each collision box, a given percentage of primary ions is dissociated into at least two fragments, one of which is a secondary ion in the form of at least two isotopic species. The collision boxes are brought to a potential V 2 so as to trap preferentially one isotopic species which is condensed within each box. 15 claims, 4 figures

  12. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of element 107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent mass calculations have indicated that there is a region of deformed nuclei around neutron number N=162 that is especially stable against spontaneous fission. Barrier heights of about 5 MeV for Z = 107 nuclides can be extrapolated. To search for new, neutron-rich isotopes of element 107 in radiochemical experiments with 254 Es as a target an on-line chemical separation of element 107 (EKA-Rhenium), especially from the actinide elements is needed. An on-line gas-phase chemistry was developed with the homolog Re based on the volatility of the oxide which is transported in an O 2 containing atmosphere along a temperature gradient in a quartz tube and is condensed onto a thin Ta coated Ni-foil. The authors applied this technique in two series of experiments with their rotating wheel on-line gas-phase chemistry apparatus at the 88-inch cyclotron where they irradiated 254 Es as a target with 93 MeV and 96 MeV 16 O ions to search for 266 107. The assignment of the observed alpha events between 8 and 9 MeV to possibly (1) non actinide contaminants like 212 Po, (2) known isotopes of heavy elements like 261 105, or (3) a new isotope will be discussed

  13. Abundances of light isotopes in galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westergaard, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The fluxes of the light isotopes in the galactic cosmic rays are calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to 5 GeV. The mean amount of matter traversed is taken to increase with decreasing energy, and various forms of the source spectrum are assumed. It is shown that it is possible to reconcile all observed abundance ratios including the low 10 Be abundance found by Garcia-Munoz et al. with an interstellar gas density of 1 atom cm -1 . However, a low value for the adiabatic deceleration in the solor cavity must be assumed. Comparing isotopes of the light elements does not give a unique solution for the deceleration, and it seems to be more profitable to use the isotopes of H and He for this purpose

  14. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig

  17. Developing Potential New Reference Materials for Light Isotopes in Foodstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Van Hale, Robert; Clarke, Dianne; Abrahim, Aiman; Resch, Christian; Mayr, Leopold; Cannavan, Andrew; Gröning, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of subtle variations in stable isotope ratios provide the means for verifying food integrity in numerous ways. Adulterants usually have different isotopic composition so their presence in a food is readily detectable. Stable isotope measurements can also be used to determine the region of production of the food. In most cases the ability of stable isotope measurements to verify, or otherwise reject, the authenticity of the food is greatly enhanced by comparison of a result to a reference database. The more high-quality data in the database, the more statistical power is afforded by the comparison. A serious weakness at present is the lack of reference materials in food matrices available to the community. Thus researchers have to rely on in-house standards for calibration and quality assurance. The result is that there are numerous datasets published that may be internally consistent but it is exceedingly difficult to combine these datasets into a cohesive database. This is particularly important for measurements of the hydrogen isotopes. Here we present a survey of the stable isotope (^2H, ^13C and ^15N) composition of 12 Reference Materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency catalogue. All but one of these materials are plant matter and have been developed as reference materials for other applications such as radionuclide or trace element measurements. Thus they have been verified as suitable materials in terms of stability and homogeneity for those tests. The purpose of this work is to ascertain if they are similarly suitable as stable isotope reference materials. The results from our survey show that there is a wide range in elemental and isotopic composition among these materials. For example, the ^15N values range from-13.5‰ to +18.6‰ and the nitrogen elemental composition range is from 0.7% to 9.7%. The ^13C values range from -20‰ to -40‰ and the carbon elemental composition ranges from 15% to 47%. We are now in the process of

  18. Isotope-dilution analyses of the metallic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope-dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) technique has proven to be to be a reliable, versatile analytical tool. Its applications seem to be limited only by the ingenuity of the investigator. Among its advantages are: small sample size; general applicability; precision and accuracy; dynamic range; simplified chemistry; determination is fixed at the time and place of isotopic homogenization. The last listed item is especially important for nuclear safeguards and processes where inventories are critical. IDMS is now a routine analytical technique in geochemical and nuclear laboratories, and in many environmental laboratories. Microgram and nanogram samples are normally used, frequently with automatic mass spectrometers, in many of these routine applications. More advanced techniques permit picogram and sub picogram samples to be analyzed, and spike to sample ratios can range from 1:1 to 1:10 12 with detection limits at attogram levels for some elements. 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Nuclear synergism of the light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-05-01

    Some basic issues concerning accelerator initiated and fusion sustained nuclear energy systems are examined. For this purpose we identify selected nuclear fusion reactions characterized by a variable ion-to-neutron content and explore their intrinsic couplings and regenerative features. These are then related to particular systems concepts which emphasize fusion physics and accelerator technology. It is concluded that several light-element reaction systems possess appealing and interesting properties and can further be associated with selected advanced nuclear technologies. Their eventual implementation as nuclear energy systems requires further research in fusion physics, accelerator technology and mathematical physics. Because of the substantial potential benefits of such nuclear energy systems, it is concluded that research in this area should be pursued with much vigour. (orig.)

  20. Cosmological implications of light element abundances: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D N

    1993-06-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the hot Big Bang cosmological model (versus alternative explanations for the observed Hubble expansion). The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation fits the light element abundances ranging from 1H at 76% and 4He at 24% by mass through 2H and 3He at parts in 105 down to 7Li at parts in 1010. It is also noted how the recent Large Electron Positron Collider (and Stanford Linear Collider) results on the number of neutrinos (Nnu) are a positive laboratory test of this standard Big Bang scenario. The possible alternate scenario of quark-hadron-induced inhomogeneities is also discussed. It is shown that when this alternative scenario is made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density (Omegab) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus adding to the robustness of the standard model and the conclusion that Omegab approximately 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for nonbaryonic dark matter (assuming total density Omegatotal = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since the density of visible matter Omegavisible < Omegab. The recent Population II B and Be observations are also discussed and shown to be a consequence of cosmic ray spallation processes rather than primordial nucleosynthesis. The light elements and Nnu successfully probe the cosmological model at times as early as 1 sec and a temperature (T) of approximately 10(10) K (approximately 1 MeV). Thus, they provided the first quantitative arguments that led to the connections of cosmology to nuclear and particle physics.

  1. Generalized-seniority scheme in light Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, N.; Blomqvist, J.; Liotta, R.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last years the region of light Sn isotopes has been intensively investigated both from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The main goal was to study the excitation mechanisms around the exotic isotope 100 Sn, the heaviest symmetric double magic nucleus which may exist. The simplest approach in analysing the spectra of light tin isotopes is to consider 100 Sn as an inert core and to treat only neutron degrees of freedom in the valence shell N = 50-82. Extensive shell model calculations have been performed on this line. On the other hand, a large part of the light Sn isotopes spectra could be rather well described in terms of simple quasiparticle excitations. Therefore one expects that at least a part of the low-lying states in this region are well approximated in shell-model subspaces with reduced dimensions. An alternative in truncating the shell model space to low-dimensions is the generalized seniority scheme (GSEN). The aim of this letter is to analyse the accuracy of the GSEN scheme for the case of light tin isotopes. In the present calculations we use a microscopically derived interaction. The yrast generalized seniority states are compared with the corresponding shell model states for the case of the tin isotopes 104-112 Sn. For most of the states that agreement is within 100 keV, although the SM space is drastically truncated. For instance, in 110 Sn the number of SM basis states 2 + is 86990, compared with 9 in the case of GSEN. The seniority two states correspond to the particle-number projected QRPA (Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation) states. One expects the quasiparticle approximations to break down when the number of active nucleons is small. In order to investigate this in the case of light Sn isotopes, we calculated also the energies predicted by QRPA. The agreement of the QRPA with the exact SM result is impressive, even in the case of only few extra-core neutrons. This is due to the large pairing correlations in the high

  2. Development laser light facility for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    A laser light facility has been built and successfully commissioned as part of a programme to explore the economic potential of Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium. The laser systems are comprised of tunable dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers. The requirements for optical beam stability, alignment of lasers in chains, and protection of optical coatings have made challenging demands on the engineering design and operation of the facility. (Author)

  3. Isotope and trace element models of crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the isotopic constraints on the development of continental crust from about 3.8 Ga ago are reviewed. Particularly it is noted that Archaean granitic (sensu lato) rocks have initial 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios close to predicted values for the bulk Earth at the time before emplacement, whereas those Phanerozoic granites investigated so far diverge considerably from the bulk Earth and betray the existence of later continental crust in their provenance. Geochemical evidence for recycling of some continent-derived elements into the mantle is examined and the important distinction between selected element recycling and bulk return of continental material is emphasized. Various transport models that have been proposed to model the development of continental crust are examined and some of their differences and similarities, particularly with respect to implications for continental recycling, are highlighted. (author)

  4. Optimizing design parameter for light isotopes separation by distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.

    1999-01-01

    More than methods are suggested in the world for producing heavy water, where between them chemical isotopic methods, distillation and electro lys are used widely in industrial scale. To select suitable method for heavy water production in Iran, taking into consideration, domestic technology an facilities, combination of hydrogen sulphide-water dual temperature process (Gs) and distillation (D W) may be proposed. Natural water, is firstly enriched up to 15 a% by G S process and then by distillation unit is enriched up to the grade necessary for Candu type reactors (99.8 a%). The aim of present thesis, is to achieve know-how, optimization of design parameters, and executing basic design for water isotopes separation using distillation process in a plant having minimum scale possible. In distillation, vapour phase resulted from liquid phase heating, is evidently composed of the same constituents as liquid phase. In isotopic distillation, the difference in composition of constituents is not considerable. In fact alteration of constituents composition is so small that makes the separation process impossible, however, direct separation and production of pure products without further processing which becomes possible by distillation, makes this process as one of the most important separation processes. Profiting distillation process to produce heavy water is based on difference existing between boiling point of heavy and light water. The trends of boiling points differences (heavy and light water) is adversely dependant with pressure. As the whole system pressure decreases, difference in boiling points increases. On the other hand according to the definition, separation factor is equal to the ratio of pure light water vapour pressure to that of heavy water, or we can say that the trend of whole system pressure decrease results in separation factor increase, which accordingly separation factor equation to pressure variable should be computed firstly. According to the

  5. Making Mercury's Core with Light Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has low FeO abundances (less than 2 wt%) and high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%), suggesting the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials is somewhere between 3 to 7 log10 units below the IW buffer. The highly reducing nature of Mercury has resulted in a relatively thin mantle and a large core that has the potential to exhibit an exotic composition in comparison to the other terrestrial planets. This exotic composition may extend to include light elements (e.g., Si, C, S). Furthermore, has argued for a possible primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, which may require a core that is C-saturated. In order to investigate mercurian core compositions, we conducted piston cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, from 1300 C to 1700 C, using a range of starting compositions consisting of various Si-Fe metal mixtures (Si5Fe95, Si10Fe90, Si22Fe78, and Si35Fe65). All metals were loaded into graphite capsules used to ensure C-saturation during the duration of each experimental run. Our experiments show that Fe-Si metallic alloys exclude carbon relative to more Fe-rich metal. This exclusion of carbon commences within the range of 5 to 10 wt% Si. These results indicate that if Mercury has a Si-rich core (having more than approximately 5 wt% silicon), it would have saturated in carbon at low C abundances allowing for the possible formation of a graphite floatation crust as suggested by. These results have important implications for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury.

  6. Isotope effects in photo dissociation of ozone with visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früchtl, Marion; Janssen, Christof; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for many chemical oxidation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. In these chemical reactions, ozone can transfer oxygen to other trace gases. This is particularly interesting, since O3 has a very peculiar isotope composition. Following the mass dependent fractionation equation δ17O = 0.52 * δ18O, most fractionation processes depend directly on mass. However, O3 shows an offset to the mass dependent fractionation line. Processes, which show such anomalies, are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). A very well studied example for a chemical reaction that leads to mass independent fractionation is the O3 formation reaction. To what degree O3 destruction reactions need to be considered in order to understand the isotope composition of atmospheric O3 is still not fully understood and an open question within scientific community. We set up new experiments to investigate the isotope effect resulting from photo dissociation of O3 in the Chappuis band (R1). Initial O3 is produced by an electric discharge. After photolysis O3 is collected in a cold trap at the triple point temperature of nitrogen (63K). O3 is then converted to O2 in order to measure the oxygen isotopes of O3 using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To isolate O3 photo dissociation (R1) from O3 decomposition (R2) and secondary O3 formation (R3), we use varying amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) as O atom quencher (R4). In this way we suppress the O + O3 reaction (R3) and determine the isotope fractionation in R1 and R2 separately. We present first results on the isotope effects in O3 photo dissociation with visible light in the presence of different bath gases. Results are interpreted based on chemical kinetics modeling. (R1) O3 + hυ → O (3P) + O2 (R2) O3 + O (3P) → 2 O2 (R3) O + O2 + M → O3 + M (R4) O (3P) + CO + M → CO2 + M

  7. The origin of volatile element depletion in early solar system material: Clues from Zn isotopes in chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Paniello, Randal; Hezel, Dominik C.

    2017-06-01

    Volatile lithophile elements are depleted in the different planetary materials to various degrees, but the origin of these depletions is still debated. Stable isotopes of moderately volatile elements such as Zn can be used to understand the origin of volatile element depletions. Samples with significant volatile element depletions, including the Moon and terrestrial tektites, display heavy Zn isotope compositions (i.e. enrichment of 66Zn vs. 64Zn), consistent with kinetic Zn isotope fractionation during evaporation. However, Luck et al. (2005) found a negative correlation between δ66Zn and 1/[Zn] between CI, CM, CO, and CV chondrites, opposite to what would be expected if evaporation caused the Zn abundance variations among chondrite groups. We have analyzed the Zn isotope composition of multiple samples of the major carbonaceous chondrite classes: CI (1), CM (4), CV (2), CO (4), CB (2), CH (2), CK (4), and CK/CR (1). The bulk chondrites define a negative correlation in a plot of δ66Zn vs 1/[Zn], confirming earlier results that Zn abundance variations among carbonaceous chondrites cannot be explained by evaporation. Exceptions are CB and CH chondrites, which display Zn systematics consistent with a collisional formation mechanism that created enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes relative to the trend defined by CI-CK. We further report Zn isotope analyses of chondrite components, including chondrules from Allende (CV3) and Mokoia (CV3), as well as an aliquot of Allende matrix. All chondrules are enriched in light Zn isotopes (∼500 ppm on 66Zn/64Zn) relative to the bulk, contrary to what would be expected if Zn were depleted during evaporation, on the other hand the matrix has a complementary heavy isotope composition. We report sequential leaching experiments in un-equilibrated ordinary chondrites, which show sulfides are isotopically heavy compared to silicates and the bulk meteorite by ca. +0.65 per mil on 66Zn/64Zn. We suggest isotopically heavy sulfides were

  8. Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10 -10 . Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10 -9 contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes 6,7 Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S → 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10 -10 is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D 1 and D 2 lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes 7,9,10,11 Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of 7,10 Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus 11 Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from 7 Be to 10 Be and increasing again for 11 Be. While the monotone decrease can be explained by a

  9. Speciated Elemental and Isotopic Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols - Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M.; Majestic, B.; Schauer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Detailed elemental, isotopic, and chemical speciation analysis of aerosol particulate matter (PM) can provide valuable information on PM sources, atmospheric processing, and climate forcing. Certain PM sources may best be resolved using trace metal signatures, and elemental and isotopic fingerprints can supplement and enhance molecular maker analysis of PM for source apportionment modeling. In the search for toxicologically relevant components of PM, health studies are increasingly demanding more comprehensive characterization schemes. It is also clear that total metal analysis is at best a poor surrogate for the bioavailable component, and analytical techniques that address the labile component or specific chemical species are needed. Recent sampling and analytical developments advanced by the project team have facilitated comprehensive characterization of even very small masses of atmospheric PM. Historically; this level of detail was rarely achieved due to limitations in analytical sensitivity and a lack of awareness concerning the potential for contamination. These advances have enabled the coupling of advanced chemical characterization to vital field sampling approaches that typically supply only very limited PM mass; e.g. (1) particle size-resolved sampling; (2) personal sampler collections; and (3) fine temporal scale sampling. The analytical tools that our research group is applying include: (1) sector field (high-resolution-HR) ICP-MS, (2) liquid waveguide long-path spectrophotometry (LWG-LPS), and (3) synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). When coupled with an efficient and validated solubilization method, the HR-ICP-MS can provide quantitative elemental information on over 50 elements in microgram quantities of PM. The high mass resolution and enhanced signal-to-noise of HR-ICP-MS significantly advance data quality and quantity over that possible with traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. The LWG-LPS system enables an assessment of the soluble

  10. Radiography of light alloy castings using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, A.R.; Ramamurthy, D.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important causes for setback of nation's economy is loss of productive elements as a result of avoidable accidents. Particularly in a complicated field such as aircraft production, failure of a single part may cause the loss of men, money and materials which are all productive elements. To reduce such a loss, to increase productivity and to earn customer confidence, it is absolutely necessary to find out tools for quality assurance of defect prone castings. Radioactive isotopes can judiciously be employed inspite of its lower contrast, provided the radiographer understands : (1) the various types of defects characteristics of each alloy and (2) the limitations and possibilities of detecting such defects by this method. (author)

  11. Isotopic composition of the elements and their variation in nature: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1977-03-01

    Data in the literature on isotopic abundance values and their variation in nature are reviewed. Recommended values are presented for the isotopic abundances of all stable elements, their natural variation, and the corresponding atomic weights of these elements. 2 tables, 133 references

  12. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  13. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C R; Casciotti, K A; Dutay, J-C; Heimbürger, L E; Jenkins, W J; Measures, C I; Mills, R A; Obata, H; Schlitzer, R; Tagliabue, A; Turner, D R; Whitby, H

    2016-11-28

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Element for separating gaseous isotopes into at least two fractions and with a separating basket consisting of several separating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossstuck, W.; Schafer, R.

    1985-01-01

    A separating element for gaseous isotopes into two fractions, and consisting of several elongated separating chips with a row of entry openings for the process gas at one side of the chips and a row of exit openings for the heavy fraction at the other side of the chips, with exit openings for the light fraction at the edges of the chips, and of two tubes holding the chips and having at least one chamber, with said tubes being connected by means of connecting elements, and equipped with entry and exit openings on their contact surfaces, with said entry and exit openings arranged in rows in a longitudinal direction of the chips, and for simplifying of installation and construction, this invention provides that the chips are arranged in a longitudinal direction to the tubes, with their sides abutting directly against the smooth contact surfaces of the tubes, and whereby the connecting elements are positioned in one row in the center of the two tubes

  15. Nuclear structure of light Ca and heavy Cr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, the shell structure in exotic nuclei has been investigated. The focus of the work was on finding new experimental data in neutron-rich Cr and proton-rich Ca isotopes. The investigation of light Ca isotopes concentrated on the nucleus 36 Ca which was produced in a knockout reaction from a radioactive 37 Ca beam. For 36 Ca, the excitation energy of the first 2 + state has been measured for the first time. Furthermore, momentum distributions were analyzed using a Monte-Carlo simulation of the knockout reaction. This analysis yielded the contributions of neutrons from individual orbitals to the total knockout cross section. In principle, these may be used to calculate spectroscopic factors, but such a calculation is hampered by difficulties of present knockout-reaction models in predicting precise single-particle cross sections. The measured branching ratio to the ground and excited states, on the other hand, is close to the predicted value. A remaining difference might be due to emission of protons which cannot be detected with the present experimental setup. Both the branching ratio and the large excitation energy are compatible with a large N=16 gap in 36 Ca that leads to relatively pure configurations both in the ground state and the excited 2 + state. As a by-product of the experiment, two excitation energies in the T=2 nuclei 32 Ar and 28 S have been confirmed, and two γ-ray transitions have been observed for the first time in 37 Ca. While the mirror energy differences in the T=2 pairs 36 Ca- 36 S, 32 Ar- 32 Si, and 28 S- 28 Mg can be reproduced in shell model calculations using a modified USD interaction, these modifications are not sufficient to explain the mirror energy differences for the pair 37 Ca- 37 Cl. In the heavy Cr isotopes, new experimental evidence for a sub-shell closure at N=32 was found in a measurement of B(E2) values using high-energy Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams. Prior to this experiment, the assumption of a

  16. Nuclear structure of light Ca and heavy Cr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, A.

    2007-07-01

    In the present thesis, the shell structure in exotic nuclei has been investigated. The focus of the work was on finding new experimental data in neutron-rich Cr and proton-rich Ca isotopes. The investigation of light Ca isotopes concentrated on the nucleus {sup 36}Ca which was produced in a knockout reaction from a radioactive {sup 37}Ca beam. For {sup 36}Ca, the excitation energy of the first 2{sup +} state has been measured for the first time. Furthermore, momentum distributions were analyzed using a Monte-Carlo simulation of the knockout reaction. This analysis yielded the contributions of neutrons from individual orbitals to the total knockout cross section. In principle, these may be used to calculate spectroscopic factors, but such a calculation is hampered by difficulties of present knockout-reaction models in predicting precise single-particle cross sections. The measured branching ratio to the ground and excited states, on the other hand, is close to the predicted value. A remaining difference might be due to emission of protons which cannot be detected with the present experimental setup. Both the branching ratio and the large excitation energy are compatible with a large N=16 gap in {sup 36}Ca that leads to relatively pure configurations both in the ground state and the excited 2{sup +} state. As a by-product of the experiment, two excitation energies in the T=2 nuclei {sup 32}Ar and {sup 28}S have been confirmed, and two {gamma}-ray transitions have been observed for the first time in {sup 37}Ca. While the mirror energy differences in the T=2 pairs {sup 36}Ca-{sup 36}S, {sup 32}Ar-{sup 32}Si, and {sup 28}S-{sup 28}Mg can be reproduced in shell model calculations using a modified USD interaction, these modifications are not sufficient to explain the mirror energy differences for the pair {sup 37}Ca-{sup 37}Cl. In the heavy Cr isotopes, new experimental evidence for a sub-shell closure at N=32 was found in a measurement of B(E2) values using high

  17. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  18. Probing new light force-mediators by isotope shift spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berengut, Julian C.; Budker, Dmitry; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Delaunay, Cedric

    2017-04-01

    In this Letter we explore the potential of probing new light force-carriers, with spin-independent couplings to the electron and the neutron, using precision isotope shift spectroscopy. We develop a formalism to interpret linear King plots as bounds on new physics with minimal theory inputs. We focus only on bounding the new physics contributions that can be calculated independently of the Standard Model nuclear effects. We apply our method to existing Ca"+ data and project its sensitivity to possibly existing new bosons using narrow transitions in other atoms and ions (specifically, Sr and Yb). Future measurements are expected to improve the relative precision by five orders of magnitude, and can potentially lead to an unprecedented sensitivity for bosons within the 10 keV to 10 MeV mass range.

  19. Probing new light force-mediators by isotope shift spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berengut, Julian C. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Budker, Dmitry [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. Mainz; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.; Delaunay, Cedric [Savoie Mont Blanc Univ., Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique LAPTh; and others

    2017-04-15

    In this Letter we explore the potential of probing new light force-carriers, with spin-independent couplings to the electron and the neutron, using precision isotope shift spectroscopy. We develop a formalism to interpret linear King plots as bounds on new physics with minimal theory inputs. We focus only on bounding the new physics contributions that can be calculated independently of the Standard Model nuclear effects. We apply our method to existing Ca{sup +} data and project its sensitivity to possibly existing new bosons using narrow transitions in other atoms and ions (specifically, Sr and Yb). Future measurements are expected to improve the relative precision by five orders of magnitude, and can potentially lead to an unprecedented sensitivity for bosons within the 10 keV to 10 MeV mass range.

  20. Super-Light Prefabricated Deck Element Integrated in Traditional Concrete Prefabricated Element Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    Super-light structures in form of deck elements have been used for the first time in a building to construct indoor pedestrian bridges. Examples of connections to external structures and other super-light deck elements are given along with other details. Other examples on the great versatility...

  1. Application of stable isotopes in ecological research : it's all elemental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been used traditionally in the physical sciences, primarily in geochemistry, sedimentology, and oceanography. Increasingly, however, stable isotopes are also being used in the biological sciences. Application of stable isotopes in ecological studies can provide new and innovative ways of examining a host of topics of fundamental importance to biologists. These topics include, among others, feeding ecology and food webs, nutrient flow and assimilation, habitat use, migration patterns, and distribution and discrimination of species subpopulations. Furthermore, ecological research with isotopes can be applied at many levels (i.e. tissue and organ, whole animal, population, community, and ecosystem). (author). 38 refs., 2 figs

  2. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha

    2016-01-01

    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  3. Isotopes and the Electron Configuration of the Blocks in the Periodic Table of Elements, upto the Last Element No.155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study, which first manifests which connexion exists between isotopes and the electron blocks, and how the electron blocks are located in the version of the Periodic Table of Elements which ends with element No.155.

  4. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  5. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  6. Light Stable Isotopic Compositions of Enriched Mantle Sources: Resolving the Dehydration Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kingsley, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    An outstanding puzzle in mantle geochemistry has been the origin and evolution of Earth's volatile components. The "dehydration paradox" refers to the following conundrum. Mantle compositions for some enriched mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and ocean island (OIB) basalts basalts require involvement of a mostly dehydrated slab component to explain the trace element ratios and radiogenic isotopic compositions, but a fully hydrated slab component to explain the stable isotopic compositions. Volatile and stable isotopic data on enriched MORB show a diversity of enriched components. Pacific PREMA-type basalts (H2O/Ce = 215 ± 30, δDSMOW = -45 ± 5 ‰) are similar to those in the north Atlantic (H2O/Ce = 220 ± 30; δDSMOW = -30 to -40 ‰). Basalts with EM-type signatures have regionally variable volatile compositions. North Atlantic EM-type basalts are wetter (H2O/Ce = 330 ± 30) and have isotopically heavier hydrogen (δDSMOW = -57 ± 5 ‰) than north Atlantic MORB. South Atlantic EM-type basalts are damp (H2O/Ce = 120 ± 10) with intermediate δDSMOW (-68 ± 2 ‰), similar to dDSMOW for Pacific MORB. North EPR EM-type basalts are dry (H2O/Ce = 110 ± 20) and isotopically light (δDSMOW = -94 ± 3 ‰). Boron and lithium isotopic ratios parallel the trends observed for dDSMOW. A multi-stage metasomatic and melting model accounts for the origin of the enriched components by extending the subduction factory concept down through the mantle transition zone, with slab temperature a key variable. The dehydration paradox is resolved by decoupling of volatiles from lithophile elements, reflecting primary dehydration of the slab followed by secondary rehydration and re-equilibration by fluids derived from subcrustal hydrous phases (e.g., antigorite) in cooler, deeper parts of the slab. The "expanded subduction factory" model includes melting at several key depths, including 1) 180 to 280 km, where EM-type mantle compositions are generated above slabs with average to hot thermal

  7. A guide for the laboratory information management system (LIMS) for light stable isotopes--Versions 7 and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2000-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of isotopic data can be improved by utilizing database software to (i) store information about samples, (ii) store the results of mass spectrometric isotope-ratio analyses of samples, (iii) calculate analytical results using standardized algorithms stored in a database, (iv) normalize stable isotopic data to international scales using isotopic reference materials, and (v) generate multi-sheet paper templates for convenient sample loading of automated mass-spectrometer sample preparation manifolds. Such a database program, the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for Light Stable Isotopes, is presented herein. Major benefits of this system include (i) a dramatic improvement in quality assurance, (ii) an increase in laboratory efficiency, (iii) a reduction in workload due to the elimination or reduction of retyping of data by laboratory personnel, and (iv) a decrease in errors in data reported to sample submitters. Such a database provides a complete record of when and how often laboratory reference materials have been analyzed and provides a record of what correction factors have been used through time. It provides an audit trail for laboratories. LIMS for Light Stable Isotopes is available for both Microsoft Office 97 Professional and Microsoft Office 2000 Professional as versions 7 and 8, respectively. Both source code (mdb file) and precompiled executable files (mde) are available. Numerous improvements have been made for continuous flow isotopic analysis in this version (specifically 7.13 for Microsoft Access 97 and 8.13 for Microsoft Access 2000). It is much easier to import isotopic results from Finnigan ISODAT worksheets, even worksheets on which corrections for amount of sample (linearity corrections) have been added. The capability to determine blank corrections using isotope mass balance from analyses of elemental analyzer samples has been added. It is now possible to calculate and apply drift corrections to isotopic

  8. New neutron-deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, D D; Karnaukhov, V A; Petrov, L A; Plochocki, A; Subbotin, V G; Voboril, J

    1976-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of the short-lived neutron- deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements. By using the BEMS-2 isotope separator on a heavy ion beam, 19 new isotopes were produced with mass numbers ranging from 117 to 138. Five of these (/sup 117/Ba, /sup 129,131/Nd and /sup 133,135/Sm) turned out to be delayed proton emitters. The beta -decay probabilities for the new isotopes have been analyzed in terms of the beta -strength function. An analysis of the proton spectrum shape has been performed using the statistical model for delayed proton emission.

  9. Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakova, Monika

    2010-02-11

    Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10{sup -10}. Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10{sup -9} contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes {sup 6,7}Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S {yields} 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10{sup -10} is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11}Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of {sup 7,10}Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from {sup 7}Be to {sup 10}Be and increasing again for

  10. Asthenospheric and lithospheric sources for Mesozoic dolerites from Liberia (Africa): Trace element and isotopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, C.; Marsh, J.

    1988-01-01

    Combined elemental, and Sr and Nd isotopic data are presented for Mesozoic dolerite dikes of Liberia (Africa) which are related to the initial stage of opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The large scatter of both trace element and isotopic data allows the identification of five groups of dolerites which cannot be related to each other by simple processes of mineral fractionation from a common source. On the contrary, the observed chemical and isotopic variation within some dolerites (Groups I and II) may result either from variable degrees of melting of an isotopically heterogeneous source or mixing between enriched and depleted oceanic type mantle. For the other dolerites (Groups III-V) mixing with a third mantle source with more radiogenic Sr and with element ratios characteristic of subduction environments is suggested. This third source is probably the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Finally, no significant modification by interaction with continental crust is apparent in most of the analyzed samples. (orig.)

  11. Isotopic composition of chemical elements in natural cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1977-12-01

    Mathematical models developed for planning and evaluating tracer experiments have been applied in investigations of the isotopic composition of carbon in its natural cycle through various periods of the last billion years. The influence on the natural isotope ratio due to industrial combustion of fossil fuels is shown. In order to describe regional differences from the global behaviour of carbon a parameter has been introduced, which represents the time needed for one total exchange of the atmosphere in a certain region with the global atmosphere

  12. Rotational covariance and light-front current matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keister, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Light-front current matrix elements for elastic scattering from hadrons with spin 1 or greater must satisfy a nontrivial constraint associated with the requirement of rotational covariance for the current operator. Using a model ρ meson as a prototype for hadronic quark models, this constraint and its implications are studied at both low and high momentum transfers. In the kinematic region appropriate for asymptotic QCD, helicity rules, together with the rotational covariance condition, yield an additional relation between the light-front current matrix elements

  13. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.; and Laboratoire Rene Bernas, Orsay, France)

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements ( 2 H, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate 4 He (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce 2 H and 3 He. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that 4 He is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars

  14. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements (H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate He-4 (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce H-2 and He-3. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that He-4 is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars.

  15. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J de Winter

    Full Text Available The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  16. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels J; Snoeck, Christophe; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  17. Erosion of volatile elemental condensed gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.

    1991-11-01

    Erosion of the most volatile elemental gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment has been studied at the experimental setup at Risoe. The present work includes frozen neon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen and three hydrogen isotopes, deuterium, hydrogen deuteride and hydrogen. The yield of these condensed gases has been measured as a function of film thickness and primary energy for almost all combinations of primary particles (1-3 keV electrons, 5-10 keV hydrogen- and helium ions) and ices. These and other existing results show that there are substantial common features for the sputtering of frozen elemental gases. Within the two groups, the solid rare gases and the solid molecular gases, the similarity is striking. The hydrogenic solids deviate in some respects from the other elements. The processes that liberate kinetic energy for the particle ejection in sputtering are characteristic of the specific gas. (au) 3 tabs., 12 ills., 159 refs

  18. Isotope separation of 22Na and 24Na with using light induced drift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradecny, C.; Tethal, T.; Ermolaev, I.M.; Zemlyanoj, S.G.; Zuzaan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The LIDIS (Light Drift Isotope Separation) separator without a gas flow is discussed. It is shown, that atomization degree of the separated isotopes limited real separation coefficient. The better buffer gas purification allowed to increase the experimental separation factor of 22 Na and 24 Na isotopes up to 25. The new experimental set up allow to increase the separation efficiency up to 50%. 12 refs.; 5 figs

  19. A measuring system for the fast simultaneous isotope ratio and elemental analysis of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in food commodities and other biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, Hans-Peter; Kupka, Hans-Joachim; Williams, Tony; Rossmann, Andreas; Rummel, Susanne; Tanz, Nicole; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    The isotope ratio of each of the light elements preserves individual information on the origin and history of organic natural compounds. Therefore, a multi-element isotope ratio analysis is the most efficient means for the origin and authenticity assignment of food, and also for the solution of various problems in ecology, archaeology and criminology. Due to the extraordinary relative abundances of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in some biological material and to the need for individual sample preparations for H and S, their isotope ratio determination currently requires at least three independent procedures and approximately 1 h of work. We present here a system for the integrated elemental and isotope ratio analysis of all four elements in one sample within 20 min. The system consists of an elemental analyser coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer with an inlet system for four reference gases (N(2), CO(2), H(2) and SO(2)). The combustion gases are separated by reversible adsorption and determined by a thermoconductivity detector; H(2)O is reduced to H(2). The analyser is able to combust samples with up to 100 mg of organic material, sufficient to analyse samples with even unusual elemental ratios, in one run. A comparison of the isotope ratios of samples of water, fruit juices, cheese and ethanol from wine, analysed by the four-element analyser and by classical methods and systems, respectively, yielded excellent agreements. The sensitivity of the device for the isotope ratio measurement of C and N corresponds to that of other systems. It is less by a factor of four for H and by a factor of two for S, and the error ranges are identical to those of other systems. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Recent trends in accumulation rate, elemental and isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isotope results show that the organic material deposited in the bay are generally derived from C4 type of plants and are not transported far from the river mouth. Also the results show that preservation of organic matter is high in open water probably due to high primary productivity owing to high concentration of nutrients ...

  1. Biomonitoring of trace metal elements by lichens of the Western Pyrenees.Study of elemental and isotopic signature of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Queipo Abad, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The lichens, organisms originated by symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus, have shown good properties as biomonitors of pollution from Trace Metal Elements. They can be used as indicators of local and long-range atmospheric pollution. The assessment of deposition of atmospheric pollutants results difficult to know their long term impact. This happens specially when the study is focalized in remote areas. In this project it has been developed the elemental and isotopic analy...

  2. Light hydrogen isotopes in the single - walled carbon nano tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Sultanov, R.A.; Guster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Progress of our understanding of the molecular hydrogen behavior in the nano tube interior open an intriguing possibility for the applications of these knowledge's to the solution of the hydrogen storage problem and light isotopes gas selectivity. That can strongly change the situation at the energy production in the world and completely change our civil life. These investigations underline the influence of the quantum effects on the properties of molecular hydrogen in the nano tube interior and it leads to the pure quantum-mechanical reformulation of the problem for the hydrogen behavior inside carbon nano tube as a problem of molecular quantum system behavior in the external field induced by the regular nano tube surface. In the present paper the molecular hydrogen behavior in the carbon nano tube was considered in the simple quantum mechanical manner. The main attention was paid to the investigation of the quantum sieving selectivity in the dependence of nano tube composition, radius and symmetry properties. For the interaction potential between hydrogen and nano tube surface was taken some phenomenological LJ(12,6) - (Lennard - Jones) potential and the external field induced by the nano tube in its interior is considered as a simple sum over the all nano tube carbon atoms. Influence of the structure of rotation (vibration) spectrum of the energy levels of diatomic molecules, such as H 2 , HD and D 2 on the final results and finite size of the nano tube along the axis of symmetry, its boundary effects is discussed in details. Thermal oscillations of nano tube surface were considered separately in the dependence of the temperature gradient along of the axis of symmetry

  3. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  4. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  5. Determination of isotope ratio of elements by mass distribution in molecules of varied chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, I.S.; Babichev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure and program for calculation of isotope ratio of elements involving in the compound being studied using data of mass spectrometry were elaborated. The methods developed for the O 2 , SiH 4 , Cd(CH 3 ) 2 molecules were demonstrated for the illustration. The results of calculation provide support for the efficiency of the program and satisfactory reliability of the results during calculation of the isotope and complex compound concentrations. The program may be used for the estimation of the degree of nonequilibrium isotope distributions, it may indicate on the errors of the mass spectroscopy results [ru

  6. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  7. Transportation of natural radionuclides and rare earth light elements in the lagoon system of Buena, RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    1999-03-01

    it was investigated the transport of the series natural radionuclides and the earth rare light elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in the coast north region of Rio de Janeiro state. The lagoon water showed off abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and of the earth rare light elements (ERLEs). The longitudinal gradient of the Ra, of the ERLEs and of the major ion concentration's, whose data were obtained during two and half years of the research at the place, and the statistical analysis pointed to two mainly source as responsible for the water lagoon composition - the marine and the underground waters. The underground water supplies the radionuclides and ERLEs, possibly originated by monazite lixiviation. Based on the water speciation modeling, the results of laboratory adsorption on sediment experiments and the sediment characterization, the behavior of the radio isotopes, the ERLEs, U, Th e Pb-210, along of the lagoon, are discussed. It is also discussed the role of the aquatic macrophyte Typha dominguesis Pers in the nuclide uptake and the following liberation. (author)

  8. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The method and program system CABEI for adjusting consistency between natural element and its isotopes data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingjin, Liu; Zhengjun, Sun [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    To meet the requirement of nuclear engineering, especially nuclear fusion reactor, now the data in the major evaluated libraries are given not only for natural element but also for its isotopes. Inconsistency between element and its isotopes data is one of the main problem in present evaluated neutron libraries. The formulas for adjusting to satisfy simultaneously the two kinds of consistent relationships were derived by means of least square method, the program system CABEI were developed. This program was tested by calculating the Fe data in CENDL-2.1. The results show that adjusted values satisfy the two kinds of consistent relationships.

  10. New isotopes of elements 104, 106 and 108 - highly stable superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yuri

    1994-01-01

    In April 1993, as part of a joint Dubna-Livermore experiment at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, new heavy isotopes of elements 104 and 106 were synthesized - 262 104, 265 106 and 266 106. Compared with the known even-even isotopes of elements 104 and 106, the new nuclei are characterized by their extraordinary high resistance to spontaneous fission. This is a direct proof of the macro-microscopic theory predictions in its version calculated by A.Sobiczewski et al. regarding a substantial increase in the half-lives of heavy nuclei near deformed shells with atomic number (Z) 108 and neutron number (N) 162.

  11. Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.

    1989-01-01

    To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)

  12. International Conference on LIght Detection in Noble Elements

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the Light Detection in Noble Elements (LIDINE) 2015 conference is to promote discussion between the members of the particle and nuclear physics communities about light and charge collection in detectors based on liquid or gaseous noble elements, xenon and argon being the most common, but neon and helium also in use, and represented at this conference. The neutrino physics, ultra-cold neutron study, dark matter search, and medical physics communities all utilize noble-based detector technologies, recording UV scintillation and/or ionization. Therefore, this will be an interdisciplinary opportunity for information exchange, and a chance for each of these communities enumerated above, in the U.S. as well as abroad, to expand their technical knowledge bases.

  13. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  14. UBV light variation and orbital elements of W Gruis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In each of the UBV band-passes 2440 observations define for the first time the photoelectric light variation of the binary system W Gru. A consistent set of elements is derived in the framework of Russell's classic and Napier's synthesis models. Absolute dimensions are derived. The system seems to be a well-detached binary consisting of two normal, not interacting, F5 4 components. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  15. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  16. Validation of multi-element isotope dilution ICPMS for the analysis of basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, M.; Jochum, K.P.; Raczek, I.; Amini, M.A.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    In this study we have validated a newly developed multi-element isotope dilution (ID) ICPMS method for the simultaneous analysis of up to 12 trace elements in geological samples. By evaluating the analytical uncertainty of individual components using certified reference materials we have quantified the overall analytical uncertainty of the multi-element ID ICPMS method at 1-2%. Individual components include sampling/weighing, purity of reagents, purity of spike solutions, calibration of spikes, determination of isotopic ratios, instrumental sources of error, correction of mass discrimination effect, values of constants, and operator bias. We have used the ID-determined trace elements for internal standardization to improve indirectly the analysis of 14 other (mainly mono-isotopic trace elements) by external calibration. The overall analytical uncertainty for those data is about 2-3%. In addition, we have analyzed USGS and MPI-DING geological reference materials (BHVO-1, BHVO-2, KL2-G, ML3B-G) to quantify the overall bias of the measurement procedure. Trace element analysis of geological reference materials yielded results that agree mostly within about 2-3% relative to the reference values. Since these results match the conclusions obtained by the investigation of the overall analytical uncertainty, we take this as a measure for the validity of multi-element ID ICPMS. (orig.)

  17. A Three End-Member Mixing Model Based on Isotopic Composition and Elemental Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon-Kee Liu Shuh-Ji Kao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A three end-member mixing model based on nitrogen isotopic composition and organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of suspended particulate matter in an aquatic environment has been developed. Mathematical expressions have been derived for the calculation of the fractions of nitrogen or organic carbon originating from three different sources of distinct isotopic and elemental compositions. The model was successfully applied to determine the contributions from anthropogenic wastes, soils and bedrock-derived sediments to particulate nitrogen and particulate organic carbon in the Danshuei River during the flood caused by Typhoon Bilis in August 2000. The model solutions have been expressed in a general form that allows applications to mixtures with other types of isotopic compositions and elemental ratios or in forms other than suspended particulate matter.

  18. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry

  19. Characterization of the region and year of production of wines by stable isotopes and elemental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Day

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope and elemental analyses were applied to the study of wines produced from the Cabernet Franc vine variety cultivated during several years (1982 to 1990 on specific parts of the Saumur-Champigny vineyard dedicated to the « terroir » experiment of INRA. The purpose of this work was to describe the behaviour or 2H, 13C and 18O isotopes in the water and ethanol of wines in terms of the meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation and insolation which govern vine growing. Since the « terroir » concept involves a synergy between the c1imate and the soil, the distribution of typical metallic elements was also determined by flame and electrothermal ionization atomic absorption. About twenty parcels, carefully described from the geological and pedological point of view were considered in this study which demonstrated the ability of Sr, Al and Rb to discriminate between wines from the same year but grown on adjacent parcels. The content in trace elements of the wines was also shown to be correlated with the geological nature of the soil. As far as stable isotopes are considered, it appears that the climate of the year of production of a given region has a drastic influence on the isotope ratios of water and ethanol of wines and good correlations way be computed between these parameters and temperature and precipitations. From a more basic aspect, it is also shown that the nature of the soil which governs, at least in a part, the water use efficiency of vine, induces typical variations in the isotopic composition of wines. The results of this study demonstrate also the ability of stable isotope and elemental analyses to determine the geographical origin of a wine, and when the region of production is known, to infer the year of production from meteorological data. This method might prove to be an alternative method to radio carbon analysis for the next vintages.

  20. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of rhyolites from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.; Sykes, M.L. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Wolff, J.A. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology; Skuba, C.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of work supported by DOE grant No. DE-FGO5-87ER13795 that was completed or is still in progress. The stated purpose of this grant was to collect geochemical information (trace element, radiogenic isotope and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope) on samples from core holes VC-I and VC-2a in the Valles caldera in order to establish a consistent detailed intracaldera stratigraphy and relate this to extracaldera volcanic rock units of the Jemez Mountains. Careful stratigraphic control of the intracaldera units is necessary to evaluate models of caldera formation, ignimbrite deposition, and resurgence. Combined stable and radiogenic isotope and trace element data will also provide major insights to petrogenesis of the Bandelier magma system. The composition of non-hydrothermally altered samples from outflow units of the Bandelier Tuff and related volcanics must be known to assess isotopic variations of intracaldera ignimbrite samples. On detailed examination of the VC-2a core samples, it became apparent that hydrothermal alteration is so extensive that no geochemical information useful for stratigraphic fingerprinting or petrogenesis could be obtained, and that correlation with other intracaldera units and extracaldera units must be made on the basis of stratigraphic position and gross lithologic characteristics. Accordingly, we emphasize geochemical data from the extracaldera Bandelier Tuffs and related units which will be useful for comparison with proposed drill hole VC-4 and for any future studies of the region. The stable isotope, radiogenic isotope and trace element data obtained from this project, combined with existing major and trace element data for volcanic rocks from this area, provide an extensive data base essential to future Continental Scientific Drilling Program projects in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico.

  1. Changing Ideas about the Periodic Table of Elements and Students' Alternative Concepts of Isotopes and Allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Baumgartner, Tim; Eybe, Holger

    2003-01-01

    Investigates secondary school students' concepts of isotopes and allotropes and how the concepts are linked to the Periodic Table of Elements (PTE). Questions senior high school students with multiple choice items and interviews. Shows that students actively tried to make sense of what they had experienced. (KHR)

  2. Isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of a boninitic sequence in the Thetford Mines ophiolitic complex, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, V.; Hebert, R.; Loubet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Mont Ham Massif (part of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, south Quebec) represents a magmatic sequence made up of tholeiitic and boninitic derived products. A geochemical study confirms the multicomponent mixing models that have been classically advanced for the source of boninites, with slab-derived components added to the main refractory harzburgitic peridotite. An isochron diagram of the boninitic rocks is interpreted as a mixing trend between two components: (i) a light rare earth element (LREE) enriched component (A), interpreted as slab-derived fluid-melts equilibrated with sedimentary materials (ε Nd = -3, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd = 0.140), and (ii) a LREE-depleted component (B) (0.21 147 Sm/ 144 Nd Nd = 9). A multicomponent source is also necessary to explain the Nd-isotope and trace element composition of the tholeiites, which are explained by the melting of a more fertile, Iherzolitic mantle and (or) mid-ocean ridge basalt source (component C), characterized by a large-ion lithophile element depicted pattern and an lapetus mantle Nd isotopic composition (ε Nd = 9), mixed in adequate proportions with the two previously infered slab-derived components (A and B). The genesis of the boninites of Mont Ham is not significantly different from those of boninites located in the Pacific. An intraoceanic subduction zone appears to be an appropriate geodynamic environment for the Mont Ham ophiolitic sequence. (author)

  3. Radioactive isotope and isomer separation with using light induced drift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradecny, C.; Slovak, J.; Tethal, T.; Ermolaev, I.M.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The isotope separation with using light induced drift (LID) is discussed. The basic theoretical characteristics of the method are deduced: separation simultaneously with an arbitrary high enrichment and without significant losses; separation productivity up to 100 μg/h. These characteristics are sufficient and very convenient for separation of expensive radioactive isotopes and isomers which are applied in medicine and science. The first experimental separation of the radioactive isotopes ( 22,24 Na) by using the LID effect is reported. 13 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Shell-model-based deformation analysis of light cadmium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Heyde, K. L. G.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations for the even-even cadmium isotopes 98Cd-108Cd have been performed with the antoine code in the π (2 p1 /2;1 g9 /2) ν (2 d5 /2;3 s1 /2;2 d3 /2;1 g7 /2;1 h11 /2) model space without further truncation. Known experimental energy levels and B (E 2 ) values could be well reproduced. Taking these calculations as a starting ground we analyze the deformation parameters predicted for the Cd isotopes as a function of neutron number N and spin J using the methods of model independent invariants introduced by Kumar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 249 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.249] and Cline [Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 683 (1986), 10.1146/annurev.ns.36.120186.003343].

  5. Mantle heterogeneity in northeastern Africa: evidence from Nd isotopic compositions and hygromagmaphile element geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrat, J.A.; Jahn, B.M.; Auvray, B.; Hamdi, H.; Joron, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions have been analysed for their Nd isotopic compositions and major and trace element concentrations. The wide variation in isotopic and geochemical compositions of the basaltic rocks is best explained by the mixing phenomenon involving a variety of mantle source components. To test the mixing hypothesis, a combined use of Nd isotopes and hygromagmaphile elemental ratios is proven very powerful. Three reservoirs have been identified as minimum components in their petrogenesis: (1) DMM (depleted MORB mantle), a mantle source depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is the principal component of the N-MORB type basalts of this region; (2) REC (Ramad enriched component), equivalent to the hot-spot type of source detected in the south of Red Sea; (3) TEC (Tadjoura enriched component), a rather unique component located in the region of Tadjoura Gulf; it is characterised by a relative depletion in Rb, K, Th and U in a primitive mantle- or chondrite-normalised incompatible element pattern; this component could have been produced by mantle metasomatism of an originally depleted mantle. Mixing in various proportions of the above components is considered to be the principal mechanism for the formation of basalts with such diverse isotopic and trace element compositions. (orig.)

  6. High-energy elastic recoil detection heavy ions for light element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goppelt-Langer, P.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Naramoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of light and medium heavy elements in not homogeneous solids is a severe problem in ion beam analysis. Heavy elements can be detected by the well established Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). In a homogeneous host material most impurities can be easily analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Some isotopes ( 3 He, 6 Li, 10 B) can be measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using thermal neutrons inducing (n, p) or (n, α) reactions. Others can be detected by energetic ion beams by nuclear reactions (e.g. 15 N( 1 H, αγ) 12 C for analysis of hydrogen). A high content of H, D or T can be also determined by elastic recoil detection using an energetic He beam. The latter technique has been developed to a universal method for detection of light and heavy elements in any target, using a high energetic heavy ion beam and a detector system, which is able to identify the recoils and delivers energy and position of the particles. (author)

  7. Shape coexistence of light, even A mercury isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the studies of the decay of thallium isotopes establish the coexistence and crossing of two bands in the mercury isotopes. The two bands are built on states of different deformation. The band built upon the ground state has an associated small negative β value (oblate shape) while the second band has a large positive β value (prolate shape). The band heads for the deformed bands in the 184 186 188 Hg isotopes are established as 0 + levels at 375.2, 523.8, and 824.5 keV respectively. A comparison between the experimental results and the predictions of calculations based upon the coexistence of two different nuclear deformations has been made. The presence of two different deformations as described by two minima in the nuclear potential energy curve is termed ''shape coexistence.'' The good agreement of the calculations with the experimental results adds further support to the coexistence interpretation. The coexistence and crossing of two bands of different deformation explains the unusual behavior of the yrast level spacing that is referred to as 'backbending' when discussing moment of inertia versus rotational frequency plots based on the yrast levels. The studies of the 186 188 Pt levels have established the lower members of the ground state band and of a rotation-alignment band. The experimental results confirm the rotation-alignment explanation of backbending in the platinum cases discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Elucidating the formation of terra fuscas using Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Juilleret, Jérôme; Iffly, Jean François; Perrone, Thierry; Morvan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical evidences on stabile phase confirm Bajocian marl as terra fusca parent material. • Precipitation/Dissolution of secondary carbonates controls geochemistry of labile phases. • This terra fusca sequence record at least four geological and environmental events. - Abstract: Carbonate weathering mantles, like terra fusca, are common in Europe but their formation and evolution is still badly understood. We propose to combine geological, mineralogical and pedological knowledge with trace element and isotope data of a weathering mantle as a novel approach to understand the evolution of terra fuscas. Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth element (REE) contents were analyzed in a cambisol developing on a typical terra fusca on top of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl succession from the eastern side of the Paris Basin. The isotope data, REE distribution patterns and mass balance calculations suggest that the cambisol mirrors the trace element enrichments present in this carbonate lithology, which are exceptionally high compared to global average carbonate. The deeper soil horizons are strongly enriched not only in REE (ΣREE: 2640 ppm) but also in redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (1000 ppm), Cr (700 ppm), Zn (550 ppm), As (260 ppm), Co (45 ppm) and Cd (2.4 ppm). The trace element distribution patterns of the carbonate bedrock are similar to those of the soil suggesting their close genetic relationships. Sr–Nd–Pb isotope data allow to identify four principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich pool close to the surface, a leachable REE enriched pool at the bottom of the soil profile, the limestone on which the weathering profile developed and an anthropogenic, atmosphere-derived component detected in the soil leachates of the uppermost soil horizon. The leachable phases are mainly secondary carbonate-bearing REE phases such as bastnaesite ((X) Ca(CO 3 ) 2 F) (for X: Ce, La and Nd). The isotope data and trace element

  9. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Matrix Elements in Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, S.; Carlson, J.; Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.; Mereghetti, E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2018-01-17

    We present the first ab initio calculations of neutrinoless double-β decay matrix elements in A=6-12 nuclei using variational Monte Carlo wave functions obtained from the Argonne v18 two-nucleon potential and Illinois-7 three-nucleon interaction. We study both light Majorana neutrino exchange and potentials arising from a large class of multi-TeV mechanisms of lepton-number violation. Our results provide benchmarks to be used in testing many-body methods that can be extended to the heavy nuclei of experimental interest. In light nuclei we also study the impact of two-body short-range correlations and the use of different forms for the transition operators, such as those corresponding to different orders in chiral effective theory.

  10. Process to determine light elements content of steel and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.A.L.T.M.H.; Castro, Martha T.P.O. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. LabLaser; Mac-Culloch, Joao N.L.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports a process to determine qualitatively and quantitatively elements of molar mass inferior to 23 within materials, by X rays spectra associated with multivariate data analysis, or chemometric analysis. The spectra is acquired between 5 keV and 22 keV when the materials are exposed to X radiation. Here is reported the direct determination of carbon content in steel and metallic alloys. The process is more effective when using spectral regions which are not usually used. From the analysis of these spectral regions which were not considered before, it was possible to detect light elements with molar mass lower than 23, which have low capacity of absorbing and emitting radiation, but have high capacity of scattering radiation. The process here reported has the advantage that X-Ray spectra obtained are calibrated multivariately, showing high potential for development in order to be used in a portable field equipment. (author)

  11. Methods used in evaluating data for the interaction of neutrons with light elements (A < 19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the interaction of neutrons with light nuclei, many anomalies are observed. In particular, the probability for gamma-ray production is generally small over most of the neutron energy range. On the other hand, 6 Li, 3 He, 10 B, and 7 Be have thermal absorption cross sections which range from 940 to 48,000 barns. 10 B is the only isotope that has a positive Q for a 3-body reaction, the (n,t2α). As the neutron energy increases, however, 3- and 4-particle direct breakup and sequential formation cross sections dominate the nonelastic for D, T, 6 Li, 7 Be, 10 B, and 12 C above a few MeV. For higher-mass isotopes, particle emission (protons and α's) are often the preferred mode for deexcitation of levels excited via (n,n') reactions, where energetically possible. Very few of these partial cross sections have been measured with the necessary precision. Problems are particularly inherent in experiments on negative-Q reactions near the 3-body threshold. The many-body problem must be treated as several two-body sequential steps in a theoretical analysis; the emitted particle angular distribution is required as input, but is rarely known. Precise knowledge about individual partial cross sections is often important, especially when neutron multiplication, breeding of fusion fuel, radioactive contamination, depletion or buildup of the target, energy transfer, or time-dependent parameters are required. Specific examples are described for the evaluation of neutron interactions with light elements which employ isotopic spin, inverse reactions, charge-conjugate reactions, and the elastic scattering of charged particles (with Wick's Limit). 18 figures, 1 table

  12. Non-constant relative atomic masses due to varying isotopic abundance of polynuclidic elements and their effect on the accuracy of analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Alterations of actual relative atomic masses occur in natural samples by natural isotope ratio shifts of polynuclidic elements. Therefore, using nuclear properties for gaining a measuring signal, isotopic shifts of certain elements may lead to significant measuring errors

  13. A manual for a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for light stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of isotopic data can be improved by utilizing database software to (i) store information about samples, (ii) store the results of mass spectrometric isotope-ratio analyses of samples, (iii) calculate analytical results using standardized algorithms stored in a database, (iv) normalize stable isotopic data to international scales using isotopic reference materials, and (v) generate multi-sheet paper templates for convenient sample loading of automated mass-spectrometer sample preparation manifolds. Such a database program is presented herein. Major benefits of this system include (i) an increase in laboratory efficiency, (ii) reduction in the use of paper, (iii) reduction in workload due to the elimination or reduction of retyping of data by laboratory personnel, and (iv) decreased errors in data reported to sample submitters. Such a database provides a complete record of when and how often laboratory reference materials have been analyzed and provides a record of what correction factors have been used through time. It provides an audit trail for stable isotope laboratories. Since the original publication of the manual for LIMS for Light Stable Isotopes, the isotopes 3 H, 3 He, and 14 C, and the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113, have been added to this program.

  14. Isotopic and trace element variability in altered and unaltered tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Spengler, R.W.; Singer, F.R.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Reference stratigraphic sections near Yucca Mountain, Nevada were established and sampled in outcrop areas where the volcanic rocks have been minimally altered. Isotopic and trace element analyses obtained for these reference sections are baseline data for assessing the degree and extent of element mobility attendant with past zonal alteration of the rock mass. In agreement with earlier studies, zeolitization is shown to have occurred under wholesale open-system conditions. Calcium was increased by two three times the baseline values and strontium up to twenty times. In contrast, barium displays less variability, and the high-field strength elements zirconium and titanium were the least mobile during zeolitization. The data reported here establish the usefulness of reference sections of assessing past elements mobility. The information gained will be helpful in predicting possible future element mobility induced by thermally activated fluids in the near field of a potential repository.

  15. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  16. Late Guadalupian evolution of the Delaware Basin: insights from stable isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Kerans, C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate characterization of mixed carbonate and evaporite deposits requires an understanding of basin-scale physical, chemical, and biological processes. In these settings, carbonate geochemistry often responds to changes in the prevailing conditions in the water column. It follows that the geochemical record presents a potential aid for interpretation of depositional systems provided that it is relatively free of diagenetic overprint. This is seldom the case in shallow-water settings as processes such as meteoric diagenesis and early dolomitization obscure or erase the original geochemical signal. Fine grained deep-water sediments are more likely to retain their original geochemical characteristics. If reliable shelf-to-basin correlations can be established, then basinal deposits provide critical data not only for the interpretation of deep water environments, but overall basin evolution as well. This study examines variations in trace element and stable isotope geochemistry from the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Interpretation of geochemical data within a pre-existing shelf-to-basin stratigraphic framework suggests a link between basin water chemistry and sea level changes during the entirety of the Guadalupian. This link is supported analogies to modern silled basins where changes in sea level and thus recharge across the sill can control nutrient input, circulation, and bottom water oxygenation. In light of these relationships, the filling of the Delaware Basin with basin-centered evaporites at the end of the Guadalupian likely represents the culmination of a more gradual, cyclic evolution towards basin restriction. Ongoing work will continue to focus on tying regional-scale changes in basin water chemistry to the combined geochemical and physical sedimentological records.

  17. Elemental and iron isotopic composition of aerosols collected in a parking structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majestic, Brian J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herckes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The trace metal contents and iron isotope composition of size-resolved aerosols were determined in a parking structure in Tempe, AZ, USA. Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 μm were collected. Several air toxics (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, and antimony) were enriched above the crustal average, implicating automobiles as an important source. Extremely high levels of fine copper (up to 1000 ng m -3 ) were also observed in the parking garage, likely from brake wear. The iron isotope composition of the aerosols were found to be + 0.15 ± 0.03 per mille and + 0.18 ± 0.03 per mille for the PM 2.5 μm fractions, respectively. The similarity of isotope composition indicates a common source for each size fraction. To better understand the source of iron in the parking garage, the elemental composition in four brake pads (two semi-metallic and two ceramic), two tire tread samples, and two waste oil samples were determined. Striking differences in the metallic and ceramic brake pads were observed. The ceramic brake pads contained 10-20% copper by mass, while the metallic brake pads contained about 70% iron, with very little copper. Both waste oil samples contained significant amounts of calcium, phosphorous, and zinc, consistent with the composition of some engine oil additives. Differences in iron isotope composition were observed between the source materials; most notably between the tire tread (average = + 0.02 per mille ) and the ceramic brake linings (average = + 0.65 per mille ). Differences in isotopic composition were also observed between the metallic (average = + 0.18 per mille ) and ceramic brake pads, implying that iron isotope composition may be used to resolve these sources. The iron isotope composition of the metallic brake pads was found to be identical to the aerosols, implying that brake dust is the dominant source of iron in a parking garage.

  18. Design of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array for uniform light-emitting diode lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangzhen; Wang, Lili; Li, Fuli; Kong, Depeng

    2012-09-01

    One kind of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array is designed simply for LED lighting based on geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. This design method imposes no restriction on the source intensity pattern. The designed element has compact construction and can produce multiple shapes of illumination distribution. Taking square lighting as an example, tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits for applying the element in the assembly process. This element can produce on-axis lighting and off-axis lighting.

  19. Light induced drift: a possible mechanism of separation of isotopes by laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.J.; Nilaya, J.P.; Venkatramani, N.

    2003-02-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on the effect of light induced drift and its exploitation in the separation of isotopes, both in atomic and molecular forms, is presented. An experimental scheme based on this effect to separate S 33 , with a natural abundance of ∼0.76%, from SF 6 has also been worked out. (author)

  20. Level densities and γ strength functions in light Sc and Ti isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Larsen, A.C.; Syed, N.U.H.; Guttormsen, M.; Nyhus, H.; Siem, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Perdidakis, G.; Spyrou, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Mazurek, K.; Krticka, M.; Loennroth, T.; Norby, M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a measurement of nuclear level densities and the γ-ray strength of light Sc (Sc 43 , Sc 45 ) and Ti (Ti 44 , Ti 45 and Ti 46 ) isotopes using the Oslo Method. The article begins with a presentation of the experimental setup. (authors)

  1. Effects of trace element concentration on enzyme controlled stable isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia A; Hirschorn, Sarah K; Elsner, Martin; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sleep, Brent E; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood

    2006-12-15

    The effects of iron concentration on carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of toluene by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 were investigated using a low iron medium and two different high iron media. Mean carbon enrichment factors (epsilonc) determined using a Rayleigh isotopic model were smaller in culture grown under high iron conditions (epsilonc = -1.7+/-0.1%) compared to low iron conditions (epsilonc = -2.5+/-0.3%). Mean hydrogen enrichment factors (epsilonH) were also significantly smaller for culture grown under high iron conditions (epsilonH = -77 +/-4%) versus low iron conditions (EpsilonH = -159+/-11%). A mechanistic model for enzyme kinetics was used to relate differences in the magnitude of isotopic fractionation for low iron versus high iron cultures to the efficiency of the enzymatic transformation. The increase of carbon and hydrogen enrichment factors at low iron concentrations suggests a slower enzyme-catalyzed substrate conversion step (k2) relative to the enzyme-substrate binding step (k-l) at low iron concentration. While the observed differences were subtle and, hence, do not significantly impact the ability to use stable isotope analysis in the field, these results demonstrated that resolvable differences in carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation were related to low and high iron conditions. This novel result highlights the need to further investigate the effects of other trace elements known to be key components of biodegradative enzymes.

  2. Metallic elements and isotope of Pb in wet precipitation in urban area, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Daniela Montanari; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2012-04-01

    The atmosphere of urban areas has been the subject of many studies to show the atmospheric pollution in large urban centers. By quantifying wet precipitation through the analysis of metallic elements (ICP/AES) and Pb isotopes, the wet precipitation of the Metropolitan Area of the Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, was characterized. The samples were collected between July 2005 and December 2007. Zn, Fe and Mn showed the highest concentration in studied sites. Sapucaia do Sul showed the highest average for Zn, due to influence by the steel plant located near the sampling site. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions from vehicular activity and steel plants in wet precipitation and suspended particulate matter in the MAPA was identified by the isotopic signatures of 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb. Moreover the analyses of the metallic elements allowed also to identify the contribution of other anthropic sources, such as steel plants and oil refinery.

  3. Tracing subduction zone fluid-rock interactions using trace element and Mg-Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Li-Fei; Du, Jin-Xue; He, Yong-Sheng; Niu, Yaoling

    2017-10-01

    Slab-derived fluids play a key role in mass transfer and elemental/isotopic exchanges in subduction zones. The exhumation of deeply subducted crust is achieved via a subduction channel where fluids from various sources are abundant, and thus the chemical/isotopic compositions of these rocks could have been modified by subduction-zone fluid-rock interactions. Here, we investigate the Mg isotopic systematics of eclogites from southwestern Tianshan, in conjunction with major/trace element and Sr-Nd isotopes, to characterize the source and nature of fluids and to decipher how fluid-rock interactions in subduction channel might influence the Mg isotopic systematics of exhumed eclogites. The eclogites have high LILEs (especially Ba) and Pb, high initial 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.7117; higher than that of coeval seawater), and varying Ni and Co (mostly lower than those of oceanic basalts), suggesting that these eclogites have interacted with metamorphic fluids mainly released from subducted sediments, with minor contributions from altered oceanic crust or altered abyssal peridotites. The positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and Pb* (an index of Pb enrichment; Pb* = 2*PbN/[CeN + PrN]), and the decoupling relationships and bidirectional patterns in 87Sr/86Sr-Rb/Sr, Pb*-Rb/Sr and Pb*-Ba/Pb spaces imply the presence of two compositionally different components for the fluids: one enriched in LILEs, and the other enriched in Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. The systematically heavier Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg = - 0.37 to + 0.26) relative to oceanic basalts (- 0.25 ± 0.07) and the roughly negative correlation of δ26Mg with MgO for the southwestern Tianshan eclogites, cannot be explained by inheritance of Mg isotopic signatures from ancient seafloor alteration or prograde metamorphism. Instead, the signatures are most likely produced by fluid-rock interactions during the exhumation of eclogites. The high Rb/Sr and Ba/Pb but low Pb* eclogites generally have high bulk-rock δ26Mg values

  4. Analysis of isotope element by electrolytic enrichment method for ground water and surface water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been aimed for the assessment of isotope element Tritium (3H. It is a great threat to human health and environment for lengthy duration. The tritium exists in earth in diverse forms such as (1 small amounts of natural tritium are produced by alpha decay of lithium-7, (2 natural atmospheric tritium is also generated by secondary neutron cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen, (3 atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s, although the contribution from nuclear power plants is small. Tritium or 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years. Water samples from ground water, surface water, and precipitation were collected from different locations in Gujarat area and were analyzed for the same. Distillation of samples was done to reduce the conductivity. Deuterium and Hydrogen were removed by the process of physico-chemical fractionation in the tritium enrichment unit. The basis of physico-chemical fractionation is the difference in the strength of bonds formed by the light vs. the heavier isotope of a given element. A total of 10 cycles (runs were executed using Quintals process. Tritium concentration files were created with help of WinQ and Quick start software in Quintals process (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. The concentration of tritium in terms of tritium units (TU of various samples has been determined. The TU values of the samples vary in the range of 0.90–6.62 TU.

  5. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  6. Radioactive 85Kr in krypton enriched with a light isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, V.V.; Novikov, V.M.; Pomanskii, A.A.; Pritychenko, B.V.; Vieiar, J.; Garcia, E.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunes-Lagos, R.; Piumendon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive krypton 85, a product of nuclear power generation, is known to be accumulating in the atmosphere continuously. Its volumetric activity in natural krypton is 700-800 Bq/liter. This can cause difficulties, e.g., in the fabrication of nuclear radiation detector for high-mass krypton. Krypton with a reduced 85 Kr content can be obtained by isotope separation. As part of an experiment to look for two-positron decay and conversion of an atomic electron to a positron in 78 Kr, Saenz measured the 85 Kr content in 78 Kr-enriched krypton. A mixture of two 85 Kr samples was used as the working substance of a cylindrical ionization chamber. The useful volume (1.33 liter) of the chamber contained 35.3 liters of gas at ∼2.5 kPa. The energy resolution of the detector at an energy of 0.511 MeV was 3.8%. The measurements were made in a passive lead shield 20 cm thick in an underground laboratory at a depth of 675 m water equivalent. Results are presented for counting rates in low-energy regions, contribution of krypton-85 to background, and the volumetric activity of krypton-85

  7. The Effect of Neutrino Oscillations on Supernova Light Element Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate light element synthesis through the ν-process during supernova explosions considering neutrino oscillations and investigate the dependence of 7Li and 11B yields on neutrino oscillation parameters mass hierarchy and θ13. The adopted supernova explosion model for explosive nucleosynthesis corresponds to SN 1987A. The 7Li and 11B yields increase by about factors of 1.9 and 1.3 in the case of normal mass hierarchy and adiabatic 13-mixing resonance compared with the case without neutrino oscillations. In the case of inverted mass hierarchy or nonadiabatic 13-mixing resonance, the increase in 7Li and 11B yields is much smaller. Astronomical observations of 7Li/11B ratio in stars formed in regions strongly affected by prior generations of supernovae would constrain mass hierarchy and the range of θ13

  8. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  9. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  10. Neutron absorption spectroscopy for identification of light elements in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: hau2@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Burger, A. [Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. North, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Bell, Z. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov

    2006-04-15

    We are developing cryogenic high-energy resolution fast-neutron spectrometers using superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. Fast neutrons are absorbed in 94% enriched {sup 6}LiF single crystals with volumes of {approx}1 cm{sup 3} in an exothermic {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H capture reaction. The neutron energy is measured from the subsequent temperature rise with a Mo/Cu multilayer TES. Fast-neutron spectra from a {sup 252}Cf source show an energy resolution of 55 kev. Here, we discuss the instrument performance, with emphasis on the identification of light elements in actinide matrices.

  11. Synthesis and properties of neutron deficient isotopes of elements around Z=100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalic, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the presented Thesis work the results of spectroscopic studies of 246 Md, 247 Md, 254 Lr and 255 Lr decay chains are given. These isotopes were produced using heavy ion induced fusion reactions of 40 Ar + 209 Bi and 48 Ca + 209 Bi as a part of the long term project aimed to study spectroscopy properties of superheavy elements. The experiments were performed at velocity filter SHIP, placed at the central beam line of the UNILAC accelerator at GSI Darmstadt in Germany. The work also gives a basic overview of research in the region of superheavy elements, description of the used experimental setup and shows the usual analysis methods used in spectroscopic studies in the region of elements around Z ∼ 100. The results were obtained using α, α - γ spectroscopy methods and recoil - α, α - α correlations search. Although these isotopes have been known for a longer time, no detailed spectroscopy investigation were performed so far and only rough information was known. Beside the improved precision of known data, this work gives a new information about the decay properties of these isotopes. This give us the possibility to build a decay schemes for mentioned decay chains. (author)

  12. Light element opacities of astrophysical interest from ATOMIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H. Jr.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Sherrill, M. E. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-11

    We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code for systems of astrophysical interest. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code. The ATOMIC code uses ab-initio atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes, and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER. ATOMIC also incorporates a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. Our new calculations are made for elements of astrophysical interest and for a wide range of temperatures and densities.

  13. Contribution to the analysis of light elements using x fluorescence excited by radio-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, A.

    1964-01-01

    In order to study the possibilities of using radioactive sources for the X-fluorescence analysis of light elements, the principle is given, after a brief description of X-fluorescence, of the excitation of this phenomenon by X, β and α emission from radio-elements. The operation and use of the proportional gas counter for X-ray detection is described. A device has been studied for analysing the elements of the 2. and 3. periods of the Mendeleev table. It makes it possible to excite the fluorescence with a radioactive source emitting X-rays or a particles; the X-ray fluorescence penetrates into a window-less proportional counter, this being made possible by the use of an auxiliary electric field in the neighbourhood of the sample. The gas detection pressure leading to the maximum detection yield is given. The spectra are given for the K α lines of 3. period elements excited by 55 Fe, 3 H/Zr and 210 Po sources; for the 2. period the K α spectra of carbon and of fluorine excited by the α particles of 210 Po. (author) [fr

  14. Evolution of nuclear shape in the light radon isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Rahkila, P J; Grahn, T; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Jenkins, D G; Huyse, M L

    2008-01-01

    We propose to carry out Coulomb excitation of post-accelerated beams of $^{202,204}$ Rn from the REX-ISOLDE facility. The aim of this study is to expand our understanding of nuclear shape coexistence, which has been increasingly well-established in the light mercury and lead nuclei to these very heavy nuclei. Such an extension will provide stringent tests of nuclear models of collectivity and shape coexistence in a previously-inaccessible heavy mass region. REX- ISOLDE is the only facility worldwide at the present time which can provide accelerated beams of such heavy radioactive nuclei.

  15. Estimate of production of medical isotopes by photo-neutron reaction at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, B.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Daté, S.; Ejiri, H.

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, laser backscatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the capability to selectively tune photons to energies of interest. This feature, coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei, promises a fertile method of nuclear isotope production. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of the medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employ FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system.

  16. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  17. Constraints on the nature of the projectile using siderophile elements and triple-oxygen isotopes: Zhamanshin impact structure, Kazakhstan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Šárka; Ackerman, Lukáš; Žák, Karel; Skála, Roman; Magna, T.; Pack, A.; Deutsch, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI, Supplement 1 (2016), A358-A358 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : impact glass * irghizites * geochemistry * meteoritic component * siderophile elements * osmium isotopes * triple-oxygen Isotopes * Zhamanshin Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  18. Features of adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Dikiy, N.P.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Lyashko, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 in the forced-exhaust ventilation at the nuclear power plant. The ?-activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU-1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU-1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung gamma-quantum producing by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127 I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT-3, in the AU-1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  19. Determination of the Light Element Fraction in MSL APXS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Leshin, L. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Additional light invisible components (ALICs), measured using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), represent all light elements (e.g. CO3, OH, H2O) present in a sample below Na, excluding bound oxygen. The method for quantifying ALICs was originally developed for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) APXS (Mallet et al, 2006; Campbell et al, 2008). This method has been applied to data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) APXS up to sol 269 using a new terrestrial calibration. ALICs are investigated using the intensity ratio of Pu L-alpha Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks (C/R). Peak areas of the scattered X-rays are determined by the GUAPX fitting program. This experimental C/R is compared to a Monte Carlo simulated C/R. The ratio of simulated and experimental C/R values is called the K-value. ALIC concentrations are calculated by comparing the K-value to the fraction of all invisibles present; the invisible fraction is produced from the spectrum fit by GUAPX. This method is applied to MSL spectra with long integration duration (greater than 3 hours) and with energy resolution less than 180 eV at 5.9 keV. These overnight spectra encompass a variety of geologic materials examined by the Curiosity Rover, including volcanic and sedimentary lithologies. Transfer of the K-value calibration produced in the lab to the flight APXS has been completed and temperature, geometry and spectrum duration effects have been thoroughly examined. A typical limit of detection of ALICs is around 5 wt% with uncertainties of approximately 5 wt%. Accurate elemental concentrations are required as input to the Monte Carlo program (Mallet et al, 2006; Lee, 2010). Elemental concentrations are obtained from the GUAPX code using the same long duration, good resolution spectra used for determining the experimental C/R ratios (Campbell et al. 2012). Special attention was given to the assessment of Rb, Sr, and Y as these element peaks overlap the scatter peaks. Mineral effects

  20. The Use of Lead Isotope and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry for Forensic Geographic Provenancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A.; Darrah, T.; Harrold, Z.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.; Poreda, R.

    2008-12-01

    Lead isotope and rare earth element composition of modern human bones are analyzed to explore their utility for geographical provenancing. DNA analysis is the standard for identification of individuals. DNA analysis requires a DNA match for comparison. Thus, DNA analysis is of limited use in cases involving unknown remains. Trace elements are incorporated into bones and teeth during biomineralization, recording the characteristics of an individual's geochemical environment. Teeth form during adolescence, recording the geochemical environment of an individual's youth. Bones remodel throughout an individual's lifetime. Bones consist of two types of bone tissue (cortical and trabecular) that remodel at different rates, recording the geochemical environment at the time of biomineralization. Cortical bone tissue, forming the outer surface of bones, is dense, hard tissue that remodels in 25-30 yrs. Conversely, trabecular bone tissue, the inner cavity of bones, is low density, porous and remodels in 2-5 years. Thus, analyzing teeth and both bone tissues allows for the development of a geographical time line capable of tracking immigration patterns through time instead of only an individual's youth. Geochemical isotopic techniques (Sr, O, C, N) have been used for geographical provenancing in physical anthropology. The isotopic values of Sr, C, O, N are predominantly a function of soil compositions in areas where food is grown or water is consumed. Application of these provenancing techniques has become difficult as an individual's diet may reflect the isotopic composition of foods obtained at the local grocer as opposed to local soil compositions. Thus, we explore the use of REEs and Pb isotopes for geographical provenancing. Pb and REEs are likely more reliable indicators of modern geographical location as their composition are high in bio-available sources such as local soils, atmospheric aerosols, and dust as opposed to Sr, C, O, N that are controlled by food and

  1. Measurements of Plutonium isotopes and the search for super-heavy elements via AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Steier, P.; Golser, R.; Knie, K.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Jakopic, R.; Korschinek, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) - being independent on the half-life of a radionuclide - provides a technique to determine isotope ratios with the highest sensitivity and allows the measurement of radionuclides over a wide dynamic range of concentration levels. A combination of AMS, Alpha Spectrometry and Liquid Scintillation Counting was used for the determination of the complete information on isotope ratios of Plutonium isotopes in different environmental reference samples (e.g. from the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa) and samples contaminated from nuclear reprocessing. Results for the isotopic ratios of the samples will be shown and the capabilities and detection limits achievable for determination of Pu will be discussed. The long-lived 244 Pu (t 1/2 = 80 Ma) and 247 Cm (t 1/2 = 15.6 Ma) have a very interesting application in astrophysics by detecting possible supernova-produced 244 Pu and 247 Cm in terrestrial archives. The expected extremely small concentrations of 244 Pu makes AMS the favorite method. The actual search for such long-lived extraterrestrial radionuclides and possible implications will be presented. The same method has also been explored for a pinprick-search of long-lived super-heavy elements in the mass region above Z=100. (author)

  2. Isotope and minor element geochemistry of high arsenic groundwater from Hangjinhouqi, the Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yamin; Wang Yanxin; Ma Teng

    2009-01-01

    High As groundwater is widely distributed in the northwestern Hetao Plain, an arid region with slow groundwater flow. Arsenic concentration in groundwater ranges from 1 to 1000 μg/L. Most water samples have elevated salinities, with Cl and/or HCO 3 as the dominant anions and Na as the dominant cation. High concentrations of As in shallow aquifers are associated with strongly reducing conditions, as evidenced by high concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC), NH 4 , dissolved sulfide, arsenite and dissolved CH 4 , and relatively low concentrations of NO 3 - and SO 4 2- . Results of the hydrochemical, and H and O isotope geochemical studies indicate that evapotranspiration is an important process controlling the enrichment of Na and Cl as well as trace elements such as As, B, F and Br in groundwater. In Na-HCO 3 -dominated groundwaters, As, B and F were enriched. Decades of irrigation using Yellow River water has resulted in elevation of the groundwater level, which has accelerated salt accumulation in shallow groundwater and surface soil. In addition, irrigation is responsible for the release of some components from aquifer materials and mixing with saline groundwaters, as indicated by minor element and isotope geochemical data. Used to trace groundwater flow paths, Sr isotope composition also indicates that bedrock weathering is one of the primary sources of As in groundwater in the study area.

  3. Quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    PIGE analysis of thick and intermediate samples is usually performed with the help of standards, but this method gives only good results when the standard is very similar to the sample to be analysed. In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of light elements in thick samples. This method is based on a code that integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For the integration procedure the sample is divided in sublayers, defined by the energy steps that were used to measure accurately the excitation function. This function is used as input. Within each sublayer the stopping power cross-sections may be assumed as constant. With these two conditions the calculus of the contribution of each sublayer for the total yield becomes an easy task. This work presents results for the analysis of lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p ' γ) 7 Li, 19 F(p,p ' γ) 19 F, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be and 23 Na(p,p ' γ) 23 Na were employed. Calculated γ-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds of the referred elements. The agreement is better than 7.5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values used, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role

  4. Search for correlatable, isotopically light carbon and nitrogen components in Lunar soils and breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, S.J.; Swart, P.K.; Wright, I.P.; Grady, M.M.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    Using stepped heating extraction techniques, determinations of carbon and nitrogen content and delta 13 C and delta 15 N values have been obtained for selected lunar soils and breccias. Only nitrogen data have been gathered for representative splits separated by size, density and magnetic properties from 12023. A plot of the total delta 13 C (after terrestrial contamination is removed) versus delta 15 N values for the bulk samples reveals little evidence for a correlation between isotopically light carbon and isotopically light nitrogen of putative ancient solar wind origin. Soil 12023 is used to examine the current interpretation for the stepped release profile of nitrogen from bulk lunar samples. Mature agglutinates, postulated by previous workers to be the host of the light nitrogen, are shown to have a very constant delta 15 N value which is heavy rather than light. The actual host of the light nitrogen in 12023 has not been identified. The lowest values encountered during the study were found associated with the finest soil, but none of these was as low as for some temperature steps of the bulk soil. Interpretations regarding the origin of light nitrogen, if it is not present in agglutinates, await the results of more definitive efforts to identify the host phase

  5. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  6. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuvier, A., E-mail: alicia.cuvier@hotmail.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/Laboratoire d' études radioécologiques en milieu continental et marin, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Probst, A. [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Prunier, J. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Université Paul Sabatier, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Le Roux, G., E-mail: gael.leroux@ensat.fr [ECOLAB, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000 Bq ∙ kg{sup −1}) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF ≫ 40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2 < EF < 5), except for Ba (5 < EF < 15), due to the precipitation of barium sulfate resulting from mining activities. Most of the trace elements are associated with the most mobile fractions of the sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. - Highlights: • Contamination of soils is evidenced by a multiproxy approach. • Enrichment factors highlight a low contamination except for U, S and Ba. • Pb isotope ratios point out inputs of radiogenic Pb from the mine. • Radiogenic Pb is mainly in the acid-soluble and the reducible fractions.

  7. Characterization of frictional melting processes in subduction zone faults by trace element and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes found in exhumed accretionary complexes, which are considered to be formed originally at seismogenic depths, are of great importance for elucidating frictional melting and concomitant dynamic weakening of the fault during earthquake in subduction zones. However, fluid-rich environment of the subduction zone faults tends to cause extensive alteration of the pseudotachylyte glass matrix in later stages, and thus it has been controversial that pseudotachylytes are rarely formed or rarely preserved. Chemical analysis of the fault rocks, especially on fluid-immobile trace elements and isotopes, can be a useful means to identify and quantify the frictional melting occurred in subduction zone faults. In this paper, we report major and trace element and Sr isotope compositions for pseudotachylyte-bearing dark veins and surrounding host rocks from the Mugi area of the Shimanto accretionary complex (Ujiie et al., J. Struct. Geol. 2007). Samples were collected from a rock chip along the microstructure using a micro-drilling technique, and then analyzed by ICP-MS and TIMS. Major element compositions of the dark veins showed a clear shift from the host rock composition toward the illite composition. The dark veins, either unaltered or completely altered, were also characterized by extreme enrichment in some of the trace elements such as Ti, Zr, Nb and Th. These results are consistent with disequilibrium melting of the fault zone. Model calculations revealed that the compositions of the dark veins can be produced by total melting of clay-rich matrix in the source rock, leaving plagioclase and quartz grains almost unmolten. The calculations also showed that the dark veins are far more enriched in melt component than that expected from the source rock compositions, suggesting migration and concentration of frictional melt during the earthquake faulting. Furthermore, Sr isotope data of the dark veins implied the occurrence of frictional melting in multiple stages

  8. Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

  9. Elemental and Isotopic Incorporation into the Aragonitic Shells of Arctica Islandica: Insights from Temperature Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The long-lived ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, is a fairly well developed and tested marine proxy archive, however, the utility of elemental ratios in A. islandica shell material as environmental proxies remains questionable. To further evaluate the influence of seawater temperature on elemental and isotopic incorporation during biomineralization, A. islandica shells were grown at constant temperatures under two regimes during a 16-week period from March 27 to July 21, 2011. Seawater from the Darling Marine Center in Walpole, Maine was pumped into temperature and flow controlled tanks that were exposed to ambient food and salinity conditions. A total of 20 individual juvenile clams with an average shell height of 36 mm were stained with calcein (a commonly used biomarker) and cultured at 10.3 ± 0.3 °C for six weeks. After this, shell heights were measured and the clams were again stained with calcein and cultured at 15.0 ± 0.4 °C for an additional 9.5 weeks. The average shell growth during the first phase of the experiment was 2.4 mm with a linear extension rate of 0.40 mm/week. The average shell growth during the second phase of the experiment was 3.2 mm with an extension rate of 0.34 mm/week. Average salinity values were 30.2 ± 0.7 and 30.7 ±0.7 in the first and second phases of the experiment, respectively. Oxygen isotopes from the cultured seawater were collected throughout the experiment and provide the basis for establishing if shells grew in oxygen isotopic equilibrium. Elemental ratios (primarily Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) in the aragonitic shells were determined via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), while stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Continuous sampling within and across the temperature conditions (from 10 °C to 15 °C) coupled with the calcein markings provides the ability to place each sample into a precise temporal framework. The

  10. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  11. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio. There are no internationally distributed isotopic reference materials for the elements zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium. Preparation of such materials will help to make isotope ratio measurements among

  12. Elemental and isotopic characterization of Japanese and Philippine polished rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food for most Asian countries such as the Philippines and Japan and as such its elemental and isotopic content are of interest to the consumers. Its elemental content may reflect the macro nutrient reduction during milling or probable toxic elements uptake. Three Japanese and four Philippine polished rice samples in his study mostly came from rice bought from supermarkets.These rice samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/3 to 1/10 of Mg, Mn, K and Na. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. Isotopic ratio of ae 13 C show signature of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature of Japanese rice within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. More rice samples will be analyzed to gain better understanding of isotopic signatures to distinguish inter-varietal and/or geographical differences. Elemental composition of soil samples of rice samples sources will be determined for better understanding of uptake mechanisms. (author)

  13. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.

    2010-12-01

    Strontium - named after the small Scottish town Strontian - as such is an element with little popularity. Firstly described by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1798, the metal is used in metallurgy to some extent whereas its compounds are interesting in glass industries, electronics and pyrotechnics. The element has chemical similarity to Ca and makes up 1/60 of the earth’s amount of the latter. Nonetheless, it is its isotopic composition which makes Sr so interesting for a large number of scientists. The natural composition of the four naturally occurring isotopes (84Sr, 86Sr 87Sr and 88Sr) varies in nature due to the radioactive decay of 87Rb to 87Sr. Thus, it was early recognized as geochronometer especially in Ca rich matrices. With increasing precision of applied methodology, the natural variation of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio (analyzed at first mainly by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)) became more and more popular in provenance studies. The natural variation of the ratio is mainly determined by the geological age and the original composition of the rock and can be used therefore as fingerprint of the local geology. The ratio is transferred with no significant fractionation via the water into plants and finally via the food chain into animal and human tissues (especially bones and teeth). As the element is chemically similar to Ca, it appears in most matrices. The use for provenance studies is supported by the fact that the long half life (4.8 x 1010 years) does not lead to an alteration during the time scales which are investigated (from recent samples to human or animal skeletal remains which date back up to 30.000 BC). The uniqueness of the system besides the natural variation is defined by the ubiquity in nature and the relatively high (and thus measurable) elemental concentration in most tissues. It was finally the advent of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) which augmented the number of applications

  14. Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

  15. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation under continuous light: implications for paleoenvironmental interpretations of the High Arctic during Paleogene warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Pagani, Mark; Briggs, Derek E G; Equiza, M A; Jagels, Richard; Leng, Qin; Lepage, Ben A

    2009-06-01

    The effect of low intensity continuous light, e.g., in the High Arctic summer, on plant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionations is unknown. We conducted greenhouse experiments to test the impact of light quantity and duration on both carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of three deciduous conifers whose fossil counterparts were components of Paleogene Arctic floras: Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taxodium distichum, and Larix laricina. We found that plant leaf bulk carbon isotopic values of the examined species were 1.75-4.63 per thousand more negative under continuous light (CL) than under diurnal light (DL). Hydrogen isotope values of leaf n-alkanes under continuous light conditions revealed a D-enriched hydrogen isotope composition of up to 40 per thousand higher than in diurnal light conditions. The isotope offsets between the two light regimes is explained by a higher ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C (i)/C (a)) and more water loss for plants under continuous light conditions during a 24-h transpiration cycle. Apparent hydrogen isotope fractionations between source water and individual lipids (epsilon(lipid-water)) range from -62 per thousand (Metasequoia C(27) and C(29)) to -87 per thousand (Larix C(29)) in leaves under continuous light. We applied these hydrogen fractionation factors to hydrogen isotope compositions of in situ n-alkanes from well-preserved Paleogene deciduous conifer fossils from the Arctic region to estimate the deltaD value in ancient precipitation. Precipitation in the summer growing season yielded a deltaD of -186 per thousand for late Paleocene, -157 per thousand for early middle Eocene, and -182 per thousand for late middle Eocene. We propose that high-latitude summer precipitation in this region was supplemented by moisture derived from regionally recycled transpiration of the polar forests that grew during the Paleogene warming.

  16. Food authenticity studies via multi-elemental and isotopic pattern using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, R.; Brunner, M.; Abranko, L.; Prohaska, T.; Stefanka, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our study has been the development of an analytical method based on Sr isotope and elemental fingerprint analysis for discriminating food samples from different geographical origin. Several types of foods were involved in the investigation representing different stages of food processing such as pulverized spicy paprika (sparsely processed food product) and wine samples (processed product). Independent inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like ICP-SFMS, ICP-CCMS, and MC-ICPMS were used for method validation and investigation of the geographical origin. The advantage and limitations of the developed methods are discussed critically. (author)

  17. Production of transplutonium elements in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Corbett, B.L.; King, L.J.; McGuire, S.C.; Sims, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques described have been demonstrated to be adequate to predict the contents of transplutonium element production targets which have been irradiated in the HFIR. The deviations, at least for isotopes of mass 253 or less, are generally within the usual analytical uncertainties, or else are for isiotopes which are of little overall import to the program. Work is especially needed to get a better picture of the production of 250 Cm, 254 Es, 255 Es, and ultimately 257 Fm, since researchers are frequently stating their interest in obtaining larger quantities of these rare and difficult-to-produce nuclides

  18. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  19. Extreme Hf and light Fe isotopes in Archean komatiites - a remnant of very early mantle depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P.; Campbell, I. H.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hafnium isotope signatures in some Archean komatiites (ca. 3.5-3.0 billion years old) require a mantle source with a time-integrated Lu/Hf that exceeds average modern depleted mantle. Investigation of the timing and locus of parent-daughter fractionation in their mantle sources potentially constrains differentiation processes in the early Earth and their subsequent distribution and storage. In addition, they may help to constrain the Hf isotope evolution of the greater depleted mantle. In order to shed light on these processes, we discuss radiogenic Hf isotopes in conjunction with stable Fe isotope systematics in Archean komatiites from the Pilbara craton in Western Australia. Our findings indicate that, after careful evaluation of the effects of alteration, pristine samples are characterised by initial 176Hf/177Hf, which lie above the age-corrected depleted mantle, as a consequence of ancient melt extraction. Iron isotope systematics for these samples further point to a mantle source that is isotopically lighter than average modern depleted mantle, which is also consistent with melt-depletion. Taken together, these observations require a component of an old, super-depleted reservoir in the komatiite mantle source(s) that survived in the mantle for possibly hundreds of millions of years. The Lu/Hf of this refractory mantle appears to be complementary to, and therefore contemporaneous with, the first terrestrial crust, as preserved in Hadean (i.e., > 4 Ga) detrital zircon cores, which may indicate a causal relationship between them. We will discuss implications for very early mantle dynamics and the formation of very early mantle reservoirs.

  20. ZIRCONIUM—HAFNIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM METEORITES FOR THE DECOUPLED SYNTHESIS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sprung, P. [Institut für Planetologie, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Vogel, N. [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-10

    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (≤1ε in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (∼2ε). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ≤ 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ☉}) SNII.

  1. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The ''pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at ∼0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Towards isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements of the element nobelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, Premaditya; Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Block, Michael; Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, D-55122 Mainz (Germany); Kunz, Peter [TRIUMF, D-V6T2A3 Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Laser spectroscopy on the heaviest elements is of great interest as it allows the study of the evolution of relativistic effects on their atomic structure. In our experiment we exploit the Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy technique and use excimer-laser pumped dye lasers to search for the first time the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level in {sup 254}No. Etalons will be used in the forthcoming experiments at GSI, Darmstadt, to narrow down the bandwidth of the dye lasers to 0.04 cm{sup -1}, for the determination of the isotope shift and hyperfine splitting of {sup 253,} {sup 255}No. In this talk results from preparatory hyperfine structure studies in nat. ytterbium and the perspectives for future experiments of the heaviest elements are discussed.

  3. Technical Report on the Behavior of Trace Elements, Stable Isotopes, and Radiogenic Isotopes During the Processing of Uranium Ore to Uranium Ore Concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, L. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, G. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gaffney, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Genneti, V. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robel, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schorzman, K. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goals of this SP-1 effort were to understand how isotopic and elemental signatures behave during mining, milling, and concentration and to identify analytes that might preserve geologic signatures of the protolith ores. The impurities that are preserved through the concentration process could provide useful forensic signatures and perhaps prove diagnostic of sample origin.

  4. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  5. Search of the decay of the heaviest isotopes of element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.

    1998-01-01

    To produce heavy isotopes of element 112 in the reaction 48 Ca + 238 U two experiments at different beam energies were performed. In the first experiment the beam energy at the middle of the target was 231 MeV which leads to the production of the compound nucleus 286 112 with an excitation energy of E x = 33 MeV. In a 20 - day irradiation of the 238 U target with a beam dose of 3.5 x 10 18 on the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA two spontaneous fission events were detected. No α-particle emission preceding spontaneous fission nor α-α correlation in the energy range from 8 to 13 MeV in the time interval of up to 10000 s. have been observed. The most probable explanation of the data obtained in this experiment is that the observed spontaneous fission corresponds to the decay of the even-odd isotope (N = 171) of element 112 produced in the reaction 238 U ( 48 Ca, 3n) 283 112 with a cross section of ∼ 5 pb. The half-life of the new spontaneous fission nuclide is about 100 s. In the second experiment the beam energy was 238 MeV which increases the excitation energy of compound nuclei up to E x = 39 MeV. The total beam dose in that case was 2.2 x 10 18 . No events due either to spontaneous fission or sequential α-α decay in an energy range from 8 to 12 MeV and the time interval of 1000 s. were detected. These data give the upper limit of 3 pb for the production cross section of the even-even isotope 282 112 in the reaction 238 U ( 48 Ca, 4n) 282 112

  6. Trace element and isotopic effects arising from magma migration beneath mid-ocean ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios in the magma erupted on mid-ocean ridges may differ from those in the source material due to physical effects such as porous flow dispersion, exchange of trace elements between the fluid and solid phases during magma migration, and convective mixing in magma chambers. These differences are in addition to those produced by better known processes such as fractional crystallization and partial melting. The effects of the three former processes are described. It is predicted that magma typically reaches the sub-ridge magma chambers with a spatial heterogeneity only slightly reduced from that of the source material, but with a subdued variation in time. Convective mixing then further reduces the spatial heterogeneity. Application of the results for convective mixing to a recent Fourier analysis of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr variations along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that the falloff in amplitude of variation observed with decreasing wavelength in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge data cannot be explained by convective mixing in magma chambers. Instead, it is postulated that this falloff is due to the mechanics of the production and/or the solid-state convective mixing of chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in the solid mantle. (orig.)

  7. Rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopes in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, C.; Delattre, H.; Grenier, M.; Pradoux, C.; Lacan, F.

    2013-02-01

    vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions have been measured in the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. The three stations represent contrasting environments: the oligotrophic center of the gyre (station GYR), the "transition zone" east of the South Tropical Front (station EGY), and the Peru-Chile upwelling marked by a pronounced oxygen minimum (station UPX). Rare earth concentrations display nutrient like vertical profiles except at UPX where surface waters are enriched. At this station Nd isotopic compositions are clearly more radiogenic than in the open ocean, suggesting that boundary exchange process is releasing lithogenic rare earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (ɛNd reaching -3.7) are also observed at 2000 m at station GYR in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water that commonly have ɛNd values around -6. Exchange processes related to hydrothermal activity are suspected to produce this increase in ɛNd in the vicinity of the East Pacific Rise. These results provide some guidance for higher resolution studies planned in this region by the international GEOTRACES program.

  8. Development of a simplified methodology for the isotopic determination of fuel spent in Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez N, H.; Francois L, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The present work presents a simplified methodology to quantify the isotopic content of the spent fuel of light water reactors; their application is it specific to the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central by means of a balance cycle of 18 months. The methodology is divided in two parts: the first one consists on the development of a model of a simplified cell, for the isotopic quantification of the irradiated fuel. With this model the burnt one is simulated 48,000 MWD/TU of the fuel in the core of the reactor, taking like base one fuel assemble type 10x10 and using a two-dimensional simulator for a fuel cell of a light water reactor (CPM-3). The second part of the methodology is based on the creation from an isotopic decay model through an algorithm in C++ (decay) to evaluate the amount, by decay of the radionuclides, after having been irradiated the fuel until the time in which the reprocessing is made. Finally the method used for the quantification of the kilograms of uranium and obtained plutonium of a normalized quantity (1000 kg) of fuel irradiated in a reactor is presented. These results will allow later on to make analysis of the final disposition of the irradiated fuel. (Author)

  9. Process and device for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of a laser light and application to isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The description is given of a process for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of the monochromatic light emitted by a high power laser. The laser light at frequency ν 1 is beamed on to an isotopic mixture of gaseous molecules, some of these molecules presenting transitions, between two vibration levels corresponding to a given isotope, separated by an energy interval ΔE 1 =2h ν 1 , and the molecules of a given isotopic species are thus preferentially dissociated into several component parts [fr

  10. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, K.C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W. (Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (USA). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylen PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (S{sup o}) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether S{sup o} extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted S{sup o} was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The S{sup o} was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, S{sup o} and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  12. The use of trace element data to complement stable isotope methods in the characterization of grape musts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M.P.; Zhang, B.L.; Martin, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective physico-chemical methods for the characterization of agricultural produce are important ways of providing impartial information on the composition and origin of food products. Of those techniques successful in this area, stable isotope analyses and especially Site Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) are among the most noteworthy. The use of this technique allows the determination of geographical origin of a variety of finished and raw materials in the food industry. The current capabilities of this technique in the wine industry allow the general area of production to be determined. Trace element concentrations have been analyzed for five regions of France (1989 vintage) in order to improve the accuracy of the SNIF-NMR method. When used in conjunction with stable isotope ratios, the elements Zn, Ca, Sr, and Mg increase the overall classification from 78% (with isotope data only) to 89%. (author)

  13. Circumstellar and interstellar material in the CO3 chondrite ALHA77307: An isotopic and elemental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Maitrayee; Floss, Christine; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Speck, Angela K.

    2012-09-01

    We have carried out a NanoSIMS C, N and O ion imaging study of the CO3.0 chondrite ALHA77307. The distribution of O-anomalous grains in ALHA77307 is similar to that observed in other primitive meteorites, and is dominated (84%) by 17O-rich Group 1 grains from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of close-to-solar metallicity. Four percent of the grains belong to Group 2, whose 18O depletions suggest cool-bottom processing in low-mass stars during the AGB phase, while 8% are Group 4 grains with likely origins in Type II supernova (SN) ejecta. One ferromagnesian silicate has a very high 17O enrichment; nova explosions have been suggested as sources for such grains, but recent models with updated reaction rates show large discrepancies with the grain data, leaving the origins of these grains uncertain. Most of the grains are silicates (86%) with the remainder consisting of oxides (8%), three silica grains and two 'composite' grains composed of multiple subgrains with different elemental compositions. The elemental compositions of the silicates are similar to those found in other studies, with a predominance of non-stoichiometric compositions and high (up to 44 at.%) Fe concentrations. A comparison of isotopic and elemental compositions for all presolar silicates shows that olivine compositions are overabundant in Group 4 grains compared to grains from Groups 1 and 2. This may reflect injection of presolar material from a nearby supernova into the early solar nebula and incorporation into parent bodies before alteration of compositions through irradiation and sputtering in the interstellar medium, as is likely to have occurred for the Group 1 and 2 grains from more distant AGB stars. The matrix material in ALHA77307 contains abundant carbonaceous hotspots with excesses in 15N. However, unlike CR chondrites, the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ALHA77307 does not have a bulk N isotopic anomaly, consistent with Raman evidence that it has experienced more

  14. Concerning the sound insulation of building elements made up of light concretes. [acoustic absorption efficiency calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiu, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The sound insulating capacity of building elements made up of light concretes is considered. Analyzing differentially the behavior of light concrete building elements under the influence of incident acoustic energy and on the basis of experimental measurements, coefficients of correction are introduced into the basic formulas for calculating the sound insulating capacity for the 100-3,2000 Hz frequency band.

  15. Hydrogen isotopic spectral determination in inert gases with the use of light source with contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemets, V.M.; Solov'ev, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic-spectral technique for hydrogen determination in helium, neon and argon is developed. It employs a contracted high-frequency discharge as a light source to decrease the distorting effect. of a dummy signal and the ''memory'' effect of the discharge tube. The discharge is realized in a quartz tube approximately 7 mm dia. and gas pressure in it approximately 6x10 4 Pa. The analysis technique comprises sampling of gas, dosed introduction of deuterium into the sample, selection of a mixture portion into the discharge tube, spectroscopic determination of hydrogen isotope ratio and calculation of the sought for hydrogen concentration. The lower boundary of the determined concentrations of hydrogen constitutes 7x10 - 5 , 2x10 - 4 and 4x10 - 4 volumetric per cent in helium, neon, and argon, respectively

  16. Data book of the isotopic composition of spent fuel in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Kaneko, Toshiyuki.

    1994-03-01

    In the framework of the activity of the working group on Evaluation of Nuclide Generation and Depletion in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, we summarized the assay data of the isotopic composition of LWR spent fuels in order to verify the accuracy of the burnup calculation codes. The report contains the data collected from the 13 light water reactors (LWRs) including the 9 LWRs (5 PWRs and 4 BWRs) in Europe and USA, the 4 LWRs (2 PWRs and 2 BWRs) in Japan. The collected data were sorted into the irradiation history of the fuel samples, the composition of the fuel assemblies, the sampling position and the isotopic composition of the fuel samples. (author)

  17. Tritium isotope separation from light and heavy water by bipolar electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petek, M.; Ramey, D.W.; Taylor, R.D.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating tritium from light and heavy water is described. Hydrogen is transferred at and through bipolar electrodes at rates H > D > T. In a cell containing several bipolar electrodes placed in series between two terminal electrodes, a flow of hydrogen is established from the terminal anode compartment toward the terminal cathode. An electrolyte feed containing tritium is continuously added to the system and is subsequently transported countercurrent to the hydrogen mass transfer. A cascaded system is established, in which effluent streams enriched and depleted in tritium can be withdrawn. The voltage drop is smaller at any bipolar electrode as compared to the voltage for normal electrolysis. Cell design is compact because isotope separation occurs at bipolar electrodes without evolution of gas. Isotope separation was demonstrated in laboratory cells where a steady-state tritium concentration gradient was attained. This gradient was in agreement with concentrations calculated from a derived mathematical model

  18. Half-lives of long-lived isotopes of transactinium elements from 228Th to 257Fm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surin, V.M.; Fomushkin, Eh.F.

    1983-09-01

    The experimental measurements and critical evaluation results of the long-lived isotope half-decay periods of transactinium elements (from 228 Th to 257 Fm) are given on July 1981 to be published in open literature and related to the natural radioactive decay. From the massif of the known half-decay periods the most reliable data were selected, received or evaluated and recommended for practical use; the calculations of isotope specific activities were performed on this data. (author)

  19. Cl and C isotope analysis to assess the effectiveness of chlorinated ethene degradation by zero-valent iron: Evidence from dual element and product isotope values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audí-Miró, Carme; Cretnik, Stefan; Otero, Neus; Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE and cis-DCE Cl isotope fractionation was investigated for the first time with ZVI. ► A C–Cl bond is broken in the rate-limiting step during ethylene ZVI dechlorination. ► Dual C/Cl isotope plot is a promising tool to discriminate abiotic degradation. ► Product-related carbon isotopic fractionation gives evidence of abiotic degradation. ► Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occur simultaneously. - Abstract: This study investigated C and, for the first time, Cl isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) during reductive dechlorination by cast zero-valent iron (ZVI). Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occurred as parallel reactions, with ethene and ethane deriving from the β-dichloroelimination pathway. Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE and cis-DCE was consistent for different batches of Fe studied. Transformation of TCE and cis-DCE showed Cl isotopic enrichment factors (ε Cl ) of −2.6‰ ± 0.1‰ (TCE) and −6.2‰ ± 0.8‰ (cis-DCE), with Apparent Kinetic Isotope Effects (AKIE Cl ) for Cl of 1.008 ± 0.001 (TCE) and 1.013 ± 0.002 (cis-DCE). This indicates that a C–Cl bond breakage is rate-determining in TCE and cis-DCE transformation by ZVI. Two approaches were investigated to evaluate if isotope fractionation analysis can distinguish the effectiveness of transformation by ZVI as opposed to natural biodegradation. (i) Dual isotope plots. This study reports the first dual (C, Cl) element isotope plots for TCE and cis-DCE degradation by ZVI. The pattern for cis-DCE differs markedly from that reported for biodegradation of the same compound by KB-1, a commercially available Dehalococcoides-containing culture. The different trends suggest an expedient approach to distinguish abiotic and biotic transformation, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. (ii) Product-related isotope fractionation. Carbon isotope ratios of the hydrogenolysis product cis

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  1. Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem; Emam, Ashraf; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Boskabadi, Arman; Lehaye, Yann; Cooper, Matthew J.

    2018-04-01

    Trace element composition of sulfides and O, C, Sr and S isotopic data are assessed to constrain the evolution and potential fluid and metal sources of the Um Garayat gold deposit. Ore microscopy and BSE investigations of quartz veins show blocky arsenopyrite and pyrite replaced in part by pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and gersdorffite. Free-milling gold occurs commonly in close association with the late sulfides, and along fractures in pyrite. On the other hand, recrystallized pyrite is disseminated in host metavolcaniclastic/metasedimentary rocks that commonly contain carbonaceous material. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides shows the recrystallized pyrite enriched in most trace elements, while blocky pyrite contains only some traces of arsenic. Detected concentrations of gold (up to 17 ppm) were only reported in arsenopyrite disseminated in quartz veins. The δ34S values of blocky pyrite and pyrrhotite in quartz veins define a narrow range (1.6 to 3.7‰), suggesting a homogenous sulfur source which is consistent with the dominantly mafic host rocks. The recrystallized pyrite has a distinctive sulfur isotope composition (δ34S - 9.3 to - 10.6‰), which is rather comparable to diagenetic sulfides. Hydrothermal carbonate in quartz veins and wallrock have nearly constant values of δ18O (10.5 to 11.9‰) and δ13C (- 4.2 to - 5.5‰). Based on constraints from mineral assemblages and chlorite thermometry, data of six samples indicate that carbonate precipitation occurred at 280 °C from a homogenous hydrothermal fluid with δ18OH2O 4.4 ± 0.7‰ and δ13C = 3.7 ± 0.8‰. Strontium isotope values of two samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7024 and 0.7025) are similar to the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of island arc metabasalts ( 710 Ma) in the South Eastern Desert. The generally homogenous sulfur, C, O, Sr isotope data are suggestive of metamorphogenic fluids, likely produced from dominantly mafic volcanic rocks at the greenschist-amphibolite facies transition.

  2. Raman spectral, elemental, crystallinity, and oxygen-isotope variations in conodont apatite during diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Laishi; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Li, Zhihong; Lv, Zhengyi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    Conodont apatite has long been used in paleoenvironmental studies, often with minimal evaluation of the influence of diagenesis on measured elemental and isotopic signals. In this study, we evaluate diagenetic influences on conodonts using an integrated set of analytical techniques. A total of 92 points in 19 coniform conodonts from Ordovician marine units of South China were analyzed by micro-laser Raman spectroscopy (M-LRS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), high-resolution X-ray microdiffraction (HXRD), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Each conodont element was analyzed along its full length, including the albid crown, hyaline crown, and basal body, in either a whole specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its outer layer) or a split specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its interior). In the conodonts of this study, the outer surfaces consist of hydroxyfluorapatite and the interiors of strontian hydroxyfluorapatite. Ionic substitutions resulted in characteristic Raman spectral shifts in the position (SS1) and width (SS2) of the ν1-PO43- stretching band. Although multiple elements were enriched (Sr2+, Mg2+) and depleted (Fe3+, Mn2+, Ca2+) during diagenesis, geochemical modeling constraints and known Raman spectral patterns suggest that Sr uptake was the dominant influence on diagenetic redshifts of SS1. All study specimens show lower SS2 values than modern bioapatite and synthetic apatite, suggesting that band width decreases with time in ancient bioapatite, possibly through an annealing process that produces larger, more uniform crystal domains. Most specimens consist mainly of amorphous or poorly crystalline apatite, which is inferred to represent the original microstructure of conodonts. In a subset of specimens, some tissues (especially albid crown) exhibit an increased degree of crystallinity developed through aggrading neomorphism. However, no systematic relationship was observed between

  3. Precambrian tholeiitic-dacitic rock-suites and Cambrian ultramafic rocks in the Pennine nappe system of the Alps: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopes and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, P.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-04-01

    Major element, trace element and Sm-Nd isotope analyses were made of polymetamorphic hornblendefelses, plagioclase amphibolites and banded amphibolites from the Berisal complex in the Simplon area (Italy, Switzerland) to determine their age, origin and genetic relationships. In light of major and rare earth element data, the hornblendefelses are inferred to have originally been pyroxene-rich cumulates, the plagioclase amphibolites and the dark layers of the banded amphibolites to have been tholeiitic basalts and the light layers dacites. The Sm-Nd isotope data yield isochron ages of 475±81 Ma for the hornblendefelses, 1,018±59 Ma for the plagioclase amphibolites and 1,071±43 Ma for the banded amphibolites. The 1 Ga magmatic event is the oldest one ever found in the crystalline basement of the Pennine nappes. The Sm -Nd isotope data support the consanguinity of the tholeiitic dark layers and the dacitic light layers of the banded amphibolites with the tholeiitic plagioclase amphibolites and the ultramafic hornblendefelses. The initial ɛ Nd values indicate that all three rock types originated from sources depleted in light rare earth elements. We suggest that plagioclase and banded amphibolites were a Proterozoic tholeiite-dacite sequence that was strongly deformed and flattened during subsequent folding. The hornblendefelses are thought to be Cambrian intrusions of pyroxene-rich material.

  4. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  5. Beryllium isotopes in primary cosmic radiation and light nuclei fragmentation observed in plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsura.

    1975-01-01

    Plastic sheets consisting of 50 layers of Daicel and Kodak cellulose nitrate were flown from Fort Churchill, Canada in 1971 for the study of isotopic components of light nuclei, especially beryllium, in primary cosmic rays. In this plastic stack, 59 Be normals and 24 Be albedos as well as 109 Li normals and 53 Li albedos were identified. The center of mass and the standard deviation for Be 7 and Be 9+10 may be derived from the mass spectrum. (orig./WL) [de

  6. Uranium isotope separation by magnetic field gradient and visible light acting in a liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, O.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature shows that excited uranyl can assume the ''singlet'' and ''triplet'' states, with different magnetic properties. In an aqueous medium, without organic complexity (to hamper dismutation), the action of light reduces uranyl to U(V), which is a radical -ion that can assume the ''doublet'' and ''quartet'' states, also with different magnetic properties. Due to the different constants of velocity of uranium 235 and 238 in the reduction of excited uranyl and in the oxidation of U(V) to UO 2 2+ , there is the probability of forming an isotopic gradient, in the aqueous solution, subjected to a magnetic field gradient, with consequent appropriate extraction. 6 refs

  7. Elemental, stable isotopic and biochemical characterization of soil organic matter alteration across a natural peatland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Belyea, L.; Laing, C.; Allton, K.; Abbott, G.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-12-01

    Northern peatlands store around one third of global soil C and thus represent a key reservoir. To elucidate how these systems might respond to climate change, field- and laboratory-based experimental incubation studies are being conducted at sites across a natural peatland gradient in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden (Ryggmossen). The site comprises four successional stages, from edge to centre; Swamp Forest (SF), Lagg Fen (LF), Bog Margin (BM) and Bog Plateau (BP). The well-preserved succession shows strong decreases in mineral cations and pH, and distinct changes in vegetation and water-table depth. As an underpinning to these experiments, comprehensive characterization of natural soil organic matter (SOM) alteration has been carried out through detailed analyses of vegetation and downcore profiles at contrasting topographic sites (hummock vs hollow) in each of the four locations. As illustrated in Figure 1, while some similarities occur in downcore trends, contrasts are observed in C and N elemental and stable isotopic compositions, between stages and, in some cases, between microtopographic settings. Downcore trends and intersite differences are also observed in biochemical yields and molecular composition (carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, lipids and D/L amino acid ratios). These reflect SOM decay and alteration combined with the effects of contrasting hydrologic, redox and nutrient regimes and differing vegetation and microbial inputs at each of the study sites. Multivariate analysis is used to to elucidate compositional patterns that characterize and delineate progressive SOM decay, specific vegetation types, and the effects of contrasting environmental conditions at the different sites. Figure 1. A. Organic carbon content (wt %), B. Atomic ratio of organic C to total N, C. Stable C isotopic composition of organic C (d13Corg), and D. Stable N isotopic composition of total nitrogen (d15N), all for core profiles from contrasting settings (hummock and

  8. Investigating Planetesimal Evolution by Experiments with Fe-Ni Metallic Melts: Light Element Composition Effects on Trace Element Partitioning Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    As planetesimals were heated up in the early Solar System, the formation of Fe-Ni metallic melts was a common occurrence. During planetesimal differentiation, the denser Fe-Ni metallic melts separated from the less dense silicate components, though some meteorites suggest that their parent bodies only experienced partial differentiation. If the Fe-Ni metallic melts did form a central metallic core, the core eventually crystallized to a solid, some of which we sample as iron meteorites. In all of these planetesimal evolution processes, the composition of the Fe-Ni metallic melt influenced the process and the resulting trace element chemical signatures. In particular, the metallic melt's "light element" composition, those elements present in the metallic melt in a significant concentration but with lower atomic masses than Fe, can strongly affect trace element partitioning. Experimental studies have provided critical data to determine the effects of light elements in Fe-Ni metallic melts on trace element partitioning behavior. Here I focus on combining numerous experimental results to identify trace elements that provide unique insight into constraining the light element composition of early Solar System Fe-Ni metallic melts. Experimental studies have been conducted at 1 atm in a variety of Fe-Ni systems to investigate the effects of light elements on trace element partitioning behavior. A frequent experimental examination of the effects of light elements in metallic systems involves producing run products with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases. Such solid-metal-liquid-metal experiments have been conducted in the Fe-Ni binary system as well as Fe-Ni systems with S, P, and C. Experiments with O-bearing or Si-bearing Fe-Ni metallic melts do not lend themselves to experiments with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases, due to the phase diagrams of these elements, but experiments with two immiscible Fe-Ni metallic melts have provided insight into

  9. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Sun Guchou; Wang Wei

    1989-01-01

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  10. Macro elements and isotopic composition survey in a hydrographic basin in the Center Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Senna, Hillandia Brandao da.

    1992-07-01

    The study was conducted in a 3.5 Km 2 watershed located approximately 60 Km north from Manaus. It's main objective was to quantify major elements inputs through rainfall and outputs via river run-off, and to study the water routing by using water stable isotopes. The sampling was conducted in four different pluviometers and in the main channel of the watershed. The major elements Ca ++ , K + , P and Al do not showed significant temporal variability, however with a lower concentration in relation to other studies. The major elements budget showed a net gain of Mg + , Na ++ , Na ++ and N O 3 - , or the input fluxes were higher than the output fluxes. On the other hand, there was a net loss of K + , Al, Fe, and Cl - . The average values of the delta 18 O and delta Deuterium of the rain water was equal to -3,3% and -14,8% respectively. For the river water the average concentration was lighter than the rain, being equal to -5,1% and -26,1%. (author). 87 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Holocene elemental, lead isotope and charcoal record from peat in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tudyka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mid-resolution elemental, isotopic and charcoal record from 10700 BC to AD 500 in a peat core located in Żyglin (southern Poland. The objective is to give insight into the proxies with emphasis on lead (Pb sources in this minerogenic peat deposit. During the Early Holocene (10700–7550 BC the average 206Pb/207Pb quotient was around 1.196. This isotopic signature is consistent with natural dust derived from long-distance soil and rock weathering. The Mid-Holocene period (7550–3200 BC shows a significant change in the peat accumulation conditions. The growth rate is approximately 0.04 mm yr-1 and the 206Pb/207Pb quotients are shifted toward values that are found in local galena ores. This is simultaneous with a significantly increased lead flux which further confirms local sources of material in this peat deposit. In the Late Holocene period (3200 BC–AD 500 a large quantity of charcoal particles with diameters ranging from 2 mm up to 3 cm is found; also, Pb, Zn and Cu fluxes reach their highest values. This period corresponds to the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, and human impact is recorded as charcoal.

  12. Changing compositions in the Iceland plume; Isotopic and elemental constraints from the Paleogene Faroe flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Elemental and Sr, Nd, Hf and high precision Pb isotopic data are presented from 59 low-Ti and high-Ti lavas from the syn-break up part of the Faroe Flood Basalt Province. The depleted MORB-like low-Ti lavas erupted in the rift zone between the Faroe Islands and central East Greenland around......-type component similar in geochemistry to the Icelandic Öræfajökull lavas. This component is believed to be recycled pelagic sediments in the plume but it can alternatively be a local crustal or lithospheric mantle component. The enriched Faroe high-Ti lavas erupted inland from the rift have isotopic...... compositions very similar to the enriched Icelandic neo-volcanics and these lava suites apparently share the two enriched plume end-members IE1 and IE2 (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 2, 2004). The lack of mixing between high and low-Ti melts at the time of break up, is explained by a zoned plume where only low...

  13. 1987 target values for uncertainty components in fissile isotope and element assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, P.; Baumann, S.; Gorgenyi, T.; Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Dalton, J.; Perrin, R.E.; Pietri, C.; De Regge, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), which at present includes the representation of 37 nuclear analytical laboratories, has long been concerned with defining realistic performance characteristics of destructive analysis techniques. One of the terms of reference of the working groups is: ''to evaluate and recommend criteria for destructive analysis of nuclear materials for use by plant operators and safeguarding authorities''. Some of the most important and most badly needed criteria are those to be used for judging results of quantitative determinations of fissile isotope and element amounts. The working group has recognized and discussed this problem at several meetings and decided that it was appropriate to fix reasonable levels of performance as ''goals'' for nuclear analytical laboratories

  14. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years

  15. Elemental and isotopic imaging of biological samples using NanoSIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L

    2014-01-01

    With its low detection limits and the ability to analyze most of the elements in the periodic table, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) represents one of the most versatile in situ analytical techniques available, and recent developments have resulted in significant advantages for the use of imaging mass spectrometry in biological and biomedical research. Increases in spatial resolution and sensitivity allow detailed interrogation of samples at relevant scales and chemical concentrations. Advances in dynamic SIMS, specifically with the advent of NanoSIMS, now allow the tracking of stable isotopes within biological systems at subcellular length scales, while static SIMS combines subcellular imaging with molecular identification. In this chapter, we present an introduction to the SIMS technique, with particular reference to NanoSIMS, and discuss its application in biological and biomedical research.

  16. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, Micha, E-mail: micha.horacek@ait.ac.at [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7dong, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-12-03

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed {delta}{sup 2}H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for {delta}{sup 13}C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for {delta}{sup 15}N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave {delta}{sup 2}H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , {delta}{sup 13}C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and {delta}{sup 15}N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in {delta}{sup 2}H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  17. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Micha; Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Soja, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ 2 H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for δ 13 C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for δ 15 N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ 2 H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , δ 13 C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and δ 15 N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ 2 H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  18. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  19. The origin and evolution of chondrites recorded in the elemental and isotopic compositions of their macromolecular organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Fogel, M.; Yabuta, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2007-09-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter in meteorites potentially retains a unique record of synthesis and chemical/thermal modification by parent body, nebular and even presolar processes. In a survey of the elemental and isotopic compositions of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from 75 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites, we find dramatic variations within and between chondrite classes. There is no evidence that these variations correlate with the time and/or location of chondrite formation, or with any primary petrologic or bulk compositional features that are associated with nebular processes (e.g., chondrule and volatile trace element abundances). Nor is there evidence for the formation of the IOM by Fischer-Tropsch-Type synthesis in the nebula or in the parent bodies. The elemental variations are consistent with thermal maturation and/or oxidation of a common precursor. For reasons that are unclear, there are large variations in isotopic composition within and between chondrite classes that do not correlate in a simple way with elemental composition or petrologic type. Nevertheless, because of the pattern of elemental variations with petrologic type and the lack of any correlation with the primary features of the chondrite classes, at present the most likely explanation is that all IOM compositional variations are the result of parent body processing of a common precursor. If correct, the range of isotopic compositions within and between chondrite classes implies that the IOM is composed of several isotopically distinct components whose relative stability varied with parent body conditions. The most primitive IOM is found in the CR chondrites and Bells (CM2). Isotopically, the IOM from these meteorites resembles the IOM in interplanetary dust particles. Chemically, their IOM resembles the CHON particles of comet Halley. Despite the large isotopic anomalies in the IOM from these meteorites, it is uncertain whether the IOM formed in the interstellar medium or

  20. Investigation of Chemical and Physical Changes to Bioapatite During Fossilization Using Trace Element Geochemistry, Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Bioapatite in the form of vertebrate bone can be used for a wide variety of paleo-proxies, from determination of ancient diet to the isotopic composition of meteoric water. Bioapatite alteration during diagenesis is a constant barrier to the use of fossil bone as a paleo-proxy. To elucidate the physical and chemical alteration of bone apatite during fossilization, we analyzed an assortment of fossil bones of different ages for trace elements, using LA-ICP-MS, stable isotopes, and reflected IR spectroscopy. One set of fossil bones from the Pleistocene of Idaho show a diffusion recrystallization profile, however, rare earth element (REE) profiles indicate diffusion adsorption. This suggests that REE diffusion is controlled by changing (namely decreasing) boundary conditions (i.e. decreasing concentration of REE in surrounding pore fluids). Reflected IR analysis along this concentration profile reveal that areas high in U have lost type A carbonate from the crystal structure in addition to water and organics. Stable isotopic analysis of carbon and oxygen will determine what, if any, change in the isotopic composition of the carbonate component of apatite has occurred do to the diffusion and recrystallization process. Analysis of much older bone from the Cretaceous of China reveal shallow REE and U concentration profiles and very uniform reflected IR spectra with a significant loss of type A carbonate throughout the entire bone cortex. Analysis of stable isotopes through the bone cortex will be compared to the stable isotopes collected from the Pleistocene of Idaho.

  1. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  2. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  3. Light element geochemistry and spallogenesis in lunar rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were measured in eleven lunar rocks. Samples were combusted sequentially at three temperatures to resolve terrestrial contamination from indigenous volatiles. Sulfur abundances in Apollo 16 highland rocks range from 73 to 1165 μg/g, whereas sulfur contents in Apollo 15 and 17 basalts range from 719 to 1455 μg/g and correlate with TiO 2 content. Lunar rocks as a group have a remarkably uniform sulfur isotopic composition, which may reflect the low oxygen fugacity of the basaltic magmas. Much of the range of reported delta 34 Ssub(CD) values is caused by systematic analytical discrepancies between laboratories. Lunar rocks very likely contain less than 0.1 μg/g of nitrogen. The measured spallogenic production rate, 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y., agrees remarkably closely with previous estimates. An estimate which includes all available data is 3.7 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y. Lunar basalts may contain no indigenous lunar carbon in excess of procedural blank levels. Highland rocks consistently release about 1 to 5 μg/g of carbon in excess of blank levels, but this carbon might either derive from ancient meteoritic debris or be a mineralogic product of terrestrial weathering. The average measured spallogenic 13 C production rate is 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 13 C/g sample/m.y. (author)

  4. In vivo trace element speciation study by using enriched stable isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Shi Junwen; Ding Wenjun

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the radioactive tracer method, the enriched stable isotopic technique used in life sciences will not cause radiation damage to cells and its operation will be no radioactive risk, In our laboratory, the enriched stable isotopes Cr-50, Hg-196 and Hg-198 combined with biochemical separation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-IVIS) have been used to investigate the element speciation in vivo. Chromium (Cr) is proposed to act as a potentiator of insulin action in animals and human beings. Its deficiency induces the symptoms resembling diabetes and its supplement can alleviate these symptoms. However, as the concentration of Cr in vivo is usually at ultratrace level(- ng/g), its speciation study is usually difficult, since it is almost impossible to avoid the exogenous Cr contamination caused by separation and determination processes. Therefore, in this study, 50 Cr 2 O 3 with 94.2% 50 Cr was used as a tracer combined with gel chromatography to study the Cr speciation in serum, liver, urine and other tissues of healthy and diabetic rats. The Cr concentrations can be determined via 50 Cr(n, γ) 51 Cr by NAA, which is ideally suited for the ultratrace element analyses due to its high precision, accuracy and sensitivity. Such research have found that the most quantity of chromium in vivo is mainly combined with high molecular weight proteins, which is later identified as transferrin and low molecular weight protein is mainly excreted from urine. Mercury is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the global environment. Mercury compounds in the environment are often difficult to degrade. However, the mechanism on mercury toxicity to developing children following long term and low dose of mercury exposure is still not clear. Therefore, high sensitive method in vivo needs to be developed to study such low level mercury toxicity to fetus In this

  5. High resolution conductometry for isotopic assay of deuterium in mixtures of heavy water and light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayanan, R.; Sahoo, P.; Murali, N.

    2014-01-01

    A PC based high resolution conductivity monitoring technique has been deployed for determination of isotopic purity of heavy water in samples containing heavy water and light water mixtures using pulsating sensor based conductivity monitoring instrument. The technique involves accurate determination of conductivities of a series of specially treated heavy water and light water mixtures of various compositions at a constant solution temperature. The shift in conductivity (Δκ), which is the difference between conductivities of composite mixture after and before the formation of a typical complex compound (boric acid–mannitol complex in this case), shows a smooth and reproducible decreasing trend with increase in percentage composition of heavy water. This relation, which is obtained by appropriate calibration, is used in the software program for direct display of isotopic purity of heavy water. The technique is examined for determination of percentage composition of heavy water in the entire range of concentration (0-100 %) with reasonable precision (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤1.5 %). About 1 mL of sample is required for each analysis and analysis is completed within a couple of minutes after pretreatment of sample. The accuracy in measurement is ≤1.75 %. (author)

  6. Isotope effect in heavy/light water suspensions of optically active gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, V. Y.; Artykulnyi, O. P.; Petrenko, V. I.; Avdeev, M. V.; Marchenko, O. A.; Bulavin, L. A.; Snegir, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    Aqueous suspensions of optically active gold nanoparticles coated with trisodium citrate were synthesized in light (H2O) water and mixture of light and heavy (H2O/D2O) water using the modified Turkevich protocol. The objective of the paper was to verify sensitivity of neutron scattering methods (in particular, neutron reflectometry) to the potential isotope H/D substitution in the stabilizing organic shell around particles in colloidal solutions. First, the isotope effect was studied with respect to the changes in the structural properties of metal particles (size, shape, crystalline morphology) in solutions by electron microscopy including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy from dried systems. The structural factors determining the variation in the adsorption spectra in addition to the change in the optical properties of surrounding medium were discussed. Then, neutron reflectometry was applied to the layered nanoparticles anchored on a silicon wafer via 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane molecules to reveal the presence of deuterated water molecules in the shell presumably formed by citrate molecules around the metallic core.

  7. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1986-06-01

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO 2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup1 3 C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  8. Investigation of Vertical Migration of Pollutants through the Unsaturated Zone Using Stable Isotopes and Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical migration of pollutants through unsaturated zone is a complicated process and is affected by a number of factors like type of soil, its chemical properties, or organic matter content, in addition to climatic conditions and biological activity of microorganisms in soil. Soil properties that influence water movement through unsaturated zone are important for determining flow paths, reactions between soil and pollutants and the ultimate destination of these pollutants, and may improve the diagnosis of the potential pollution risk. Three soil cores were sampled to a depth up to 100 cm from cultivated clayey soil, sewage irrigated sandy soil and fertilized sandy soil. The samples were collected at intervals of 5 or 10 cm. The δ 13 C signature of the soil shifted significantly towards that of C 3 -type vegetation in soil cores. The general trend toward heavier 13 C enrichment with depth could be due to isotopic fractionation occurring during decomposition of soil organic matters. Increased δ 15 N with depth in the soil cores suggests that microbial mineralization, denitrification, or volatilization processes caused the enriched δ 15 N signatures. Decreasing nitrogen percent and nitrate values with depth also help support the idea of microbiological processes. The results indicate that concentrations of major and trace elements varied widely among the different soil types and decreased with depths in the studied soil profile. The accumulation pattern for these elements in the soil profiles follows the order: Co < Ni < Mo < Ag < Sr < V < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn < B < Mg < Al < Fe. The relationships between element concentrations against ph and organic matter contents show antithetical relationships and suggest evidence that these elements arise from anthropogenic input. The results of this study show that there exists risk for the environment due to notable migration of pollutants through the unsaturated zone and that the migrations were also observed to be highly

  9. Experimental constraints on light elements in the Earth’s outer core

    OpenAIRE

    Youjun Zhang; Toshimori Sekine; Hongliang He; Yin Yu; Fusheng Liu; Mingjian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Earth?s outer core is liquid and dominantly composed of iron and nickel (~5?10?wt%). Its density, however, is ~8% lower than that of liquid iron, and requires the presence of a significant amount of light element(s). A good way to specify the light element(s) is a direct comparison of density and sound velocity measurements between seismological data and those of possible candidate compositions at the core conditions. We report the sound velocity measurements of a model core composition in th...

  10. Geochemistry of CI chondrites: Major and trace elements, and Cu and Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Moynier, F.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Bayon, G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to check the heterogeneity of the CI chondrites and determine the average composition of this group of meteorites, we analyzed a series of six large chips (weighing between 0.6 and 1.2 g) of Orgueil prepared from five different stones. In addition, one sample from each of Ivuna and Alais was analyzed. Although the sizes of the chips used in this study were “large”, our results show evidence for minor chemical heterogeneity in Orgueil, particularly for alkali elements and U. After removal of one outlier sample, the spread of the results is considerably reduced. For most of the 46 elements analyzed in this study, the average composition calculated for Orgueil is in very good agreement with previous CI estimates. This average, obtained with a “large” mass of samples, is analytically homogeneous and is suitable for normalization purposes. Finally, the Cu and Zn isotopic ratios are homogeneously distributed within the CI parent body with a spread of less than 100 ppm per atomic mass unit (amu).

  11. Amphiboles as indicators of mantle source contamination: Combined evaluation of stable H and O isotope compositions and trace element ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demény, A.; Harangi, S.; Vennemann, T.W.; Casillas, R.; Horváth, P.; Milton, A.J.; Mason, P.R.D.; Ulianov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope and trace element compositions of igneous amphiboles from different tectonic settings (ocean island basalts, intraplate alkaline basalts, subduction-related andesitic complexes) were compiled to help understand the role of fluids and melts in subduction-related mantle metasomatism

  12. Ocean circulation and shelf processes in the Arctic, Mediterranean traced by radiogenic neodymium isotopes, rare earth elements and stable oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukert, Georgi

    2017-02-20

    Disentangling the sources, distribution and mixing of water masses involved in the transport and transfer of heat and freshwater in the Arctic Mediterranean (i.e. the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, AM) is critical for the understanding of present and future hydrological changes in the high-latitude regions. This study refines the knowledge of water mass circulation in the AM and provides new insights into the processes occurring on the Arctic shelves and in high-latitude estuaries. A multi-proxy approach is used combining dissolved radiogenic Nd isotopes (ε{sub Nd}), rare earth elements (REEs) and stable oxygen isotopes (δ{sup 18}O) together with standard hydrographic tracers. The sources, distribution and mixing of water masses that circulate in the AM and pass the Fram Strait are assessed through evaluation of dissolved ε{sub Nd} and REE, and δ{sup 18}O data obtained from samples recovered in 2012, 2014 and 2015, and through a compilation and reassessment of literature Nd isotope and concentration data previously reported for other sites within the AM. The Nd isotope and REE distribution in the central Fram Strait and the open AM is shown to primarily reflect the lateral advection of water masses and their mixing, whereas seawater-particle interactions exert important control only above the shelf regions. New insights into the processes occurring in high latitude estuaries are provided by dissolved Nd isotope and REE compositions together with δ{sup 18}O data for the Laptev Sea based on filtered samples recovered in 2012, 2013 and 2014. A combination of REE removal through coagulation of nanoparticles and colloids and REE redistribution within the water column through formation and melting of sea ice and river ice is suggested to account for the distribution of all REEs, while no REE release from particles is observed. The ice-related processes contribute to the redistribution of other elements and ultimately may also affect primary productivity in high

  13. Evaporation Loss of Light Elements as a Function of Cooling Rate: Logarithmic Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-Liang; Hewins, Roger H.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about the evaporation loss of light elements is important to our understanding of chondrule formation processes. The evaporative loss of light elements (such as B and Li) as a function of cooling rate is of special interest because recent investigations of the distribution of Li, Be and B in meteoritic chondrules have revealed that Li varies by 25 times, and B and Be varies by about 10 times. Therefore, if we can extrapolate and interpolate with confidence the evaporation loss of B and Li (and other light elements such as K, Na) at a wide range of cooling rates of interest based upon limited experimental data, we would be able to assess the full range of scenarios relating to chondrule formation processes. Here, we propose that evaporation loss of light elements as a function of cooling rate should obey the logarithmic law.

  14. Light rare earth element systematics as a tool for investigating the petrogenesis of phoscorite-carbonatite associations, as exemplified by the Phalaborwa Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Bolhar, Robert; Frei, Dirk; Harlov, Daniel E.; Samuel, Vinod O.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ trace element analyses of fluorapatite, calcite, dolomite, olivine, and phlogopite have been undertaken on representative phoscorite and carbonatite rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Phalaborwa Complex. Textural and compositional characterization reveals uniformity of fluorapatite and calcite among most of the intrusions, and seems to favor a common genetic origin for the phoscorite-carbonatite association. Representing major repositories for rare earth elements (REE), fluorapatite and calcite exhibit tightly correlated light REE (LREE) abundances, suggesting that partitioning of LREE into these rock forming minerals was principally controlled by simple igneous differentiation. However, light rare earth element distribution in apatite and calcite cannot be adequately explained by equilibrium and fractional crystallization and instead favors a complex crystallization history involving mixing of compositionally distinct magma batches, in agreement with previously reported mineral isotope variability that requires open-system behaviour.

  15. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  16. Elemental, isotopic, and structural changes in Tagish Lake insoluble organic matter produced by parent body processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2014-04-01

    Here, we present the results of a multitechnique study of the bulk properties of insoluble organic material (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorite, including four lithologies that have undergone different degrees of aqueous alteration. The IOM C contents of all four lithologies are very uniform and comprise about half the bulk C and N contents of the lithologies. However, the bulk IOM elemental and isotopic compositions vary significantly. In particular, there is a correlated decrease in bulk IOM H/C ratios and δD values with increasing degree of alteration—the IOM in the least altered lithology is intermediate between CM and CR IOM, while that in the more altered lithologies resembles the very aromatic IOM in mildly metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites, and heated CMs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C X-ray absorption near-edge (XANES), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm and quantitate this transformation from CR-like, relatively aliphatic IOM functional group chemistry to a highly aromatic one. The transformation is almost certainly thermally driven, and probably occurred under hydrothermal conditions. The lack of a paramagnetic shift in 13C NMR spectra and 1s-σ* exciton in the C-XANES spectra, both typically seen in metamorphosed chondrites, shows that the temperatures were lower and/or the timescales were shorter than experienced by even the least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Two endmember models were considered to quantitatively account for the changes in IOM functional group chemistry, but the one in which the transformations involved quantitative conversion of aliphatic material to aromatic material was the more successful. It seems likely that similar processes were involved in producing the diversity of IOM compositions and functional group chemistries among CR, CM, and CI chondrites. If correct, CRs experienced the lowest temperatures, while CM and CI chondrites experienced similar more elevated temperatures

  17. Isotopic and elemental chemistry of sedimentary pyrite: A combined analytical and statistical approach to a novel planetary biosignature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, M. C.; Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Williford, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Life processes affect trace element abundances in pyrite such that sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite have significantly different trace element signatures. Thus, we propose that these biogeochemical data could be used to identify pyrite that formed biogenetically either early in our planet's history or on other planets, particularly Mars. The potential for this approach is elevated because pyrite is common in diverse sedimentary settings, and its trace element content can be preserved despite secondary overprints up to greenschist facies, thus minimizing the concerns about remobilization that can plague traditional whole rock studies. We are also including in-situ sulfur isotope analysis to further refine our understanding of the complex signatures of ancient pyrite. Sulfur isotope data can point straightforwardly to the involvement of life, because pyrite in sediments is inextricably linked to bacterial sulfate reduction and its diagnostic isotopic expressions. In addition to analyzing pyrite of known biological origin formed in the modern and ancient oceans under a range of conditions, we are building a data set for pyrite formed by hydrothermal and metamorphic processes to minimize the risk of false positives in life detection. We have used Random Forests (RF), a machine learning statistical technique with proven efficiency for classifying large geological datasets, to classify pyrite into biotic and abiotic end members. Coupling the trace element and sulfur isotope data from our analyses with a large existing dataset from diverse settings has yielded 4500 analyses with 18 different variables. Our initial results reveal the promise of the RF approach, correctly identifying biogenic pyrite 97 percent of the time. We will continue to couple new in-situ S-isotope and trace element analyses of biogenic pyrite grains from modern and ancient environments, using cutting-edge microanalytical techniques, with new data from high temperature settings. Our ultimately goal

  18. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope and trace element studies in speleothems and across the J-K boundary, Central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudielka, G.

    2001-07-01

    Carbon and Oxygen stable isotope ratios of carbonates decisively depend on fractionation during physicochemical processes. Therefore, they represent a powerful tool to derive information on past conditions under which the carbonates formed. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) offers a large range of applications. This thesis presents two projects based upon investigation of carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios combined with trace element abundances (determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA) in carbonates. (1) Palaeoclimatic investigation on speleothems from central Italy. Four speleothems from Grotta Grande del Vento, central Italy, were analyzed for stable isotope ratios and trace element abundances, and age dated to obtain a chronologically reliable stable isotope profile. The speleothems were sampled by means of a dental drill to gain a stable isotope profile with a 0.5 mm resolution, trace element abundances have been performed by INAA every 0.5 cm, and the samples for age dating were picked according to remarkable features in the stable isotope trends and analyzed by TIMS. The record covers the period from 93 ka until the early holocene with a hiatus lasting from 75 ka until 65.0 ka. Speleothem growth during the last glacial indicates moderate conditions in the Frasassi region back then. Comparison with speleothems from Ireland, France and northern Italy reveal a north-south slope in d18O, indicating, that the rain over central Italy mainly originates from the North Atlantic. Depletion of moisture in d18O during its continental trajectory is due to rainout, which primarily extracts the heavy isotopes. The stable isotope record is in good agreement with the high-resolution speleothem record from Soreq Cave, Israel. Distinct isotopic events coincide between 85 ka and 80 ka, between ∼ 60 ka and 50 ka and from the last glacial to the early holocene. An offset has been existing between the two records at any time. The speleothems of

  19. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2009-01-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  20. A site-specific and multi-element isotopic approach to origin inference of sugars in foods and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.L.; Martin, G.J.; Guillou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for the characterization of sugars according to their botanical origin. The samples fermented in standardized conditions can be described in the multi-dimensional space of the overall carbon isotope ratio of ethanol measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and of the specific hydrogen isotope parameters of the methyl and methylene sites derived from nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR method). In the comparison of natural juices, the deuterium and oxygen-18 parameters of water extracted from the juice and from the end fermentation medium also contain information on the origin of the product. The isotopic effects of the concentration processes leading to concentrated juices, musts and syrups can be estimated and taken into account in interpreting the data. The classification power of this multi-element and multi-site approach is illustrated by discriminant analyses involving selected isotopic variables associated with pineapple, apple and barley sugars, compared to beet and cane sugars which are common sources of enrichment. The ability of the method to detect adulteration by exogenous sugars is improved when environmental conditions can be taken into account. (authors)

  1. Focusing light through random photonic layers by four-element division algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longjie; Zhang, Xicheng; Zuo, Haoyi; Pang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    The propagation of waves in turbid media is a fundamental problem of optics with vast applications. Optical phase optimization approaches for focusing light through turbid media using phase control algorithm have been widely studied in recent years due to the rapid development of spatial light modulator. The existing approaches include element-based algorithms - stepwise sequential algorithm, continuous sequential algorithm and whole element optimization approaches - partitioning algorithm, transmission matrix approach and genetic algorithm. The advantage of element-based approaches is that the phase contribution of each element is very clear; however, because the intensity contribution of each element to the focal point is small especially for the case of large number of elements, the determination of the optimal phase for a single element would be difficult. In other words, the signal to noise ratio of the measurement is weak, leading to possibly local maximal during the optimization. As for whole element optimization approaches, all elements are employed for the optimization. Of course, signal to noise ratio during the optimization is improved. However, because more random processings are introduced into the processing, optimizations take more time to converge than the single element based approaches. Based on the advantages of both single element based approaches and whole element optimization approaches, we propose FEDA approach. Comparisons with the existing approaches show that FEDA only takes one third of measurement time to reach the optimization, which means that FEDA is promising in practical application such as for deep tissue imaging.

  2. Multi-element determination in environmental samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilpert, K.; Waidmann, E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the multi-element analysis of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb in pine needles by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization has been reported in Part I of this paper. This procedure is now transferred to the non-vegetable material 'Oyster Tissue' (Standard Reference Material 1566, National Bureau of Standards, USA). By a modification of the analytical procedure, it was possible to determine Cr in this material in addition to the aforementioned elements. No concentrations are certified for the elements Ga, Ba and Tl analyzed in this work. The concentrations of the remaining elements obtained by the multi-element analysis agree well with those certified. (orig.)

  3. Elemental and isotopic (Si-{sup 29} and O-{sup 18}) tracing of glass alteration mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verney-Carron, A.; Libourel, G.; Deloule, E. [CNRS, Ctr Rech Petrog and Geochim, UPR 2300, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Valle, N. [Ctr Rech Publ Gabriel Lippmann, Dept Sci and Anal Mat, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Sterpenich, J. [Univ H Poincare, G2R, CNRS, UMR 7566, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, Lab Comportement Long Terme, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    To better understand glass alteration mechanisms, especially alteration layers formation, leaching experiments of a borosilicate glass (SON68) doped with a different rare earth element (La, Ce, or Nd) with solutions rich in {sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O were carried out. The coupled analyses of glass, alteration products, and solution led to a complete elemental and isotopic ({sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O) budget. They revealed different behaviours of elements that depend not only on their structural role in the glass, but also on their affinity for alteration products (gel, phyllosilicates, phosphates). However, analyses of both glass and solution are not sufficient to describe the real exchanges occurring between glass and solution. The use of {sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O tracers gives new insights on the formation of alteration layers. During alteration the phyllosilicates records the isotopic variations of the leaching solution. Their isotopic signatures highlight a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation, which implies equilibrium between the secondary phases and the solution. On the other hand the gel isotopic signature, that is intermediate between the glass and the solution, substantiates the hypothesis that the gel is formed by hydrolysis/condensation reactions. This mechanism can thus explain the influence of the gel formation conditions (alteration conditions, solution saturation) on the structure (reorganisation) and texture (porosity) of this layer and on its protective effect. These hydrolysis/condensation reactions are also certainly involved in the aluminosilicate glass alteration and in the formation of palagonite. (authors)

  4. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  5. Big Bang nucleosynthesis and abundances of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBNS) theory is sketched, indicating the dependence of primordial abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He and 7 Li on the mean baryonic density of the universe and the dependence of 4 He on the number of neutrino families and the neutron half-life. Observational data and inferred primordial abundances of these elements are reviewed and shown to be consistent (within errors) either with standard BBNS in a homogeneous universe about 100 seconds after the Big Bang or with moderately inhomogeneous BBNS models resulting from earlier phase transitions like the quark-hadron transition if this is first order. However, models with closure density supplied by baryons are apparently ruled out. Finally, implications for the existence of baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Ramsey spectroscopy by direct use of resonant light on isotope atoms for single-photon detuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hoon; Choi, Mi Hyun; Moon, Ye Lin; Kim, Seung Jin; Kim, Jung Bog [Korea National University of Education, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with cold {sup 87}Rb atoms via a two-photon Raman process. One laser beam has a cross-over resonant frequency on the {sup 85}Rb transition and the other beam has a 6.8 GHz shifted frequency. These two laser beams fulfill the two-photon Raman resonance condition, which involves a single-photon detuning of -2.6 GHz. By implementing these two lasers on cold {sup 87}Rb atoms, we demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with an interrogation time of the intermediate state by using π/2 Raman pulses. In our laser system, we can change the single-photon detuning to 1.2, 4.2 or -5.6 GHz by changing the {sup 85}Rb transition line used as a locking signal and an injected sideband. The laser system that directly uses resonant light on isotope atoms will be described in this paper.

  7. Transport of natural series radionuclides and light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon of a monazite region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, D. da

    2002-01-01

    It has been investigated the transport of radionuclides of natural radioactive series and the light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in whose water was found abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and light rare earth elements (LREEs). Four sampling campaigns were carried out: two in rainy and two in dry seasons. Sediment and water samples were collected in seven sampling stations along of the lagoon's 5.4-km. The stations were localized in the map of the lagoon by global positioning system, GPS. Still at the field, it was determined the conductivity, alkalinity, Eh and pH in the water and the pH and Eh in the sediment samples. The determination of Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210 activity concentrations in the water samples were performed by gross alpha and beta counting. The Th, U, light rare earth elements (La-Sm), Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Al and Fe were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Perkin Elmer-Sciex, model Elan 5000 A) by the TotalQuant method. Argentometric (chloride), turbidimetric (sulfate), cadmium reduction (nitrate), ascorbic acid reduction (phosphate) and selective ion electrode (fluoride) methods determined anions (2). Organic and inorganic dissolved carbons were determined by combustion-infrared method using a carbon analyzer (2). The sediment samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, to determine Ra-228 (Ac-228, 911 keV) and Ra-226 (Bi-214, 609 keV) (3), and after sample dissolution by ICP-MS aiming the determination of U, Th and LREE concentrations. (author)

  8. Effects of layer nanodefects on the light transmission by optical elements with multilayer interference coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekeshgazyi, Yi.V.; Syidenko, T.S.; Mitsa, O.V.; Barna, P.; Kyikyineshyi, O.Ye.

    2011-01-01

    The light transmission properties of optical elements with multilayer interference coatings have been studied. The reduction of transmittance maxima for optical elements with coating containing defects is found to be stronger for larger refractive indices of the substances that the defects are made of. The shape of transmittance curves is found to substantially depend on the defect dimensions along the direction of light propagation and the defect arrangement in the layer bulk. The results obtained are necessary for the developing of a technology aimed at manufacturing the optical elements with multilayer interference coatings for laser facilities and optical lenses.

  9. Radium, thorium, and the light rare earth elements in soils and vegetables grown in an area of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Franca, E.P.; Sachett, I.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress in Brazil to assess the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th and the light rare earth elements (REE) La, Ce, and Nd. Thorium serves as an analog for Pu(IV) and La or Nd as analogs for Am and Cm(III). A near-surface deposit of Th (∼30,000 tons) and REE (>100,000 tons) exists at the center of the plateau near the summit of a small hill. No trends have been observed between farm soil concentrations and proximity to the ore body, substantiating earlier conclusions of the relative immobility of these elements from the deposit. New analytical procedures are presented for the sequential determination of isotopic thorium and the light REE in large biological samples. Typical radiochemical yields are 50 to 70% for Th and 80 to 100% for the REE. Preliminary analyses of seven vegetable types indicate that concentrations of Th, La, Nd, Ce, and Sm are quite variable between and among species. Average concentrations in plant tissues generally reflect soil abundances as: Ce > La > Nd > Sm ∼ Th. Mean CRs are 604, 270, 24, 17, 8 and 1 for 228 Ra, 226 Ra, La, Nd, Ce, and Th, respectively. Plant uptake of elements with stable oxidation states of II, III, and IV decreases as Ra(II) > REE(III) > Th(IV), which may reflect the availability of these elements in soil. 33 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  10. Laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometer for isotope mass detection and elemental analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Ahmed, Rizwan; Umar, Z. A.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the construction and modification of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer to improve its mass resolution. This system consists of a laser ablation/ionization section based on a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 500 mJ, 5 ns pulse duration) integrated with a one meter linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with an electric sector and a magnetic lens and outfitted with a channeltron electron multiplier for ion detection. The resolution of the system has been improved by optimizing the accelerating potential and inserting a magnetic lens after the extraction region. The isotopes of lithium, lead and cadmium samples have been resolved and detected in accordance with their natural abundance. The capability of the system has been further exploited to determine the elemental composition of a brass alloy, having a certified composition of zinc and copper. Our results are in excellent agreement with its certified composition. This setup is found to be extremely efficient and convenient for fast analyses of any solid sample.

  11. Evolution of the Campanian Ignimbrite Magmatic System II: Trace Element and Th Isotopic Evidence for Open-System Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrson, W. A.; Spera, F. J.; Fowler, S.; Belkin, H.; de Vivo, B.

    2005-12-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite, a large volume (~200 km3 DRE) trachytic to phonolitic ignimbrite was deposited at ~39.3 ka and represents the largest of a number of highly explosive volcanic events in the region near Naples, Italy. Thermodynamic modeling of the major element evolution using the MELTS algorithm (see companion contribution by Fowler et al.) provides detailed information about the identity of and changes in proportions of solids along the liquid line of descent during isobaric fractional crystallization. We have derived trace element mass balance equations that explicitly accommodate changing mineral-melt bulk distribution coefficients during crystallization and also simultaneously satisfy energy and major element mass conservation. Although major element patterns are reasonably modeled assuming closed system fractional crystallization, modeling of trace elements that represent a range of behaviors (e.g. Zr, Nb, Th, U, Rb, Sm, Sr) yields trends for closed system fractionation that are distinct from those observed. These results suggest open-system processes were also important in the evolution of the Campanian magmatic system. Th isotope data yield an apparent isochron that is ~20 kyr younger than the age of the deposit, and age-corrected Th isotope data indicate that the magma body was an open-system at the time of eruption. Because open-system processes can profoundly change isotopic characteristics of a magma body, these results illustrate that it is critical to understand the contribution that open-system processes make to silicic magma bodies prior to assigning relevance to age or timescale information derived from isotope systematics. Fluid-magma interaction has been proposed as a mechanism to change isotopic and elemental characteristics of magma bodies, but an evaluation of the mass and thermal constraints on such a process suggest large-scale fluid-melt interaction at liquidus temperatures is unlikely. In the case of the magma body associated with

  12. Isotopic abundance analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with a combined elemental analyzer-mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, K.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are of growing interest as analytical tool in many fields of research, but applications were somewhat hindered in the past by the fact that cumbersome sample preparation was necessary. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an elemental analyzer with an isotope mass spectrometer, enabling fast and reliable conversion of C-, N- and S-compounds in any solid or liquid sample into the measuring gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide for on-line isotopic analysis. The experimental set-up and the main characteristics are described in short and examples of application in environmental research, food analysis and clinical diagnosis are given. (orig.)

  13. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry of ion beam sputtered neutrals for element- and isotope-selective analysis of plutonium in micro-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, N. [Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Passler, G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Micro-particles containing actinides are of interest for risk assessments of contaminated areas, nuclear forensic analyses, and IAEA as well as Euratom safeguards programs. For their analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been established as the state-of-the-art standard technique. In the case of actinide mixtures within the particles, however, SIMS suffers from isobaric interferences (e.g., {sup 238}U/{sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am/{sup 241}Pu). This can be eliminated by applying resonance ionization mass spectrometry which is based on stepwise resonant excitation and ionization of atoms with laser light, followed by mass spectrometric detection of the produced ions, combining high elemental selectivity with the analysis of isotopic compositions. This paper describes the instrumental modifications for coupling a commercial time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS apparatus with three-step resonant post-ionization of the sputtered neutrals using a high-repetition-rate (kHz) Nd:YAG laser pumped tunable titanium:sapphire laser system. Spatially resolved ion images obtained from actinide-containing particles in TOF-SIMS mode demonstrate the capability for isotopic and spatial resolution. Results from three-step resonant post-ionization of bulk Gd and Pu samples successfully demonstrate the high elemental selectivity of this process. (orig.)

  14. Multiple enrichment of the Carpathian-Pannonian mantle: Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Marjorie; Downes, Hilary

    1997-07-01

    Pb isotope compositions of acid-leached clinopyroxene and amphibole mineral separates from spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths entrained in Tertiary-Quaternary alkali basalts from the Carpathian-Pannonian Region of eastern Europe provide important constraints on the processes of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle lithosphere in an extensional tectonic setting associated with recent subduction. Principal component analysis of Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and rare earth element compositions of the pyroxenes is used to identify the geochemical characteristics of the original lithospheric mantle protolith and a spectrum of infiltrating metasomatic agents including subduction-related aqueous fluids and silicate melts derived from a subduction-modified mantle wedge which contains a St. Helena-type (HIMU) plume component. The mantle protolith is highly depleted relative to mid-ocean ridge basalt-source mantle with Pb-Nd-Sr isotope compositions consistent with an ancient depletion event. Silicate melt infiltration into the protolith accounts for the primary variance in the Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the xenoliths and has locally generated metasomatic amphibole. Infiltration of aqueous fluids has introduced radiogenic Pb and Sr without significantly perturbing the rare earth element signature of the protolith. The Pb isotope compositions of the fluid-modified xenoliths suggest that they reacted with aqueous fluids released from a subduction zone which had equilibrated with sediment derived from an ancient basement terrain. We propose a model for mantle lithosphere evolution consistent with available textural and geochemical data for the xenolith population. The Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions of both alkaline mafic magmas and rare, subduction-related, calc-alkaline basaltic andesites from the region provide important constraints for the nature of the asthenospheric mantle wedge and confirm the presence of a HIMU plume component. These silicate melts contribute to the metasomatism

  15. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Segregation of Calcium Isotopes in the Atmospheres of CP Stars as a Consequence of Light-Induced Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, A. I.; Shalagin, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    A mechanism for the segregation of calcium isotopes in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar (CP) stars due to light-induced drift (LID) of singly charged 48Ca+ ions is discussed. One peculiarity of Ca+ is that an adequate description of the effect of LID requires taking into account several energy levels of Ca+, and thus several pairs of relative differences ( ν i - ν k )/ ν i for the transport frequencies for collisions of levels i and k with neutral atoms (hydrogen, helium). The known real (calculated ab initio) interaction potentials are used to numerically calculate the factors ( ν i - ν k )/ ν i for several states of Ca+ for collisions with H and He atoms. These computations show that, at the temperatures characteristic of the atmospheres of CP stars, T = 6600-12 000 K, fairly high values are obtained for Ca+ ions, ( ν i - ν k )/ ν i ≈ 0.4-0.6. Simple, transparent computations demonstrate that the LID rates of Ca+ ions in the atmospheres of cool CP stars ( T eff = 6600 K) exceed the drift rate due to light pressure by two orders of magnitude. The LID is directed upward in the stellar atmosphere, and the heavy isotope 48Ca is pushed into upper layers of the atmosphere. This can explain the observed predominance of the heavy isotope 48Ca in the upper atmospheric layers of CP stars; according to the radiative-diffusion theory, the action of light pressure alone (in the absence of LID) would lead to sinking of the isotope 48Ca deeper into stellar atmosphere, following the lighter main isotope 40Ca. The 48Ca+ LIDrate decreases and its drift rate due to light pressure increases with growth of the effective temperatures in the atmospheres of CP stars. The manifestations of LID and light pressure are roughly comparable in the atmospheres of CP stars with effective temperatures near T eff = 9500 K.

  17. DETERMINING THE ELEMENTAL AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE PRESOLAR NEBULA FROM GENESIS DATA ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, J Martin; Heber, V S; Burnett, D S; Guan, Y; Hervig, R; Huss, G R; Jurewicz, A J G; Koeman-Shields, E C; McKeegan, K D; Nittler, L; Reisenfeld, D B; Rieck, K D; Wang, J; Wiens, R C; Woolum, D S

    2017-12-10

    We compare element and isotopic fractionations measured in solar wind samples collected by NASA's Genesis mission with those predicted from models incorporating both the ponderomotive force in the chromosphere and conservation of the first adiabatic invariant in the low corona. Generally good agreement is found, suggesting that these factors are consistent with the process of solar wind fractionation. Based on bulk wind measurements, we also consider in more detail the isotopic and elemental abundances of O. We find mild support for an O abundance in the range 8.75 - 8.83, with a value as low as 8.69 disfavored. A stronger conclusion must await solar wind regime specific measurements from the Genesis samples.

  18. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated ......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals.......Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated...

  19. Geographic authentication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) using multi-elemental and stable isotopic data combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Hee; Son, Na-Young; Jin, Yong-Ik; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the world's third largest food crop after wheat and corn. Geographic authentication of rice has recently emerged asan important issue for enhancing human health via food safety and quality assurance. Here, we aimed to discriminate rice of six Asian countries through geographic authentication using combinations of elemental/isotopic composition analysis and chemometric techniques. Principal components analysis could distinguish samples cultivated from most countries, except for those cultivated in the Philippines and Japan. Furthermore, orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis provided clear discrimination between rice cultivated in Korea and other countries. The major common variables responsible for differentiation in these models were δ 34 S, Mn, and Mg. Our findings contribute to understanding the variations of elemental and isotopic compositions in rice depending on geographic origins, and offer valuable insight into the control of fraudulent labeling regarding the geographic origins of rice traded among Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals....

  1. Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shirokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Gulbekian, G G; Bogomolov, S L; Gikal, B N; Mezentsev, A N; Iliev, S; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Vostokin, G K; Itkis, M G; Moody, K J; . Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Wild, J F; Lougheed, R W

    2006-01-01

    The decay properties of 290 116 and 291 116, and the dependence of their production cross sections on the excitation energies of the compound nucleus, 293 116, have been measured in the 245 Cm( 48 Ca,xn) 293-x 116 reaction. These isotopes of element 116 are the decay daughters of element 118 isotopes, which are produced via the 249 Cf+ 48 Ca reaction. They performed the element 118 experiment at two projectile energies, corresponding to 297 118 compound nucleus excitation energies of E* = 29.2 ± 2.5 and 34.4 ± 2.3 MeV. During an irradiation with a total beam dose of 4.1 x 10 19 48 Ca projectiles, three similar decay chains consisting of two or three consecutive α decays and terminated by a spontaneous fission (SF) with high total kinetic energy of about 230 MeV were observed. The three decay chains originated from the even-even isotope 294 118 (E α = 11.65 ± 0.06 MeV, T α = 0.89 -0.31 +1.07 ms) produced in the 3n-evaporation channel of the 249 Cf+ 48 Ca reaction with a maximum cross section of 0.5 -0.3 +1.6 pb

  2. Summary report of the consultants' meeting on improvement of the standard cross sections for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Muir, D.W.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Consultants' Meeting on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements. The approaches and computer programs used for evaluation of neutron standard cross sections and their uncertainties were presented by the participants. Special attention was paid to the reasons for strong uncertainty reduction observed in the model fits. The meeting participants discussed the plan of the INDC recommended Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements'. This CRP will address the problem of uncertainty reduction along with other methodological improvements needed in order to produce a new, and internationally accepted, evaluation of neutron standard cross sections for light elements. (author)

  3. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Hu; Hongliao, He [National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing (China)

    2005-10-15

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  4. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingyue; He Hongliao

    2005-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  5. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A large-scale study on trace element levels in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. ► Spatial variation found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, but not for Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn. ► The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb. ► No biomagnification occurred for any of the trace elements studied in marine fish. ► No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption. - Abstract: We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and δ 15 N values or δ 13 C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  6. Rapid enhancement of chemical weathering recorded by extremely light seawater lithium isotopes at the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Xiao, Yilin; Gao, Yongjun; Zhang, Guijie; Casey, John F.; Shen, Yanan

    2018-04-01

    Lithium (Li) isotope analyses of sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China reveal extremely light seawater Li isotopic signatures at the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB), which coincide with the most severe mass extinction in the history of animal life. Using a dynamic seawater lithium box model, we show that the light seawater Li isotopic signatures can be best explained by a significant influx of riverine [Li] with light δ7Li to the ocean realm. The seawater Li isotope excursion started ≥300 Ky before and persisted up to the main extinction event, which is consistent with the eruption time of the Siberian Traps. The eruption of the Siberian Traps exposed an enormous amount of fresh basalt and triggered CO2 release, rapid global warming, and acid rains, which in turn led to a rapid enhancement of continental weathering. The enhanced continental weathering delivered excessive nutrients to the oceans that could lead to marine eutrophication, anoxia, acidification, and ecological perturbation, ultimately resulting in the end-Permian mass extinction.

  7. Ash layer at ∼ 8 Ma in ODP site 758 from the Bay of Bengal: evidence from Sr, Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumari, V.M.; Ahmad, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions are widely used to delineate the provenance of sedimentary formations. These isotopes have characteristic signatures for crust and mantle material and therefore can distinguish between volcanic and other rock types. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. ε Nd (0) and rare earth elements REE of clay sediments from ODP site 758 in the Bay of Bengal is reported here. Our results clearly show that Sr and Nd isotopes can identify thin ash layers that otherwise may not easily be recognized

  8. Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L.; Dragnev, T.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectra from ''infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The light element formation: a signature of high energy nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Meneguzzi, M.; Reeves, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light elements D, 6 Li, 9 Be, 10 B and 11 B (and possibly also 7 Li) are not produced by the general nucleosynthetic processes occurring in stars. They appear to be synthesized by high energy processes occuring either during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the interstellar medium or in supernovae envelopes. These formation processes are discussed. It is emphasized that the most coherent scenario regarding the formation of the light elements is obtained by taking also into account the nuclear processes which may have occurred during hot phases of the early Universe (Big Bang). Implications on chemical evolution of galaxies and on cosmology are briefly recalled. (Auth.)

  10. Axial-Current Matrix Elements in Light Nuclei from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Shanahan, Phiala E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiburzi, Brian C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Wagman, Michael L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Winter, Frank T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Beane, Silas [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Chang, Emmanuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    I present results from the first lattice QCD calculations of axial-current matrix elements in light nuclei, performed by the NPLQCD collaboration. Precision calculations of these matrix elements, and the subsequent extraction of multi-nucleon axial-current operators, are essential in refining theoretical predictions of the proton-proton fusion cross section, neutrino-nucleus cross sections and $\\beta\\beta$-decay rates of nuclei. In addition, they are expected to shed light on the phenomenological quenching of $g_A$ that is required in nuclear many-body calculations.

  11. An estimate of the reactivity of assemblies of NRX fuel elements in light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.

    1960-03-01

    This report contains calculations on the criticality of assemblies of NRX fuel elements in light water. The elements are dealt with in three sections, 'X rods' of natural uranium, enriched elements of U 235 /A1 alloy and enriched elements of Pu/Al alloy. Values of k ∞ and B 2 are provided for two fuel concentrations for each of the two enriched types and for a range of irradiations of the X rods. The calculations for the X rods provide maximum and minimum values of k ∞ . The maximum values for some lattices are a few per cent above unity. Unfortunately, the present experimental evidence does not prove that it is impossible to achieve values of k ∞ greater than unity in lattices of natural uranium in light water. Hence for safety predictions maximum values have been used. The resulting restrictions are not very severe. It is possible to make critical assemblies of the enriched elements, Part (5) contains a set of recommended minimum spacings such that elements of all kinds may safely be mixed in a stack together. There are also predictions of the minimum critical numbers of complete elements or elements cut into slugs. (author)

  12. Some studies on light-element analysis with particle accelerators in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.; Pillay, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of elements in the range 1 ≤ Z ≤ is often difficult by most contemporary methods. The practical utility of various ion-beam techniques on light-element analysis is examined, and a comprehensive evaluation of the major analytical aspects on determinations of this nature, with particular reference to work done in South Africa, is provided. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Comparison of elemental, nutritional, and isotopic composition of Philippine and Japanese polished rice samples for provenance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Conanan, Aida P.; Nosotros, Ro-Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa), has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world's population (Cantral and Reeves, 2002). In this study, elemental, isotopic and proximate analyses were done on rice samples in a attempt to establish variances between Philippine and Japanese rice, which can be useful for geographical authenticity testing. Rice samples were collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province). The samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Proximate analysis (AOAC procedure) was used to determine nutrient aggregates. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. The rice samples from Aklan showed inter-variety variability in composition (70 to 85 % carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 % fat and 4 to 5 % protein) which makes it difficult to establish provenance in terms of proximate composition. Isotopic ratio of δ 13 C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable

  14. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  15. Isotopes and the Electron Configuration of the Blocks in the Periodic Table of Elements, upto the Last Element No.155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study, which first manifests which connexion exists between iso- topes and the electron blocks, and how the electron blocks are located in the version of the Periodic Table of Elements which ends with element No.155.

  16. Tracking transformation processes of organic micropollutants in aquatic environments using multi-element isotope fractionation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Bolotin, Jakov; Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Wijker, Reto; Kurt, Zohre; Nishino, Shirley F.; Spain, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative description of enzymatic or abiotic transformations of man-made organic micropollutants in rivers, lakes, and groundwaters is one of the major challenges associated with the risk assessment of water resource contamination. Compound-specific isotope analysis enables one to identify (bio)degradation pathways based on changes in the contaminants' stable isotope ratios even if multiple reactive and non-reactive processes cause concentrations to decrease. Here, we investigated how the magnitude and variability of isotope fractionation in some priority pollutants is determined by the kinetics and mechanisms of important enzymatic and abiotic redox reactions. For nitroaromatic compounds and substituted anilines, we illustrate that competing transformation pathways can be assessed via trends of N and C isotope signatures.

  17. Discontinuous functions in correction procedure for x-ray microanalysis of light elements in inorganic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, M.; Missol, W.

    2002-01-01

    A formula for absorption correction was developed and verified when multiplying it by the Love, Cox, Scott atomic number expression using the program NEWKOR and by comparison of the product with experimental and literature data. A correction error was calculated in reference to measure intensity ratios for 409 analyses of light elements (beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine) as well as 193 analyses of heavy elements (from sodium to uranium). Another computer program (MARCON) has been developed for iterative determination of elemental concentrations in the materials. (author)

  18. The use of stable isotope compositions of selected elements in food origin control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios have been used widely for authentication of foodstuffs especially for detection of added water and sugar in fruit juices and wines. Hydrogen and oxygen composition are particularly interesting probes for geographical origin and authenticity identification. Carbon and nitrogen composition of fruits contains the finger-print of their metabolism and growing condition. Exemplary data are presented which demonstrated the usefulness of the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) methods for authenticating wines and fruits (juice and pulp). (author)

  19. The separation nozzle method for enrichment of the light uranium isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.W.

    1982-05-01

    The history of the development of the separation nozzle method for enrichment of the light uranium isotope is described as a contribution to a memorandum published by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The work was triggered off by an effect which had been observed in fundamental studies on gas kinetics. Development up to the technical maturity covered a period of more than 25 years. The implementation of the project at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center provided an adequate financial and technical framework, the employment of senior staff without limitations in time being of major importance for the continuity of work. The links established between the Institute and the University and the resulting opportunity of having doctoral theses written, on the other hand, gave rise to a permanent flow of young, highly qualified scientists and engineers. Thus the Institut's requirements for junior staff could be satisfied in an optimum way. Although the Center offered a variety of possibilities of internal technical cooperation, important developments were performed jointly with industrial firms experienced in related fields. By this, not only a steady flow of know-how had been accumulated but also the large-scale applicability was ensured at a later date of results jointly obtained. (orig.) [de

  20. Source rock identification of sediments using trace element ratios and 13C isotope data - a case study from Pondicherry region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumalesh, K.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Singh, Gursharan; Ramakumar, K.L.; Chidambaram, S.

    2012-01-01

    Compositional characteristics of source rocks are generally well recorded in sedimentary deposits and provide valuable information about nature of source rocks even though weathering, physical sorting and deposition environment influence the sediment geochemistry. In this paper we report major, trace element and 13 C isotope data of cutting samples collected from Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous formations in Pondicherry area. The distribution patterns and inter elemental correlations are used to identify source rock composition and carbon isotope compositions to understand the sediment deposition conditions. Mineralogy of the bulk sediment indicates presence of Quartz, K-feldspar, Calcite, Mg-calcite, Aragonite and Clay minerals. Compared to upper continental crust values most of these sediments show lower concentration of all elements except Ca and Zn at some depths. The depletion is probably associated with weathering of feldspar and removal of elements through solution. This also increases the proportion of quartz relative to source rock. The ratios of redox sensitive elements (Th/U) infer oxic weathering in shallow sediments. Elemental ratios (La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Cr, Th/Co) and ternary plots (La-Th-Sc and Th-Hf-Co) indicate contribution of felsic source rocks with varying degree of weathering. These plots also infer the inherent heterogeneity in the source rocks. Hafnium correlations with other trace elements suggest contribution of Tonalitic rocks in addition to granite to these sediments. The geochemical characteristics of the sediments are found to be similar to that of sediments belonging to similar geology in nearby regions. Presence of shallow marine condition during the sedimentation is inferred from the detrital index (DI) values, which is further supported by the presence of fibrous clay minerals in ESEM scans. This study also brings out the utility of δ 13 C information to reinforce the geochemical and mineralogical inferences. (author)

  1. Determination of micro-quantities of several elements in soil solution by isotope dilution and activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.M.; Axmann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Determination of small quantities of plant nutrients in the soil solution of flooded rice soils is a difficult problem. The concentrations of Mn, Fe and P, for example, in some soil solutions are so small that no chemical method gives any accurate result. Neutron activation analysis was reported to give a much lower limit of detectability for several elements, while for elements with low-induced activity after neutron irradiation, substoichiometric isotopic dilution analysis was applied. One of the advantages of neutron activation analysis lies in the fact that simultaneous activation of every inducible element in a sample takes place. This gives an opportunity to determine many elements by one sample preparation and irradiation. This, however, is not a simple task since identification of the activated products and their quantitative estimation becomes very difficult. Certain operations of separation must be carried out before activity measurements. Ion-exchange resin columns and chemical separation following the addition of carriers were successfully used for the determination of many elements after neutron irradiation. These procedures, however, cannot be directly applied to the determination of the elements of agronomic interest. A procedure was developed to determine several elements of agronomic interest. Times of irradiation and cooling, quick separation by ion-exchange columns, together with chemical precipitation for β-emitters of relatively long half-lives, were all combined to get the maximum benefit from neutron activation analysis. For Fe, for which no satisfactory neutron activation analysis has yet been developed, a modified substoichiometric double isotope dilution procedure is applied

  2. Light emitting diode package element with internal meniscus for bubble free lens placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsa, Eric; Yuan, Thomas C.; Becerra, Maryanne; Yadev, Praveen

    2010-09-28

    A method for fabricating a light emitting diode (LED) package comprising providing an LED chip and covering at least part of the LED chip with a liquid encapsulant having a radius of curvature. An optical element is provided having a bottom surface with at least a portion having a radius of curvature larger than the liquid encapsulant. The larger radius of curvature portion of the optical element is brought into contact with the liquid encapsulant. The optical element is then moved closer to the LED chip, growing the contact area between said optical element and said liquid encapsulant. The liquid encapsulant is then cured. A light emitting diode comprising a substrate with an LED chip mounted to it. A meniscus ring is on the substrate around the LED chip with the meniscus ring having a meniscus holding feature. An inner encapsulant is provided over the LED chip with the inner encapsulant having a contacting surface on the substrate, with the meniscus holding feature which defines the edge of the contacting surface. An optical element is included having a bottom surface with at least a portion that is concave. The optical element is arranged on the substrate with the concave portion over the LED chip. A contacting encapsulant is included between the inner encapsulant and optical element.

  3. The application of scanning electron microscopy to the determination of elemental and isotopic composition in individual actinide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatter, I.; Cattle, G.; Tushingham, J.

    2000-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of both elemental and isotopic composition of actinides within single particles are required by the IAEA in support of their environmental safeguards programme. SEM and SIMS are valuable techniques for the measurement of elemental and isotopic composition, respectively, on the particle scale. The potential for effective combination of SEM and SIMS has been investigated at Harwell Laboratory. In trials, copper finder grids have been successfully used to enable re-identification of particles between SEM and SIMS instruments. Use of the grids enables rapid relocation of particles pre-selected by SEM for SIMS measurement. The work has highlighted a possible matrix effect in plutonium measurement that results in variable sensitivity dependent on the presence of other elements (including uranium). This effect would limit the use of SIMS to obtain elemental ratios, and highlights the requirement to use both SEM and SIMS to gain full and accurate information. The possible use of autoradiography as an adjunct to SEM has been investigated. In principle, autoradiography could be used to identify higher enrichments of uranium and enable pre-selection of particles for SIMS measurement. During trials, practical problems have been encountered which have demonstrated this particular approach to be unsuitable. (author)

  4. Comparison of the concentrations of metal elements and isotopes of lead found in rice and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shouhui; Yang, Hui; Yang, Lan; Wang, Fuhua; Du, Ruiying; Wen, Dian

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies have investigated the difference in the distribution of metal elements between rice and rice bran samples. In this study, the concentrations of 27 metal elements (Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in 56 polished rice and their corresponding bran samples were determined. A significant difference in concentrations of all elements except Ag and Cd was found between rice and bran (P rice ratios of 1.21 to 36.3. High concentrations of metal elements, especially that of the heavy metal Cr, in bran samples present a potential safety issue for bran products, such as food and feed containing bran. Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios also were determined. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in bran were generally higher than those in rice (P rice and bran samples were distinctly different from each other, indicating that Pb isotope composition is an effective for discriminating between bran and rice samples.

  5. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  6. Determination os essential elements in diet and light foods using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Gerson Hideo; Maihara, Vera Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine essential elements on the diet and light foods and their normal similar through the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare their results. Samples of sweetning, cappuccino, gelatine and chocolate collected at the Sao Paulo commerce were irradiated by a period of 8 hours, under a 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 research reactor - IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil, together with reference materials and elementary standards, for the determination the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Co, K, Na, Fe, Se and Zn. The obtained results shown that the diet gelatine samples presented concentrations higher for determined elements related to the light and normal gelatines samples. Compared with cappucino samples there was not differences among the concentrations of the determined elements, excepted the element Cr for the cappuccino light. For the chocolate light they presents higher values related to the normal type. The sweetening did not present differences among the samples. (author)

  7. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  8. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  9. Elemental and isotope behavior of macromolecular organic matter from CM chondrites during hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Y.; Naraoka, H.

    2009-08-01

    A new insight into carbon and hydrogen isotope variations of insoluble organic matter (IOM) is provided from seven CM chondrites, including Murchison and six Antarctic meteorites (Y-791198, Y-793321, A-881280, A-881334, A-881458 and B-7904) as well as Murchison IOM residues after hydrous pyrolysis at 270-330 °C for 72 h. Isotopic compositions of bulk carbon (δ13Cbulk) and hydrogen (δD) of the seven IOMs vary widely, ranging from -15.1 to -7.6‰ and +133 to +986‰, respectively. Intramolecular carboxyl carbon (δ13CCOOH) is more enriched in 13C by 7.5 -11‰ than bulk carbon. After hydrous pyrolysis of Murchison IOM at 330 °C, H/C ratio, δ13Cbulk, δ13CCOOH, and δD values decrease by up to 0.31, 3.5‰, 5.5‰, and 961‰, respectively. The O/C ratio increases from 0.22 to 0.46 at 270 °C and to 0.25 at 300 °C, and decreases to 0.10 at 330 °C. δ13Cbulk- δD cross plot of Murchison IOM and its pyrolysis residues shows an isotopic sequence. Of the six Antarctic IOMs, A-881280, A-881458, Y-791198 and B-7904 lie on or near the isotopic sequence depending on the degree of hydrous and/or thermal alteration, while A-881334 and Y-793321 consist of another distinct isotope group. A δ13Cbulk-δ13CCOOH cross-plot of IOMs, including Murchison pyrolysis residues, has a positive correlation between them, implying that the oxidation process to produce carboxyls is similar among all IOMs. These isotope distributions reflect various degree of alteration on the meteorite parent bodies and/or difference in original isotopic compositions before the parent body processes.

  10. Holographic Formation of Diffraction Elements for Transformation of Light Beams in Liquid Crystal - Photopolymer Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, A. O.; Sharangovich, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical model of holographic formation of diffractive optical elements for transformation of light beam field into Bessel-like fields in liquid crystal - photopolymer (LC-PPM) composite materials with a dyesensitizer is developed. Results of numerical modeling of kinetics ofvariation of the refractive index of a material in the process of formation with different relationships between the photopolymerization rates and diffusion processes are presented. Based on the results of numerical simulation, it is demonstrated that when the photopolarization process dominates, the diffractive element being formed is distorted. This leads to a change in the light field distribution at its output and consequently, to ineffective transformation of the reading beam. Thus, the necessity of optimizing of the recording conditions and of the prepolymeric composition to increase the transformation efficiency of light beam fields is demonstrated.

  11. Super-light SL-Deck elements with fixed end connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Super-light structures combining light and strong concrete are invented by the author at the Technical University of Denmark and commercialized by the spin-out company Abeo Ltd. The first product is the SL-Deck element that represents a number of strong improvements to the building industry among...... to low weight and due to possibilities of continuous elements and fixed end connections. A new machine is constructed producing the elements and BIM software is developed optimizing the structures, the production, and the logistics and running the machine. New production lines are established...... building projects leading to considerable savings of time and costs and opening up new possibilities for architects and users. Furthermore, the paper describes full-scale test results with new fixed end connections between decks and walls and between decks and columns in facades giving more possibilities...

  12. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  13. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p factors (EF operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions of sediment at the sites differed spatially, indicating that the Pb (and other trace elements by association) originated from different natural sources at the two locations.

  14. Elemental geochemistry and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Cenomanian to Santonian neritic carbonates in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidtalab, Amin; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    A Neo-Tethyan upper Cenomanian-Santonian neritic carbonate ramp succession (Sarvak and Ilam formations), drilled in the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, was investigated via detailed sedimentology, microfacies analysis, elemental geochemistry and Sr-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). The succession contains two exposure surfaces, which are known as the CT-ES and mT-ES (Cenomanian-Turonian and middle Turonian, respectively), and associated prominent negative carbon-isotope excursions that represent important regional stratigraphic marker horizons. Precise knowledge about the onset of platform exposure and the duration of the exposure-related hiatus, however, is currently lacking due to a rather low-resolved shallow-water biostratigraphic framework and a bulk carbonate carbon-isotope pattern that clearly differs from global Late Cretaceous reference curves. Therefore, the existing bio-chemostratigraphic framework was complemented by bulk carbonate strontium-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). As bulk carbonate material is in particular prone to diagenetic alteration, a careful selection of least altered samples has been carried out by means of elemental geochemistry and petrography. In contrast to what could be expected, the meteoric alteration of limestones beneath both exposure surfaces is not clearly expressed by increasing iron and manganese and coeval decreasing strontium contents. On the contrary, the impact of meteoric diagenesis is well illustrated via pronounced increases in Rb concentrations and concomitant prominent positive shifts to radiogenic strontium-isotope values, an observation that clearly reflects the decay of continentally derived 87Rb into 87Sr. Rubidium corrected strontium-isotope values place the CT-ES around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and point to an exposure duration of less than 0.4 Myr. This rather short-term CT-ES related hiatus is supported by petrographic evidence, which indicates a youth karstification stage of strata beneath the CT

  15. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, Charles N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  16. Isotope Methods in Determining The Water Budget Elements; Su Buetcesi Elemanlarinin Bulunmasinda Izotop Yoentemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezaydin, V [DSI, Technical Research and Quality Control Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    One of the main aims of the water engineers is the determination of the inflows to and outflows from a natural or artificial lake. According to the classical water balance equation inflows (precipitation on the lake surface, surface and subsurface inflows) mines the outflows (evaporation from lake surface, surface and subsurface outflows) should be equal to the volume change in a specified time interval. With the classical water budget equation it is possible to determine the total absolute subsurface inflow mines outflow but it is not possible to determine them separately. The two unknowns could be determined with one more equation. The isotopes, oxygen-18, deuterium or tritium, which are naturally present in water, could provide the extra equation by writing the isotopic mass balance equation. In this study, the theoretical background of isotope technique and application to Mogan Lake, will be presented which is used in determining the water budget of lakes.

  17. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  18. Characteristics of trace elements and lead isotope ratios in PM2.5 from four sites in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianmin; Tan Mingguang; Li Yulan; Zheng Jian; Zhang Yuanmao; Shan Zuci; Zhang Guilin; Li Yan

    2008-01-01

    PM 2.5 samples were collected in Shanghai at four sites with different typical land-uses. The sampling was done concurrently once per month from April 2004 to April 2005, and the ambient mass concentration, the elemental composition and the stable lead isotope ratios in these PM 2.5 samples were determined. The annual average concentrations of PM 2.5 samples at each site were 84 ± 30, 65 ± 20, 55 ± 18, and 41 ± 10 μg m -3 , respectively, indicating there were severe air pollution levels in Shanghai. The enrichment factor was calculated for each element and the comparison and discussion of elements with significant anthropogenic contributions between Shanghai and Tokyo suggested that the major source of PM 2.5 in Shanghai was not traffic-derived emissions, but the stationary industrial contribution emitted from coal use. Moreover, the analysis of stable lead isotope ratios revealed only a slight difference within the samples at the four sites which fell well within the scope of coal composition difference, further confirming that the contribution from stationary industrial emissions to atmospheric lead pollution of PM 2.5 was very substantial in Shanghai

  19. Elemental and stable isotopic approaches for studying the organic and inorganic carbon components in natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, J-F

    2009-01-01

    The carbon cycle is an important part of major biogeochemical cycles. Many techniques may be used to characterize carbon amounts and sources in the environment. Here we first review the most popular techniques for the determination of organic and inorganic carbon concentrations. Decarbonatation techniques are also reviewed in details since it is often an important part of organic carbon analysis. The second part of this paper addresses the use of carbon stable isotopes to characterize organic carbon sources and processes in the environment. An overview of general stable isotopes background and terminology is given as well as the most popular analytical techniques.

  20. [Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short lived elements by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine nuclear moments and charge distributions of short-lived isotopes produced both on-line and off-line to a nuclear facility. These measurements give detailed information on the nuclear force and are used to test current nuclear models. The small amounts of nuclei which can be produced off stability constitute the challenge in these experiments. Presently mainly neutron-rich isotopes are being studied by three ultrasensitive high-resolution laser techniques. These are collinear fast ion-beam laser spectroscopy, stored-ion laser spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. 5 figs

  1. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, HKUST, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large-scale study on trace element levels in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial variation found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, but not for Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No biomagnification occurred for any of the trace elements studied in marine fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption. - Abstract: We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values or {delta}{sup 13}C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  2. U-Pb isotope and trace element compositions of pyrites in the Black Reef: implications on their age and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the Black Reef Quartzite Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup two gold-bearing conglomerate facies have been recognized. The source of gold in these reefs has long been a matter of speculation. Although some ascribe the gold and pyrite to a hydrothermal origin, the prevailing opinion favours a detrital origin. As a possible source, the reworked underlying sub-outcrops of the Kimberly Reef horizons in the Central Rand group have been proposed. An investigation was undertaken with the aim of defining the Pb-isotopic and trace element signatures of morphologically different pyrite populations within the two Black Reef facies as well as for the underlying Kimberly Reef. 2 tabs

  3. Mass spectrometric methods for studying nutrient mineral and trace element absorption and metabolism in humans using stable isotopes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crews, H.M.; Eagles, J.; Mellon, F.A.; Luten, J.B.; McGaw, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods for determining stable isotopes of nutrient minerals and trace elements in human metabolic studies are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques of electron ionization, fast atom bombardment, thermal ionization, and inductively coupled plasma and gas chromatography mass spectrometry are evaluated with reference to their accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and convenience, and the demands of human nutrition research. Examples of specific applications are described and the significance of current developments in mass spectrometry are discussed with reference to present and probable future research needs. (Author)

  4. Paloma: In-situ Measurement of The Elemental and Isotopic Composition of The Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, E.; Jambon, A.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Correia, J.-J.; Covinhes, J.; Goulpeau, G.; Leblanc, F.; Malique, Ch.; Sarda, P.; Schaetzel, P.; Sabroux, J.-C.; Ferry, C.; Richon, P.; Pineau, J.-F.; Desjean, M.-C.

    The PALOMA instrument, presently under study in the frame of the NASA/CNES Mars exploration program, is devoted to the accurate measurement of isotopic and el- emental ratios in Mars atmosphere. It consists of a mass spectrometer coupled with a gas preparation line for separation of reactive and noble gas species, and noble gas species (and reactive gases) from each other, by chemical and cryogenic trapping, and possibly permeation techniques. This instrument, ranked among the most important four types of measurement recommended by the US Committee on Planetary and Lu- nar Exploration (COMPLEX), will be proposed as a part of the payload of the 07 NASA smart landers. The general objectives of PALOMA are to provide instanta- neous and time-varying patterns of noble gas isotopic spectra, and stable isotopes. Such measurements will allow to improve our general understanding of volatile cy- cles on Mars, and to better decipher the history of the atmosphere and climate. Past escape processes, exchanges between solid planet and atmosphere, post-accretional addition of volatil-rich matter from comets, are expected to have imprinted specific isotopic signatures. Although these signatures are strongly interlocked, a compara- tive Earth-Mars approach may allow to discriminate between them, and therefore to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles. The evolution of atmospheric mass and composition may have had a major impact on climate evolution, e.g. through massive escape of carbon dioxide and water. In addition, precise measurements of isotopes in the present Mars atmosphere are the most promising way on the short term to confirm that SNC meteorites are from Martian origin. PALOMA also includes a small separate device for measuring ambient natural radioactivity, which might provide information about the presence of a near subsurface permafrost, possible residual volcanic activity, vertical mixing rate in the boundary layer.

  5. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  6. Microchip Flow Cytometer with Integrated Polymer Optical Elements for Measurement of Scattered Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg

    2004-01-01

    channels to form a complete microchip flow cytometer. All the optical elements, the microfluidic system, and the fiber-to-waveguide couplers were defined in one layer of polymer (SU-8, negative photoresist) by standard photolithography. With only one single mask procedure, all the fabrication and packaging...... processes can be finished in one day. Polystyrene beads were measured in the microchip flow cytometer, and three signals (forward scattering, large angle scattering and extinction) were measured simultaneously for each bead. The average intensities of the forward Scattered light and the incident light...

  7. Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights uses annotations given in footnotes that are an integral part of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights to alert users to the possibilities of quite extraordinary occurrences, as well as sources with abnormal atomic-weight values outside an otherwise acceptable range. The basic need for footnotes to the Standard Atomic Weights Table and equivalent annotations to the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements arises from the necessity to provide users with information that is relevant to one or more elements, but that cannot be provided using numerical data in columns. Any desire to increase additional information conveyed by annotations to these Tables is tempered by the need to preserve a compact format and a style that can alert users, who would not be inclined to consult either the last full element-by-element review or the full text of a current Standard Atomic Weights of the Elements report. Since 1989, the footnotes of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights and the annotations in column 5 of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements have been harmonized by use of three lowercase footnotes, “g”, “m”, and “r”, that signify geologically exceptionally specimens (“g”), modified isotopic compositions in material subjected to undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation (“m”), and the range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents more precise atomic-weight value being given (“r”). As some elements are assigned intervals for their standard atomic-weight values (applies to 12 elements since 2009), footnotes “g” and “r” are no longer needed for these elements.

  8. Bayesian nitrate source apportionment to individual groundwater wells in the Central Valley by use of elemental and isotopic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M; Grote, Mark N.; Deinhart, Amanda; Eppich, Gary; Kendall, Carol; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Sounders, A. Kate; Wimpenny, Joshua; Yin, Qing-zhu; Young, Megan B.; Harter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers that underlie agricultural areas, such as in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Shallow domestic wells (less than 150 m deep) in agricultural areas are often contaminated by nitrate. Agricultural and rural nitrate sources include dairy manure, synthetic fertilizers, and septic waste. Knowledge of the relative proportion that each of these sources contributes to nitrate concentration in individual wells can aid future regulatory and land management decisions. We show that nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, boron isotopes, and iodine concentrations are a useful, novel combination of groundwater tracers to differentiate between manure, fertilizers, septic waste, and natural sources of nitrate. Furthermore, in this work, we develop a new Bayesian mixing model in which these isotopic and elemental tracers were used to estimate the probability distribution of the fractional contributions of manure, fertilizers, septic waste, and natural sources to the nitrate concentration found in an individual well. The approach was applied to 56 nitrate-impacted private domestic wells located in the San Joaquin Valley. Model analysis found that some domestic wells were clearly dominated by the manure source and suggests evidence for majority contributions from either the septic or fertilizer source for other wells. But, predictions of fractional contributions for septic and fertilizer sources were often of similar magnitude, perhaps because modeled uncertainty about the fraction of each was large. For validation of the Bayesian model, fractional estimates were compared to surrounding land use and estimated source contributions were broadly consistent with nearby land use types.

  9. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U 3 O 8 powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated

  10. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  11. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  12. Strontium isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the saddle mountains and Grande Ronde Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group displays significant variations in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions. These compositions reflect complex and variable origins for the CRB magmas. Among the most varied is the Saddle Mountains Basalt (SMB) in which Sr ratios vary from 0.7078 to 0.7147 +- 0.002. The higher ratios reflect contamination through consistent correlations with major element compositions. Modeling suggests contamination by assimilation of 4.4 to 9.4 wt % of radiogenic crustal rocks. High delta 18 O values (up to +7.68 per mil) support the model. Age and field relations suggest that the contamination flowrocks are not the result of progressive contamination of a single magma, but rather reflect the contamination of independent magmas during this ascent

  13. High accuracy determination of trace elements in NIST standard reference materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, P.J.; Beary, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    At NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), ICP-MS ID (inductively coupled mass spectrometry isotope dilution) has been used to certify a wide range of elements in a variety of materials with high accuracy. Both the chemical preparation and instrumental procedures are simpler than with other ID mass spectrometric techniques. The ICP-MS has picogram/ml detection limits for most elements using fixed operating parameters. Chemical separations are required only to remove an interference (from molecular ions as well as isobaric atoms), or to pre-concentrate the analyte. For example, chemical separations were required for the analysis of SRM 2711, Montana II Soil, but not for boron in peach leaves, SRM 1547.(3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Finite element simulation of a novel composite light-weight microporous cladding panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lida; Wang, Dongyan

    2018-04-01

    A novel composite light-weight microporous cladding panel with matched connection detailing is developed. Numerical simulation on the experiment is conducted by ABAQUS. The accuracy and rationality of the finite element model is verified by comparison between the simulation and the experiment results. It is also indicated that the novel composite cladding panel is of desirable bearing capacity, stiffness and deformability under out-of-plane load.

  15. Testing the Big Bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, a detailed discussion is presented regarding: (1) nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances, and neutrino counting; (2) the dark matter problems; and (3) the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments are made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it.

  16. High-performance cathode elements for gas-discharge light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanov V. V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of cathode elements of the arc-discharge activator made on the basis of developed material — alloy of iridium and rare-earth metals (of cerium group — has been suggested. The working samples of arc lamps have been produced and tested. The location of metal-alloy cathode has been optimized. The tests demonstrated, that after 4500 hours of work the lighting-up and glowing parameters of such lamps remained stable.

  17. Power of isotopic fine structure for unambiguous determination of metabolite elemental compositions: In silico evaluation and metabolomic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Tatsuhiko; Yukihira, Daichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Saito, Kazunori; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a method to determine elemental composition of metabolites. • The method was based on mass spectral data and empirical constraints. • In the validation study, the method succeeded for 70% of detected peaks. - Abstract: In mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics studies, reference-free identification of metabolites is still a challenging issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the elemental composition (EC) of metabolites could be unambiguously determined using isotopic fine structure, observed by ultrahigh resolution MS, which provided the relative isotopic abundance (RIA) of 13 C, 15 N, 18 O, and 34 S. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of the RIA for determining ECs based on the MS peaks of 20,258 known metabolites. The metabolites were simulated with a ≤25% error in the isotopic peak area to investigate how the error size effect affected the rate of unambiguous determination of the ECs. The simulation indicated that, in combination with reported constraint rules, the RIA led to unambiguous determination of the ECs for more than 90% of the tested metabolites. It was noteworthy that, in positive ion mode, the process could distinguish alkali metal-adduct ions ([M + Na] + and [M + K] + ). However, a significant degradation of the EC determination performance was observed when the method was applied to real metabolomic data (mouse liver extracts analyzed by infusion ESI), because of the influence of noise and bias on the RIA. To achieve ideal performance, as indicated in the simulation, we developed an additional method to compensate for bias on the measured ion intensities. The method improved the performance of the calculation, permitting determination of ECs for 72% of the observed peaks. The proposed method is considered a useful starting point for high-throughput identification of metabolites in metabolomic research

  18. Correlates of elemental-isotopic composition of stream fishes: the importance of land-use, species identity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaña, C G; Schalk, C M

    2018-04-01

    The isotopic (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and stoichiometric (C:N:P) compositions of four fish species (Family Centrarchidae: Lepomis auritus, Lepomis cyanellus; Family Cyprinidae: Nocomis leptocephalus, Semotilus atromaculatus) were examined across four North Carolina Piedmont streams arrayed along an urbanization gradient. Both isotopic and stoichiometric composition of fishes appeared to track changes occurring in basal resource availability. Values of δ 13 C of basal resources and consumers were more enriched at the most urbanized streams. Similarly, basal resources and consumers were δ 15 N-enriched at more urbanized streams. Basal resource stoichiometry varied across streams, with periphyton being the most variable. Primary consumers stoichiometry also differed across streams. Intraspecific variation in fish stoichiometry correlated with the degree of urbanization, as the two cyprinids had higher N content and L. cyanellus had higher P content in more urbanized streams, probably due to enrichment of basal resources. Intrinsic factors, specifically species identity and body size also affected stoichiometric variation. Phosphorus (P) content increased significantly with body size in centrarchids, but not in cyprinids. These results suggest that although species identity and body size are important predictors of elemental stoichiometry, the complex nature of altered urban streams may yield imbalances in the elemental composition of consumers via their food resources. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Stable isotope and trace element studies of black bear hair, Big Bend ecosystem, Texas and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Hellgren, Eric C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.; Onorato, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Hair from black bears (Ursus americanus), collected from four areas in the Big Bend ecosystem, has been analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to determine major food sources and for trace metals to infer possible effects of environmental contaminants. Results indicate that black bears are largely vegetarian, feeding on desert plants, nuts, and berries. Mercury concentrations in bear hair are below safe level standards (

  20. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Weiss

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  1. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gabriella M.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  2. Tracing the sources of stream sediments by Pb isotopes and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung-Seok Ko; Jae Gon Kim; Kyoochul Ha; Kil Yong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to trace the sources of stream sediments in a small watershed influenced by anthropogenic and lithogenic origins identified by the spatial distributions and temporal variations of stream sediments using geochemical interpretation of the stable and radiogenic isotopes, major components, and heavy metals data and principal component analysis. To know the effects of both present and past mining, the stream sediments were sampled at the stream tributaries and sediment coring work. The spatial distributions of heavy metals clearly showed the effects of Cu and Pb-Zn mineralization zones at the site. Anthropogenic Pb was elevated at the downstream area by the stream sediments due to an active quarry. The results of principal components analysis also represent the effects of the stream sediments origins, including anthropogenic wastes and the active quarry and lithogenic sediment. Anomalous Cu, indicating the effect of past Guryong mining, was identified at the deep core sediments of 1.80-5.05 m depth. The influence of active quarry was shown in the recently deposited sediments of 210 Pb and stable Pb and Sr isotopes. This study suggests that the chemical studies using radiogenic and stable isotopes and heavy metals and multivariate statistical method are useful tools to discriminate the sources of stream sediments with different origins. (author)

  3. Carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism of the mantle surrounding the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from volatiles, trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in rejuvenated-stage lavas from Niihau, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jacqueline; Clague, David A.; Cousens, Brian; Monsalve, Maria Luisa; Uhl, Jessika

    2008-09-01

    We present new volatile, trace element, and radiogenic isotopic compositions for rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on Niihau and its submarine northwest flank. Niihau rejuvenated-stage Kiekie Basalt lavas are mildly alkalic and are isotopically similar to, though shifted to higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 206Pb/204Pb than, rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on other islands and marginal seafloor settings. Kiekie lavas display trace element heterogeneity greater than that of other rejuvenated-stage lavas, with enrichments in Ba, Sr, and light-rare earth elements resulting in high and highly variable Ba/Th and Sr/Ce. The high Ba/Th lavas are among the least silica-undersaturated of the rejuvenated-stage suite, implying that the greatest enrichments are associated with the largest extents of melting. Kiekie lavas also have high and variable H2O/Ce and Cl/La, up to 620 and 39, respectively. We model the trace element concentrations of most rejuvenated-stage lavas by small degrees (˜1% to 9%) of melting of depleted peridotite recently metasomatized by a few percent of an enriched incipient melt (0.5% melting) of the Hawaiian plume. Kiekie lavas are best explained by 4% to 13% partial melting of a peridotite source metasomatized by up to 0.2% carbonatite, similar in composition to oceanic carbonatites from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with lower proportion of incipient melt than that for other rejuvenated-stage lavas. Primary H2O and Cl of the carbonatite component must be high, but variability in the volatile data may be caused by heterogeneity in the carbonatite composition and/or interaction with seawater. Our model is consistent with predictions based on carbonated eclogite and peridotite melting experiments in which (1) carbonated eclogite and peridotite within the Hawaiian plume are the first to melt during plume ascent; (2) carbonatite melt metasomatizes plume and surrounding depleted peridotite; (3) as the plume rises, silica-undersaturated silicate melts are also

  4. Discovery and cross-section measurement of neutron-rich isotopes in the element range from neodymium to platinum with the FRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurcewicz, J.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Pietri, S.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J.S.; Estradé, A.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Bail, A.; Bélier, G.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Bunce, M.; Bowry, M.; Caballero-Folch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the high-resolution performance of the fragment separator FRS at GSI we have discovered 60 new neutron-rich isotopes in the atomic number range of 60⩽Z⩽78. The new isotopes were unambiguously identified in reactions with a 238 U beam impinging on a Be target at 1 GeV/nucleon. The production cross-section for the new isotopes have been measured down to the pico-barn level and compared with predictions of different model calculations. For elements above hafnium fragmentation is the dominant reaction mechanism which creates the new isotopes, whereas fission plays a dominant role for the production of the new isotopes up to thulium.

  5. Discovery and cross-section measurement of neutron-rich isotopes in the element range from neodymium to platinum with the FRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurcewicz, J., E-mail: j.kurcewicz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Farinon, F.; Geissel, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Pietri, S.; Nociforo, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Prochazka, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Weick, H.; Winfield, J.S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Estrade, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Allegro, P.R.P. [Institute of Physics, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-090 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bail, A.; Belier, G. [CEA DAM DiF, 91290 Arpajon Cedex (France); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostella (Spain); Benzoni, G. [INFN sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bunce, M.; Bowry, M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Caballero-Folch, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-10-31

    Using the high-resolution performance of the fragment separator FRS at GSI we have discovered 60 new neutron-rich isotopes in the atomic number range of 60 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 78. The new isotopes were unambiguously identified in reactions with a {sup 238}U beam impinging on a Be target at 1 GeV/nucleon. The production cross-section for the new isotopes have been measured down to the pico-barn level and compared with predictions of different model calculations. For elements above hafnium fragmentation is the dominant reaction mechanism which creates the new isotopes, whereas fission plays a dominant role for the production of the new isotopes up to thulium.

  6. Stable isotope genealogy of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillinger, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    One of the oldest problems in meteoritics is that of taxonomically grouping samples. In recent years the use of isotopes, particularly oxygen isotopes has proved very successful in this respect. Other light-element systematics potentially can perform the same function. For example, nitrogen in iron meteorites, and nitrogen and carbon in ureilites and SNC meteorites. These measurements will serve to extend and augment existing classification schemes and provide clues to the nature of meteorite parent bodies. They can also aid in the recognition of the isotopic signatures relating to inaccessible regions of the Earth. (author)

  7. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  8. Improvement of water and light availability after thinning at a xeric site: which matters more? A dual isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuggiola, Arnaud; Ogée, Jérôme; Rigling, Andreas; Gessler, Arthur; Bugmann, Harald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Thinning fosters individual tree growth by increasing the availability of water, light and nutrients. At sites where water rather than light is limiting, thinning also enhances soil evaporation and might not be beneficial. Detailed knowledge of the short- to long-term physiological response underlying the growth responses to thinning is crucial for the management of forests already suffering from recurrent drought-induced dieback. We applied a dual isotope approach together with mechanistic isotope models to study the physiological processes underlying long-term growth enhancement of heavily thinned Pinus sylvestris in a xeric forest in Switzerland. This approach allowed us to identify and disentangle thinning-induced changes in stomatal conductance and assimilation rate. At our xeric study site, the increase in stomatal conductance far outweighed the increase in assimilation, implying that growth release in heavily thinned trees is primarily driven by enhanced water availability rather than increased light availability. We conclude that in forests with relatively isohydric species (drought avoiders) that are growing close to their physiological limits, thinning is recommended to maintain a less negative water balance and thus foster tree growth, and ultimately the survival of forest trees under drought. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENT CYCLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES IN THE IRRIGATION DITCHES FROM THE RAVENNA COASTAL PLAIN THROUGH TRACE ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While monitoring the physico-chemical characteristics, trace elements and O-H-Sr-B isotopic data were obtained in superficial waters from a number of irrigations canals and ditches in the Ravenna coastal plain, in order to highlight the cycling of potentially toxic elements and the different sources of the solutes. Surveys were conducted during March and July 2008, and considered as representative of the waters in winter and summer, respectively. In summer, the water mass balance in the network is mostly controlled by the ingression of freshwaters from the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (CER. The O-H isotopic data indicated that, in winter, waters are primarily recharged from Apennine catchments and undergo evaporation to different extents.The boron isotopic signature indicates the important role played by the marine component. A major seawater contribution was evidenced in canals close to the coastline; however, the process controlling the origin of dissolved boron is not solely related to direct mixing with sea water but comprises an additional source probably related to water-soil exchanges and boron of marine origin leaching, owing to the prolonged exposure of alluvial sediments to sea water. An additional boron contribution from the agricultural practice was is also evidenced. Calculation based on the conservative behaviour of chloride ions indicated that in canals and ditches not directly connected with the sea up to the 80% of the Sr budget did not originate from seawater, indicating a source from Al-silicate minerals and supporting the hypothesis of significant soil-water interactions and chemical exchanges.The positive correlation between pH and dissolved oxygen in winter waters is likely to reflect CO2 consumption during algal photosynthesis, favouring the in-situ generation of colloidal particles due to the oxidative precipitation of ferric iron oxy-hydroxides and probably small carbonate particles able to adsorb trace metals on their

  10. Groundwater evolution in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer of southern Algeria and Tunisia: trace element and isotopic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.M.; Guendouz, A.H.; Mamou, A.; Moulla, A.; Shand, P.; Zouari, K.

    2003-01-01

    The geochemical processes taking place along an 800 km flow line in the non-carbonate Continental Intercalaire aquifer (CI) aquifer in North Africa are described using chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic indicators. The aquifer is hydraulically continuous from the Atlas Mountains in Algeria to the Chotts of Tunisia and the geochemical evidence corroborates this. The highest discharge temperature is 73 deg. C but silica geothermometry indicates a maximum temperature of 94 deg. C at depth. Chloride concentrations increase from 200 to 800 mg l -1 and the Br/Cl ratios confirm the dissolution of non-marine evaporites or interstitial waters as the main source of salinity. Fluoride concentrations are low and are likely to be derived from rainfall, recording oscillations in source. Radiocarbon ages, except near outcrop, are at or near detection limits and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values indicate a cooler recharge regime with rainfall having lower primary evaporation than today. This is shown by the fact that mean isotope ratios of CI waters are around 3 per mille lighter than the present-day weighted mean value for rain. Major ion ratios and most trace elements indicate that despite the complex structure and stratigraphy, uniform evolution with continuous water-rock interaction takes place along the flow lines, which are only disturbed near the Tunisian Chotts by groundwater converging from additional flow lines. The ageing of the water can also be followed by the smooth increase in several indicator elements such as Li, K and Mn which are least affected by solubility controls. Similarly the influence of marine facies in the Tunisian sector may be recognised by the changing Mg/Ca and higher Br/Cl as well as trace element indicators. The groundwaters are oxidising up to 300 km from outcrop (dissolved O 2 has persisted for at least 20 ka) and within this zone the concentrations of several elements forming oxy-anions, such as U and Cr, increase and NO 3 remains

  11. Seasonal dynamics of stable isotopes and element ratios in authigenic calcites during their precipitation and dissolution, Sacrower See (northeastern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd ZOLITSCHKA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal evolution of chemical and physical water properties as well as particle fluxes was monitored in Sacrower See (northeastern Germany during two consecutive years (Oct 2003 - Oct 2005. Additonally, we measured δ18O and δ13C as well as Sr:Ca and Mg:Ca ratios of authigenic calcites that were collected in sequencing sediment traps in order to disentangle environmental and climatic factors controlling these parameters. In particular, our aim was to find out if element ratios and the isotopic composition of calcites reflect changes in water and air temperatures. Lake water is highly enriched in 18O (-1.3 to -2.5‰ VSMOW with an evaporative increase of 0.6‰ during summer. Values are 5-6‰ more positive than groundwater values and 4-5‰ more positive than long-term weighted annual means of precipitation. During spring and summer, high amounts of dissolved phosphate cause eutrophic conditions and calcite precipitation in isotopic disequilibrium. Measured values are depleted in 18O by 2 to 10‰ compared to calculated equilibrium values. Resuspension and partial dissolution of calcite in the water column contribute to this isotopic divergence in summer and autumn as δ18Oca and δ13C values increased in the hypolimnion during this time. Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios are altered by dissolution as well. In the hypolimnion these ratios were higher than in the epilimnion. Another reason for the huge deviation between measured and theoretical δ18Oca values during summer is the occurrence of large amounts of Phacotus lenticularis in the carbonate fraction. High amounts of Phacotus lead to more negative δ18Oca and more positive δ13C values. Several characteristics of δ18Oca and δ13C are also reflected by Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios and isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon were influenced by the onset and stability of stratification. Especially the earlier onset of stratification in 2005 caused higher sediment fluxes and more positive carbon and

  12. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  13. The Cascade Mountains revisited: A re-evaluation in light of new lead isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Lead isotopic analyses have been repeated using silica gel for several samples from the Cascade Mountains which were previously analyzed by lead sulfide. The improved precision indicates that some of the scatter in the original data was due to thermal fractionation; however, the bulk of the data have not changed significantly. Two-point mixing lines are demonstrated for main cone-satellitic cone pairs from Glacier Peak, Mt. Baker and Mt. Shasta. Comparison with data on oceanic basalts from the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridge area indicates that hypothesis of mixing of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt lead and 'alkali basalt-like' lead from the oceanic crust is not tenable. Lead isotope analyses of pre-Astoria Fan sediments from DSDP Leg 18 sites and from the Eocene Tyee Formation indicate that the sedimentary continental detritus from the North American continent has the correct lead isotopic composition to be the continental component necessary to account for the Cascade Mountains lead isotopic array by mixing with Juan de Fuca-Gorda Ridge MOR basalts. However, from recent work on the structure of oceanic trenches by Karig and Sharman (1975), it does not appear that subduction of sediments is the rule. A model of crustal contamination and/or assimilation at the crust/mantle interface is the preferred explanation for the lead isotopic data from the Cascade Mountains. (Auth.)

  14. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  15. Tracing toxic elements sources using lead isotopes: An example from the San Antonio–El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, México

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Caminero, Leopoldo; Weber, Bodo; Wurl, Jobst; Carrera-Muñoz, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provenance of toxic elements is investigated in a basin close to the mining district. • Stable lead isotope analyses assist to distinguish between sources of toxic elements. • Two major sources are identified: mine tailings and fault bounded mineralization. • There is evidence in the detritus of a different natural lead component. • An additional anthropogenic lead input is detectable from the soluble phases. - Abstract: Pollution of sediments and water bodies with toxic elements around the San Antonio–El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, México is probably sourced from the tailings of abandoned mines that are hosted in mineralized Cretaceous granitoids. However, there is evidence to suggest local hot springs related to recent faults may be an additional source for contamination in the area. In this study, lead isotope signatures are applied to draw conclusions with regard to potential sources of toxic elements. Lead isotope ratios were analyzed from sulfides and scoria from the abandoned mines, fluvial sediments, and igneous rocks with secondary disseminated mineralization. To differentiate between superposed secondary and residual primary lead, leaching experiments were performed, and both leachate and residues were analyzed separately. Most of the residues from sediment samples have lead isotope ratios similar to those from the sulfides and scoria of the mining district, indicating that most of the lead in the detritus is related to the mineralized plutons. However, there is evidence of an additional detrital component. Lead isotope ratios from the leachates indicate a different source for the superimposed lead that is best explained by the contamination with the average Mexican industrial lead. Secondary disseminated mineralization that is related to younger, deep structures (hot springs) has different lead isotope ratios compared to massive vein sulfides and accounts for a significant amount in areas with high

  16. Simultaneous speciation of endogenous and exogenous elements by HPLC/ICP-MS with enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.T.

    1996-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was introduced to investigate the distributions of selenium (Se) in biological fluids. The method was to determine both the natural abundance of Se and an enriched stable isotope of Se used as a tracer. The distributions of Se in plasma and in urine specimens were determined in Wistar rats on various Se diets with and without an intravenous injection of 82 Se-selenite. Although the distribution of natural abundance Se (endogenous Se) in the plasma was affected little by the nutritional status of Se, that in the urine gave a Se peak depending on the nutritional status of Se, and the peak was identified as methylselenol. When 82 Se-selenite was injected in excess into rats given three different Se diets (Se-deficient, Se-adequate, Se-excessive), three Se peaks occurred in the HPLC chromatogram of the urine samples, corresponding to selenite, methylselenol and trimethylselenonium ion in the order of elution, and the intensities of the tracer peaks reflected the nutritional status. These results indicate that the HPLC/ICP-MS method is a powerful analytical tool for specifying Se-containing biological constituents, both natural abundance and enriched stable isotopes. Methylselenol in urine is proposed to be a sensitive and Se-specific biological indicator for diagnosing the nutritional status of Se. Furthermore, it was shown that an enriched stable isotope such as 82 Se-selenite was shown to be used for the same purpose, and that 82 Se-methylselenol and 82 Se-trimethylselenonium ion in urine were more sensitive indicators of the Se status of the rats. (author)

  17. Element/Ca, C and O isotope ratios in modern brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, C. V.; Frei, Robert; Korte, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Fossil brachiopods are of major importance for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions, particularly of the Paleozoic. In order to better understand signals of ancient shell materials, modern analogue studies have to be conducted. Here we present C and O isotope data in conjunction...... with ambient seawater. Some species – especially in the suborder Terebratellidina – show partly distinct disequilibrium signals, suggesting some degree of phylogenetic control on the expression of vital effects. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios measured in the modern species form a baseline to assess fossil preservation...

  18. Production of heavy element and search for new isotopes at JAERI-RMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron deficient isotope {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa have been produced in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation reactions. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight by the JAERI recoil mass separator (JAERI-RMS). The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa are 8.080(50) MeV and 8.270(30) MeV, respectively. The corresponding half-lives are 3.8{sub -1.5}{sup +6.9} ms and 5.1{sub -1.9}{sup +6.1} ms. (author)

  19. Pyrochemical recovery of actinide elements from spent light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; Poa, D.S.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is investigating salt transport and lithium pyrochemical processes for recovery of transuranic (TRU) elements from spent light water reactor fuel. The two processes are designed to recover the TRU elements in a form compatible with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. The IFR is uniquely effective in consuming these long-lived TRU elements. The salt transport process uses calcium dissolved in Cu-35 wt % Mg in the presence of a CaCl 2 salt to reduce the oxide fuel. The reduced TRU elements are separated from uranium and most of the fission products by using a MgCl 2 transport salt. The lithium process, which does not employ a solvent metal, uses lithium in the presence of a LiCl salt as the reductant. After separation from the salt, the reduced metal is introduced into an electrorefiner, which separates the TRU elements from the uranium and fission products. In both processes, reductant and reduction salt are recovered by electrochemical decomposition of the oxide reaction product

  20. Databook of the isotopic composition of spent fuel in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Kaneko, Toshiyuki.

    1993-03-01

    In the framework of the activity of the nuclide production evaluation WG in the sigma committee, we summarized the measurement data of the isotopic composition of LWR spent fuels necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the burnup calculation codes. The collected data were arranged to be classified into the irradiation history of the fuel samples, the composition of the fuel assemblies, the sampling position and the isotopic composition of the fuel samples, in order to supply the information necessary to the benchmark calculation. This report describes the data collected from the 13 LWRs including the 9 LWRs (5 PWR and 4 BWR) in Europe and the USA, the 4 LWRs (2 PWR and 2 BWR) in Japan. Finally, the study on the burnup characteristics of the U, Pu isotopes is described. (author)

  1. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, K

    2006-05-15

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  2. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, K.

    2006-05-01

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  3. Influence of precipitating light elements on stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, J. G.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary is often invoked to explain anomalously low seismic velocities in this region. Diffusion of light elements like oxygen or, more slowly, silicon could create a stabilizing chemical gradient in the outermost core. Heat flow less than that conducted along the adiabatic gradient may also produce thermal stratification. However, reconciling either origin with the apparent longevity (>3.45 billion years) of Earth's magnetic field remains difficult. Sub-isentropic heat flow would not drive a dynamo by thermal convection before the nucleation of the inner core, which likely occurred less than one billion years ago and did not instantly change the heat flow. Moreover, an oxygen-enriched layer below the core/mantle boundary—the source of thermal buoyancy—could establish double-diffusive convection where motion in the bulk fluid is suppressed below a slowly advancing interface. Here we present new models that explain both stable stratification and a long-lived dynamo by considering ongoing precipitation of magnesium oxide and/or silicon dioxide from the core. Lithophile elements may partition into iron alloys under extreme pressure and temperature during Earth's formation, especially after giant impacts. Modest core/mantle heat flow then drives compositional convection—regardless of thermal conductivity—since their solubility is strongly temperature-dependent. Our models begin with bulk abundances for the mantle and core determined by the redox conditions during accretion. We then track equilibration between the core and a primordial basal magma ocean followed by downward diffusion of light elements. Precipitation begins at a depth that is most sensitive to temperature and oxygen abundance and then creates feedbacks with the radial thermal and chemical profiles. Successful models feature a stable layer with low seismic velocity (which mandates multi-component evolution since a single light element typically

  4. Isotopic Composition of Light Nuclei in Cosmic Rays: Results from AMS-01

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Wiik, K; Grimm, O; Sartorelli, G; Zhou, Y; Pauss, F; Alpat, B; Capell, M; Djambazov, L; Yang, M; Yang, J; Extermann, P; Arefiev, A; Zhuang, H L; Hermel, V; Mihul, A; Galaktionov, Y; Park, H B; Von Gunten, H; Vetlitsky, I; Zhou, F; Vandenhirtz, J; Ambrosi, G; Suter, H; Becker, U; Zhang, H Y; Alcaraz, J; Casaus, J; Ren, Z; Fiandrini, E; Hungerford, W; Ren, D; Wicki, S W; Eppling, F J; Flugge, G; Karlamaa, K; Boella, G; Levi, G; Choi, Y Y; Laborie, G; Lubelsmeyer, K; Gervasi, M; Kirn, T; Azzarello, P; Kounine, A; Barreira, G; Yan, L G; Burger, W J; Koutsenko, V; Grandi, D; Ribordy, M; Gu, W Q; Bindi, V; Favier, J; Haino, S; Shin, J W; Mana, C; Seo, E S; Plyaskin, V; Shoumilov, E; Cannarsa, P; Xia, P C; Ionica, M; Jongmanns, M; Shoutko, V; Wallraff, W; Margotti, A; Lee, S C; Giovacchini, F; Schael, S; Bourquin, M; Roeser, U; Lu, Y S; Torsti, J; Kossakowski, R; Chang, Y H; Menichelli, M; Verlaat, B; Paniccia, M; Steuer, M; Fouque, N; Boschini, M; Zimmermann, B; Song, T; Zuccon, P; Contin, A; Produit, N; Laitinen, T; Kim, K S; Viertel, G; Lin, C H; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Delgado, C; Lu, G; Pohl, M; Yang, C G; Tornikoski, M; Duranti, M; Cindolo, F; Xu, S; Lebedev, A; Xu, Z Z; Crespo, D; Cristinziani, M; Tomassetti, N; Kim, D H; Biland, A; Bertucci, B; Trumper, J; Buenerd, M; Hangarter, K; Kenney, G; Quadrani, L; Hofer, H; Berdugo, J; Siedenburg, T; Chen, Z G; Ting, S M; Vezzu, F; Cortina-Gil, E; Dai, T S; Barao, F; Commichau, V; Zhang, Z P; Sun, G S; Zhu, W Z; Laurenti, G; Chen, H S; Kim, G N; Sagdeev, R; Wu, S X; Urpo, S; Lee, M W; Rapin, D; Kraeber, M; Chen, H F; Engelberg, J; Ritakari, J; Di Falco, S; Zhu, G Y; Vite, D; Ulbricht, J; Bruni, G; Bellagamba, L; Williams, C; Fisher, P H; D'Antone, I; Pevsner, A; Castellini, G; Chernoplekov, N A; Ao, L; Giusti, P; McNeil, R R; Allaby, J; Yan, J L; Son, D; Santos, D; Cai, X D; Rancoita, P G; Becker, R; Wang, J Z; Oliva, A; Karpinski, W; Cernuda, I; Saouter, P; Ro, S; Anderhub, H; Dela Guia, C; Schwering, G; Ting, S C C; Lamanna, G; Pauluzzi, M; Berges, P; Riihonen, E; Pojidaev, V; Chiueh, T H; Valtonen, E; Pereira, R; Spinella, F; Perrin, E; Park, W H; Dong, Z R; Zichichi, A; Battiston, R; von Dratzig, A S; Vialle, J P; Klimentov, A; Liu, H T; Bartoloni, A; Arruda, L; Tang, X W; Mujunen, A; Pimenta, M; Casadei, D; Spada, F R; Eronen, T; Mayet, F; Palmonari, F; Lustermann, W; Velikhov, E; Pilo, F; Zhao, D X; Luckey, D; Basile, M; Sbarra, C; Natale, S; Siedling, R; Ye, S W; Burger, J D

    2011-01-01

    The variety of isotopes in cosmic rays allows us to study different aspects of the processes that cosmic rays undergo between the time they are produced and the time of their arrival in the heliosphere. In this paper, we present measurements of the isotopic ratios (2)H/(4)He, (3)He/(4)He, (6)Li/(7)Li, (7)Be/((9)Be+(10)Be), and (10)B/(11)B in the range 0.2-1.4 GeV of kinetic energy per nucleon. The measurements are based on the data collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, AMS-01, during the STS-91 flight in 1998 June.

  5. Decay studies of new neutron deficient isotopes in the range of elements between gadolinium and lead

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S; Faust, W; Guttner, K; Hessberger, F P; Münzenberg, G; Reisdorf, W; Schneider, J H R; Thuma, B

    1981-01-01

    Very neutron deficient isotopes below lead are produced with beams of /sup 58/Ni, /sup 92/Mo, and /sup 107/Ag accelerated by the linear accelerator UNILAC. After separation from the projectile beam by the velocity filter SHIP, the fusion products are implanted with their full recoil energy into an array of position-sensitive detectors. With a newly developed position and time correlation technique, parent daughter relationships, half lives and alpha branching ratios of a large number of isotopes are determined. Two new alpha emitting isomeric states are identified in /sup 155/Lu and /sup 156/Hf. The energies of the excited states are (1798+or-12) keV in /sup 155/Lu and (1977+18) keV in /sup 156/Hf, the half-lives are (2.60+or-0.07) ms and (444+or-17) mu s, respectively. Compared to the ground state transitions, a hindrance of 10/sup 5/ can be deduced for both transitions, possibly indicating orbital angular momenta of the order of 10 h(cross) for the alpha emitting states. The isomers are proposed to belong t...

  6. Light element abundances in a matter-antimatter model of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of light element synthesis in a baryon symmetric Big-Bang cosmology, in which the universe is constituted at the end of the leptonic era by a nucleon-antinucleon emulsion. If the initial typical size of the matter or antimatter regions is sufficiently high to avoid significant neutron annihilation, nucleosynthesis can proceed in this kind of model in the same way as in the conventional Big-Bang. But the abundances of the created light elements can be modified at a later time by interaction of the nuclei with the high energy particles and photons resulting from annihilation. In this article, we consider two specific mechanisms able to change the abundances: a 4 He 'nucleodisruption' process (proposed by Combes et al., 1975), which leads to deuterium production, and 4 He photodisintegration by annihilation γ-rays, which leads to an increase of the 3 He and D production. General relations are established which allow one to compute the abundances of the so created elements when the size l of the matter or antimatter regions and the annihilation rate are given as function of time. These relations are applied to the Omnes model, in which the size l grows by a coalescence mechanism. It is shown that in this model the D and 3 He abundances are much greater than the limits on primordial abundances deduced from the present observations. (orig.) [de

  7. Identification of light elements in silicon nitride by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrobo, Juan C., E-mail: idrobojc@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Walkosz, Weronika [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Klie, Robert F.; Oeguet, Serdar [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In silicon nitride structural ceramics, the overall mechanical and thermal properties are controlled by the atomic and electronic structures at the interface between the ceramic grains and the amorphous intergranular films (IGFs) formed by various sintering additives. In the last ten years the atomic arrangements of heavy elements (rare-earths) at the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/IGF interfaces have been resolved. However, the atomic position of light elements, without which it is not possible to obtain a complete description of the interfaces, has been lacking. This review article details the authors' efforts to identify the atomic arrangement of light elements such as nitrogen and oxygen at the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} interface and in bulk Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Revealing the atomic structure of the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification and lattice location of oxygen impurities in bulk {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short range ordering of nitrogen and oxygen at the {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  8. The origin of the ore-bearing solution in the Pb-Zn veins of the western Harz, Germany, as deduced from rare-earth element and isotope distributions in calcites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Parekh, P.P.; Morteani, G.; Hoefs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) and stable-isotope distribution patterns in calcites from the mining areas of St. Andreasberg, Clausthal and Bad Grund, western Harz, Germany, have been determined. Three types of REE distribution patterns were found: type I is characterized by high amounts of light REE without any Ce and Eu anomalies and relativity homogeneous C- and O-isotopic composition. Type II displays conspicuous Ce and Eu anomalies at lower levels of concentration of the light REE. Type III has very low amounts of REE. Type II and III exhibit a more variable C-isotopic composition than type I. The calcite with type I patterns is assumed to be derived mainly from magnetic waters. A possible source for the magnetic waters seems to be the Brocken-Oker granite. Type-II calcites and the sulfides are probably derived from upheated country rock whereas calcite with type-III pattern mineralized from relatively cold descending solutions. The calcite with type-I pattern turns out to be not in equilibrium with sulfides, although both are in intimate contact, e.g. in banded ores. This non-equilibrium indicates two independent sources for this calcite with type-I pattern and the sulfides. (Auth.)

  9. Re-Os isotope and platinum group elements of a FOcal ZOne mantle source, Louisville Seamounts Chain, Pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Hanyu, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Senda, Ryoko; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fitton, Godfrey; Williams, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC) is, besides the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, one of the longest-lived hotspot traces. We report here the first Re-Os isotope and platinum group element (PGE) data for Canopus, Rigil, and Burton Guyots along the chain, which were drilled during IODP Expedition 330. The LSC basalts possess (187Os/188Os)i = 0.1245-0.1314 that are remarkably homogeneous and do not vary with age. A Re-Os isochron age of 64.9 ± 3.2 Ma was obtained for Burton seamount (the youngest of the three seamounts drilled), consistent with 40Ar-39Ar data. Isochron-derived initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1272 ± 0.0008, together with data for olivines (0.1271-0.1275), are within the estimated primitive mantle values. This (187Os/188Os)i range is similar to those of Rarotonga (0.124-0.139) and Samoan shield (0.1276-0.1313) basalts and lower than those of Cook-Austral (0.136-0.155) and Hawaiian shield (0.1283-0.1578) basalts, suggesting little or no recycled component in the LSC mantle source. The PGE data of LSC basalts are distinct from those of oceanic lower crust. Variation in PGE patterns can be largely explained by different low degrees of melting under sulfide-saturated conditions of the same relatively fertile mantle source, consistent with their primitive mantle-like Os and primordial Ne isotope signatures. The PGE patterns and the low 187Os/188Os composition of LSC basalts contrast with those of Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) tholeiites. We conclude that the Re-Os isotope and PGE composition of LSC basalts reflect a relatively pure deep-sourced common mantle sampled by some ocean island basalts but is not discernible in the composition of OJP tholeiites.

  10. Origin of depleted components in basalt related to the Hawaiian hot spot: Evidence from isotopic and incompatible element ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, F. A.; Huang, S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Regelous, M.; Boyet, M.

    2005-02-01

    The radiogenic isotopic ratios of Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb in basaltic lavas associated with major hot spots, such as Hawaii, document the geochemical heterogeneity of their mantle source. What processes created such heterogeneity? For Hawaiian lavas there has been extensive discussion of geochemically enriched source components, but relatively little attention has been given to the origin of depleted source components, that is, components with the lowest 87Sr/86Sr and highest 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf. The surprisingly important role of a depleted component in the source of the incompatible element-enriched, rejuvenated-stage Hawaiian lavas is well known. A depleted component also contributed significantly to the ˜76-81 Ma lavas erupted at Detroit Seamount in the Emperor Seamount Chain. In both cases, major involvement of MORB-related depleted asthenosphere or lithosphere has been proposed. Detroit Seamount and rejuvenated-stage lavas, however, have important isotopic differences from most Pacific MORB. Specifically, they define trends to relatively unradiogenic Pb isotope ratios, and most Emperor Seamount lavas define a steep trend of 176Hf/177Hf versus 143Nd/144Nd. In addition, lavas from Detroit Seamount and recent rejuvenated-stage lavas have relatively high Ba/Th, a characteristic of lavas associated with the Hawaiian hot spot. It is possible that a depleted component, intrinsic to the hot spot, has contributed to these young and old lavas related to the Hawaiian hot spot. The persistence of such a component over 80 Myr is consistent with a long-lived source, i.e., a plume.

  11. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carola; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2008-01-01

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ( 15 N, 13 C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower δ 15 N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events

  12. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carola [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ({sup 15}N, {sup 13}C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower {delta}{sup 15}N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events.

  13. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  14. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  15. Elemental, isotopic, and geochronological variability in Mogollon-Datil volcanic province archaeological obsidian, southwestern USA: Solving issues of intersource discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackley, M. Steven; Morgan, Leah; Pyle, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Solving issues of intersource discrimination in archaeological obsidian is a recurring problem in geoarchaeological investigation, particularly since the number of known sources of archaeological obsidian worldwide has grown nearly exponentially in the last few decades, and the complexity of archaeological questions asked has grown equally so. These two parallel aspects of archaeological investigation have required more exacting understanding of the geological relationship between sources and the more accurate analysis of these sources of archaeological obsidian. This is particularly the case in the North American Southwest where the frequency of archaeological investigation is some of the highest in the world, and the theory and method used to interpret that record has become increasingly nuanced. Here, we attempt to unravel the elemental similarity of archaeological obsidian in the Mogollon-Datil volcanic province of southwestern New Mexico where some of the most important and extensively distributed sources are located and the elemental similarity between the sources is great even though the distance between the sources is large. Uniting elemental, isotopic, and geochronological analyses as an intensive pilot study, we unpack this complexity to provide greater understanding of these important sources of archaeological obsidian.

  16. Biomonitoring of coastal areas in Tunisia: Stable isotope and trace element analysis in the Yellow-legged Gull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdennadher, Aida; Ramirez, Francisco; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    We used Yellow-legged Gull (YLG) chicks to monitor trace elements in Tunisian areas subject to different pollution stresses: urban contamination (Chikly), industrial pollution (Thyna) and an unpolluted area (Kneis). We measured trace element concentrations (Hg, Se and Pb) in chick feathers. We also assessed their feeding ecology by analyzing both regurgitates and stable isotopes (SIA) in chick feathers and in their prey, to determine the main entry route of pollutants. SIA revealed that YLG feed mainly on aquatic resources from the Lake of Tunis (Chikly colony) and the Gulf of Gabes (Thyna and Kneis colonies). Moreover, the enriched δ 15 N found in feathers from Chikly are attributed to the eutrophication of the Lake of Tunis. Hg and Se were higher in Kneis and Thyna colonies, in agreement with the higher consumption of marine resources and the greater availability of these elements resulting from the impact of the industrial activity in the area. Pb concentrations were higher in Chikly, related to the heavier traffic around the Lake of Tunis and the use of leaded gasoline.

  17. Mercury in litterfall and sediment using elemental and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in the mangrove of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Cynara Pedrosa; Bernini, Elaine; Araújo, Beatriz Ferreira; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes de; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de

    2018-03-01

    Mercury and elemental and isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen were determined in litterfall and sediments from the mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in sediment ranged from 33 to 123 ng g-1 and 0.20-1.38 ng g-1, respectively. The δ13C in sediment varied from -29.4 to -26.5‰ and from 2.4 to 5.8‰ in δ15N. The THg concentration in litterfall and its annual input to the mangrove was 21 ± 2 ng g-1 and 16 ± 4 μg m-2 for the species Laguncularia racemosa, 18 ± 1 ng g-1 and 17 ± 3 μg m-2 for Rhizophora mangle, and 53 ± 4 ng g-1 and 33 ± 4 μg m-2 for Avicennia germinans, respectively. The isotopic composition of leaf litter ranged from -28.6 to -26.9‰ for δ13C and 4.5-7.2‰ for δ15N. Both the highest annual Hg input via litterfall and highest sediment Hg concentration were observed in areas dominated by A. germinans. These results suggest that the rate of litterfall of plant species and the atmospheric deposition have played an important role in the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the mangrove ecosystem.

  18. Beta decay of twelve light neutron-rich isotopes from 17C to 40S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1986-07-01

    The results reported here have been obtained with an 40 Argon beam on a Be target. The separated nuclei were implanted in a catcher foil placed in between a thin scintillator detecting the betas and a high volume Ge detector; only gammas in coincidence with betas were recorded. Results for the gamma energies and the half-lives of the observed isotopes are given

  19. Measurement of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic radiation for the elements B-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarle, C.; Herrstroem, N-Y.; Jacobsson, L.; Joensson, G.; Kristiansson, K.

    1977-05-01

    The results are given from an investigation of the isotopic composition of primary cosmic ray B, C, N and O. Preliminary result is also given from an investigation of Ne. The mass measurements are made in nuclear emulsions exposed at about 3 g/cm 2 atmospheric depth. The results for B-O represented as quotients extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, are: 11 B/B=0.61+-0.10; 13 C/C=0.06+-0.03; 15 N/N=0.33+-0.09; 17 O/O=0.05+-0.03; 18 O/O=0.08+-0.03. The preliminary result from the Ne-measurements shows that nuclei with masses larger than 20 exist among the primary neon nuclei. (Auth.)

  20. Chemical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction in light water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature on the mechanical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) in light water reactor fuel elements, the chemical features of this phenomenon are so poorly understood that there is still disagreement concerning the chemical agent responsible. Since the earliest work by Rosenbaum, Davies and Pon, laboratory and in-reactor experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of PCI fuel rod failures have concentrated almost exclusively on iodine. The assumption that this is the reponsible chemical agent is contained in models of PCI which have been constructed for incorporation into fuel performance codes. The evidence implicating iodine is circumstantial, being based primarily upon the volatility and significant fission yield of this element and on the microstructural similarity of the failed Zircaloy specimens exposed to iodine in laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests to cladding failures by PCI

  1. Studies on the synthesis of isotopes of superheavy element Lv (Z = 116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Safoora, V. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur (India)

    2017-11-15

    The probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of superheavy nucleus {sup 296}Lv found in the cold valley of {sup 296}Lv have been identified by studying the interaction barrier of the colliding nuclei, probability of compound nucleus formation, P{sub CN}, and survival probability W{sub sur}. At energies near and above the Coulomb barrier, the capture, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for the probable combinations for the hot and cold fusion reactions are systematically investigated. By considering intensities of the projectile beams, availabilities of the targets and half lives of the colliding nuclei, the combination {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm is found to be the most probable projectile-target pair for the synthesis of {sup 296}Lv. The calculated maximum value of 2n, 3n, 4n and 5n channel cross section for the reaction {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm are 0.599 pb, 5.957 pb, 4.805 pb, and 0.065 pb, respectively. Moreover, the production cross sections for the synthesis of isotopes {sup 291-295,298}Lv using {sup 48}Ca projectile on {sup 243-247,250}Cm targets are calculated. Among these reactions, the reactions {sup 48}Ca + {sup 247}Cm → {sup 295}Lv and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 250}Cm → {sup 298}Lv have maximum production cross section in 3n (10.697 pb) and 4n (12.006 pb) channel, respectively. Our studies on the SHE Lv using the combinations {sup 48}Ca + {sup 245}Cm → {sup 293}Lv and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm → {sup 296}Lv are compared with available experimental data and with other theoretical studies. Our studies are in agreement with experimental data and we hope that these studies will be a guide for the future experiments to synthesize the isotopes of Lv. (orig.)

  2. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1991-06-01

    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Study on the state of a surface of compounds of vanadium with light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povstugar, V.I.; Mikhajlova, S.S.; Trapeznikov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Roentgenoelectron study of powderlike compounds of vanadium with light elements (C, N, O, S) was carried out. The study was made in the temperature range of 70-500 deg C. The results were obtained in an electron magnetic spectrometer. Spectra of inner levels O 1S and V 2p and valance bands are presented. The experimental results can be employed for the study of synthesis problems of the given class of compounds. Due to high surface activity the study of catalytic properties of finely dispersed vanadium compounds by roentgenoelectron spectroscopy method gives much information about surface processes

  4. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  5. Element enrichment and U-series isotopic characteristics of the hydrothermal sulfides at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The geochemical and U-series isotopic characteristics of hydrothermal sulfide samples from the Jade site (127°04.5′E, 27°15′N, water depth 1300-1450 m) at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough were analyzed. In the hydrothermal sulfide samples bearing sulfate (samples HOK1 and HOK2), the LREEs are relatively enriched. All the hydrothermal sulfide samples except HOK1 belong to Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide. In comparison with Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfides from other fields, the contents of Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Au and Hg are higher, the contents of Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Te, Cs, Ti and U lower, and the 210Pb radioactivity ratios and 210Pb/Pb ratios very low. In the hydrothermal sulfide mainly composed of sphalerite, the correlations between rare elements Hf and U, and Hf and Mn as well as that between dispersive elements Ga and Zn, are strongly positive; also the contents of Au and Ag are related to Fe-sulfide, because the low temperature promotes enrichment of Au and Ag. Meanwhile, the positive correlations between Fe and Bi and between Zn and Cd are not affected by the change of mineral assemblage. Based on the 210Pb/Pb ratios of hydrothermal sulfide samples (3.99×10-5-5.42×10?5), their U isotopic composition (238U content 1.15-2.53 ppm, 238U activity 1.07-1.87 dpm/g, 234U activity 1.15-2.09 dpm/g and 234U/238U ratio 1.07-1.14) and their 232Th and 230Th contents are at base level, and the chronological age of hydrothermal sulfide at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough is between 200 and 2000 yr.

  6. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  7. Water and light improvement after thinning at a xeric site: Which weights the most? A dual isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuggiola, Arnaud; Ogée, Jérôme; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Bugmann, Harald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Reductions in stand density foster individual tree growth due to increases of resources such as water, light and nutrients. Detailed knowledge of the short- to long-term physiological response underlying the growth response to thinning is crucial for the management of forests already suffering from recurrent drought-induced dieback. We applied a dual isotope approach together with mechanistic isotope models such as MuSICA to study the physiological processes underlying growth enhancement in a long-term thinning experiment in a xeric Pinus sylvestris forest in Switzerland. This approach allowed for identifying and disentangling changes in stomatal conductance and assimilation rate. Our results indicate that an increase in stomatal conductance outweighs an increase in assimilation, meaning that the observed growth releases in heavy thinned trees at our xeric site are primarily driven by enhanced water availability rather than by the increase in light availability. We conclude that in areas with isohydric species (drought avoiders) that tend to grow close to their physiological limits, thinning is highly recommended to maintain a less negative water balance and thus foster tree growth, and ultimately the survival rate of individual trees and forests.

  8. Transport and transformation of riverine neodymium isotope and rare earth element signatures in high latitude estuaries: A case study from the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukert, Georgi; Frank, Martin; Bauch, Dorothea; Hathorne, Ed C.; Gutjahr, Marcus; Janout, Markus; Hölemann, Jens

    2017-11-01

    Marine neodymium (Nd) isotope and rare earth element (REE) compositions are valuable tracers for present and past ocean circulation and continental inputs. Yet their supply via high latitude estuaries is largely unknown. Here we present a comprehensive dissolved Nd isotope (expressed as εNd values) and REE data set together with seawater stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of samples from the Laptev Sea recovered in two Arctic summers and one winter. The Laptev Sea is a shallow Siberian Shelf sea characterized by extensive river-runoff, sea-ice production and ice transport into the Arctic Ocean. The large variability in εNd (-6 to -17), REE concentrations (16 to 600 pmol/kg for Nd) and REE patterns is controlled by freshwater supply from distinct riverine sources and open ocean Arctic Atlantic Water. Strikingly and contrary to expectations, except for cerium no evidence for significant release of REEs from particulate phases is found, which is attributed to low amounts of suspended particulate matter and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations present in the contributing rivers. Essentially all shelf waters are depleted in light (L)REEs, while the distribution of the heavy REEs shows a deficiency at the surface and a pronounced excess in the bottom layer. This distribution is consistent with REE removal through coagulation of riverine nanoparticles and colloids starting at salinities near 10 and resulting in a drop of all REE concentrations by ∼30%. With increasing salinity preferential LREE removal is observable reaching ∼75% for Nd at a salinity of 34. Although the delayed onset of dissolved REE removal contrasts with most previous observations from other estuarine environments, it agrees remarkably well with results from recent experiments simulating estuarine mixing of seawater with organic-rich river waters. In addition, melting and formation of sea ice leads to further REE depletion at the surface and strong REE enrichment near the shelf

  9. An isotope trace element study of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Karen; Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Dykes of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm can be divided into pre- and syn-break-up tholeiitic dykes, and post-break-up transitional dykes. Of the pre- and syn-break-up dykes, the most abundant group (Tholeiitic Series; TS) has major element compositions similar to the main part of the East...

  10. Subduction-like fluids in the genesis of Mt. Etna magmas: evidence from boron isotopes and fluid mobile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonarini, Sonia; Armienti, Pietro; D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio

    2001-11-01

    New whole-rock B, Sr, Nd isotope ratios and 87Sr/ 86Sr on clinopyroxenes have been collected to study the enrichment of fluid mobile elements (FMEs) observed in Mt. Etna volcanics. Etna volcano, one of the most active in the world, is located in an extremely complex tectonic context at the boundary between colliding African and European plates. The analytical work focuses on current (1974-1998) and historic (1851-1971) eruptive activity, including some key prehistoric lavas, in order to interpret the secular shift of its geochemical signature to more alkaline compositions. Boron is used as a tool to unravel the role of fluids in the genesis of magmas, revealing far-reaching consequences, beyond the case study of Mt. Etna. Small variations are observed in δ 11B (-3.5 to -8.0‰), 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70323-0.70370), and 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51293-0.51287). Moreover, temporal evolution to higher δ 11B and 87Sr/ 86Sr, and to lower 143Nd/ 144Nd, is observed in the current activity, defining a regular trend. Sr isotopic equilibrium between whole-rock and clinopyroxene pairs indicates the successive introduction of three distinct magma types into the Etna plumbing system over time; these are characterized by differing degrees of FME enrichment. In addition, certain lavas exhibit evidence for country rock assimilation, magma-fluid interaction, or magma mixing in the shallow feeding system; at times these processes apparently lowered magmatic δ 11B and/or induced Sr isotopic disequilibrium between whole rock and clinopyroxene. The regular increase of δ 11B values is correlated with Nb/FME and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; these correlations are consistent with simple mixing between the mantle source and aqueous fluids derived from nearby Ionian slab. The best fit of Mt. Etna data is obtained using an enriched-MORB mantle source and a fluid phase with δ 11B of about -2‰ and 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.708. We argue that the slab window generated by differential roll-back of subducting Ionian

  11. Mixing of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming (Sn,W) systems: stable isotope and rare earth elements data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, T. M.; Popova, J. A.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignatiev, A. V.; Matveeva, S. S.; Limantseva, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    Experimental and physico-chemical modeling data witness to important role of mixing of different type of fluids during tin and tungsten ore formation in hydrothermal systems. Mixing of magmatogeneous fluids, exsolved from granite melts, with exogenic, initially meteoric waters in hydrothermal ore-forming systems may change chemical composition of ore-forming fluid, causing cassiterite and/or wolframite precipitation (Heinrich, 1990; Sushchevskaya, Ryzhenko, 2002). We studied the process of genetically different fluids mixing for two economic Sn-W deposits, situated in the Iultin ore region (North-East of Russia, Chukotka Penninsula). The Iultin and Svetloe deposits are located in the apical parts of close situated leucogranite stocks, formed at the final stage of the Iultin complex emplacement. Both deposits are composed of a series of quartz veins among the flyschoid rocks (T 1-2), cut by the dikes (K1) of lamprophyre, granodiorite porphyre and alpite. The veins of the deposits are dominated by the productive quartz-wolframite-cassiterite-arsenopyrite-muscovite mineral assemblage. Topaz, beryl, fluorite, and albite occur sporadically. The later sulfide (loellingite-stannite-chalcopyrite) and quartz-fluorite-calcite assemblages show insignificant development. The preore quartz veinlets in host hornfels contain disseminated iron sulfides, chalcopyrite, muscovite. Isotopic (H, O, Ar) study of minerals, supplemented by oxygen isotope data of host granites and metamorphic rocks gave us possibility to conclude, that at the Iultin and the Svetloye deposits fluid mixing was fixed on the early stages of deposit formation and could be regarded as probable cause of metal (W, Sn) precipitation. During postore time the intensive involvement of isotopically light exogenic waters have changed: a) the initial character of oxygen isotope zonality; b) the initial hydrogen isotope composition of muscovites, up to meteoric calculated values for productive fluid (while the δ18O

  12. Light intensity fluctuations on a layered microsphere irradiated by a monochromatic light wave: Modeling of an inhomogeneous cellular surface with numerical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Moon Kyu

    2007-01-01

    The inhomogeneity of crystalline or amorphous unit cells of material is treated by the numerical boundary element method. This paper is especially about the effect of perturbed refractive index (or potential energy) of a material on the light intensity inside a layered microsphere when it is irradiated by monochromatic unpolarized plane light wave. The resultant light intensities on the particle surface show noise-like fluctuations depending on various parameters such as the material refractive indices, the light wavelength, the particle and core size, the numerical surface element size, etc. Both the numerical results and the experiments from a few other groups agree that large light absorption occurs just in a small wavelength range

  13. High-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma water deuterium and 18-oxygen enrichment using a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, M; Darimont, C; Piguet-Welsch, C; Fay, L B

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of deuterium and oxygen-18 (18O) enrichment of water samples isolated from blood. This analytical method enables rapid and simple determination of these enrichments of microgram quantities of water. Water is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases by the use of a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC-EA), that are then transferred on-line into the isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Accuracy determined with the standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) and Greenland ice sheet precipitation (GISP) is reliable for deuterium and 18O enrichments. The range of linearity is from 0 up to 0.09 atom percent excess (APE, i.e. -78 up to 5725 delta per mil (dpm)) for deuterium enrichment and from 0 up to 0.17 APE (-11 up to 890 dpm) for 18O enrichment. Memory effects do exist but can be avoided by analyzing the biological samples in quintuplet. This method allows the determination of 1440 samples per week, i.e. 288 biological samples per week. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Investigation of the isotopic composition of lead and of trace elements concentrations in natural uranium materials as a signature in nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedkauskaite-LeGore, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mayer, K.; Millet, S.; Nicholl, A.; Rasmussen, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Baltrunas, D. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2007-07-01

    Lead is contained as trace element in uranium ores and propagates throughout the production process to intermediate products like yellow cake or uranium oxide. The lead isotopes in such material originate from two sources: natural lead and radiogenic lead. The variability of the isotopic composition of lead in ores and yellow cakes was studied and the applicability of this parameter for nuclear forensic investigations was investigated. Furthermore, the chemical impurities contained in these materials were measured in order to identify characteristic differences between materials from different mines. For the samples investigated, it could be shown, that the lead isotopic composition varies largely from mine to mine and it may be used as one of the parameters to distinguish between materials of different origins. Some of the chemical impurities show a similar pattern and support the conclusions drawn from the lead isotope data. (orig.)

  15. Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Birger; Andersson, Per; Dahl, Jeremy

    1988-01-01

    Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: 1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents about 50% of the Ir present in the bulk sample Fish Clay. Strong organometallic complexes is the most probable carrier phase for this fraction of Ir. Kerogen separated from the K-T boundary clay at Caravaca, Spain, similarly exhibits enhanced Ir concentrations. 2) Sulfur isotope analyses of metal-rich pyrite spherules, which occur in extreme abundance (about 10% by weight) in the basal Fish Clay, give a δ 34S value of -32%.. This very low value shows that sulfide formation by anaerobic bacteria was intensive in the Fish Clay during early diagenesis. Since the pyrite spherules are major carriers of elements such as Ni, Co, As, Sb and Zn, microbial activity may have played an important role for concentrating these elements. In the Fish Clay large amounts of rare earth elements have precipitated from sea water on fish scales. Analyses reveal that, compared with sea water, the Fish Clay is only about four times less enriched in sea-water derived lanthanides than in Ir. This shows that a sea-water origin is plausible for elements that are strongly enriched in the clay, but whose origin cannot be accounted for by a lithogenic precursor.

  16. Plutonium isotopic composition of high burnup spent fuel discharged from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pu isotopic composition of fuel affects FBR core nuclear characteristics very much. → Spent fuel compositions of next generation LWRs with burnup of 70 GWd/t were obtained. → Pu isotopic composition and amount in the spent fuel with 70 GWd/t were evaluated. → Spectral shift rods of high burnup BWR increases the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. → Wide fuel rod pitch of high burnup PWR lowers the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. - Abstract: The isotopic composition and amount of plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel from a high burnup boiling water reactor (HB-BWR) and a high burnup pressurized water reactor (HB-PWR), each with an average discharge burnup of 70 GWd/t, were estimated, in order to evaluate fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel composition in the transition period from LWRs to FBRs. The HB-BWR employs spectral shift rods and the neutron spectrum is shifted through the operation cycle. The weight fraction of fissile plutonium (Puf) isotopes to the total plutonium in HB-BWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 62%, which is larger than that of conventional BWRs with average burnup of 45 GWd/t, because of the spectral shift operation. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-BWR is also larger than that produced in a conventional BWR. The HB-PWR uses a wider pitch 17 x 17 fuel rod assembly to optimize neutron slowing down. The Puf fraction of HB-PWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 56%, which is smaller than that of conventional PWRs with average burnup of 49 GWd/t, mainly because of the wider pitch. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-PWR is also smaller than that in conventional PWRs.

  17. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Brune, D.

    1973-01-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  18. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-07-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  19. Trace element and strontium isotope characteristics of volcanic rocks from Isla Tortuga: a young seamount in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Rodey; Futa, K.; Hedge, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Isla Tortuga is a small isolated central volcano which is located near an actively spreading trough in the Gulf of California. The basalt lavas from Tortuga which have the highest Mg/Fe and Ni contents have trace element abundances and ratios and 87Sr/86Sr which are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge tholeiite. The major element, rare earth element and Sr abundances of fractionated tholeiite (low Mg/Fe) and tholeiitic andesite of Tortuga are consistent with an origin by closed-system fractional crystallization. This hypothesis is not supported by K, Na, Rb and Ba abundances in the lavas nor by their variable 87Sr/86Sr (0.7024-0.7035). It is proposed that the apparent decoupling of light rare earth elements, other incompatible trace elements and 87Sr/86Sr is due to contamination of some Tortuga magmas while they are fractionated in a high-level crustal magma chamber. The mantle source of least-contaminated, high Mg/Fe basalt lavas of Tortuga is similar, although not identical to the source of normal mid-ocean ridge tholeiite; significant differences exist. The reasons for these differences are not yet known. ?? 1979.

  20. Trace element and strontium isotope characteristics of volcanic rocks from Isla Tortuga: a young seamount in the Gulf of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batiza, R.

    1979-01-01

    Isla Tortuga is a small isolated central volcano which is located near an actively spreading trough in the Gulf of California. The basalt lavas from Tortuga which have the highest Mg/Fe and Ni contents have trace element abundances and ratios and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr which are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge tholeiite. The major element, rare earth element and Sr abundances of fractionated tholeiiite (low Mg/Fe) and tholeite andesite of Tortuga are consistent with an origin by closed-system fractional crystallization. This hypothesis is not supported by K, Na, Rb and Ba abundances in the lavas nor by their variable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.7024-0.7035). It is proposed that the apparent decoupling of light rare earth elements, other incompatible trace elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is due to contamination of some Tortuga magmas while they are fractionated in a high-level crustal magma chamber. The mantle source of least-contaminated, high Mg/Fe basalt lavas of Tortuga is similar, although not identical to the source of normal mid-ocean ridge tholeiite; significant differences exist. The reasons for these differences are not yet known. (Auth.)

  1. Trace element and strontium isotope characteristics of volcanic rocks from Isla Tortuga: a young seamount in the Gulf of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batiza, R [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences; Futa, K; Hedge, C E [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)

    1979-05-01

    Isla Tortuga is a small isolated central volcano which is located near an actively spreading trough in the Gulf of California. The basalt lavas from Tortuga which have the highest Mg/Fe and Ni contents have trace element abundances and ratios and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr which are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge tholeiite. The major element, rare earth element and Sr abundances of fractionated tholeiite (low Mg/Fe) and tholeiite andesite of Tortuga are consistent with an origin by closed-system fractional crystallization. This hypothesis is not supported by K, Na, Rb and Ba abundances in the lavas nor by their variable /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr (0.7024 to 0.7035). It is proposed that the apparent decoupling of light rare earth elements, other incompatible trace elements and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is due to contamination of some Tortuga magmas while they are fractionated in a high-level crustal magma chamber. The mantle source of least-contaminated, high Mg/Fe basalt lavas of Tortuga is similar, although not identical to the source of normal mid-ocean ridge tholeiite; significant differences exist. The reasons for these differences are not yet known.

  2. The Detailed Chemical Properties of M31 Star Clusters. I. Fe, Alpha and Light Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-12-01

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R M31 < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ~ - 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. THE DETAILED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF M31 STAR CLUSTERS. I. Fe, ALPHA AND LIGHT ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: jcolucci@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 105-24, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R {sub M31} < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ∼ – 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope.

  4. A Review of the Stable Isotope Bio-geochemistry of the Global Silicon Cycle and Its Associated Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill N. Sutton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is an important nutrient in the ocean. The global Si cycle plays a critical role in regulating primary productivity and carbon cycling on the continents and in the oceans. Development of the analytical tools used to study the sources, sinks, and fluxes of the global Si cycle (e.g., elemental and stable isotope ratio data for Ge, Si, Zn, etc. have recently led to major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that constrain the cycling of Si in the modern environment and in the past. Here, we provide background on the geochemical tools that are available for studying the Si cycle and highlight our current understanding of the marine, freshwater and terrestrial systems. We place emphasis on the geochemistry (e.g., Al/Si, Ge/Si, Zn/Si, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ30Si of dissolved and biogenic Si, present case studies, such as the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis, and discuss challenges associated with the development of these environmental proxies for the global Si cycle. We also discuss how each system within the global Si cycle might change over time (i.e., sources, sinks, and processes and the potential technical and conceptual limitations that need to be considered for future studies.

  5. Comprehensive analysis for major, minor and trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios in sediment reference materials, JSd-1 and MAG-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Makishima, A.; Noordmann, J.; Tanaka, R.; Nakamura, E.

    (TFE) bomb at 245 degrees C for 96 hrs with Mg addition. The elemental concentration was measured by quadrupole type inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and sector field type ICP-MS (ICP-SFMS) using isotope dilution...

  6. Major, Trace Element Concentration and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Compositions of G- and I-Type Spherules from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soens, B.; Goderis, S.; Greenwood, R. C.; McKibbin, S.; Van Ginneken, M.; Vanhaecke, F.; Debaille, V.; Franchi, I. A.; Claeys, Ph.

    2017-07-01

    We present new major, trace element concentration (LA-ICP-MS) and triple-oxygen isotope (LF-IRMS) data for G- and I-type cosmic spherules. This study suggests that both types of micrometeorites may originate from ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  7. Mantle xenoliths from Nemby, Eastern Paraguay: O-Sr-Nd isotopes and trace elements of hosted clinopyroxenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Antonini, P; Girardi, V.A.V; Gomes, C.B; Laurora, S; Zanetti, A

    2001-01-01

    depleted compositions, both in LK and HK suites. It is believed that 'residual' pyroxenes incorporated REE during later metasomatic events (cf. Chen et al., 1989). The above observation is consistent with the Nd isotope ratios measured on clinopyroxenes, indicating a LREE-depleted source for some samples and supporting the hypothesis that clinopyroxenes from some lherzolites did not crystallize from an original LREE enriched component; other samples approach enriched or undifferentiated compositions. Alkaline basaltic magmas from deeper, garnetbearing mantle may be suitable enrichment agents (cf. Comin-Chiaramonti et al, 1997). Moreover, the Nemby xenoliths were probably involved in carbonatite metasomatism (Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1991), as possibly indicated by the IE patterns of some clinopyroxenes. The latter are characterized by high LREE and Sr abundances coupled with depletion in Nb, Ti, Zr. Notably, similar behaviour has already been described for clinopyroxenes from peridotite xenoliths hosted in ocean island basalts from Samoa and Tubai, which, according to Hauri et 2 al. (1993), show clear evidence of carbonatitic metasomatism.This suggests a buffering dominated by olivine in the upper mantle, where the equilibration is supported by coherence between observed Oisotope fractionation and clinopyroxene temperatures. The observed radiogenic isotope trend (Bulk Earth vs Depleted Mantle) is not consistent with major element refractory parameters. A mixing between depleted and enriched components is suggested by isotope records both in clinopyroxenes and on a whole-rock scale (Fig. 3A). The enriched components were mostly trapped in some clinopyroxenes, which had previously crystallized from depleted to quasi-chondritic mantle sources. On the whole, the isotopic data seem to indicate that the lithospheric mantle prior to the enrichment event(s) was dominated by a depleted component, isotopically resembling MORB sources (cf. Song and Frey, 1989; Comin-Chiaramonti et

  8. The origin of light neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Aoki, W.; Kajino, T.; Ando, H.; Beers, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    We obtained high resolution spectra of 40 very metal-poor stars, and measured the abundances of heavy elements. The abundance pattern of the heavy neutron-capture elements (56=< Z=<70) in r-process-enhanced, metal-poor stars are quite similar to that of the r-process component in solar-system material. In contrast, the abundance ratios of the light neutron-capture elements (38=< Z=<40) to heavier ones show a large dispersion. We investigated the correlation between Sr(Z=38) and Ba(Z=56) abundances, and obtained two clear results: (1) Ba-enhanced stars also show large excess of Sr (there is no object which is Ba-rich and Sr-poor); (2) stars with low Ba abundance show large scatter in Sr abundance. This trend is naturally explained by hypothesizing the existence of two processes, one that produces Sr without Ba and the other that produces Sr and Ba in similar proportions

  9. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  10. Effect of refraction index and light sharing on detector element identification for 2D detector modules in Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornai, M.P.; Hoffman, E.J.; Cherry, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships among indices of refraction (n) of scintillation detectors, light sharing among discrete detector elements and accuracy of detector element identification in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 2-D detector arrays were examined with theory and experiment. Mismatches between the index of refraction of scintillators and the glass of photomultipliers (PMT) were seen to lead to nonlinear relationships between crystal position and ratio (positioning) signals derived from PMTs. Insight is provided into the empirically derived use of light sharing among elements of the crystals in PET 2-D array detectors to compensate for this nonlinear response. ((orig.))

  11. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: implications for mantle dynamics in the southeast Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.; Fower, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, X.B.; Nguyen, T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cenozoic basalts in Indo-China are part of a regional melting episode along the rifted Eurasian margin. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts are used to place constraints on the extent of lithospheric and asthenosphere contributions to the melts and possible mantle dynamic implications. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts reflect minimal crustal wall rock reaction, and variable enrichment in EM1 and EM2 of a 208 Pb-rich MORB-like source. Some, but not all, of this variation corresponds to the age of lithospheric sector penetrated. Basalts erupted through a cratonic, central sector (e.g. at Quang Ngai, Pleiku, Song Cau, Kong Plong, and Buon Ma Thuot) and off-cratonic, southwest sector (e.g. Phuoc Long) resemble those of EM2-rich basalts from southern and southeaster China and the South China Sea. Basalts from an off-cratonic, southeast sector (e.g. from Dalat, Xuan Loc, and the offshore Ile des Cendres-Phu Cuy complex) reflect mixing between a low- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, high- 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, EM1-like component, and resemble basalts from northwest Taiwan, eastern and northeastern China, and parts of the Japan Sea. While EM2 tends to characterise lithospheric sectors, presence of EM1 in off-cratonic rather than cratonic basalts implies an asthenosphere rather than lithospheric source. Pervasive presence of EM1 in southeast Asian and marginal basin asthenosphere corresponds with thermally-anomalous mantle and may involve delaminated cratonic substrate entrained by mobile, extruded asthenosphere. (authors)

  12. Transfer in the light Hg isotopes and the U(6/12) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.; Grafeuille, S.; Rotbard, G.

    1985-01-01

    It was suggested recently that the level schemes of the odd Hg isotopes with 193 200 Hg, 198 Hg, 196 Hg(p,d) 199 Hg, 197 Hg, 195 Hg. The comparison of the experimental spectroscopic factors with the ones computed using the U(6/12) model shows that, among the three nuclei studied, 195 Hg and 197 Hg can be considered as reasonably described. The agreement in this case with U(6/12) is better in the U(5) limit than in the O(6) limit

  13. Elemental and Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Oxide an NIST Glass Standards by FEMTOSECOND-LA-ICP-MIC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Chris; Zamzow, Daniel S.; McBay, Eddie H.; Bostick, Debra A.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Baldwin, David P.; Houk, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to test and demonstrate the analytical figures of merit of a femtosecond-laser ablation (fs-LA) system coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-multi-ion collector-mass spectrometer (ICP-MIC-MS). The mobile fs-LA sampling system was designed and assembled at Ames Laboratory and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), where it was integrated with an ICP-MIC-MS. The test period of the integrated systems was February 2-6, 2009. Spatially-resolved analysis of particulate samples is accomplished by 100-shot laser ablation using a fs-pulsewidth laser and monitoring selected isotopes in the resulting ICP-MS transient signal. The capability of performing high sensitivity, spatially resolved, isotopic analyses with high accuracy and precision and with virtually no sample preparation makes fs-LA-ICP-MIC-MS valuable for the measurement of actinide isotopes at low concentrations in very small samples for nonproliferation purposes. Femtosecond-LA has been shown to generate particles from the sample that are more representative of the bulk composition, thereby minimizing weaknesses encountered in previous work using nanosecond-LA (ns-LA). The improvement of fs- over ns-LA sampling arises from the different mechanisms for transfer of energy into the sample in these two laser pulse-length regimes. The shorter duration fs-LA pulses induce less heating and cause less damage to the sample than the longer ns pulses. This results in better stoichiometric sampling (i.e., a closer correlation between the composition of the ablated particles and that of the original solid sample), which improves accuracy for both intra- and inter-elemental analysis. The primary samples analyzed in this work are (a) solid uranium oxide powdered samples having different 235 U to 238 U concentration ratios, and (b) glass reference materials (NIST 610, 612, 614, and 616). Solid uranium oxide samples containing 235 U in depleted, natural, and enriched abundances were

  14. PREFACE: Light element atom, molecule and radical behaviour in the divertor and edge plasma regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kung

    2015-01-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains contributions by participants in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Light element atom, molecule and radical behaviour in the divertor and edge plasma regions" (in magnetic fusion devices). Light elements are the dominant impurity species in fusion experiments and in the near-wall plasma they occur as atoms or ions and also as hydrides and other molecules and molecular ions. Hydrogen (H or D, and T in a reactor) is the dominant species in fusion experiments, but all light elements He - O and Ne are of interest for various reasons. Helium is a product of the D+T fusion reaction and is introduced in experiments for transport studies. Lithium is used for wall coating and also as a beam diagnostic material. Beryllium is foreseen as a wall material for the ITER experiment and is used on the Joint European Torus (JET) experiment. Boron may be used as a coating material for the vessel walls. Carbon (graphite or carbon-fiber composite) is often used as the target material for wall regions subject to high heat load. Nitrogen may be used as a buffer gas for edge plasma cooling. Oxygen is a common impurity in experiments due to residual water vapor. Finally, neon is another choice as a buffer gas. Data for collisional and radiative processes involving these species are important for plasma modelling and for diagnostics. The participants in the CRP met 3 times over the years 2009-2013 for a research coordination meeting. Reports and presentation materials for these meetings are available through the web page on coordinated research projects of the (IAEA) Atomic and Molecular Data Unit [1]. Some of the numerical data generated in the course of the CRP is available through the ALADDIN database [2]. The IAEA takes the opportunity to thank the participants in the CRP for their dedicated efforts in the course of the CRP and for their contributions to this volume. The IAEA

  15. Deciphering the iron isotope message of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2005-04-01

    Mass-dependent variations in isotopic composition are known since decades for the light elements such as hydrogen, carbon or oxygen. Multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and double-spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) permit us now to resolve small variations in isotopic composition even for the heavier elements such as iron. Recent studies on the iron isotopic composition of human blood and dietary iron sources have shown that lighter iron isotopes are enriched along the food chain and that each individual bears a certain iron isotopic signature in blood. To make use of this finding in biomedical research, underlying mechanisms of isotope fractionation by the human body need to be understood. In this paper available iron isotope data for biological samples are discussed within the context of isotope fractionation concepts and fundamental aspects of human iron metabolism. This includes evaluation of new data for body tissues which show that blood and muscle tissue have a similar iron isotopic composition while heavier iron isotopes are concentrated in the liver. This new observation is in agreement with our earlier hypothesis of a preferential absorption of lighter iron isotopes by the human body. Possible mechanisms for inducing an iron isotope effect at the cellular and molecular level during iron uptake are presented and the potential of iron isotope effects in human blood as a long-term measure of dietary iron absorption is discussed.

  16. Use of Atomic and Nuclear Techniques in Elemental and Isotopic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This book is divided into four chapters which were presented by six authors of the best Arab specialists who have used the atomic and nuclear techniques for a long time and recognized their importance and capabilities in scientific researches. Atomic and Nuclear techniques are very successful in the field of analysis because they are the only way to proceed the analysis process with the requested accuracy and they are the cheapest at the same time. A number of these techniques were collected in this book on the basis of their accuracy and the abundance of using them in the analysis of material components, specially when these elements exist with insignificant percentage as in the case of poisons science, archaeology, nutrition, medicine and other applications.

  17. On-line hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements with diffuse light collection and photon burst detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, J.; Benck, E.C.; Schuessler, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment is presently being set up which combines collinear-fast-beam laser spectroscopy with photon burst spectroscopy. Selectivity is provided by the large kinetic isotope shifts together with the practically Doppler free linewidth of the fluorescence from the fast atom beam. The photon burst detection, based on photon correlations in the resonance fluorescence, increases the sensitivity, so that on-line optical isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements on low intensity radioactive beams become feasible. In order to improve photon burst detection the solid angle of detection and the observation time have to be optimized. To this end a diffuse reflecting cavity has been designed and built, which collects fluorescence over a 45 cm length of the beam and covers the full solid angle. The light collection efficiency of the cavity is calculated to be about 45%. The cavity is being tested with a 11 keV beam of krypton atoms, probing the near infrared transitions in our apparatus at Texas A ampersand M University. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids, East Rift Zone, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, H.B.; Delanoy, G.A.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Gerlach, D.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Chen, B.; Takahashi, P.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States) Evans (Charles) and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A research program has been undertaken in an effort to better characterize the composition and the precipitation characteristic of the geothermal fluids produced by the HGP-A geothermal well located on the Kilauea East Rift Zone on the Island of Hawaii. The results of these studies have shown that the chemical composition of the fluids changed over the production life of the well and that the fluids produced were the result of mixing of at least two, and possibly three, source fluids. These source fluids were recognized as: a sea water composition modified by high temperature water-rock reactions; meteoric recharge; and a hydrothermal fluid that had been equilibrated with high temperature reservoir rocks and magmatic volatiles. Although the major alkali and halide elements show clearly increasing trends with time, only a few of the trace transition metals show a similar trend. The rare earth elements, were typically found at low concentrations and appeared to be highly variable with time. Studies of the precipitation characteristics of silica showed that amorphous silica deposition rates were highly sensitive to fluid pH and that increases in fluid pH above about 8.5 could flocculate more than 80% of the suspended colloidal silica in excess of its solubility. Addition of transition metal salts were also found to enhance the recovery fractions of silica from solution. The amorphous silica precipitate was also found to strongly scavenge the alkaline earth and transition metal ions naturally present in the brines; mild acid treatments were shown to be capable of removing substantial fractions of the scavenged metals from the silica flocs yielding a moderately pure gelatinous by-product. Further work on the silica precipitation process is recommended to improve our ability to control silica scaling from high temperature geothermal fluids or to recover a marketable silica by-product from these fluids prior to reinjection.

  19. Ion-microprobe measurements of Mg, Ca, Ti and Fe isotopic ratios and trace element abundance in hibonite-bearing inclusions in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis reports the isotopic abundances of Mg, Ca, and Ti and rare earth element (REE) abundances in 19 hibonite-bearing inclusions from primative meteorites. The isotopic ratios of Fe were measured in one of the samples, Lance HH-1. These measurements were made by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (CAMECA IMS-3f). The novel hardware and software developments that made this work possible are described in detail. The samples were studied in thin section in order to investigate the relationship between the inclusions and their mineralogical environments. Inclusions from a number of different meteorites, specifically, Mighei, Murray, Murchison, Lance, Efremovka, Vigarano, Qingzhen, Dhajala, and Semarkona, were studied. The isotopes of Ca and Ti show large and correlated abundance anomalies in their most neutron-rich isotopes, 48 Ca and 50 Ti. The largest anomalies among the samples studied here are in the Murray inclusion MY-F6, with a 4.6% deficit in 48 Ca and a 5.2% deficit in 50 Ti, and Lance HH-1, with 3.3% and 6.0% deficits in 48 Ca and 50 Ti respectively. Correlated excesses of 48 Ca and 50 Ti, up to 2.4% and 1.4% respectively, are found in some other samples studied here. The fact that there is a correlation of isotopic anomalies in two different elements is clear evidence for a nucleosynthetic origin of these effects. Various possibilities for the origin of these isotopic anomalies are discussed and it is shown that a Cosmic Chemical Memory-like model of the incomplete mixing of dust grains from one or several supernovae is sufficient to explain the data. Magnesium isotopes show excesses of 26 Mg, attributable to the in-situ decay of 26 Al, in 7 of these inclusions

  20. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    Large variations in light element isotope ratios (H, N, C) are routinely observed in meteorite organic matter. The origin of these so-called anomalies is not accounted for by the classical theory of isotope fractionation. In the case of H, micrometer-size areas within the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from meteorites by acid treatment, exhibit extreme deuterium enrichment. They are generally interpreted as components exogenous to the solar system and attributed to surviving interste...

  1. Amalgam-chromatographic separation of magnesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskij, G.D.; Levkin, A.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Separation of magnesium isotopes within Mg(Hg)-MgI 2 system (in dimethylformamide) is conducted under amalgam-chromatographic conditions. Separation maximal degree, that is (1.09), for 24 Mg and 26 Mg and separation coefficient (α = 1.0089±0.006) are determined. Light isotopes are found to concentrate in the amalgam. Technique of thermal conversion of flows within amalgam-dimethylformamide system is suggested on the basis of reversible reaction of Ca-Mg element exchange

  2. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for elemental analysis and isotope ratio determinations in individual organic compounds separated by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, N.S.; Houk, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) with a packed column was interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to yield atomic mass spectra from volatile organic compounds. Atomization of injected compounds was nearly complete and independent of molecular structure, so that elemental ratios could be determined. Detection limits were in the range 0.001 to 400 ng s -1 , depending on the ionization energy of the element and its abundance in the background spectrum. The relative standard deviation of measured isotope ratios varied from 0.4% for Br (i.e., a ratio close to unity) to 18% for N (a very large ratio). Thus, GC-ICP-MS provides elemental and isotope ratio information that is complementary to the molecular information derived from GC-MS with conventional ionization methods

  3. Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic mafic dykes in western Fujian Province of China:Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Bancun diabase dyke and the Bali hornblende gabbro dyke in western Fuiian Province were emplaced in the Early and Late Cretaceous periods,respectively;the former is designated to calc-alkaline series and the latter to K-high-calc-alkaline rock series.Both the dykes are characterized by such geochemical characteristics as high Al and Na2O>K2O.As for the Bancun dyke,A12O3=16.32%-17.54%and K2O/Na2O=0.65-0.77;as for the Bali dyke,A12O3=16.89%-17.81%and K2O,Na2O=O.93-O.99.Both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes are relatively endched in LILE and LREE,but depleted in HSFE, displaying the geochemical characteristics of continental marginal arc,with high initial Sr isotopic ratios and low εNd values,The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of the Bancun diabase dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.70903 and their εNd(t)values vary between-6.8 and-6.3;those of the Bali hornblende dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.710746 and their εNd(t) values are -4.7--4.7,showing the characteristics of enriched mantle EM Ⅱ.The isotope and trace element data showed that the mafic dykes have not experienced obvious crustal contamination,and metasomatism caused by subduction fluids is the main factor leading to LILE and UREE enrichments.The enriched mantle is the source region for the mafic dykes,and mixing of subduction fluid metasomatized enriched mantle and EM Ⅱ-type mantle constituted the mantle source region of both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes.Upwelling of the asthenosphere mantle provided sufficient heat energy for the generation of magmas.In accordance with the discrimination diagram of their tectonic settings as well as their trace element geochemical characteristics,it is considered that the dykes both at Bancun and Bali possess the characteristics of continental marginal arc,revealing the tectonic environment of formation of the mafic dykes,the continental dynamic background as an intraplate tensional belt in which the mafic dykes were emplaced.Meanwhile,it is also indicated

  4. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.delcorte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 1 bte 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C{sub 60} to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to {approx}70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  5. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcorte, Arnaud; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C 60 to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to ∼70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  6. III-V group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a doped tantalum barrier layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oanna, Y.; Ozawa, N.; Yamashita, M.; Yasuda, N.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a III-V Group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a III-V Group compound semiconductor body with a p-n junction and including a p-type layer involved in forming the p-n junction; and a multi-layer electrode mounted on the p-type layer of the semiconductor body. The electrode comprises a first layer of gold alloy containing a small amount of beryllium or zinc and formed in direct contact with the p-type layer of the semiconductor body and an uppermost layer formed of gold or aluminum. A tantalum layer doped with carbon, nitrogen and/or oxygen is formed between the first layer and the uppermost layer by means of vacuum vapor deposition

  7. Beam shaping for multicolour light-emitting diodes with diffractive optical elements

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Chao

    2016-10-06

    An improved particle swarm optimization method is proposed for the design of ultra-thin diffractive optical elements (DOEs) enabling multicolour beam shaping functionality. We employ pre-optimized initial structures and adaptive weight strategy in the algorithm to achieve better and identical shaping performance for multiple colours. Accordingly, a DOE for shaping light from green and blue LEDs has been designed and fabricated. Both experiment and numerical simulations have been conducted and the results agree well with each other. 15.66% average root mean square error (RMSE) and 0.22% RMSE difference are achieved. In addition, the parameters closely related to the performance of the optimization are analysed, which can provide insights for future application designs.

  8. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  9. Development of SEM/STEM-WDX for highly sensitive detection of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Y.; Koguchi, M.; Kimura, T.; Sekiguchi, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, to detect the light element lithium (Li) and to detect low dosed Boron (B) in the local area at nm order, we developed an analytical electron microscope equipped with an improved serial (S)-type WDX (wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system. In detail, to detect Li, we developed a high-conductivity multi-capillary X-ray (MCX) lens, and a diffractor with a lattice spacing (d) of 15 nm, and with a spacing variation (δ d) of 0.8 nm. Moreover, to detect low dosed light element B, we designed a high-conductivity MCX lens based on the soft X-ray reflectivity in the capillary and calculation. We developed a large-solid-angle MCX lens whose conductivity of the characteristic X-rays of B became 20 times higher than that of an MCX lens with a 30-mm focal length. Our developed analytical electron microscope was applied to a LiAl specimen and a low B-doped Si substrate specimen, and the performance of this analytical electron microscope was evaluated. As a results, this analytical electron microscope could detect the characteristic X-rays of Li with a minimum mass fraction (MMF) of 8.4 atomic % (at. %). The energy resolution was 1 eV at 55 eV. From the results of measuring the line profile of B for the unpatterned B-implantation area on a B-doped Si substrate specimen, the measured line profile data were in good agreement with secondary ion mass spectrometry data up to a depth of 100 nm with a B concentration of 0.05 at. %.

  10. Determination of δ13C, δ15N, or δ34S by isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry using an elemental analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gulbransen, Cayce A.; Emmons, Matthew P.

    2018-02-14

    This report describes procedures used in the Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, to determine the stable-isotope ratios 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 34S/32S in solid materials. The procedures use elemental analyzers connected directly to gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. A different elemental–analyzer–mass-spectrometer system is used for 13C/12C and 15N/14N than is used for 34S/32S to accommodate differences in reagents, catalysts, and instrument settings.

  11. Use of environmental isotope techniques in studying surface and groundwaters in the Damascus basin (Al-Ghotta): A case study of geochemical modeling of elements and pollutants transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2004-09-01

    This work discuses in details the hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwaters in the Damascus Ghotta basin. In addition, it deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of rainfall of some surrounding stations (Damascus, Bloudan, Arneh, Al-Kounietra, Izraa, Al-Souweida, Homs and Tartous). The objective of this research was to make new assessment of the available water resources in this basin, together with conducting essays to model geochemically the elements and pollutants transport in the groundwater, by the use of PHREEQM code.(author)

  12. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lucassen

    Full Text Available Seabird excrements (guano have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic

  13. Application of Cherenkov light observation to reactor measurements (3). Evaluation of spent fuel elements of LWRs with Cherenkov light estimation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takayasu; Kosuge, Fumiaki

    2016-11-01

    Development of the reactor measurement system has been carried out to obtain the real-time in-core nuclear and thermal information, where the quantitative measurement of brightness of Cherenkov light was investigated. The system would be applied as a monitoring system in severe accidents and for the advanced operation management technology in existing LWRs. This report summarized the modification of Cherenkov light estimation system described JAEA-Testing 2015-001 and the result of the burn-up evaluation by Cherenkov light image emitted from spent fuel elements of LWRs with the modified system. (author)

  14. Determination of some trace elements in biological materials using the short living isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determination of V, Cu, Rb, Mo and K in breast cancer tumors is described. Samples were irradiated with ICIS pneumatic irradiation system of University of London Reactor Centre for 5 min. with mixed neutron flux: 1,7.10 1 2 thermal neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 and 9.10 11 fast neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . Wet ashing procedure of Byrne and Kosta was used for the dissolution. Consecutive separation procedures of V and Mo, Cu, Mn, K and Rb, followed by counting and activity measuring were carried out. In order to study the chemical yields for all the elements both animal and plant matrixes were used. The error of 3% ( 0.05 confidence level) for single determination of chemical yield was chosen as the highest value acceptable. The possibility of using 137-Cs tracer for K and Rb chemical yield determination was also checked. To check the whole procedure the standard reference materials SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, SRM-1571 Orchard Leaves and Bowen's Kale were analysed

  15. Water mass circulation and weathering inputs in the Labrador Sea based on coupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Alexandra; Frank, Martin; Kienast, Markus; Rickli, Jörg; Hathorne, Ed; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Pahnke, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the key areas for deep water formation driving the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and thus plays an important role in Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. In order to better constrain the overturning processes and the origins of the distinct water masses, combined dissolved Hf-Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns were obtained from four water depth profiles along a section across the Labrador Sea. These were complemented by one surface sample off the southern tip of Greenland, three shallow water samples off the coast of Newfoundland, and two deep water samples off Nova Scotia. Although light REEs are markedly enriched in the surface waters off the coast of Newfoundland compared to north Atlantic waters, the REE concentration profiles are essentially invariant throughout the water column across the Labrador Sea. The hafnium concentrations of surface waters exhibit a narrow range between 0.6 and 1 pmol/kg but are not significantly higher than at depth. Neodymium isotope signatures (ɛNd) vary from unradiogenic values between -16.8 and -14.9 at the surface to more radiogenic values near -11.0 at the bottom of the Labrador Sea mainly reflecting the advection of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and North East Atlantic Deep Water, the signatures of which are influenced by weathering contributions from Icelandic basalts. Unlike Nd, water column radiogenic Hf isotope signatures (ɛHf) are more variable representing diverse weathering inputs from the surrounding landmasses. The least radiogenic seawater ɛHf signatures (up to -11.7) are found in surface waters close to Greenland and near the Canadian margin. This reflects the influence of recirculating Irminger Current Waters, which are affected by highly unradiogenic inputs from Greenland. A three to four ɛHf unit difference is observed between Denmark Strait Overflow Water (ɛHf ∼ -4) and North East Atlantic Deep Water (ɛHf ∼ -0

  16. Effects of cleaning methods upon preservation of stable isotopes and trace elements in shells of Cyprideis torosa (Crustacea, Ostracoda): Implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L. R.; Holmes, J. A.; Leng, M. J.; Sloane, H. J.; Horne, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    The trace element (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) and stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) geochemistry of fossil ostracod valves provide valuable information, particularly in lacustrine settings, on palaeo-water composition and palaeotemperature. The removal of sedimentary and organic contamination prior to geochemical analysis is essential to avoid bias of the results. Previous stable isotope and trace element work on ostracod shells has, however, employed different treatments for the removal of contamination beyond simple 'manual' cleaning using a paint brush and methanol under a low-power binocular microscope. For isotopic work pre-treatments include chemical oxidation, vacuum roasting and plasma ashing, and for trace element work sonication, chemical oxidation and reductive cleaning. The impact of different treatments on the geochemical composition of the valve calcite has not been evaluated in full, and a universal protocol has not been established. Here, a systematic investigation of the cleaning methods is undertaken using specimens of the ubiquitous euryhaline species, Cyprideis torosa. Cleaning methods are evaluated by undertaking paired analyses on a single carapace (comprising two valves); in modern ostracods, whose valves are assumed to be unaltered, the two valves should have identical geochemical and isotopic composition. Hence, when one valve is subjected to the chosen treatment and the other to simple manual cleaning any difference in composition can confidently be assigned to the treatment method. We show that certain cleaning methods have the potential to cause alteration to the geochemical signal, particularly Mg/Ca and δ18O, and hence have implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. For trace-element determinations we recommend cleaning by sonication and for stable isotope analysis, oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. These methods remove contamination, yet do not significantly alter the geochemical signal.

  17. The α-induced thick-target γ-ray yield from light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R. K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1994-10-01

    The α-induced thick-target γ-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 10 MeV. The γ-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the α-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the α-induced direct production γ-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  18. The evolution of magma during continental rifting: New constraints from the isotopic and trace element signatures of silicic magmas from Ethiopian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Gleeson, Matthew L. M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Blundy, Jon D.; Ferguson, David J.; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Millar, Ian L.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Finch, Adrian A.

    2018-05-01

    Magma plays a vital role in the break-up of continental lithosphere. However, significant uncertainty remains about how magma-crust interactions and melt evolution vary during the development of a rift system. Ethiopia captures the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of silicic volcanic rocks across the region over ∼45 Ma. The petrogenesis of these silicic rocks sheds light on the role of magmatism in rift development, by providing information on crustal interactions, melt fluxes and magmatic differentiation. We report new trace element and Sr-Nd-O isotopic data for volcanic rocks, glasses and minerals along and across active segments of the Main Ethiopian (MER) and Afar Rifts. Most δ18 O data for mineral and glass separates from these active rift zones fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories from basaltic parent magmas (i.e., 5.5-6.5‰) with scant evidence for assimilation of Pan-African Precambrian crustal material (δ18 O of 7-18‰). Radiogenic isotopes (εNd = 0.92- 6.52; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7037-0.7072) and incompatible trace element ratios (Rb/Nb productivity or where crustal structure inhibits magma ascent). This has important implications for understanding the geotectonic settings that promote extreme melt evolution and, potentially, genesis of economically-valuable mineral deposits in ancient rift-settings. The limited isotopic evidence for assimilation of Pan-African crustal material in Ethiopia suggests that the pre-rift crust beneath the magmatic segments has been substantially modified by rift-related magmatism over the past ∼45 Ma; consistent with geophysical observations. We argue that considerable volumes of crystal cumulate are stored beneath silicic volcanic systems (>100 km3), and estimate that crystal cumulates fill at least 16-30% of the volume generated by crustal extension under the axial volcanoes of the MER and Manda Hararo

  19. High spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam probe for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Clement, Stephen W. J.; Bao, Zemin; Wang, Peizhi; Tian, Di; Liu, Dunyi

    2018-03-01

    A high spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam from a cold cathode duoplasmatron source and primary ion optics are presented and applied to in-situ analysis of micro-scale geological material with complex structural and chemical features. The magnetic field in the source as well as the influence of relative permeability of magnetic materials on source performance was simulated using COMSOL to confirm the magnetic field strength of the source. Based on SIMION simulation, a high brightness and high spatial resolution negative ion optical system has been developed to achieve Critical (Gaussian) illumination mode. The ion source and primary column are installed on a new Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for analysis of geological samples. The diameter of the ion beam was measured by the knife-edge method and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that an O2- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼5 nA and an O- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼50 nA were obtained, respectively. This design will open new possibilities for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis in geological studies.

  20. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmata, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the QQDS magnetic spectrometer that is used for high resolution ion beam analysis (IBA) of light elements at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is presented for the first time. In addition all parameters are investigated that influence the analysis. Methods and models are presented with which the effects can be minimised or calculated. There are five focal points of this thesis. The first point is the construction and commissioning of the QQDS magnetic spectrometer, the corresponding scattering chamber with all the peripherals and the detector, which is specially developed for high resolution elastic recoil detection. Both the reconstructed spectrometer and the detector were adapted to the specific experimental conditions needed for high-resolution Ion beam analysis of light elements and tested for routine practice. The detector consists of two components. At the back end of the detector a Bragg ionization chamber is mounted, which is used for the particle identification. At the front end, directly behind the entrance window a proportional counter is mounted. This proportional counter includes a highresistance anode. Thus, the position of the particles is determined in the detector. The following two points concern fundamental studies of ion-solid interaction. By using a magnetic spectrometer the charge state distribution of the particles scattered from the sample after a binary collision is both possible and necessary for the analysis. For this reason the charge states are measured and compared with existing models. In addition, a model is developed that takes into account the charge state dependent energy loss. It is shown that without the application of this model the depth profiles do not correspond with the quantitative measurements by conventional IBA methods and with the thickness obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The second fundamental ion-solid interaction is the damage and the modification of the sample that occurs during

  1. Determination os essential elements in diet and light foods using neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos diet e light por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Gerson Hideo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: gehideo@gmail.com; Maihara, Vera Akiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The object of this study was to determine essential elements on the diet and light foods and their normal similar through the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare their results. Samples of sweetning, cappuccino, gelatine and chocolate collected at the Sao Paulo commerce were irradiated by a period of 8 hours, under a 10{sup 12} n cm{sub -2} s{sub -1} thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 research reactor - IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil, together with reference materials and elementary standards, for the determination the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Co, K, Na, Fe, Se and Zn. The obtained results shown that the diet gelatine samples presented concentrations higher for determined elements related to the light and normal gelatines samples. Compared with cappucino samples there was not differences among the concentrations of the determined elements, excepted the element Cr for the cappuccino light. For the chocolate light they presents higher values related to the normal type. The sweetening did not present differences among the samples. (author)

  2. Rhythmic patterns in ancient shells: Can we reconstruct sub-annual cyclicity in trace element and stable isotope profiles from rudist bivalves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, N.; Sinnesael, M.; Vansteenberge, S.; Goderis, S.; Snoeck, C.; Van Malderen, S. J. M.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Claeys, P.

    2017-12-01

    Well-preserved shells of Torreites rudists from the Late Campanian Saiwan Formation in Oman exhibit fine internal layering. These fine (±20 µm) laminae are rhythmically bundled (±400 µm) and subdivide the shells' larger scale annual lamination (±15 mm), suggesting the presence of several interfering cycles in shell growth rate. The aim of the present study is to determine the duration and chemical signature of these rhythmic variations in shell composition. To achieve this, a range of micro-analytical techniques is applied on cross sections through the shells. Firstly, microscopy-based layer counting and colorimetric analysis are carried out on thin sections of shell calcite. Secondly, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) mapping of cross sections of the shells reveal chemical and structural differences between laminae in 2D. Thirdly, high-resolution XRF (25 µm) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 10 µm) trace element profiles are used to quantify variations in chemical composition between shell laminae. Fourthly, annual chronology is established based on micro-sampled stable carbon and oxygen stable isotope measurements (250 µm) along the growth axis of the shells. Finally, spectral analysis routines are applied to extract rhythmic patterns matched to the shell laminae from the structural, chemical and colorimetric data. Combining these methods allows for a full evaluation of the structural and chemical characteristics as well as the timing of sub-annual lamination in rudist shells. The results of this study shed light on the external factors that influenced growth rates in rudist bivalves. A better understanding of the timing of deposition of these laminae allows them to be used to improve age models of geochemical records in rudist shells. Characterization of small scale variations in shell composition will characterize the uncertainties contained within lower resolution proxy records from

  3. Calibration and correction of LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses for element contents and isotopic ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS have been the techniques of choice for achieving accurate and precise element content and isotopic ratio, the state-of-the-art technique combines the advantages of low detection limits with high spatial resolution, however, the analysis accuracy and precision are restricted by many factors, such as sensitivity drift, elemental/isotopic fractionation, matrix effects, interferences and the lack of sufficiently matrix-matched reference materials. Thus, rigorous and suitable calibration and correction methods are needed to obtain quantitative data. This review systematically summarized and evaluated the interference correction, quantitative calculation and sensitivity correction strategies in order to provide the analysts with suitable calibration and correction strategies according to the sample types and the analyzed elements. The functions and features of data reduction software ICPMSDataCal were also outlined, which can provide real-time and on-line data reduction of element content and isotopic ratios analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  4. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  5. Dual element ((15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) isotope analysis of glyphosate and AMPA by derivatization-gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) combined with LC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogusu, Emmanuel O; Wolbert, J Benjamin; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Jochmann, Maik A; Elsner, Martin

    2015-07-01

    To assess sources and degradation of the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] and its metabolite AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), concentration measurements are often inconclusive and even (13)C/(12)C analysis alone may give limited information. To advance isotope ratio analysis of an additional element, we present compound-specific (15)N/(14)N analysis of glyphosate and AMPA by a two step derivatization in combination with gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The N-H group was derivatized with isopropyl chloroformate (iso-PCF), and remaining acidic groups were subsequently methylated with trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD). Iso-PCF treatment at pH 10 indicated decomposition of the derivative. At pH 10, and with an excess of iso-PCF by 10-24, greatest yields and accurate (15)N/(14)N ratios were obtained (deviation from elemental analyzer-IRMS: -0.2 ± 0.9% for glyphosate; -0.4 ± 0.7% for AMPA). Limits for accurate δ(15)N analysis of glyphosate and AMPA were 150 and 250 ng injected, respectively. A combination of δ(15)N and δ(13)C analysis by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) (1) enabled an improved distinction of commercial glyphosate products and (2) showed that glyphosate isotope values during degradation by MnO2 clearly fell outside the commercial product range. This highlights the potential of combined carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis to trace sources and degradation of glyphosate.

  6. Analytical electron microscope based on scanning transmission electron microscope with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to realize highly sensitive elemental imaging especially for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, Masanari; Tsuneta, Ruriko; Anan, Yoshihiro; Nakamae, Koji

    2017-01-01

    An analytical electron microscope based on the scanning transmission electron microscope with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM-WDX) to realize highly sensitive elemental imaging especially for light elements has been developed. In this study, a large-solid-angle multi-capillary x-rays lens with a focal length of 5 mm, long-time data acquisition (e.g. longer than 26 h), and a drift-free system made it possible to visualize boron-dopant images in a Si substrate at a detection limit of 0.2 atomic percent. (paper)

  7. Massive black holes and light-element nucleosynthesis in a baryonic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Rees, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    We reexamine the model proposed by Gnedin & Ostriker (1992) in which Jeans mass black holes (M(sub BH) approximately = 10(exp 6) solar mass) form shortly after decoupling. There is no nonbaryonic dark matter in this model, but we examine the possibility that Omega(sub b) is considerably larger than given by normal nucleosynthesis. Here we allow for the fact that much of the high baryon-to-photon ratio material will collapse leaving the universe of remaining material with light-element abundances more in accord with the residual baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -2)) than with Omega(sub 0) and the initial baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -1)). We find that no reasonable model can be made with random-phase density fluctuations, if the power on scales smaller than 10(exp 6) solar mass is as large as expected. However, phase-correlated models of the type that might occur in connection with topological singularities can be made with Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.013 +/- 0.001, 0.15 approximately less than Omega(sub 0) approximately less than 0.4, which are either flat (Omega(sub lambda) = 1 - Omega(sub 0)) or open (Omega(sub lambda) = 0) and which satisfy all the observational constraints which we apply, including the large baryon-to-total mass ratio found in the X-ray clusters. The remnant baryon density is thus close to that obtained in the standard picture (Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.0125 +/- 0.0025; Walker et al. 1991). The spectral index implied for fluctuations in the baryonic isocurvature scenario, -1 less than m less than 0, is in the range expected by other arguments based on large-scale structure and microwave fluctuation constraints. The dark matter in this picture is in the form of massive black holes. Accretion onto them at early epochs releases high-energy photons which significantly heat and reionize the universe. But photodissociation does not materially change light-element abundances. A typical model gives bar-y approximately = 1 x 10(exp -5

  8. Nonempirical Calculation of Superconducting Transition Temperatures in Light-Element Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Ryotaro; Koretsune, Takashi; Sakai, Shiro; Akashi, Ryosuke; Nomura, Yusuke; Sano, Wataru

    2017-07-01

    Recent progress in the fully nonempirical calculation of the superconducting transition temperature (T c ) is reviewed. Especially, this study focuses on three representative light-element high-T c superconductors, i.e., elemental Li, sulfur hydrides, and alkali-doped fullerides. Here, it is discussed how crucial it is to develop the beyond Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) methods. For Li, a scheme of superconducting density functional theory for the plasmon mechanism is formulated and it is found that T c is dramatically enhanced by considering the frequency dependence of the screened Coulomb interaction. For sulfur hydrides, it is essential to go beyond not only the static approximation for the screened Coulomb interaction, but also the constant density-of-states approximation for electrons, the harmonic approximation for phonons, and the Migdal approximation for the electron-phonon vertex, all of which have been employed in the standard ME calculation. It is also shown that the feedback effect in the self-consistent calculation of the self-energy and the zero point motion considerably affect the calculation of T c . For alkali-doped fullerides, the interplay between electron-phonon coupling and electron correlations becomes more nontrivial. It has been demonstrated that the combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory with the ab initio downfolding scheme for electron-phonon coupled systems works successfully. This study not only reproduces the experimental phase diagram but also obtains a unified view of the high-T c superconductivity and the Mott-Hubbard transition in the fullerides. The results for these high-T c superconductors will provide a firm ground for future materials design of new superconductors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  10. Examining the Possibility of Carbon as a Light Element in the Core of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen; McCubbin, Francis M.; Turner, Amber; Ross, D. Kent

    2017-01-01

    Results from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have shown elevated abundances of C on the surface of Mercury. Peplowski et al. used GRS data from MESSENGER to show an average northern hemisphere abundance of C on the planet of 0 to 4.1 wt% C at the three-sigma detection limit. Confirmation of C on the planet prompts many questions regarding the role of C during the differentiation and evolution of Mercury. The elevated abundances of both S and C on Mercury's surface, coupled with the low abundances of iron, suggest that the oxygen fugacity of the planet is several log10 units below the Iron-Wustite buffer. These observations spark questions about the bulk composition of Mercury's core. This experimental study seeks to understand the impact of C as a light element on potential mercurian core compositions. In order to address this question, experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and a variety of temperatures (700 - 1500 C) on metal compositions ranging from Si5Fe95 to Si22Fe78, possibly representative of the mercurian core. All starting metals were completely enclosed in a graphite capsule to ensure C saturation at a given set of run conditions. All elements, including C, were analyzed using electron probe microanalysis. Precautions were taken to ensure accurate measurements of C with this technique including using the LDE2 crystal, the cold finger on the microprobe to minimize contamination and increase the vacuum, and an instrument with no oil based pumps. Based on the superliquidus experimental results in the present study, as Fe-rich cores become more Si-rich, the C content of that core composition will decrease. Furthermore, although C concentration at graphite saturation (CCGS) varies from a liquid to a solid, temperature does not seem to play a substantial role in CCGS, at least at 1 GPa.

  11. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short-lived elements by laser spectroscopy, January 1-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1983-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the areas of stored ion spectroscopy, numerical studies of the trapping of pulse injected ions, beam tests at the TRISTAN mass separator, fluorescence line narrowing technique for Doppler-free observation, observation of the isotope shift on long-lived gold isotopes, and observation of Doppler-free signals in a fast Ar + beam

  12. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.L., E-mail: ppmasb@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EPS, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Villa, M. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polluted sediment and NORM samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in <3 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element concentrations, Pb, Th and U isotope ratios with a single instrument. - Abstract: This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb/{sup 208}Pb, {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th/{sup 230}Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA{sup Registered-Sign} extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  13. EXPLORING ANTICORRELATIONS AND LIGHT ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN NORTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre Herceg st. 112 (Hungary); Martell, Sarah L. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Troup, Nicholas W.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Cunha, Katia [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); García-Hernández, Domingo A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Overbeek, Jamie C. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Hearty, Fred R.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. We derive abundances of 9 elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 GCs. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C–N and Mg–Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal-poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that {sup 28}Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N, and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent of stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of α-element (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

  14. Improved accuracy and precision in δ15 NAIR measurements of explosives, urea, and inorganic nitrates by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry using thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Michael J; Howa, John D; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2015-08-15

    Elemental analyzer systems generate N(2) and CO(2) for elemental composition and isotope ratio measurements. As quantitative conversion of nitrogen in some materials (i.e., nitrate salts and nitro-organic compounds) is difficult, this study tests a recently published method - thermal decomposition without the addition of O(2) - for the analysis of these materials. Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) was used to compare the traditional combustion method (CM) and the thermal decomposition method (TDM), where additional O(2) is eliminated from the reaction. The comparisons used organic and inorganic materials with oxidized and/or reduced nitrogen and included ureas, nitrate salts, ammonium sulfate, nitro esters, and nitramines. Previous TDM applications were limited to nitrate salts and ammonium sulfate. The measurement precision and accuracy were compared to determine the effectiveness of converting materials containing different fractions of oxidized nitrogen into N(2). The δ(13) C(VPDB) values were not meaningfully different when measured via CM or TDM, allowing for the analysis of multiple elements in one sample. For materials containing oxidized nitrogen, (15) N measurements made using thermal decomposition were more precise than those made using combustion. The precision was similar between the methods for materials containing reduced nitrogen. The %N values were closer to theoretical when measured by TDM than by CM. The δ(15) N(AIR) values of purchased nitrate salts and ureas were nearer to the known values when analyzed using thermal decomposition than using combustion. The thermal decomposition method addresses insufficient recovery of nitrogen during elemental analysis in a variety of organic and inorganic materials. Its implementation requires relatively few changes to the elemental analyzer. Using TDM, it is possible to directly calibrate certain organic materials to international nitrate isotope reference materials without off

  15. Trace and minor element variations and sulfur isotopes in crystalline and colloform ZnS: Incorporation mechanisms and implications for their genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Katharina; Koenig, Alan; Wenzel, Thomas; Ridley, Ian; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Markl, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Various models have been proposed to explain the formation mechanism of colloform sphalerite, but the origin is still under debate. In order to decipher influences on trace element incorporation and sulfur isotope composition, crystalline and colloform sphalerite from the carbonate-hosted Mississippi-Valley Type (MVT) deposit near Wiesloch, SW Germany, were investigated and compared to sphalerite samples from 52 hydrothermal vein-type deposits in the Schwarzwald ore district, SW Germany to study the influence of different host rocks, formation mechanisms and fluid origin on trace element incorporation. Trace and minor element incorporation in sphalerite shows some correlation to their host rock and/or origin of fluid, gangue, paragenetic minerals and precipitation mechanisms (e.g., diagenetic processes, fluid cooling or fluid mixing). Furthermore, crystalline sphalerite is generally enriched in elements like Cd, Cu, Sb and Ag compared to colloform sphalerite that mainly incorporates elements like As, Pb and Tl. In addition, sulfur isotopes are characterized by positive values for crystalline and strongly negative values for colloform sphalerite. The combination of trace element contents, typical minerals associated with colloform sphalerite from Wiesloch, sulfur isotopes and thermodynamic considerations helped to evaluate the involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in water-filled karst cavities. Sulfate-reducing bacteria cause a sulfide-rich environment that leads in case of a metal-rich fluid supply to a sudden oversaturation of the fluid with respect to galena, sphalerite and pyrite. This, however, exactly coincides with the observed crystallization sequence of samples involving colloform sphalerite from the Wiesloch MVT deposit.

  16. Availability of enriched stable isotopes: present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Enrichment Facility (EMIEF) is currently used to produce 225 enriched stable isotopes of 50 elements. Among these are included most of the known elements with stable isotopes except for the noble gases, certain light elements, monisotopic elements, etc. The EMIEF can also be used to produce enriched samples of radioactive species, most notably the isotopes of uranium and plutonium. These enriched materials are placed in either the Sales Inventory of in the Research Materials Collection (RMC). The materials in the Sales Inventory are for sale to anyone on a first come, first served basis. Prices in the most recent catalog range from $0.05/mg for 99.8% 140 Ce to $1,267/mg for 98.5% 176 Lu. The materials in the RMC are made available to US researchers (or groups that include a US investigator) on a loan basis for use in non-destructive experiments and applications. In addition, certain samples have been provided to European investigators for cross-section studies through the auspices of EURATOM and the European-American Nuclear Data Committee. The status of the enriched isotopes included in the Sales Inventory is tabulated where isotopes are listed that are either not available or are in insufficient quantity or quality to meet current requests, as of 6/30/86. These can be summarized in the following subcategories: isotopes with zero inventory (22), Isotopes of insufficient quantity (17), and isotopes with insufficient enrichment quality (10). Of these 49 species, the supplies of 10 will be replenished by the scheduled FY86 enrichments in process (isotopes of bromine, calcium, nickel, potassium, rubidium, and strontium). In Table 3 are listed isotopes where the current inventory is less than the average annual sales level for the past five years. There are 47 isotopes listed, representing 25 different elements. Thus, there exists considerable potential for a substantial increase in the number of isotopes with zero inventory

  17. Petrogenesis and origin of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous magmatism in Central High Atlas (Morocco): Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd) constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Zayane, Rachid

    2018-01-01

    During an uplift phase, which lasted ca. 40 Ma, from the Late Jurassic (165 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma), transitional to moderately alkaline magmatic series were emplaced in the Central High Atlas. The corresponding magmatic products include basaltic lava flows erupted within wide synclines and intrusive complexes composed of layered mafic intrusions and monzonitic to syenitic dykes emplaced along narrow anticlinal ridges. The igneous rock sequence within the intrusive complexes is composed of troctolites, olivine-gabbros, oxide-gabbros, monzonites and syenites. The chemical compositions of the various intrusive rocks can be accounted for by crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and post-magmatic remobilization. The evolution from the troctolites to the syenites was mainly controlled by a fractional crystallization process marked by early fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene, followed by separation of biotite, amphibole, apatite, and Ti-magnetite. Hydrothermal activity associated with emplacement of the intrusions within the Jurassic limestones modified the elemental and the Sr isotopic composition of the hydrothermally altered rocks In particular the monzonitic to syenitic dykes underwent an alkali metasomatism marked by depletion in K and Rb and enrichment in Na and Sr. As a result, their Sr isotopic composition was shifted towards higher initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7067-0.7075) with respect to the associated gabbros (0.7036-0.7046). On the contrary, the Nd isotopic compositions were preserved from isotope exchange with the limestones and vary in a similar range to those of the gabbros (+1.6 < εNdi < +4.1). The isotopic and the trace element ratios of the uncontaminated samples were used to constrain the source characteristics of this magmatism. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and the incompatible element ratios (e.g. La/Nb, Zr/Nb, Th/U, Ce/Pb) are consistent with generation from an enriched upper mantle similar to an ocean

  18. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kefu; Kamber, Balz S.; Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Zhao Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change

  19. Application of PCA-LDA method to determine the geographical origin of tea based on determination of stable isotopes and multi-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Zhang Yongzhi; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng; Fu Haiyan; Han Wenyan; Li Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of stable isotope and concentration of multi-element in tea was determinated with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition techniques with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to classify the geographical origins of tea from Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang province, and Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. The results showed the values of δ"1"5N, δ"1"3C, δD, δ"1"8O and the ratios of "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb, "2"0"8Pb/"2"0"6Pb and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr in tea samples were different from different origins. There was also large variable for the concentrations of 27 mineral elements, such as Li, Be, Na and so on, with a specific character of origin. The method of PCA could be used to classify the geographical origin of tea from different origins but with a cross in the scatter plot. However, PCA combining with LDA could gave correct assignation percentages of 99% for the tea samples among Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang provinces, and 87% for the tea samples among Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. These results revealed that it was possible and feasible to classify the geographical origin of tea by the method of PCA-LDA based on the determination of isotopes and multi-elements. (authors)

  20. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS AT LOW METALLICITY: THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetrone, Matthew; Martell, Sarah L.; Wilkerson, Rachel; Adams, Joshua; Siegel, Michael H.; Smith, Graeme H.; Bond, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    We present low-resolution (R ≅850) spectra for 67 asymptotic giant branch (AGB), horizontal branch, and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster NGC 5466, taken with the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Sixty-six stars are confirmed, and one rejected, as cluster members based on radial velocity, which we measure to an accuracy of 16 km s -1 via template-matching techniques. CN and CH band strengths have been measured for 29 RGB and AGB stars in NGC 5466, and the band-strength indices measured from VIRUS-P data show close agreement with those measured from Keck/LRIS spectra previously taken for five of our target stars. We also determine carbon abundances from comparisons with synthetic spectra. The RGB stars in our data set cover a range in absolute V magnitude from +2 to -3, which permits us to study the rate of carbon depletion on the giant branch as well as the point of its onset. The data show a clear decline in carbon abundance with rising luminosity above the luminosity function 'bump' on the giant branch, and also a subdued range in CN band strength, suggesting ongoing internal mixing in individual stars but minor or no primordial star-to-star variation in light-element abundances.

  1. Fabrication of Elemental Copper by Intense Pulsed Light Processing of a Copper Nitrate Hydroxide Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Gabriel L; Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Staats, Meghan E; Lavery, Brandon W; Druffel, Thad

    2015-08-05

    Printed electronics and renewable energy technologies have shown a growing demand for scalable copper and copper precursor inks. An alternative copper precursor ink of copper nitrate hydroxide, Cu2(OH)3NO3, was aqueously synthesized under ambient conditions with copper nitrate and potassium hydroxide reagents. Films were deposited by screen-printing and subsequently processed with intense pulsed light. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 quickly transformed in less than 100 s using 40 (2 ms, 12.8 J cm(-2)) pulses into CuO. At higher energy densities, the sintering improved the bulk film quality. The direct formation of Cu from the Cu2(OH)3NO3 requires a reducing agent; therefore, fructose and glucose were added to the inks. Rather than oxidizing, the thermal decomposition of the sugars led to a reducing environment and direct conversion of the films into elemental copper. The chemical and physical transformations were studied with XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis.

  2. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, P.J.M. E-mail: p.j.m.brands@tue.nl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was developed. DYANA is an on-line method for the analysis of data from biomedical measurements. By using a database of background shapes, light elements such as Na and Mg, can be fitted even more precisely than in conventional fitting procedures. The entire analysis takes only several seconds and is performed while the acquisition system is gathering a new subset of data. Data acquisition must be guaranteed and may not be interfered by other parallel processes. Therefore, the analysis, the data acquisition and the experiment control is performed on a PCI-based Pentium personal computer (PC), running a real-time operating system. A second PC is added to run a graphical user interface for interaction with the experimenter and the monitoring of the analysed results. The system is here illustrated using atherosclerotic tissue but is applicable to all kinds of thin samples.

  3. Simulation of bonding effects in HRTEM images of light element materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kurasch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of multislice high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM simulation can be improved by calculating the scattering potential using density functional theory (DFT. This approach accounts for the fact that electrons in the specimen are redistributed according to their local chemical environment. This influences the scattering process and alters the absolute and relative contrast in the final image. For light element materials with well defined geometry, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers, the DFT based simulation scheme turned out to be necessary to prevent misinterpretation of weak signals, such as the identification of nitrogen substitutions in a graphene network. Furthermore, this implies that the HRTEM image does not only contain structural information (atom positions and atomic numbers. Instead, information on the electron charge distribution can be gained in addition.In order to produce meaningful results, the new input parameters need to be chosen carefully. Here we present details of the simulation process and discuss the influence of the main parameters on the final result. Furthermore we apply the simulation scheme to three model systems: A single atom boron and a single atom oxygen substitution in graphene and an oxygen adatom on graphene.

  4. Light element production by cosmological cosmic rays and the gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the view that the 1-100 MeV γ-ray background is of cosmological origin, and is produced by high-energy collisions in a burst at high redshifts (approximately 100) between cosmic rays and the ambient gas, as suggested by Stecker (1969). To test this 'cosmological cosmic-ray (CCR) hypothesis', use is made of the fact that, simultaneously, low energy interactions give birth to the light elements D, 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li and 7 Be. Their resulting abundances are calculated by normalizing the CCR flux to the observed γ-ray background. Since it is possible to find the correct (observed) 7 Li abundance, which is otherwise unexplained as yet, by this process, it is of interest to discuss the various uncertainties involved in the calculations. Among these, the spread of the present γ-ray data, especially between 1 and approximately 10 MeV, is a major uncertainty, and emphasis is put on its influence on the results and, as a consequence, on the validity of the CCR hypothesi

  5. Light Rare Earth Elements enrichment in an acidic mine lake (Lusatia, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozau, Elke; Leblanc, Marc; Seidel, Jean Luc; Staerk, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the acidic waters (lake and groundwater) of a lignite mining district (Germany). The Fe- and SO 4 -rich lake water (pH 2.7) displays high REE contents (e.g. La∼70 μg/l, Ce∼160 μg/l) and an enrichment of light REE (LREE) in the NASC normalised pattern. Considering the hydrodynamic model and geochemical data, the lake water composition may be calculated as a mixture of inflowing Quaternary and mining dump groundwaters. The groundwater of the dump aquifer is LREE enriched. Nevertheless, the leachates of dump sediments generally have low REE contents and display flat NASC normalised patterns. However, geochemical differences and REE pattern in undisturbed lignite (LREE enriched pattern and low water soluble REE contents) and the weathered lignite of the dumps (flat REE pattern and high water soluble REE contents) suggest that lignite is probably the main REE source rock for the lake water

  6. Elements of Design Consideration of Once-Through Cycle, Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiaki Oka; Sei-ichi Koshizuka; Yuki Ishiwatari; Akifumi Yamaji

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes elements of design consideration of supercritical-pressure, light water cooled reactors as well as the status and prospects of the research and development. It summarizes the results of the conceptual design study at the University of Tokyo from 1989. The research and development started in Japan, Europe and USA. The major advantages of the reactors are 1. Compact reactor and turbines due to high specific enthalpy of supercritical water 2.Simple plant system because of the once-through coolant cycle 3.Use of the experience of LWR and fossil-fired power plants. The temperatures of the major components such as reactor pressure vessel, coolant pipes, pumps and turbines are within the experience, in spite of the high outlet coolant temperature. 4.Similarity to LWR safety design and criteria, but no burnout phenomenon 5.Potential cost reduction due to smaller material expenditure and short construction period 6.The smallest reactor not in power rating, but in plant sizes. 7.High-thermal efficiency and low coolant flow rate because of high enthalpy rise. 8.Water cooled reactors potentially free from SCC (stress corrosion cracking) problems. 9.Compatibility of tight-fuel-lattice fast reactor core due to small coolant flow rate, potentially easy shift to fast breeder reactor without changing coolant technology. 10.Potential of producing energy products such as hydrogen and high quality hydro carbons. (authors)

  7. Neutron energy spectra produced by α-bombardment of light elements in thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the work, presented in this thesis, is to determine energy spectra of neutrons produced by α-particle bombardment of thick targets containing light elements. These spectra are required for nuclear waste management. The set-up of the neutron spectrometer is described, and its calibration discussed. Absolute efficiencies were determined at various neutron energies, using monoenergetic neutrons produced with the Van de Graaff accelerator in pulsed mode. The additional calibration of the neutron spectrometer as proton-recoil spectrometer was carried out primarily for future applications in measurements where no pulsed neutron source is available or the neutron flux density is too low. The basis for an accurate uncertainty analysis is made by the determination of the covariance matrix for the uncertainties in the efficiencies. The determination of the neutron energy spectra from time-of-flight and from proton-recoil measurements is described. A comparison of the results obtained from the two different types of measurements is made. The experimentally determined spectra were compared with spectra calculated from stopping powers and theoretically determined cross sections. These cross sections were calculated from optical model parameters and level parameters using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Measurements were carried out on thick targets of silicon, aluminium, magnesium, carbon, boron nitride, calcium fluoride, aluminium oxide, silicon oxide and uranium oxide at four different α-particle energies. (Auth.)

  8. A code for quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a code developed for the quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE. The new method avoids the use of standards in the analysis, using a formalism similar to the one used for PIXE analysis, where the excitation function of the nuclear reaction related to the gamma-ray emission is integrated along the depth of the sample. In order to check the validity of the code, we present results for the analysis of Lithium, Boron, Fluorine and Sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, the experimental values of the excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p'γ) 7 Li, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be, 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F and 23 Na(p,p'γ) 23 Na were used as input. For stopping power cross-sections calculations the semi-empirical equations of Ziegler et al. and the Bragg's rule were used. Agreement between the experimental and the calculated gamma-ray yields was always better than 7.5%

  9. Source of boron in the Palokas gold deposit, northern Finland: evidence from boron isotopes and major element composition of tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Jukka-Pekka; Hanski, Eero; Cook, Nick; Lahaye, Yann

    2017-06-01

    The recently discovered Palokas gold deposit is part of the larger Rompas-Rajapalot gold-mineralized system located in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in the Palokas gold mineralization. It occurs as tourmalinite veins and as tourmaline crystals in sulfide-rich metasomatized gold-bearing rocks. In order to understand the origin of tourmaline in the gold-mineralized rocks, we have investigated the major element chemistry and boron isotope composition of tourmaline from three areas: (1) the Palokas gold mineralization, (2) a pegmatitic tourmaline granite, and (3) the evaporitic Petäjäskoski Formation. Based on textural evidence, tourmaline in gold mineralization is divided into two different types. Type 1 is located within the host rock and is cut by rock-forming anthophyllite crystals. Type 2 occurs in late veins and/or breccia zones consisting of approximately 80% tourmaline and 20% sulfides, commonly adjacent to quartz veins. All the studied tourmaline samples belong to the alkali-group tourmaline and can be classified as dravite and schorl. The δ11B values of the three localities lie in the same range, from 0 to -4‰. Tourmaline from the Au mineralization and from the Petäjäskoski Formation has similar compositional trends. Mg is the major substituent for Al; inferred low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios and Na values (molybdenite related to the tourmaline-sulfide-quartz veins, we propose that the tourmaline-forming process is a result of a single magmatic-hydrothermal event related to the extensive granite magmatism at around 1.79-1.77 Ga. Tourmaline was crystallized throughout the hydrothermal process, which resulted in the paragenetic variation between type 1 and type 2. The close association of tourmaline and gold suggests that the gold precipitated from the same boron-rich source as tourmaline.

  10. Platinum-group elements and gold in base metal sulfides, platinum-group minerals, and Re-Os isotope compositions of the Uitkomst complex, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trubač, Jakub; Ackerman, Lukáš; Gauert, Ch.; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2018), s. 439-461 ISSN 0361-0128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : binary alloys * copper compounds * economic geology * gold * iridium * isotopes * ore deposits * osmium * palladium * platinum * platinum metals * pyrites * Rhenium * rhenium alloys * ruthenium * solid solutions * sulfur compounds * crustal materials * mass-balance calculations * massive sulfides * mineralized zone * monosulfide solid solutions * platinum group elements * platinum group elements (PGEs) * platinum group minerals Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Geology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2016

  11. Os, Nd and Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Muli picrites: Insights into the mantle source of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xu, Ji-Feng; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang; Ren, Zhong-Yuan

    2010-09-01

    A suite of picrites and basalts from the Muli area, in the northwestern part of the Emeishan continental flood basalt province, provides new and valuable information on the geochemistry of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP) and its source. The Muli picrites can be classified as type-1 or type-2. The former shows ocean-island basalt-like trace element characteristics, with γ Os (260 Ma) values and ɛ Nd (260 Ma) values ranging from + 7.5 to + 11.5 and from + 6.0 to + 7.8, respectively. This is the first time that picrites with highly radiogenic Os and high Os contents (up to 3.3 ppb) have been recognized in the Emeishan LIP. These characteristics probably reflect a relatively enriched component in the Emeishan LIP source. The type-2 picrites are characterized by non-radiogenic γ Os (260 Ma) values ranging from - 4.2 to - 0.3, and they may be further subdivided into type-2A and type-2B picrites. Type-2A picrites contain moderate amounts of the light rare earth elements (LREEs), have low Ce N/Yb N values (1.1-2.0), and a relatively high initial ɛ Nd (+ 5.0 to + 6.6). In terms of Os and Nd isotopes, the Muli type-2A picrites are similar to the Song Da komatiites of Vietnam and the Gorgona Island picrites, revealing the existence of a depleted mantle component in the Emeishan LIP source. In contrast with the type-2A picrites, type-2B lavas exhibit a negative Nb anomaly and relatively lower initial ɛ Nd and γ Os values (Nb/La > 1.8; ɛ Nd (260 Ma) = - 5.5 to + 6.4; γ Os (260 Ma) = - 4.2 to - 1.9), suggesting that the type-2B lavas have a depleted mantle source, similar to type-2A, but that the type-2B lavas are also influenced by various degrees of mixing of depleted plume-derived melt, sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and/or continental crust. Given that the basalts in the Muli area show similar geochemical features to those of the type-2B picrites, their origins are inferred to be similar.

  12. Summary report of the second research co-ordination meeting on improvement of the standard cross sections for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Hale, G.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2004-03-01

    Results are presented following one and a half years of work under the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements. They include the use of the refined resonating group model for the theoretical prediction of the R-matrix poles and preliminary R-matrix model fits of the full experimental database for the 6 Li+n system obtained with different codes. Significant attention was paid to the exclusion of the bias in the evaluated data caused by the possible presence of Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle effect in the experimental data. Updates were also presented of the experimental database for light and heavy element standards including fission cross sections up to 200 MeV. First results and observed trends for all standard reactions are given, including the preliminary results of combining the model (for light elements) and non-model fits. The timetable for further work was agreed, which should lead to new reaction cross section standards for light and heavy elements by the end 2004. (author)

  13. Paloma: an instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of the mars atmosphere from a landed platform (MSL 09, EXOMARS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabroux, J.Ch

    2003-07-01

    An instrument to analyze the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of Mars atmosphere from a landed platform is being developed under CNES funding. This instrument, called PALOMA (Payload for Local Observation of Mars Atmosphere), will be proposed in response to the AO for the instrumentation of the NASA Mars Smart Lander mission, planned to be launched in 2009. It might be part as well of the EXOMARS mission presently studied at ESA in the frame of the Aurora program. Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xr, Xe) and stable isotopes (C, H, O, N) will be analyzed by using a system of gas purification and separation, coupled with a mass spectrometer. The heaviest, radioactive, noble gas (Rn) and its short-lived daughters will be measured using a small additional device (alpha particle detector). Detailed search for trace constituents of astro-biological interest, like CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}CO, N{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}S (abundances, isotopic ratios, time variability) will be done on a regular temporal basis during one Martian year. Isotopic ratios will be measured with an accuracy of about 1 ppm, or better, in order to provide a clear diagnosis of possible life signatures, to allow a detailed comparison of Earth and Mars atmospheric fractionation patterns and, finally, to accurately disentangle escape, climatic, geochemical and hypothesized biological effects. High sensitivity is required for elemental and isotopic compositions of trace gases of interest. Such an accurate monitoring of Mars atmosphere volatile composition is expected to provide the necessary reference for future composition studies of minerals, soils, bio-markers, polar cap material, either by in-situ measurement, or from laboratory analyses of returned samples. (author)

  14. Paloma: an instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of the mars atmosphere from a landed platform (MSL 09, EXOMARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    An instrument to analyze the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of Mars atmosphere from a landed platform is being developed under CNES funding. This instrument, called PALOMA (Payload for Local Observation of Mars Atmosphere), will be proposed in response to the AO for the instrumentation of the NASA Mars Smart Lander mission, planned to be launched in 2009. It might be part as well of the EXOMARS mission presently studied at ESA in the frame of the Aurora program. Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xr, Xe) and stable isotopes (C, H, O, N) will be analyzed by using a system of gas purification and separation, coupled with a mass spectrometer. The heaviest, radioactive, noble gas (Rn) and its short-lived daughters will be measured using a small additional device (alpha particle detector). Detailed search for trace constituents of astro-biological interest, like CH 4 , H 2 CO, N 2 O, H 2 S (abundances, isotopic ratios, time variability) will be done on a regular temporal basis during one Martian year. Isotopic ratios will be measured with an accuracy of about 1 ppm, or better, in order to provide a clear diagnosis of possible life signatures, to allow a detailed comparison of Earth and Mars atmospheric fractionation patterns and, finally, to accurately disentangle escape, climatic, geochemical and hypothesized biological effects. High sensitivity is required for elemental and isotopic compositions of trace gases of interest. Such an accurate monitoring of Mars atmosphere volatile composition is expected to provide the necessary reference for future composition studies of minerals, soils, bio-markers, polar cap material, either by in-situ measurement, or from laboratory analyses of returned samples. (author)

  15. Light-sensitive elements for radiographic use and process for the formation of an X-ray image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussi, G.; Cavallo, E.

    1990-01-01

    A light-sensitive silver halide element for radiographic use with X-ray intensifying screens comprising coated on at least one side of a transparent support base at least a spectrally sensitized silver halide emulsion layer and, between the base and a silver halide emulsion layer, a hydrophillic colloid layer containing a) substantially light-insensitivelow iodide silver bromoiodide grains having an avergae grain size in therange of from 0.01 to 0.1 μm on which a spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to form a J-band, said dye adsorbed on said grains having a significant portion of its absorption in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding substantially to the spectral sensitivity of the silver halide emulsion, and b) dispersed zinc oxide particles. The invention allows the use of low coverage weights of silver halide light-sensitive elements and provides X-ray images with a favorable image quality and sensitivity ratio. (author)

  16. Light-sensitive elements for radiographic use and process for the formation of an X-ray image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussi, G; Cavallo, E

    1990-12-15

    A light-sensitive silver halide element for radiographic use with X-ray intensifying screens comprising coated on at least one side of a transparent support base at least a spectrally sensitized silver halide emulsion layer and, between the base and a silver halide emulsion layer, a hydrophillic colloid layer containing (a) substantially light-insensitivelow iodide silver bromoiodide grains having an avergae grain size in therange of from 0.01 to 0.1 {mu}m on which a spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to form a J-band, said dye adsorbed on said grains having a significant portion of its absorption in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding substantially to the spectral sensitivity of the silver halide emulsion, and (b) dispersed zinc oxide particles. The invention allows the use of low coverage weights of silver halide light-sensitive elements and provides X-ray images with a favorable image quality and sensitivity ratio. (author).

  17. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  18. Volatile and light lithophile elements in high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2017-05-01

    Melt inclusions formed during the early stages of magmatic evolution trap primitive melt compositions and enable the volatile contents of primary melts and the mantle to be estimated. However, the syn- and post-entrapment behaviour of volatiles in primitive high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from oceanic basalts remains poorly constrained. To address this deficit, we present volatile and light lithophile element analyses from a well-characterised suite of nine matrix glasses and 102 melt inclusions from the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e., Saksunarvatn ash) of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). High matrix glass H2O and S contents indicate that eruption-related exsolution was arrested by quenching in a phreatomagmatic setting; Li, B, F and Cl did not exsolve during eruption. The almost uniformly low CO2 content of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions cannot be explained by either shallow entrapment or the sequestration of CO2 into shrinkage bubbles, suggesting that inclusion CO2 contents were controlled by decrepitation instead. High H2O/Ce values in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (182-823) generally exceed values expected for EVZ primary melts (∼ 180), and can be accounted for by diffusive H2O gain following the entrainment of primitive macrocrysts into evolved and H2O-rich melts a few days before eruption. A strong positive correlation between H2O and Li in plagioclase-hosted inclusions suggests that diffusive Li gain may also have occurred. Extreme F enrichments in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (F/Nd = 51-216 versus ∼15 in matrix glasses) possibly reflect the entrapment of inclusions from high-Al/(Al + Si) melt pools formed by dissolution-crystallisation processes (as indicated by HFSE depletions in some inclusions), and into which F was concentrated by uphill diffusion since F is highly soluble in Al-rich melts. The high S/Dy of primitive inclusions (∼300) indicates that primary melts were S-rich in comparison

  19. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  20. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism (refertilization) of Variscan lithospheric mantle: Evidence from major elements, trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Os isotopes in a Saxothuringian garnet peridotite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Michels, Z. D.; Erban, V.; Kotková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, SI (2015), s. 81-97 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : garnet peridotite * Variscan * Bohemian Massif * Sr-Nd-Os isotopes * depletion cryptic metasomatism and refertilization * P-T conditions Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  1. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, J.L.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polluted sediment and NORM samples. ► An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb/ 208 Pb, 238 U/ 234 U and 232 Th/ 230 Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA ® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  2. Anthropogenic versus natural control on trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope stratigraphy in peat sediments of southeast Florida (USA), ˜1500 AD to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Brenner, Mark; Tucker, Jaimie L.

    2009-06-01

    Analysis of a well-dated peat core from Blue Cypress Marsh (BCM) provides a detailed record of natural and anthropogenic factors that controlled the geochemical cycles of a number of trace elements in Florida over the last five centuries. The trace elements were divided into "natural" and "anthropogenic" groups using concentration trends from the bottom to the top of the core. The "natural" group includes Li, Sc, Cr, Co, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Y, Ta, Th, and REE (Rare Earth Elements). These elements show similar concentrations throughout the core, indicating that changes in human activities after European arrival in the "New World" did not affect their geochemical cycles. The "anthropogenic" group includes Pb, Cu, Zn, V, Sb, Sn, Bi, and Cd. Upcore enrichment of these elements indicates enhancement by anthropogenic activities. From the early 1500s to present, fluxes of the "anthropogenic" metals to the marsh increased significantly, with modern accumulation rates several-fold (e.g., V) to hundreds of times (e.g., Zn) greater than pre-colonial rates. The dominant input mechanism for trace elements from both groups to the marsh has been atmospheric deposition. Atmospheric input of a number of the elements, including the anthropogenic metals, was dominated by local sources during the last century. For several elements, long-distant transport may be important. For instance, REE and Nd isotopes provide evidence for long-range atmospheric transport dominated by Saharan dust. The greatest increase in flux of the "anthropogenic" metals occurred during the 20th century and was caused by changes in the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition entering the marsh. Increased atmospheric inputs were a consequence of several anthropogenic activities, including fossil fuel combustion (coal and oil), agricultural activities, and quarrying and mining operations. Pb and V exhibit similar trends, with peak accumulation rates in 1970. The principal anthropogenic source of V

  3. Transportation of natural radionuclides and rare earth light elements in the lagoon system of Buena, RJ; Transporte de radionuclideos naturais e elementos das terras raras leves no sistema lagunar de Buena, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    1999-03-15

    it was investigated the transport of the series natural radionuclides and the earth rare light elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in the coast north region of Rio de Janeiro state. The lagoon water showed off abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and of the earth rare light elements (ERLEs). The longitudinal gradient of the Ra, of the ERLEs and of the major ion concentration's, whose data were obtained during two and half years of the research at the place, and the statistical analysis pointed to two mainly source as responsible for the water lagoon composition - the marine and the underground waters. The underground water supplies the radionuclides and ERLEs, possibly originated by monazite lixiviation. Based on the water speciation modeling, the results of laboratory adsorption on sediment experiments and the sediment characterization, the behavior of the radio isotopes, the ERLEs, U, Th e Pb-210, along of the lagoon, are discussed. It is also discussed the role of the aquatic macrophyte Typha dominguesis Pers in the nuclide uptake and the following liberation. (author)

  4. Formation of pyroxenite layers in the Totalp ultramafic massif (Swiss Alps) - Insights from highly siderophile elements and Os isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Acken, David; Becker, Harry; Walker, Richard J.; McDonough, William F.; Wombacher, Frank; Ash, Richard D.; Piccoli, Phil M.

    2010-01-01

    Pyroxenitic layers are a minor constituent of ultramafic mantle massifs, but are considered important for basalt generation and mantle refertilization. Mafic spinel websterite and garnet-spinel clinopyroxenite layers within Jurassic ocean floor peridotites from the Totalp ultramafic massif (eastern Swiss Alps) were analyzed for their highly siderophile element (HSE) and Os isotope composition. Aluminum-poor pyroxenites (websterites) display chondritic to suprachondritic initial γOs (160 Ma) of -2 to +27. Osmium, Ir and Ru abundances are depleted in websterites relative to the associated peridotites and to mantle lherzolites worldwide, but relative abundances (Os/Ir, Ru/Ir) are similar. Conversely, Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir are elevated. Aluminum-rich pyroxenites (clinopyroxenites) are characterized by highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os with initial γOs (160 Ma) between +20 and +1700. Their HSE composition is similar to that of basalts, as they are more depleted in Os, Ir and Ru compared to Totalp websterites, along with even higher Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir. The data are most consistent with multiple episodes of reaction of mafic pyroxenite precursor melts with surrounding peridotites, with the highest degree of interaction recorded in the websterites, which typically occur in direct contact to peridotites. Clinopyroxenites, in contrast, represent melt-dominated systems, which retained the precursor melt characteristics to a large extent. The melts may have been derived from a sublithospheric mantle source with high Pd/Ir, Pt/Ir and Re/Os, coupled with highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os compositions. Modeling indicates that partial melting of subducted, old oceanic crust in the asthenosphere could be a possible source for such melts. Pentlandite and godlevskite are identified in both types of pyroxenites as the predominant sulfide minerals and HSE carriers. Heterogeneous HSE abundances within these sulfide grains likely reflect subsolidus processes. In contrast, large grain

  5. Up-scaling mineral-aqueous interfacial processes that govern isotope and trace element partitioning during calcite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The dependence of the isotopic and trace element composition of calcium carbonate minerals on growth conditions including temperature, pH, and salinity is widely used to infer paleoclimate conditions. These inferences rely heavily on phenomenological observations of biogenic and inorganic precipitation both in and ex situ, where only limited variability in solution conditions can be explored. Ionic fluxes between the mineral surface and aqueous growth solution govern the net uptake of both stoichiometric and trace species during calcification, so developing a mechanistic understanding of the reactions governing these fluxes is critical to refine existing proxies and to develop new ones. The micro-scale mechanisms of calcite precipitation from aqueous solution have been extensively studied, and net ionic uptake post-nucleation is known to occur primarily at monomolecular kink sites along step edges at the mineral surface. In this talk, I will present a theoretical framework that uses the quasi-elementary ion attachment and detachment reactions governing ion uptake at kink sites to simultaneously model bulk mineral growth kinetics and tracer partitioning during calcite precipitation. Several distinct processes occur during ion uptake at kink sites that can influence the distribution of trace species, directly impacting the composition of various carbonate paleoproxies including δ44Ca, δ18O, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca. The distribution of these trace species will be shown to depend on (1) the relative rates of ion desolvation during attachment to kink sites, (2) the relative rates of bond breaking during detachment from kink sites, and (3) the equilibrium partitioning of trace aqueous species. This model accounts for the impact of solution conditions on net ion fluxes and surface speciation, which in turn controls the population of kink sites available for direct ion exchange with the aqueous phase. The impacts of solution variables including pH, temperature and salinity can

  6. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  7. Eleven new heaviest isotopes of elements Z=105 to Z=117 identified among the products of 249Bk+48Ca reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Lobanov, Yu. V.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Polyakov, A. N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Voinov, A. A.; Vostokin, G. K.; Bailey, P. D.; Benker, D. E.; Ezold, J. G.; Porter, C. E.; Riley, F. D.

    2011-01-01

    The heaviest isotopes of elements Z=117 to Z=105, 294 117, 293 117, 290 115, 289 115, 286 113, 285 113, 282 Rg, 281 Rg, 278 Mt, 274 Bh, and 270 Db, were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator among the products of the 249 Bk + 48 Ca reaction. The details of the observed six decay chains, indicating the production and decay of isotopes 293 117 and 294 117, are presented and discussed. The decay energies and resulting half-lives of these new nuclei show a strong rise of stability with increasing neutron number, validating the concept of the island of enhanced stability for superheavy nuclei [Oganessian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 142502 (2010)].

  8. A novel methodology to investigate isotopic biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2012-04-01

    An enduring goal of trace metal isotopic studies of Earth History is to find isotopic 'fingerprints' of life or of life's individual physiochemical processes. Generally, such signatures are sought by relating an isotopic effect observed in controlled laboratory conditions or a well-characterized environment to a more complex system or the geological record. However, such an approach is ultimately limited because life exerts numerous isotopic fractionations on any one element so it is hard to dissect the resultant net fractionation into its individual components. Further, different organisms, often with the same apparent cellular function, can express different isotopic fractionation factors. We have used a novel method to investigate the isotopic fractionation associated with a single physiological process-enzyme specific isotopic fractionation. We selected Cd isotopes since only one biological use of Cd is known, CdCA (a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase from the coastal diatom T. Weissflogii). Thus, our investigation can also inform the long standing mystery as to why this generally toxic element appears to have a nutrient-like dissolved isotopic and concentration profile in the oceans. We used the pET-15b plasmid to insert the CdCA gene into the E. coli genome. There is no known biochemical function for Cd in E. coli, making it an ideal vector for studying distinct physiological processes within a single organism. The uptake of Cd and associated isotopic fractionation was determined for both normal cells and those expressing CdCA. It was found that whole cells always exhibited a preference for the light isotopes of Cd, regardless of the expression of CdCA; adsorption of Cd to cell surfaces was not seen to cause isotopic fractionation. However, the cleaning procedure employed exerted a strong control on the observed isotopic composition of cells. Using existing protein purification techniques, we measured the Cd isotopic composition of different subcellular fractions of E

  9. Hf and Nd Isotope Evidence for Production of an Incompatible Trace Element Enriched Crustal Reservoir in Early Earth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Lapen, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The final significant stage of accretion of the Earth was likely a collision between proto-Earth and a Mars sized impactor that formed the Moon. This event is thought to have produced enough thermal energy to melt all or most of the Earth, with a consequent magma ocean (MO). During subsequent cooling, the Earth would have formed its protocrust and corresponding mantle lithosphere, consisting of solidified basalt-komatiitic melt, in combination with buoyant cumulates and late stage residual melts from the MO. Relative to the convecting mantle, portions of this protolithosphere are likely to have been enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) in sufficient quantities to contain a significant amount of the bulk Earth’s budget for rare earth elements, U, Th, and Hf. If the protolithosphere was negatively buoyant, it may have overturned at or near the final stages of MO crystallization and a significant portion of that material may have been transported into the deep mantle where it resided and remixed into the convecting mantle over Earth history [1,2]. If the protolithosphere remained positively buoyant, its crust would have likely begun to erode from surface processes, and subsequently recycled back into the mantle over time as sediment and altered crust, once a subduction mechanism arose. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of Earth’s earliest rocks support the idea that an early-formed ITE-enriched reservoir was produced. The maxima in 142Nd/144Nd for 3.85 to 3.64 Ga rocks from Isua, Greenland decreases from +20 ppm to +12 ppm relative to the present day mantle value, respectively [3]. This indicates mixing of an early-formed ITE enriched reservoir back into the convecting mantle. In addition, zircons from the 3.1 Ga Jack Hills conglomerate indicate that material with an enriched 176Lu/177Hf of ~0.02 and an age of 4.4 Ga or greater was present at the Earth’s surface over the first 2 Ga of Earth history, supporting the scenario of a positively buoyant

  10. Triple-element compound-specific stable isotope analysis of 1,2-dichloroethane for characterization of the underlying dehalogenation reaction in two Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Steffi; Lihl, Christina; Renpenning, Julian; Elsner, Martin; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated ethanes belong to the most common groundwater and soil contaminants. Of these, 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a man-made, persistent and toxic contaminant, released due to improper waste treatment at versatile production sites. This study investigated the anaerobic transformation of 1,2-DCA by Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 and strain BTF08 using triple-element compound-specific stable isotope analysis of carbon, chlorine and hydrogen for the first time. Isotope fractionation patterns for carbon (εCBTF08 = -28.4 ± 3.7‰; εC195 = -30.9 ± 3.6‰) and chlorine (εClBTF08 = -4.6 ± 0.7‰; εCl195 = -4.2 ± 0.5‰) within both investigated D. mccartyi strains, as well as the dual-element analysis (ΛBTF08 = 6.9 ± 1.2; Λ195 = 7.1 ± 0.2), supported identical reaction mechanisms for dehalogenation of 1,2-DCA. Hydrogen isotope fractionation analysis revealed dihaloelimination as prevalent reaction mechanism. Vinyl chloride as major intermediate could be excluded by performing the experiment in deuterated aqueous media. Furthermore, evaluation of the derived apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIECBTF08 = 1.029/AKIEC195 = 1.031; AKIEClBTF08 = 1.005/AKIECl195 = 1.004) pointed towards simultaneous abstraction of both involved chlorine-substituents in a concerted matter. It was shown that D. mccartyi strain BTF08 and strain 195 are capable of complete, direct dihaloelimination of 1,2-DCA to ethene. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Puglia, S. M. R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  12. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  13. Atmospheric trace elements and Pb isotopes at an offshore site, Ieodo Ocean Research Station, in the East China Sea from June to October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Han, C.; Shin, D.; Hur, S. D.; Jun, S. J.; Kim, Y. T.; Hong, S.

    2016-12-01

    East Asia, especially China, has become a major anthropogenic source region of trace elements due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization in the past decades. Numerous studies reported that anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia are transported by westerly winds during winter to spring across the Pacific to North America and beyond. Here we report elemental concentrations and Pb isotope ratios in airborne particles from Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) located in the middle of the East China Sea (32.07o N, 125.10o E). A total of 30 aerosol samples (PM2.5-10) were collected between 18 June and 30 October 2015 and analyzed for trace elements (Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, and Pb) and Pb isotopes using ICP-SFMS and TIMS, respectively. The mean concentrations of trace elements ranged from 0.06 ng m-3 for Tl to 10.1 ng m-3 for Zn. These values are much lower (up to several orders) than those at unban sites in East Asia, confirming a low level of air pollution at IORS due to the remoteness of the site from major sources of anthropogenic pollutants. On the other hand, the mean crustal enrichment factors, calculated using Ba as a conservative crustal element, are much higher than unity (84 for Tl, 100 for Mo, 140 for Pb, 166 for Zn, 262 for As, 526 for Cd, and 570 for Sb, respectively), indicating that these elements are of anthropogenic origin. Combining the Pb isotope ratios and the HYSPLIT model 5-day backward trajectory analysis, we have identified episodic long-range transport of air pollutants from diverse source regions of China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan to the site in summer (June to August). By comparison, an increasing long-range transport of pollution from China was observed in autumn (September and October). Finally, our study shows that IORS is an ideal background site for monitoring levels of concentrations and source origins of atmospheric trace elements in East Asia.

  14. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel's fleshes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  15. Evaluating crustal contributions to enriched shergottites from the petrology, trace elements, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Northwest Africa 856

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Pirotte, Z.

    2017-08-01

    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) characteristics of enriched shergottites has been critical for examining two contradicting scenarios to explain how these Martian meteorites form. The first scenario is that it reflects ITE enrichment in an early-formed mantle reservoir whereas the second scenario attributes it to assimilation of ancient Martian crust (∼4-4.5 Ga) by ITE-depleted magmas. Strongly differentiated shergottite magmas may yield added constraints for determining which scenario can best explain this signature in enriched shergottites. The meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 is a basaltic shergottite that, unlike many enriched shergottites, lacks olivine and has undergone extensive differentiation from more primitive parent magma. In similarity to other basaltic shergottites, NWA 856 is comprised primarily of compositionally zoned clinopyroxenes (45% pigeonite and 23% augite), maskelynite (23%) and accessory minerals such as ulvöspinel, merrillite, Cl-apatite, ilmenite, pyrrhotite, baddeleyite and silica polymorph. The CI-chondrite normalized rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns for its maskelynite, phosphates, and its whole rock are flat with corresponding light-REE depletions in clinopyroxenes. The 87Rb-87Sr and 147Sm-143Nd internal isochron ages are 162 ± 14 (all errors are ±2σ) Ma and 162.7 ± 5.5 Ma, respectively, with an initial εNdI = -6.6 ± 0.2. The Rb-Sr isotope systematics are affected by terrestrial alteration resulting in larger scatter and a less precise internal isochron age. The whole rock composition is used in MELTS simulations to model equilibrium and fractional crystallization sequences to compare with the crystallization sequence from textural observations and to the mineral compositions. These models constrain the depth of initial crystallization to a pressure range of 0.4-0.5 GPa (equivalent to 34-42 km) in anhydrous conditions at the Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz buffer, and consistently reproduce the

  16. The effects of oxides of carbon and nitrogen emissions on the isotope and element abundances in foliage of C3 plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon; Petrache, Cristina; Bulanhagui, Jaika Faye; Legaspi, Charmaine; Niegas, Elaine; Enerva, Lorna; Luces, Arnicole

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance of C3 plants mango (Magnifera indica L), molave (Vitex parviflora Juss), talisay (Terminalia catappa L.) leaves harvested from sites with ambient air conditions and sites receiving air pollution contributions from coal-fired power plants were determined and compared. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy, IRMS was used to determine 13 C and 15 N in the samples. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES. The 13 C of the leaves grown in ambient air were found to fall within the range of -25.0 to -22.0 per mill and a close agreement with the literature values for the natural abundance of 13 C in C3 plants (-27.0 to -21.0 per mill). The 13 C abundance of plants obtained from sites polluted by coal-fired plants were sporadic from -35 to 24.0 per mille. The 15 N abundance in leaves grown under ambient air condition (-1.0 to 2.0 per mille) were way below the 15 N abundance of plants from coal-fired plant-polluted regions (16.0 to 17.5 per mille). Elemental exposition indicated no differences in element concentrations in leaves from ambient and polluted sites. Differences exist in the Ca, Mg, K ratios across species and are affected by seasonal variation. (author)

  17. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and European Union [2011].

  18. Behaviour of rare earth elements, thorium, uranium and strontium isotopes in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the processes which control retention of rare earth elements, U and Th in soil samples of Bryansk region in one of Russian territory contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. Acid sandy and loam sand podzolic soils are typical of this area. We have classified soil samples into forest, pasture, field, yard and kitchen garden. Rare earth elements, U and Th concentrations were measured by digestion soil samples using acid digestion and microwave digestion method followed by ICP-MS whereas Sr isotope ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) was determined by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). In case of forest soil samples, ratio of U/Th varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varies, ratio does not show much variation. Pasture soil showed higher concentration of REEs, U and Th. Chondrite normalized pattern of soil samples did not differ much from one another excep Ce and Eu and were similar to that for average concentration of continental crust. In case of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, top layer soil sample shows a relatively higher isotope ratio than lower layers. These data, within the study area, may be reflective of variations in the concentration of elements in reservoir rocks at depth. (author)

  19. Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the Seligdar magnesiocarbonatites (South Yakutia, Russia): Insights regarding the mantle evolution beneath the Aldan-Stanovoy shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Izokh, Andrey E.; Klemd, Reiner; Ponomarchuk, Anton V.; Nikolaeva, Irina V.; Vladykin, Nikolay V.

    2018-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Seligdar magnesiocarbonatite intrusion of the Aldan-Stanovoy shield in Russia underwent extensive postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration and metamorphic events. This study comprises new isotopic (Sr, Nd, C and O) data, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and trace element characteristics of the major minerals to gain a better understanding of the source and the formation process of the carbonatites. The Seligdar carbonatites have high concentrations of P2O5 (up to 18 wt%) and low concentrations of Na, K, Sr and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these carbonatites display significant enrichments of LREE relative to HREE with an average La/Ybcn ratio of 95. Hydrothermal and metamorphic overprints changed the trace element characteristics of the carbonatites and their minerals. These alteration processes were responsible for Sr loss and the shifting of the Sr isotopic compositions towards more radiogenic values. The altered carbonatites are further characterized by distinct 18O- and 13C-enrichments compared to the primary igneous carbonatites. The alteration most likely resulted from both the percolation of crustal-derived hydrothermal fluids and subsequent metamorphic processes accompanied by interaction with limestone-derived CO2. The narrow range of negative εNd(T) values indicates that the Seligdar carbonatites are dominated by a homogenous enriched mantle source component that was separated from the depleted mantle during the Archean.

  20. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  1. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering

  2. Photon Activation Analysis Of Light Elements Using 'Non-Gamma' Radiation Spectroscopy - The Instrumental Determination Of Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, Christian; Goerner, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Unlike metal determinations the analysis of light elements (e.g., carbon, oxygen, phosphorus) is frequently problematic, in particular if analysed instrumentally. In photon activation analysis (PAA) the respective activation products do not emit gamma radiation in the most cases. Usually, annihilation quanta counting and subsequent decay curve analysis have been used for determinations of C, N, O, and F. However, radiochemical separation of the respective radioisotopes mostly is indispensable. For several reasons, some of the light elements cannot be analysed following this procedure, e.g. phosphorus. In this contribution the instrumental PAA of phosphorus in organic matrix by activation with bremsstrahlung of an electron linear accelerator and subsequent beta spectroscopy is described. The accuracy of the results was excellent as obtained by analysis of a BCR Reference Material.

  3. Deuterides of light elements: low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up and applications to thermonuclear fusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Smith, V.H.; Smith, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermonuclear burn-up and thermonuclear applications are discussed for a number of deuterides and DT hydrides of light elements. These deuterides and corresponding DT hydrides are often used as thermonuclear fuels or components of such fuels. In fact, only for these substances thermonuclear energy gain exceeds (at some densities and temperatures) the bremsstrahlung loss and other high-temperature losses, i.e., thermonuclear burn-up is possible. Herein, thermonuclear burn-up in these deuterides and DT hydrides is considered in detail. In particular, a simple method is proposed to determine the critical values of the burn-up parameter x c for these substances and their mixtures at different temperatures and densities. The results for equimolar DT mixtures coincide quite well with the results of previous calculations. Also, the natural or Z limit is determined for low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in the deuterides of light elements. (author)

  4. Summary report of the first research co-ordination meeting on improvement of the standard cross sections for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Hale, G.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Results obtained during the first six months of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements were presented. Attention focused on studies of the reduction in uncertainty for the model and non-model least squares fits, intercomparison and testing of different computer codes based on the nuclear model, non-model general least square and Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of standard reaction cross sections and covariance matrix of their uncertainties. The reasons leading to the underestimation of uncertainties and bias in the evaluated values were discussed and solutions to these problems were outlined. A coordinated working plan was prepared which will result in the preparation of new reaction cross section standards for light and heavy elements by 2004. (author)

  5. Authentication of organically grown plants - advantages and limitations of atomic spectroscopy for multi-element and stable isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Kelly, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Organic food products are believed to be healthier, safer and more environment-friendly than their conventional counterparts and are sold at premium prices. Consequently, adulteration of organic plants and fraudulent activities for economic profit are increasing. This has spurred the development...... plant tissue, and compound-specific isotope analysis based on isotope ratio-mass spectrometry are promising tools for documenting the fertilization history of organic plants. However, these techniques are challenged by the potential diversity of fertilization practices of organic and conventional plant...

  6. Patterns of Storage, Synthesis and Changing Light Levels Revealed by Carbon Isotope Microsampling within Eocene Metasequoia Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, H.; Sternberg, L.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil tree rings from Axel Heiberg Island were microanalyzed for δ13C value in order to assess patterns of tree growth and carbon storage within the Middle Eocene (~45 Ma) Arctic paleoenvironment. Wood from four Metasequoia-type individuals was subsampled for analysis: each individual fossil consisted of between 4 and 10 large (~1 cm thick) consecutive tree rings. One of the fossils displayed an obvious concentric pattern, allowing for the determination of the direction of growth with isotopic pattern. Each ring was divided into ~1 mm thick subsamples, resulting in 5-10 δ13C value determinations per period of ring growth (i.e., growing season). All rings revealed a distinct pattern that was characteristic across growing seasons and across individual fossils. Early in the season, δ13C was at its highest value but descended systematically and sharply to its lowest value at the end of the growing season. Total decrease ranged between 3 and 5 ‰ over the course of each growing season. Identical patterns were observed in the δ13C value of alpha-cellulose isolated from each subsample, indicating that the trends observed did not represent changing levels of secondary metabolites, but rather a seasonal adjustment in the bulk source of carbon used during biosynthesis. Our results are consistent with the following annual pattern of wood synthesis 1.) complete dependence on the mobilization of stored carbon compounds early in the growing season; 2.) systematically increasing use of actively-acquired photosynthate during the growing season; 3.) complete reliance on active photosynthate by the end of the growing season. An additional and significant source of 13C discrimination is declining light levels late in the growing season, and likely contributes to the extreme pattern of δ13C decrease seen across each ring. Our results mimic those seen from modern broadleaf deciduous trees (Helle & Schlesser 2004), but differ from those seen in modern conifers (Barbour et al 2002

  7. Solution of multi-element LED light sources development automation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.

    2014-09-01

    The intensive development of LED technologies resulted in the creation of multicomponent light sources in the form of controlled illumination devices based on usage of mentioned LED technologies. These light sources are used in different areas of production (for example, in the food industry for sorting products or in the textile industry for quality control, etc.). The use of LED lighting products in the devices used in specialized lighting, became possible due to wide range of colors of light, LED structures (which determines the direction of radiation, the spatial distribution and intensity of the radiation, electrical, heat, power and other characteristics), and of course, the possibility of obtaining any shade in a wide dynamic range of brightness values. LED-based lighting devices are notable for the diversity of parameters and characteristics, such as color radiation, location and number of emitters, etc. Although LED technologies have several advantages, however, they require more attention if you need to ensure a certain character of illumination distribution and/or distribution of the color picture at a predetermined distance (for example, at flat surface, work zone, area of analysis or observation). This paper presents software designed for the development of the multicomponent LED light sources. The possibility of obtaining the desired color and energy distribution at the zone of analysis by specifying the spatial parameters of the created multicomponent light source and using of real power, spectral and color parameters and characteristics of the LEDs is shown as well.

  8. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd, in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Results Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The δ13C, δ15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. Conclusion As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  9. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Tolley, Krystal A; Siebert, Ursula; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2007-01-17

    We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd), in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry) and geographic position (latitude). Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The delta13C, delta15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude). Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  10. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Coz Diaz, J.J.; Rodriguez, A. Martin; Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Biempica, C. Betegon [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Nieto, P.J. Garcia [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown. [Author].

  11. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz del Coz, J.J. [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)]. E-mail: juanjo@constru.uniovi.es; Nieto, P.J. Garcia [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Rodriguez, A. Martin [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Biempica, C. Betegon [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown.

  12. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz del Coz, J.J.; Nieto, P.J. Garcia; Rodriguez, A. Martin; Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Biempica, C. Betegon

    2006-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown

  13. Arsenic and other oxyanion-forming trace elements in an alluvial basin aquifer: Evaluating sources and mobilization by isotopic tracers (Sr, B, S, O, H, Ra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, David S., E-mail: dsv3@duke.edu [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); McIntosh, Jennifer C. [University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dwyer, Gary S.; Vengosh, Avner [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Elevated natural As and F occur in the Willcox Basin aquifer of Arizona. > Oxyanion-forming elements are derived from volcanic-source aquifer sediments. > Sr isotopes trace sediment sources linked to oxyanion-forming trace elements. > {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > 0.720 indicates Proterozoic crystalline-source sediment contributing low As. > Both sediment source and hydrogeochemical evolution (Ca/Na) affect As levels. - Abstract: The Willcox Basin is a hydrologically closed basin in semi-arid southeastern Arizona (USA) and, like many other alluvial basins in the southwestern USA, is characterized by oxic, near-neutral to slightly basic groundwater containing naturally elevated levels of oxyanion-forming trace elements such as As. This study evaluates the sources and mobilization of these oxyanionic trace elements of health significance by using several isotopic tracers of water-rock interaction and groundwater sources ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4}, {delta}{sup 11}B, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 3}H). Values of {delta}{sup 2}H (-85 per mille to -64 per mille) and {delta}{sup 18}O (-11.8 per mille to -8.6 per mille) are consistent with precipitation and groundwater in adjacent alluvial basins, and low to non-detectable {sup 3}H activities further imply that modern recharge is slow in this semi-arid environment. Large variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios imply that groundwater has interacted with multiple sediment sources that constitute the basin-fill aquifer, including Tertiary felsic volcanic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. In general, low concentrations of oxyanion-forming trace elements and F{sup -} are associated with a group of waters exhibiting highly radiogenic values of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.72064-0.73336) consistent with waters in Proterozoic crystalline rocks in the mountain blocks (0.73247-0.75010). Generally higher As concentrations (2-29 {mu}g L{sup -1}), other

  14. Conjugation of fiber-coupled wide-band light sources and acousto-optical spectral elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machikhin, Alexander; Batshev, Vladislav; Polschikova, Olga; Khokhlov, Demid; Pozhar, Vitold; Gorevoy, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopic instrumentation is widely used for diagnostics and surgery. The imaging systems, which provide the hyperspectral information of the tissues accessible by endoscopes, are particularly interesting and promising for in vivo photoluminescence diagnostics and therapy of tumour and inflammatory diseases. To add the spectral imaging feature to standard video endoscopes, we propose to implement acousto-optical (AO) filtration of wide-band illumination of incandescent-lamp-based light sources. To collect maximum light and direct it to the fiber-optic light guide inside the endoscopic probe, we have developed and tested the optical system for coupling the light source, the acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) and the light guide. The system is compact and compatible with the standard endoscopic components.

  15. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  16. Calculation of isotope burn-up and change in efficiency of absorbing elements of WWER-1000 control and protection system during burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, O.A.; Kurakin, K.U.

    2006-01-01

    The report deals with fast and thermal neutron flows distribution in structural elements of WWER-1000 fuel assembly and absorbing rods, determination of absorbing isotope burn-up and worth variation in WWER reactor control and protection system rods. Simulation of absorber rod burn-up is provided using code package SAPPHIRE 9 5 end RC W WER allowing detailed description of the core segment spatial model. Maximum burn-up of absorbing rods and respective worth variation of control and protection system rods is determined on the basis of a number of calculations considering known characteristics of fuel cycles (Authors)