WorldWideScience

Sample records for life-cycle forecast volume

  1. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  2. Comparison of life cycle assessment for different volume polypropylene jars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krkić Nevena M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When deciding what packaging is the most appropriate for a product there are many factors to be considered. One of them is the impact of the packaging on environment. In this work, life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment of two different volume packagings were compared. The data were collected on the types and amounts of materials and energy consumption in the process of packaging and distribution of hand cream packed in polypropylene jars of 200 and 350 mL. Life cycle inventory (LCI and life cycle impact assessment (LCA were calculated. It was found that the total mass flow was higher for the jars of 350 mL. After analyzing individual flows, it was found that in both cycles (polypropylene jars of 200 and 350 mL,the consumption of fresh water was a dominant flow. This fresh water flow is mostly (95% consumed in the injection molding process of manufacturing jars from polypropylene granules. The LCA analysis showed no significant difference in global warming potential between different volume jars. The process that mostly affected global warming was the production of polypropylene jars from polypropylene granules by injection molding for both jar volumes. Judging by the global warming potential, there is no difference of the environmental impact between investigated jars, but considering the mass flow and water consumption, more environmental friendly were the 200 mL jars.

  3. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  4. Research for full-term forecasting model of production rate with multiple life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Yan; Yingzhong, Yuan; Jun, Liu; Zhilin, Qi; Jiqiang, Li; Qianhua, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Based on generalized production forecasting model, in the case of oil production with multiple production peak value and multiple life cycle, a multi-peak forecasting model is proposed, which can describe full course of rise, growth, maturity and decline for every life cycle. Linear trial-and-error method, binary regression method and ternary regression method are used to resolve the parameters of production forecasting model. The results indicate that parameters in linear trial-and-error method are not resolved simultaneously and the solutions are usually not the best matching. Parameters in multi-variant regression method are resolved simultaneously with the best correlation factor, and the solution is more accurate than linear trial-and-error method. Growth factor including cumulative production rate term and exponential function term of time are considered simultaneously in ternary regression method, and the solution is more accurate than binary regression method. For actual example with three-peak production, ternary regression method are used to resolve the parameters of multi-peak production forecasting model, and matching accuracy is greatly improved.

  5. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  6. Management control and status reports documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for management control and status reports used in monitoring and controlling the management, development, and assurance of informations systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  7. Assurance specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fourth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for assurance documentation for information systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes. The specifications are developed in conjunction with the corresponding management plans specifying the assurance activities to be performed.

  8. Management plan documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the second of five volumes of the Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well-organized, easily used standard for management plans used in acquiring, assuring, and developing information systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  9. Life-Cycle Cost Database. Volume II. Appendices E, F, and G. Sample Data Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    evaporative condenser (B.A.C.) (E) 100 ton cooling tower ( Marley ) CATEGORY 4 (5) Systems / A thru E (A) 279 ton centrifugal/hermetic compressor (Trane) (B) 284... cooling tower ( Marley ) CATEGORY 5 ( ) Systems / A thru C (A) 977 ton centrifugal/hermetic compressor (Trane) (B) 900 ton centrifugal open drive...compressor (York) (C) 900 ton cooling tower ( Marley ) 90 15 SYSTEM/25 YEAR LIFE CYCLE STUDY COOLING SYSTEMS CATEGORIES CATEGORY 1 (1) System One ton A/C

  10. Product specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the third of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards which present a well organized, easily used standard for providing technical information needed for developing information systems, components, and related processes. This volume states the Software Management and Assurance Program documentation standard for a product specification document and for data item descriptions. The framework can be applied to any NASA information system, software, hardware, operational procedures components, and related processes.

  11. Life cycle assessment of forecasting scenarios for urban water management: A first implementation of the WaLA model on Paris suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Guérin-Schneider, Laetitia; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    A framework and an associated modeling tool to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban water system, namely the WaLA model, has been recently developed. In this paper, the WaLA model is applied to a real case study: the urban water system of the Paris suburban area, in France. It aims to verify the capacity of the model to provide environmental insights to stakeholder's issues related to future trends influencing the system (e.g., evolution of water demand, increasing water scarcity) or policy responses (e.g., choices of water resources and technologies). This is achieved by evaluating a baseline scenario for 2012 and several forecasting scenarios for 2022 and 2050. The scenarios are designed through the modeling tool WaLA, which is implemented in Simulink/Matlab: it combines components representing the different technologies, users and resources of the UWS. The life cycle inventories of the technologies and users components include water quantity and quality changes, specific operation (electricity, chemicals) and infrastructures data (construction materials). The methods selected for the LCIA are midpoint ILCD, midpoint water deprivation impacts at the sub-river basin scale, and endpoint Impact 2002+. The results of the baseline scenario show that wastewater treatment plants have the highest impacts compared to drinking water production and distribution, as traditionally encountered in LCA of UWS. The results of the forecasting scenarios show important changes in water deprivation impacts due to water management choices or effects of climate change. They also enable to identify tradeoffs with other impact categories and to compare several scenarios. It suggests the capacity of the model to deliver information for decision making about future policies.

  12. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  13. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  14. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  15. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  16. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  17. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 2. Supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    This report presents the detailed results and assumptions for the January 1986 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis. The report is composed of three sections: Section A lists the costing assumptions which have been made about the principal waste management system parameters; Section B presents the yearly flows of waste material between system facilities for the 8 logistics cases which were studied; and Section C presents the annual total system costs for each of the 32 TSLCC cases by major cost category.

  18. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  19. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  20. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...... or to support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved...

  1. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  2. Optimization of green infrastructure network at semi-urbanized watersheds to manage stormwater volume, peak flow and life cycle cost: Case study of Dead Run watershed in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Haratmeh, B.; Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) has become widely known as a sustainable solution for stormwater management in urban environments. Despite more recognition and acknowledgment, researchers and practitioners lack clear and explicit guidelines on how GI practices should be implemented in urban settings. This study is developing a noisy-based multi-objective, multi-scaled genetic algorithm that determines optimal GI networks for environmental, economic and social objectives. The methodology accounts for uncertainty in modeling results and is designed to perform at sub-watershed as well as patch scale using two different simulation models, SWMM and RHESSys, in a Cloud-based implementation using a Web interface. As an initial case study, a semi-urbanized watershed— DeadRun 5— in Baltimore County, Maryland, is selected. The objective of the study is to minimize life cycle cost, maximize human preference for human well-being and the difference between pre-development hydrographs generated from current rainfall events and design storms, as well as those that result from proposed GI scenarios. Initial results for DeadRun5 watershed suggest that placing GI in the proximity of the watershed outlet optimizes life cycle cost, stormwater volume, and peak flow capture. The framework can easily present outcomes of GI design scenarios to both designers and local stakeholders, and future plans include receiving feedback from users on candidate designs, and interactively updating optimal GI network designs in a crowd-sourced design process. This approach can also be helpful in deriving design guidelines that better meet stakeholder needs.

  3. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  4. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  5. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content HIV Replication Cycle Antiretroviral Drug Discovery and Development Need Help? Call 1-800-448-0440 (1 p.m. to 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email The HIV Life Cycle Last Reviewed: August 18, 2017 Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune system by attacking and killing a type of white ...

  6. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  7. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information. [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs.

  8. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of several key players in the fungal mating pathway has provided further evidence for the existence of conjugation and meiosis in Pneumocystisorganisms. Dynamic follow-up of stage-to-stage transition as well as studies of stage-specific proteins and/or genes would provide a better understanding of the still hypothetical Pneumocystislife cycle. Although difficult to achieve, stage purification seems a reasonable way forward in the absence of efficient culture systems. This mini-review provides a comprehensive overview of the historical milestones leading to the current knowledge available on the Pneumocystis life cycle.

  9. Life Cycle of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  10. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  11. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  12. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhou

  13. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  14. 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.

  15. Life cycle of mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Rohal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted features of life cycle of mobile devices. The article highlighted a number of disadvantages associated with managing the life cycle of the product. Disadvantages include the orientation is not on the quality of mobile devices and their design, the obsolescence of digital products. The article drew attention to the need for process improvement life cycle management of mobile devices. For since this type of product is now the most popular among the population, consumers are interested, first of all, quality, and only then, look good.

  16. An Interactive Life Cycle Cost Forecasting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    other programs in question. It is easy to see that realized efficiency depends greatly on the quality of the cost estimation. Fisher, as well as others...8217);MCV:NG:-READKEV;.wri*teln(’ ’,moving); wri telr.; IF UPCASE ’M^VN.)=> THEN BEG:N. ’WIN03: z2; ."Ile not oddC- indoo ) do begin WRITE’wirdo- size

  17. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  18. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  19. Studies on the Life Cycle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of the honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii, was studied in mangrove area by monitoring the developmental .... honey, beeswax and other bee products (Malaka and Fasasi, 2005 .... decline of castes in the affected colony, thereby.

  20. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  1. Life Cycle Costing: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris

    2018-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to life cycle costing (LCC) and how it can be used to support decision-making. It can form the economic pillar in a full life cycle sustainability assessment, but often system delimitations differ depending on the goal and scope of the study. To provide a profound...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of system delimitation. Differences are explained and addressed, and an overview is given of the main cost categories to consider from different user perspectives. As inventory data is often sensitive in financial analyses, a list of relevant databases is provided...... understanding this chapter describes several approaches and terms, fundamental principles and different types of costs. A brief introduction is given to conventional LCC and societal LCC but the main focus is on environmental Life Cycle Costing (eLCC) as the LCC approach that is compatible with environmental...

  2. Life cycle and textiles recycling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Within the vision of development of European textile and clothing industry for 2020 from the standpoint of the European Technology Platform (ETP), the paper analyzes a segment which includes life cycle and recycling of textiles. It is the fact that the complexity of new textile and clothing product has caused the development of new-higher standards. For this reason in development of highly innovative products, today is included also quality assurance during his whole life cycle starting from ...

  3. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar ponds are the systems which collect solar energy and store it for long periods of time. For effective and efficient use of these systems in the country, concepts relating economy of solar ponds which generated hot water from the sun must be known besides their physical properties. Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes. In order to quantify the costs, resource consumption, and energy use, material and energy balances are performed in a cradle-to-grave manner on the operations required to transform raw materials into useful products. In this study; life cycle cost analysis of reflecting covered and non covered solar ponds are calculated for a volume of 3.5x3.5x2 cubic meters and presented. Also the energies extractable for these solar ponds in Goller Region climatic conditions are given.

  4. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  5. Optimization of data life cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  6. Life cycle of remanufactured engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle index of remanufactured engines was assessed by using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA). A remanufactured engine of a certain domestic brand was taken as researching object. Engine reproducing engineering was investigated from three aspects which were energy, material and environment. The application of LCA on remanufacturing engines was discussed in detail with a practical case. The results indicate that remanufackg CO2 , 6.09 kg CO, 1.01 kg NOx, 3. 985 kg SOx and 288. 725 kg solid waste. The remanufacturing of engines possesses great economic value and practicability.

  7. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  8. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  9. The product life cycle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    1995-01-01

    Efter et introduktionsafsnit følger afsnit II, hvor der gives en historisk analyse af Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) og Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). I afsnit III munder analysen ud i en vurdering af ligheder og forskelle mellem LCA analyser og EIA analyser, og en diskussion følger af...

  10. The product life cycle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    1995-01-01

    Efter et introduktionsafsnit følger afsnit II, hvor der gives en historisk analyse af Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) og Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). I afsnit III munder analysen ud i en vurdering af ligheder og forskelle mellem LCA analyser og EIA analyser, og en diskussion følger af...

  11. Environmental life-cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchain, Randolph E., Jr.; Gregory, Jeremy R.; Olivetti, Elsa A.

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about the planet's health call for a careful evaluation of the environmental impact of materials choices. Life-cycle assessment is a tool that can help identify sustainable materials pathways by considering the burdens of materials both during production and as a product.

  12. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  13. Sustainable Building Life Cycle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current building life cycle management system in the Russian Federation is a family of discrete subsystems that exist independently for different building life cycle stages. In this situation building reliability and sustainable functioning are out of the question. The implementation of a united information model (BIM-model intended to describe building entire life cycle will allow to raise the sustainability, but this will happen only if goals and concerns of all participants of the project process are properly coordinated. An important figure of process sustainability is the organizational and technological reliability (OTR that describes the possibility of a system to reach a goal. In case of building life cycle design, the economical efficiency of a building can be considered as the goal. The required technical, ecological, organizational, and other parameters form a complex of constraints that determine the area of allowable values for building functioning. In its broad meaning, OTR may be understood as the probability of receiving an economical effect based on the value of organizational and economical reliability (OER.

  14. 39 CFR 3050.26 - Documentation of demand elasticities and volume forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service shall provide econometric estimates of demand elasticity for all postal products accompanied by the underlying econometric models and the input data sets used; and a volume forecast for the current fiscal year, and the underlying volume forecasting model....

  15. The study of the life cycle of technology assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-Zhi; HUANG Xun-jiang

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of technology is one of the most important indexes to weigh up the risk of the investment to neo-tech. There are so many uncertainties because it is conditioned by a lot of factors, we can not make a rational forecasting by traditional assessment method. So this paper gives a conprehensive consideration to the factors that influence production and makes some modification to production function, and establishes the life cycle of technology assessmet model by the method of fuzzy mathematics. So it quantifies the risk of investment. We can take it as one foundational index for the decision making of the investment.

  16. Life cycle assessment of turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    This report forms part of the final reporting of the project 'LCA and turbines, which has been carried out as a cooperation between Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Tech-wise A/S on behalf of Elsam A/S. The goal of the project was to create a life cycle model for a big Vestas offshore turbine. Based on the offshore model an analysis has been prepared and this analysis will show the most significant environmental impacts a turbine will be subject to during its life cycle. Furthermore we have prepared a recommendation on how an improvement strategy on a selected area can be drafted. Finally, a preliminary environmental declaration of contents will be prepared for the turbine in question and 1 kWh generated from here. (BA)

  17. Life cycle management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Pattis, Anna

    The integration of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) into business operations poses great challenges, as it requires a wider range of environmental responsibility often extending beyond a company's immediate control. Simultaneously, it offers many opportunities...

  18. Model for equipment life-cycle cost forecasting and its application in assets management in the oil industry; Modelo para previsao de custo de ciclo de vida de equipamentos e sua aplicacao na gestao de ativos na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesca, Igor Gimenes; Elias Junior, Antonio; Carvalho, Marcos Henrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Lima, Gabriel Alves da Costa [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the area of oil exploration and production (E and P), knowing the behavior of the equipment in their life cycles becomes even more important than in other industries due to: 1) high cost and 2) severity in terms of requirements safety. The purchase of equipment should not be decided only at the initial cost, but through the life cycle cost (LCC). This paper presents a study to find the cost over the life cycle of a group of equipment used in the petroleum industry by methods of dynamic programming, as well as a discussion on how to use such information in assets management in order to obtain better financial indicators. The main causes of variation in the useful economic life of equipment is the resale value and maintenance costs. Thus, it is possible to avoid high expenditure on maintenance costs and avoid an excessive depreciation of the equipment. So it is possible to conclude that the more intense the depreciation of value, the greater the useful economic life. For maintenance costs, the more intense are the costs, the lower the useful economic life. (author)

  19. Politics and the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Donald R

    2006-06-30

    The study of politics and the life cycle began with a rather single-minded focus on childhood and the family-on the idea, as Tocqueville famously put it, that the entire person could be "seen in the cradle of the child." Politics does begin in childhood, and parents do influence their offspring, but change takes place over the entire span of life. I take up the early emergence of partisanship and essentialism, the formation of generations, politically consequential transitions in adulthood, and the rising of politics and its final decline.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjunnesson, Jeannette

    2005-09-15

    This is an environmental study on concrete that follows the standard protocol of life cycle assessment (LCA). The study is done for two types of concrete, ordinary and frost-resistant concrete, and has an extra focus on the superplasticizers used as admixtures. The utilization phase is not included in this study since the type of construction for which the concrete is used is not defined and the concrete is assumed to be inert during this phase. The results show that it is the production of the raw material and the transports involved in the life cycle of concrete that are the main contributors to the total environmental load. The one single step in the raw material production that has the highest impact is the production of cement. Within the transportation operations the transportation of concrete is the largest contributor, followed by the transportation of the cement. The environmental impact of frost-resistant concrete is between 24-41 % higher than that of ordinary concrete due to its higher content of cement. Superplasticizers contribute with approximately 0.4-10.4 % of the total environmental impact of concrete, the least to the global warming potential (GWP) and the most to the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP). Also the toxicity of the superplasticizers is investigated and the conclusion is that the low amount of leakage of superplasticizers from concrete leads to a low risk for the environment and for humans.

  1. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  2. Social Life Cycle Assessment Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqun Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To promote the development of Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA, we conducted a comprehensive review of recently developed frameworks, methods, and characterization models for impact assessment for future method developers and SLCA practitioners. Two previous reviews served as our foundations for this review. We updated the review by including a comprehensive list of recently-developed SLCA frameworks, methods and characterization models. While a brief discussion from goal, data, and indicator perspectives is provided in Sections 2 to 4 for different frameworks/methods, the focus of this review is Section 5 where discussion on characterization models for impact assessment of different methods is provided. The characterization models are categorized into two types following the UNEP/SETAC guidelines: type I models without impact pathways and type II models with impact pathways. Different from methods incorporating type I/II characterization models, another LCA modeling approach, Life Cycle Attribute Assessment (LCAA, is also discussed in this review. We concluded that methods incorporating either type I or type II models have limitations. For type I models, the challenge lies in the systematic identification of relevant stakeholders and materiality issues; while for type II models, identification of impact pathways that most closely and accurately represent the real-world causal relationships is the key. LCAA may avoid these problems, but the ultimate questions differ from those asked by the methods using type I and II models.

  3. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  4. Reverse logistics network design: a holistic life cycle approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daaboul, Joanna; Le Duigou, Julien; Penciuc, Diana; Eynard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    .... This article addresses the issue of designing the reverse logistics network assuring the needed volume of recycled aluminum for the production of L-shaped front lower control arms for personal cars. It details the developed method and demonstrator for designing a reverse logistics network based on a life cycle assessment.

  5. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  6. Effective risk management SOGO life cycle management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    After new or upgrade projects the offshore installation gets maintenance or support through the life cycle management organization at Siemens. Small to medium modification projects are executed by the life cycle management. Risk assessment on these projects show different risks when it comes to estimation and pricing of projects, planning and executing, resource management, competence and knowledge.

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  8. General framework for bridge life cycle design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhai MA; Airong CHEN; Jun HE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environ-mental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

  9. Effective risk management SOGO life cycle management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    After new or upgrade projects the offshore installation gets maintenance or support through the life cycle management organization at Siemens. Small to medium modification projects are executed by the life cycle management. Risk assessment on these projects show different risks when it comes to estimation and pricing of projects, planning and executing, resource management, competence and knowledge.

  10. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  12. Life-cycle assessment of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Semiconductors presents the first and thus far only available transparent and complete life cycle assessment of semiconductor devices. A lack of reliable semiconductor LCA data has been a major challenge to evaluation of the potential environmental benefits of information technologies (IT). The analysis and results presented in this book will allow a higher degree of confidence and certainty in decisions concerning the use of IT in efforts to reduce climate change and other environmental effects. Coverage includes but is not limited to semiconductor manufacturing trends by product type and geography, unique coverage of life-cycle assessment, with a focus on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of energy and global warming missions for CMOS logic devices, life cycle assessment of flash memory and life cycle assessment of DRAM. The information and conclusions discussed here will be highly relevant and useful to individuals and institutions. The book also: Provides a detailed, complete a...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment for Chemical Agent Resistant Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The equipment uses a patented turbine technology to provide high volume low pressure air instead of the traditional method of using normal compressed...Engineer at Battelle (previously employed by Monsanto ), August 10. Nordic Council. 1992. Product Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Methodology...February, 21 pp. Woody, G. 1995. Telephone conversation between Gene Woody, Supervisor of CARC painting operations Ft. Campbell and Kevin Taylor

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  15. Trusted Computing Exemplar: Life Cycle Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Informal “An informal specification is written as prose in natural language...(e.g., Dutch, English, French, German). An informal specification is not...informal) prose . The restricted syntax language may be a natural language with restricted sentence structure and keywords with special meaning, or it may...accompanied by supporting explanatory (informal) prose .” [4] TCX: Life Cycle Management Plan NPS-CAG-14-002 4 2 Life Cycle Phases and Activities

  16. A case study by life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  17. Factors influencing the difference between forecasted and actual drug sales volumes under the price-volume agreement in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Euna; Kim, Jini; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed factors contributing to increases in the actual sales volumes relative to forecasted volumes of drugs under price-volume agreement (PVA) policy in South Korea. Sales volumes of newly listed drugs on the national formulary are monitored under PVA policy. When actual sales volume exceeds the pre-agreed forecasted volume by 30% or more, the drug is subject to price-reduction. Logistic regression assessed the factors related to whether drugs were the PVA price-reduction drugs. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log-link assessed the factors influencing the increase in actual volumes compared to forecasted volume in the PVA price-reduction drugs. Of 186 PVA monitored drugs, 34.9% were price-reduction drugs. Drugs marketed by pharmaceutical companies with previous-occupation in the therapeutic markets were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than drugs marketed by firms with no previous-occupation. Drugs of multinational pharmaceutical companies were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than those of domestic companies. Having more alternative existing drugs was significantly associated with higher odds of being PVA price-reduction drugs. Among the PVA price-reduction drugs, the increasing rate of actual volume compared to forecasted volume was significantly higher in drugs with clinical usefulness. By focusing the negotiation efforts on those target drugs, PVA policy can be administered more efficiently with the improved predictability of the drug sales volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Data life cycle: a perspective from the Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo César Gonçalves Sant’Ana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Access and use of data as a key factor has been extended to several areas of knowledge of today's society. It’s necessary to develop a new perspective that presents phases and factors involved in these processes, providing an initial analysis structure, allowing the efforts, skills and actions organization related to the data life cycle. Purpose: This article is a proposal for a new look at the data life cycle, that assumes, as a central element, the data itself, supporting itself on the concepts and contributions that Information Science can provide, without giving up the reflections on the role of other key areas such as Computer Science. Methodology: The methodological procedures consisted of bibliographic research and content analysis to describe the phases and factors related to the Data Life Cycle, developing reflections and considerations from context already consolidated in the development of systems that can corroborate the idea of centrality of data. Results: The results describe the phases of: collect, storage, recovery and discard, permeated by transverse factors: privacy, integration, quality, copyright, dissemination and preservation, composing a Data Life Cycle. Conclusions: The current context of the availability of large volumes of data, with great variety and at speeds that provide access in real time, setting the so-called Big Data that requires new concerns about access and use processes of data. The Information Science may offer a new approach, now centered in the data, and contribute to the optimization of Data Life Cycle as a whole, extending bridges between users and the data they need.

  19. An integrated life cycle inventory for demolition processes in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Hu, Mingming; van Roekel, Eric

    2012-01-01

    According to the Life Cycle Assessment in Building and Construction: State-of-the-Art Report (2003), the dismantling and demolition stage of the building life cycle is only sometimes included in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) when doing Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). The reason that it is less...... inventoried in a traditional LCA maybe because this stage is expected to have a negligible environmental impact comparing to other stages in the life cycle of the buildings. When doing a life cycle sustainability assessment considering not only environmental but also economic and social impacts, the impacts...... of the labor-intensive dismantling and demolition stage may not be possible to disregard anymore, due to the related process costs, health and safety of workers and the influence on the quality of the demolition materials, determining their suitability for high grade recycling. Currently, LCIs of dismantling...

  20. Analysis and forecast of electrical distribution system materials. Final report. Volume III. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, C G

    1976-08-23

    These appendixes are referenced in Volume II of this report. They contain the detailed electrical distribution equipment requirements and input material requirements forecasts. Forecasts are given for three electric energy usage scenarios. Also included are data on worldwide reserves and demand for 30 raw materials required for the manufacture of electrical distribution equipment.

  1. Xinjiang Dabancheng Project Forecasts Copper Mine Prospecting Metal Volume to Reach Medium Size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Based on forecast for current engineering workload,controlled copper metal volume was320,000 tonnes,and zinc metal volume was 220,000 tonnes,which respectively can reach medium sized deposit size,meanwhile associated selenium and silver resource volumes respectively reached 150 plus tonnes;

  2. A Hybrid Fresh Apple Export Volume Forecasting Model Based on Time Series and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Export volume forecasting of fresh fruits is a complex task due to the large number of factors affecting the demand. In order to guide the fruit growers’ sales, decreasing the cultivating cost and increasing their incomes, a hybrid fresh apple export volume forecasting model is proposed. Using the actual data of fresh apple export volume, the Seasonal Decomposition (SD model of time series and Radial Basis Function (RBF model of artificial neural network are built. The predictive results are compared among the three forecasting model based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE. The result indicates that the proposed combined forecasting model is effective because it can improve the prediction accuracy of fresh apple export volumes.

  3. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the life...... cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize...

  5. The Life Cycle of Engineered Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gálvez, David; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vílchez, Alejandro; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The first years in the twenty-first century have meant the inclusion of nanotechnology in most industrial sectors, from very specific sensors to construction materials. The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential risks for workers, consumers and the environment. In a comprehensive risk assessment or life cycle assessment, a life cycle schema is the starting point necessary to build up the exposure scenarios and study the processes and mechanisms driving to safety concerns. This book chapter describes the processes that usually occur at all the stages of the life cycle of the nano-enabled product, from the nanomaterial synthesis to the end-of-life of the products. Furthermore, release studies reported in literature related to these processes are briefly discussed.

  6. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  7. Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnveden, Göran; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Ekvall, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess the environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product’s life cycle, i.e., from raw material acquisition, via production and use phases, to waste management. The methodological development in LCA has been strong, and LCA is broadly applied...... on Life Cycle Impact Assessment we discuss the characteristics of the modelling as well as some recent developments for specific impact categories and weighting. In relation to the Interpretation the focus is on uncertainty analysis. Finally, we discuss recent developments in relation to some...... especially discuss the distinction between attributional and consequential LCA. For the Inventory Analysis, this distinction is relevant when discussing system boundaries, data collection, and allocation. Also highlighted are developments concerning databases and Input–Output and hybrid LCA. In the sections...

  8. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    The present report results as part of a ph.d. project aiming at developing general rules for LCA of basic chemicals. Part 1 reviews the state of the art framework for life-cycle assessment and part 2 relates that framework to the chemical industry and gives some proposals for LCAs of basic...... chemicals. A survey of the use of LCA in the European chemical industry has been conducted and is reported in appendix 1. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool/process to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a system (most often a product) through its whole life cycle by collecting input...... and output data (together interventions) from all unit processes in the system and assessing the potential environmental impact of these interventions. The LCA framework comprise four phases which are iteratively interlinked: · Goal and scope definition · Inventory · Impact assessment · Interpretation...

  9. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  10. Asset Allocation Over the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We study the welfare effect of tax-optimizing portfolio decisions in a life cycle model with unspanned labor income and realization-based capital gain taxation. For realistic parameterizations of our model, certainty equivalent welfare gains from fully tax-optimized portfolio decisions are less...... with strong bequest motives face substantial welfare costs when not tax-optimizing their portfolio decisions towards the end of the life cycle....... than 2% of present financial wealth and lifetime income compared to a heuristic portfolio policy ignoring the taxation of profits (capital gains, interest and dividend payments). Compared to a heuristic portfolio policy that only ignores the realization-based feature of capital gain taxation...

  11. An Integrated Framework for Life Cycle Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Herrmann, Christoph; Kara, Sami

    2017-01-01

    has broadened, and as a result, LCE has evolved in parallel with other disciplines with similar aims. Currently, in addition to LCE, there exist a number of concepts such as Industrial Ecology, Cleaner Production, Life Cycle Management (LCM), Industrial Symbiosis, and Circular Economy. As a result......Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) was introduced as a concept more than 24 years ago in order to address emerging concerns about environmental sustainability in engineering. A number of methods and tools have been introduced to operationalise the LCE concept, but since then, the scope of sustainability...

  12. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  13. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  14. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  15. Phytochemicals and regulation of the adipocyte life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2008-11-01

    Natural products have potential for inducing apoptosis, inhibiting adipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis in adipocytes. The objective of this review is to discuss the adipocyte life cycle and various dietary bioactives that target different stages of adipocyte life cycle. Different stages of adipocyte development include preadipocytes, maturing preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Various dietary bioactives like genistein, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), docosahexaenoic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, resveratrol and ajoene affect adipocytes during specific stages of development, resulting in either inhibition of adipogenesis or induction of apoptosis. Although numerous molecular targets that can be used for both treatment and prevention of obesity have been identified, targeted monotherapy has resulted in lack of success. Thus, targeting several signal transduction pathways simultaneously with multiple natural products to achieve additive or synergistic effects might be an appropriate approach to address obesity. We have previously reported two such combinations, namely, ajoene+CLA and vitamin D+genistein. CLA enhanced ajoene-induced apoptosis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by synergistically increasing the expression of several proapoptotic factors. Similarly, genistein potentiated vitamin D's inhibition of adipogenesis and induction of apoptosis in maturing preadipocytes by an enhanced expression of VDR (vitamin D receptor) protein. These two examples indicate that combination therapy employing compounds that target different stages of the adipocyte life cycle might prove beneficial for decreasing adipose tissue volume by inducing apoptosis or by inhibiting adipogenesis or both.

  16. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost methodology...

  17. Evaluation of bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hashino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble prediction systems are used operationally to make probabilistic streamflow forecasts for seasonal time scales. However, hydrological models used for ensemble streamflow prediction often have simulation biases that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness of the forecasts. This study evaluates three bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts. All three adjust the ensemble traces using a transformation derived with simulated and observed flows from a historical simulation. The quality of probabilistic forecasts issued when using the three bias-correction methods is evaluated using a distributions-oriented verification approach. Comparisons are made of retrospective forecasts of monthly flow volumes for a north-central United States basin (Des Moines River, Iowa, issued sequentially for each month over a 48-year record. The results show that all three bias-correction methods significantly improve forecast quality by eliminating unconditional biases and enhancing the potential skill. Still, subtle differences in the attributes of the bias-corrected forecasts have important implications for their use in operational decision-making. Diagnostic verification distinguishes these attributes in a context meaningful for decision-making, providing criteria to choose among bias-correction methods with comparable skill.

  18. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  19. Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    International Center for Scholars Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) consumer products inventory, 16 is found in wound dressings, socks, and soap...acceptance authority. 8. Track hazards, their closures , and residual mishap risk throughout the system life cycle. When properly applied, the...Risks of Nanomaterials Report consumption, land use, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation

  20. Estimating the Value Added Product Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gedikoglu, Haluk; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.; Randle, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzes factors affecting product and profit life-cycles for new value added products. The methodology used shows how sales and profits evolve and how exogenous factors affecting sales and profits. Results indicate that producers can increase the level of sales and profits over time through initial marketing efforts.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment in Spatial Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten; Pizzol, Massimo; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    2015-01-01

    the spatial boundaries of a plan to further focus on global, indirect and cumulative impacts. These impacts are referred to as “systemic impacts”. This study proposes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) procedure which can be adopted in SEAs of various types of planning. The procedure represents a first step...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...

  3. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  4. Women's Place in Man's Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Carol

    1979-01-01

    Drawing on literary and psychological sources, the author documents how theories of the life cycle, by taking men as models, have failed to account for the experience of women. She argues that this bias has promoted a concern with autonomy and achievement at the expense of attachment and intimacy. (CT)

  5. The life cycle of social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using weekly data on the interest for 17 social media via Google trends and using quarterly data on actual users for 3 social media, it is reported in this letter that the life cycles of social media mimic those of durable consumer goods. On average, the popularity of

  6. Product Life Cycle - Quality Management Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Majstorovic, Vidosav D.

    2004-01-01

    The strategic goal of our country is European and world integration. Within this context the management of sustainable development considered from the aspect of product’s life cycle and its quality management represents a real challenge for researchers, economy and educational system. The aim...

  7. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  8. Life cycle characteristics of SME’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.; Montfort, van K.

    2006-01-01

    Our study of professional services firms clearly revealed that firms change over the course of their life cycles. During the first three stages, diversification in sales, the differentiation in labor force, and the level of labor productivity increase. In the last stage, diversification in sales, th

  9. Semantic catalogs for life cycle assessment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczenski, Brandon; Davis, Christopher B.; Rivela, Beatriz; Janowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a highly interdisciplinary field that requires knowledge from different domains to be gathered and interpreted together. Although there are relatively few major data sources for LCA, the data themselves are presented with highly heterogeneous formats, interfaces, and

  10. Semantic catalogs for life cycle assessment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczenski, Brandon; Davis, Christopher B.; Rivela, Beatriz; Janowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a highly interdisciplinary field that requires knowledge from different domains to be gathered and interpreted together. Although there are relatively few major data sources for LCA, the data themselves are presented with highly heterogeneous formats, interfaces, and d

  11. Product Life Cycle - Quality Management Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Majstorovic, Vidosav D.

    2004-01-01

    The strategic goal of our country is European and world integration. Within this context the management of sustainable development considered from the aspect of product’s life cycle and its quality management represents a real challenge for researchers, economy and educational system. The aim...

  12. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 2005.0 VOLUME 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2005-08-17

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: (1) an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; (2) multi-level and waste class-specific estimates; (3) background information on waste sources; and (4) comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. The focus of this report is low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and transuranic waste, both non-mixed and mixed (TRU(M)). Some details on hazardous waste are also provided, however, this information is not considered comprehensive. This report includes data requested in December, 2004 with updates through March 31,2005. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY2005 through the end of each program's life cycle and are an update of the previous FY2004.1 data version.

  13. [Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wang; Liao, Cuiping; Li, Li; Zhao, Daiqing

    2011-03-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized tool currently used to assess environmental loads of products and processes. The life cycle analysis, as a part of LCA, is a useful and powerful methodology for studying life cycle energy efficiency and life cycle GHG emission. To quantitatively explain the potential of energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of corn stover-based ethanol, we analyzed life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of corn stover-based ethanol by the method of life cycle analysis. The processes are dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The functional unit was defined as 1 km distance driven by the vehicle. Results indicated: compared with gasoline, the corn stover-based E100 (100% ethanol) and E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) could reduce life cycle fossil energy consumption by 79.63% and 6.25% respectively, as well as GHG emissions by 53.98% and 6.69%; the fossil energy consumed by biomass stage was 68.3% of total fossil energy input, N-fertilizer and diesel were the main factors which contributed 45.78% and 33.26% to biomass stage; electricity production process contributed 42.06% to the net GHG emissions, the improvement of technology might reduce emissions markedly.

  14. Adaptive spline autoregression threshold method in forecasting Mitsubishi car sales volume at PT Srikandi Diamond Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, D.; Hartini, E.; Permana, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sale and purchase of the growing competition between companies in Indonesian, make every company should have a proper planning in order to win the competition with other companies. One of the things that can be done to design the plan is to make car sales forecast for the next few periods, it’s required that the amount of inventory of cars that will be sold in proportion to the number of cars needed. While to get the correct forecasting, on of the methods that can be used is the method of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR). Therefore, this time the discussion will focus on the use of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) method in forecasting the volume of car sales in PT.Srikandi Diamond Motors using time series data.In the discussion of this research, forecasting using the method of forecasting value Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) produce approximately correct.

  15. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Pizzol, Massimo; Achten, Wouter M J

    2016-01-01

    and economic burden in future construction projects. Methods The study consists of the life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in three building types: traditional, semi-modern and modern. The life cycle stages under analysis include raw material acquisition, manufacturing, construction, use......, a breakdown of the building components shows that the roof and wall of the building are the largest contributors to the production-related environmental impact. Conclusions The findings suggest that the main improvement opportunities in the lodging sector lie in the reduction of impacts on the use stage......Purpose The main aim of the study is to assess the environmental and economic impacts of the lodging sector located in the Himalayan region of Nepal, from a life cycle perspective. The assessment should support decision making in technology and material selection for minimal environmental...

  17. Life cycle assessment of mobile phone housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-xin; WANG Ru-song; FU Hao; LIU Jing-ru

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of the mobile phone housing in Motorola(China) Electronics Ltd. was carried out, in which materials flows and environmental emissions based on a basic production scheme were analyzed and assessed. In the manufacturing stage, such primary processes as polycarbonate molding and surface painting are included, whereas different surface finishing technologies like normal painting, electroplate, IMD and VDM etc. were assessed. The results showed that housing decoration plays a significant role within the housing life cycle. The most significant environmental impact from housing production is the photochemical ozone formation potential.Environmental impacts of different decoration techniques varied widely, for example, the electroplating technique is more environmentally friendly than VDM. VDM consumes much more energy and raw material. In addition, the results of two altemative scenarios of dematerialization showed that material flow analysis and assessment is very important and valuable in selecting an environmentally friendly process.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... the emissions, how should they be defined and classified and what should be measured? LCA have many of these issues in common with RA. There is a need to understand which properties of nanomaterials are crucial for the assessment of their potential transformation and fate as well as their ability to cause...... adverse effects on target organisms or systems. If we want to be able to assess toxic impacts both in LCA and in RA these issues need to be addressed by the RA community and the LCA community must follow closely the progress made....

  19. Life cycle management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Pattis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) into business operations poses great challenges, as it requires a wider range of environmental responsibility often extending beyond a company's immediate control. Simultaneously, it offers many opportunities such as the...... in the innovation and design phases. This comparative analysis explores the various approaches and challenges two companies are currently facing in their attempts to integrate LCT into their core product development processes....... such as the reduction of a product's or industry’s environmental impacts, an increase in process efficiency or the interconnectedness within the organization itself or across a supply chain. Product development has been an area where application of LCM has been discussed most, since most product impacts are determined...

  20. Life cycle assessment of waste paper management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing oil global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing a spec...... of scientific discussion on how to best address system analysis of recycling, for paper and other recyclable materials.......The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing oil global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing...... a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate Was Studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved...

  1. A Community Membership Life Cycle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenbichler, Andreas C

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 is transforming the internet: Information consumers become information producers and consumers at the same time. In virtual places like Facebook, Youtube, discussion boards and weblogs diversificated topics, groups and issues are propagated and discussed. Today an internet user is a member of lots of communities at different virtual places. "Real life" group membership and group behavior has been analyzed in science intensively in the last decades. Most interestingly, to our knowledge, user roles and behavior have not been adapted to the modern internet. In this work, we give a short overview of traditional community roles. We adapt those models and apply them to virtual online communities. We suggest a community membership life cycle model describing roles a user can take during his membership in a community. Our model is systematic and generic; it can be adapted to concrete communities in the web. The knowledge of a community's life cycle allows influencing the group structure: Stage transitions can...

  2. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    derived from products and system, and calculate resource consumptions. However, the complexity of LCA poses restrictions to its use in current product and system development given the need for a reduction in product development cycle time which is needed to meet the increasing competitive pressures....... The paper reviews the current environmental evaluation practices with respect to product life cycles. As a number of deficiencies in LCA are identified, strategies are presented to provide a solution to many of the deficiencies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance...... measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....

  3. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila

    2008-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... stage in the product life cycle. Another very important difference among the proposals is their position towards the use of generic data. Several of the proposals argue that social impacts are connected to the conduct of the company leading to the conclusion that each individual company in the product...... and formulation of indicators. The indicators address a wide variety of issues; some approaches focus on impacts created in the very close proximity of the processes included in the product system, whereas others focus on the more remote societal consequences. Only very little focus has been given to the use...

  4. Life Cycle Thinking in Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life...... cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which...... reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly...

  5. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    derived from products and system, and calculate resource consumptions. However, the complexity of LCA poses restrictions to its use in current product and system development given the need for a reduction in product development cycle time which is needed to meet the increasing competitive pressures...... and the rapid changes in markets for many products. The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems...... of the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes...

  6. Life-cycle design for sustainable architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Thiébat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in architecture should involve environmental and social aspects and also economic aspects. However, in a design process budget issues usually outweigh ecological aspects. How can we then drive clients and builders to put more socially responsible buildings on the market that do not exceed the fixed budget but are environmentally friendly? This paper propose an economic and environmental assessment tool to aid private or public building designers and owners to find the global sustainability value of a green building within a life cycle perspective. Sustainable life cycle tools for buildings design and construction help to achieve successfully integrated architecture. The research here presented proposes a new point of view of the “time-cost-quality triangle” of Project Management, by introducing three further aspects: environment, society and aesthetics.

  7. Learning, diffusion and the industry life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wang

    2006-01-01

    An industry typically experiences initial mass entry and later shakeout of producers over its life cycle. It can be explained as a competitive equilibrium outcome driven by the dynamic interaction between technology progress and demand diffusion. When a new product is introduced, high-income consumers tend to adopt it first. Technology then improves with cumulative output and demand growth generates S-shaped diffusion as the product penetrates lower-income groups. Eventually fewer new adopter...

  8. Life Cycles of Ad Hoc Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    solving development raises some final questions. If groups are normally preoccupied with different issues at different times, if their capabilities change...context, and group across the group’s life cycle? If such modifications normally occur, there could be substantial implications, both for our theoretical...This, and Diane’s impatient question "What are we accomplishing then?" suggest the Iroup’s need to stop trying to coax the attractive first solucion

  9. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  10. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, T. P.; Linkov, I.

    Despite concerns regarding environmental fate and toxicology, engineered nanostructured material manufacturing is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. In particular, the unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have made them attractive in many areas, including high-tech power applications such as experimental batteries, fuel cells or electrical wiring. The intensity of research interest in SWCNT has raised questions regarding the life cycle environmental impact of nanotechnologies, including assessment of: worker and consumer safety, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicological risks associated with production or product emissions and the disposition of nanoproducts at end of life. However, development of appropriate nanotechnology assessment tools has lagged progress in the nanotechnologies themselves. In particular, current approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) — originally developed for application in mature manufacturing industries such as automobiles and chemicals — suffer from several shortcomings that make applicability to nanotechnologies problematic. Among these are uncertainties related to the variability of material properties, toxicity and risk, technology performance in the use phase, nanomaterial degradation and change during the product life cycle and the impact assessment stage of LCA. This chapter expounds upon the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials in general, specifies sources of uncertainty and variability in LCA of SWCNT for use in electric and hybrid vehicle batteries and makes recommendations for modeling and decision-making using LCA in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework under conditions of high uncertainty.1

  11. Generalizing Agile Software Development Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhalerao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, various agile methods have been introduced and used by software industry. It has been observed that many practitioners are using hybrid of agile methods and traditional methods. The knowledge of agile software development process about the theoretical grounds, applicability in large development settings and connections to establish software engineering disciplines remain mostly in dark. It has been reported that it is difficult for average manager to implement agile method in the organization. Further, every agile method has its own development cycle that brings technological, managerial and environmental changes in organization. A proper roadmap of agile software development in the form of agile software development life cycle can be developed to address the aforesaid issues of agile software development process. Thus, there is strong need of agile software development life cycle that clearly defines the phases included in any agile method and also describes the artifacts of each phase. This generalization of agile software development life cycle provides the guideline for average developers about usability, suitability, applicability of agile methods.

  12. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  13. The life cycle of social and economic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Sardak

    2016-03-01

    descriptive terms for the same constituent elements of repeated changes (period, stage, phase, wave, cycle; the uncertainty of the number of repeated changes constituent elements; the absence of an identification mechanism of the exact time of changes in the constituent elements of repeated changes; the surface description of out-of-system period of the subjects activity («before-system» period of creation and «after-system» period of liquidation; attaching more importance to primary and less importance to ultimate component elements of the repeated changes; the lack of reliable mechanism for predicting and forecasting the dynamics of constituent components of repeated changes. It is noted that all social and economic systems are developed within repeated changes and they have the same attributes of cyclicity: the fluctuation of indicators is marked that characterize the condition of the subject; the presence of system (from creation to liquidation and out-of-system (creation – «design» and liquidation – «disposal» periods are noted; the subjects are created by the actions of other subjects (that is, subjects do not arise «out of nowhere», but are the result of actions of other subjects – «constructors»; after cessation of subjects functioning, their resources are used by other subjects (that is, the subjects do not disappear «nowhere», and they are transformed into the resources of other subjects – «recovery»; a unidirectional life cycle from «birth» to «death» is observed in the subjects; the subjects do not have to undergo the whole life cycle (each time might be the last; the subjects display similar changes of the indicators during their activity; ascending, peak and descending fluctuations of indicators are observed in the subjects; minor fluctuations occur in the constituent elements; the subjects have individual nature of indicator fluctuations and duration of activity. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The scientific

  14. Development and Actuality of Life Cycle Cost Technique in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; JIN Jia-shan; LUO Yun; WU Yi-liang

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle cost technique is a powerful tool to make a scientific decision and a useful method of advancing the continuable development of the society. In this paper, development course, application actuality and up-to-date research trends of life cycle cost technique in China are summarized. Some suggestions are given on how to general- ize the application of life cycle cost technique which are used as the reference to study life cycle cost technique.

  15. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  16. Battery life-cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.

    1988-07-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) estimates have been prepared for 17 combinations of battery or fuel-cell technologies and load-levelling, stand-alone power system, or electric vehicle applications. In addition, LCCs for gas-fired turbine, compressed-air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, and internal combustion engine technologies were estimated for comparative purposes. The objectives in preparing the estimates were to determine the relative economics among alternative battery systems and to compare battery systems economics with competing energy technologies.

  17. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares available options for the aquatic ecotoxicological effect factor component in life cycle assessment (LCA). The effect factor is expressed here as the change in risk per unit change in cumulative exposure, ƒ´Effect/ƒ´Exposure. The comparison is restricted to approaches linked...... mixtures (ms), ƒ´C is the change in cumulative exposure concentration of the chemical of interest, and HC50 is the median, chronic Hazardous Concentration for regional, multiple species systems. The resultant aquatic effect factors are risk-based and can be readily estimated for many chemicals using...

  18. Publication Life Cycle at CERN Document Server

    CERN Multimedia

    Witowski, Sebastian; Costa, Flavio; Gabancho, Esteban; Marian, Ludmila; Tzovanakis, Harris

    2017-01-01

    This presentation guides listeners through all the stages of publication life cycle at CERN Document Server, from the ingestion using one of the various tools, through curation and processing, until the data is ready to be exported to other systems. It describes different tools that we are using to curate the incoming publications as well as to further improve the existing data on CDS. The second part of the talk goes through various challenges we have faced in the past and how we are going to overcome them in the new version of CDS.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  20. Geothermal life cycle assessment - part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, E. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A set of key issues pertaining to the environmental performance of geothermal electric power have been addressed. They include: 1) greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from geothermal facilities, 2) the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a geofluid for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 3) quantifying the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle of geothermal power, and finally 4) criteria pollutant emissions for geothermal and other electric power generation. A GHG emission rate (g/kWh) distribution as function of cumulative running capacity for California has been developed based on California and U. S. government data. The distribution is similar to a global distribution for compared geothermal technologies. A model has been developed to estimate life cycle energy of and CO2 emissions from a coupled pair of coal and EGS plants, the latter of which is powered by scCO2 captured from coal plant side. Depending on the CO2 capture rate on the coal side and the CO2 consumption rate on the EGS side, significant reductions in GHG emissions were computed when the combined system is compared to its conventional coal counterpart. In effect, EGS CO2 consumption acts as a sequestration mechanism for the coal plant. The effects CO2 emissions from the coupled system, prompt on the coal side and reservoir leakage on the EGS side, were considered as well as the subsequent decline of these emissions after entering the atmosphere over a time frame of 100 years. A model was also developed to provide better estimates of the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle performance of geothermal power production. The new estimates increase the overall life cycle metrics for the geothermal systems over those previously estimated. Finally, the GREET model has been updated to include the most recent criteria pollutant emissions for a range of renewable (including geothermal) and other power

  1. Life cycle and sustainability of abrasive tools

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on abrasive tools for grinding, polishing, honing, and lapping operations. The book describes the life cycle of abrasive tools from raw material processing of abrasive grits and bonding, manufacturing of monolithic or multi-layered tools, tool use to tool end-of-life. Moreover, this work highlights sustainability challenges including economic, environmental, social and technological aspects. The target audience primarily comprises research and industry experts in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  2. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    This report provides a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the treatment of shredder residue (SR) in Denmark. The LCA was conducted for the Environmental Protection Agency by DTU Environment in the period March-July 2014, as part of a service agreement between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...... wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  3. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... scope of the product category into which to classify the short life cycle merchandise identified by the...

  4. Oil Points - Life Cycle Evaluations without the Data Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Environmental aspects of products in their whole life cycle are of increasing importance in industry [1]. Therefore, several methods and tools for environmental life cycle evaluation have been developed during the last years. Formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the state-of-the-art in environment...

  5. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining life cycle costing and life cycle assessment for an analysis of a new residential district energy system design

    OpenAIRE

    Ristimäki, Miro; Säynäjoki, Antti; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Due to the growing threat of climate change, we are challenged to find improved assessment practises to recognize solutions for sustainable urban development. The focus of the study is on the life cycle design of a district energy system for a new residential development in Finland. This study analyses LCC (life cycle costs) and carbon emissions (LCA (life cycle assessment)), i.e., the “viability” of different energy systems through a methodological life cycle framework. By combining LCC and ...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Mieke; Van den Heede, Philip; Van Driessche, Isabel; De Belie, Nele

    2014-08-21

    Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth's raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  8. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke De Schepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  10. Developing Asset Life Cycle Management capabilities through the implementation of Asset Life Cycle Plans – an Action Research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Richard; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan

    2017-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management is a strategic approach to managing physical assets over their complete life cycle. However, the literature and the recent ISO 55,000 standard do not offer guidance as to how to develop such an approach. This paper investigates the main capabilities for Asset Life Cycle

  11. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  12. Life cycle responses to health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrin, Florian; St-Amour, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the lifetime effects of exogenous changes in health insurance coverage (e.g. Medicare, PPACA, termination of employer-provided plans) on the dynamic optimal allocation (consumption, leisure, health expenditures), status (health and wealth), and welfare. We solve, simulate, and structurally estimate a parsimonious life cycle model with endogenous exposure to morbidity and mortality risks, and exogenous health insurance. By varying coverage, we identify the marginal effects of insurance when young and/or when old on allocations, statuses, and welfare. Our results highlight positive effects of insurance on health, wealth and welfare, as well as mid-life substitution away from healthy leisure in favor of more health expenses, caused by peaking wages, and accelerating health issues.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  14. Life cycle test of the NOXSO process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.T.; Haslbeck, J.L.; Neal, L.G.

    1990-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data generated by the NOXSO Life Cycle Test Unit (LCTU). The NOXSO process is a dry flue gas treatment system that employs a reusable sorbent. The sorbent consists of sodium carbonate impregnated on a high-surface-area gamma alumina. A fluidized bed of sorbent simultaneously removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas at a temperature of 250{degrees}F. The spent sorbent is regenerated for reuse by treatment at high temperature with a reducing gas. This regeneration reduces sorbed sulfur compounds to SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and elemental sulfur. The SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are then converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus-type reactor. The sulfur produced is a marketable by-product of the process. Absorbed nitrogen oxides are decomposed and evolved on heating the sorbent to regeneration temperature.

  15. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers).

  16. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  17. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  18. PROJECT GOVERNANCE – PHASES AND LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Titus DEENEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When talking about projects, the barrier is clear: successful and failed. Some fail due to different reasons, but lack of good project and risk management played a large part. Others succeed largely because of the rigorous and disciplined application of good project practices. But both groups illustrate many points that underline and demonstrate important concepts applicable to current projects. Systematic application of good methods leads to successful outcomes in projects of all types. All projects are fundamentally dependent on people, and human beings are not very different today than we were hundreds, or even thousands, of years ago. This paper uncovers main elements in projects area such as the concepts and governance of projects, with an underline of the main characteristics and the projects phases and life cycle that erase the uncertainty that joins all the projects built at any time.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto

    a systematic framework for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity systems, which aimed at providing: •Scientifically sound recommendations for decision-making processes, leading to more sustainable energy systems; •Accurate and transparent LCA data for electricity supply, thereby increasing......Electricity systems represent a major source of global pollutants. Whilst currently relying heavily on fossil fuels, electricity systems are progressively shifting towards renewable sources to mitigate climate change and enhance energy security. The goal of this PhD project was to develop...... developing data on smart grids should be a priority for future research. The environmental impacts of low-carbon electricity systems were assessed by combining LCA with power system modelling. Possible scenarios for the island of Ireland in 2025 and Denmark in 2030, with high amounts of wind power, were...

  20. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bowe Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the US. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using life-cycle inventory methodology. Material flow and energy use were identified for hardwood sawmills in northeastern US. A hardwood log volume conversion of 43.7% to planed dry lumber was found. Values of 608 MJ/m3 of electrical and...

  1. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State`s needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided.

  2. Life cycle of the fish parasite Gnathia maxillaris (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispano, Coral; Bultó, Patrici; Blanch, Anicet R

    2014-06-01

    The taxonomic classification of some parasitic isopods of the family Gnathiidae has been revised in the last years. However, their biological cycles have been described only partially or incompletely. Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) is one of the most studied species, but certain aspects of its life cycle are still poorly known. A detailed study on the life cycle of G. maxillaris was carried out over several years by sampling larvae from an infestation of large volume aquaria at the Aquarium of Barcelona. At the same time, a system of in vitro cultivation of G. maxillaris was developed, which provided new data to complete the description of its life cycle. Periods of incubation, fertilization, planktonic stages, the attachment site on the fish host and biometric characteristics of larval forms were detailed. The new information may help better control health state of marine fish in aquaculture.

  3. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to:...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  4. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of the...

  5. Life Cycle Design - a Route to the Sustainable Industrial Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    In the attempt to reorient Society's development in a more sustainable direction attention is focused on the environmental impact of products and systems over their entire life cycle, but how can the environmental life cycle perspective be introduced into the design of new solutions and how much...... is reviewed and the overall question of to what extent life cycle design is a route to the sustainable industrial culture is discussed....

  6. Mainstreaming life cycle thinking through a consistent approach to footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Brad; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental Life Cycle Impact Assessment has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The initial work involved forming a consensual position on the difference between footprints and existing LCA impact......-alone and not part of a framework intended for comprehensive environmental performance assessment. Accordingly, footprints are universally defined as metrics used to report life cycle assessment results addressing an Area of Concern....

  7. Forecasting, Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Fosberg

    1987-01-01

    Future improvements in the meteorological forecasts used in fire management will come from improvements in three areas: observational systems, forecast techniques, and postprocessing of forecasts and better integration of this information into the fire management process.

  8. Household Life Cycle: The Case Of Customer Satisfaction In Restaurants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cindy Erdis; Michael du Toit

    2014-01-01

    ... on customer satisfaction in restaurants. This article examines the influence of household life cycle on customer satisfaction in selected restaurants in the Tshwane area of Gauteng, South Africa...

  9. Life Cycle Engineering – from methodology to enterprise culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo; Poll, Christian

    2003-01-01

    As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number...... of methodologies and tools for life cycle assessment and development of more eco-efficient products, from complex to simplified, catering to the needs of especially small and medium-sized enterprizes. The tools and data are in place, but dissemination lacks behind. Propagation of life cycle thinking and life cycle...

  10. Life Cycle Design - a Route to the Sustainable Industrial Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    In the attempt to reorient Society's development in a more sustainable direction attention is focused on the environmental impact of products and systems over their entire life cycle, but how can the environmental life cycle perspective be introduced into the design of new solutions and how much...... can be optained through life cycle design? The authors' experience with integration of environmental considerations in product development is presented, ranging from the detailed interactive approach to the EDIP-method through various simplified approaches. The potential for environmental improvements...... is reviewed and the overall question of to what extent life cycle design is a route to the sustainable industrial culture is discussed....

  11. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  12. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  13. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  14. Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy;

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Milk is becoming a key food commodity as population grows and demand increases. The treatment of milk to extend its shelf life is thus an important step in avoiding losses and optimizing resource use. The drawbacks of the most common treatments for shelf stable milk are the loss of nutri......Abstract Milk is becoming a key food commodity as population grows and demand increases. The treatment of milk to extend its shelf life is thus an important step in avoiding losses and optimizing resource use. The drawbacks of the most common treatments for shelf stable milk are the loss...... shelf life. A life cycle assessment was performed comparing this emerging technology to the common thermal treatment: indirect ultra-high temperature sterilisation combined with non-aseptic homogenisation. The results show that high-pressure based processing has a lower environmental burden compared...... to the high-temperature based processing, already at pilot-scale, and this difference is primarily due to the lower electricity consumption. Additionally, upscaling considerations were made using power laws and scenario analysis to simulate future full-scale applications of UHPH. The upscaling shows...

  15. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  16. Break free from the product life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  17. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  19. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  20. EDITORIAL: THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a special issue of Journal of Life Cycle Assessment that includes selected papers from the Internatonal Conference and Exhibition on Life Cycle Assessment (InLCA). In April 2000, the EPA, with co-organizer IERE, held the InLCA conferencethat attracted over 265 attendees (...

  1. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  2. Methods for uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.A.; Heijungs, R.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) calculates the environmental impact of a product over its entire life cycle. Uncertainty analysis is an important aspect in LCA, and is usually performed using Monte Carlo sampling. In this study, Monte Carlo sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, quasi Monte Carlo sampling,

  3. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  4. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  5. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  6. From BIM to life cycle information management in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, G.A. van; Wolfert, R.; Ruitenbeek, M. van de

    2014-01-01

    In principle, Building Information Modelling (BIM) should provide a basis for infrastructure information management during the whole life-cycle. In practice however, the use of BIM is normally limited to the design and construction phases. It seems that the use of BIM information in other life-cycle

  7. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  8. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  9. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  10. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  11. Effective Integration of Life Cycle Engineering in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    In practice, applying life cycle engineering in product design and development requires an integrated approach, because of the many stakeholders and variables (e.g. cost, environmental impact, energy, safety, quality) involved in a complete product life cycle. In educating young engineers, the same

  12. From BIM to life cycle information management in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, G.A. van; Wolfert, R.; Ruitenbeek, M. van de

    2014-01-01

    In principle, Building Information Modelling (BIM) should provide a basis for infrastructure information management during the whole life-cycle. In practice however, the use of BIM is normally limited to the design and construction phases. It seems that the use of BIM information in other life-cycle

  13. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  14. Defining the baseline in social life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    A relatively broad consensus has formed that the purpose of developing and using the social life cycle assessment (SLCA) is to improve the social conditions for the stakeholders affected by the assessed product's life cycle. To create this effect, the SLCA, among other things, needs to provide...... valid assessments of the consequence of the decision that it is to support. The consequence of a decision to implement a life cycle of a product can be seen as the difference between the decision being implemented and 'non-implemented' product life cycle. This difference can to some extent be found...... using the consequential environmental life cycle assessment (ELCA) methodology to identify the processes that change as a consequence of the decision. However, if social impacts are understood as certain changes in the lives of the stakeholders, then social impacts are not only related to product life...

  15. Addressing the effect of social life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Wangel, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the recently published ‘Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products’, it is stated that the ultimate objective of developing the social life cycle assessment (SLCA) is to promote improvements of social conditions for the stakeholders in the life cycle. This article addresses...... how the SLCA should be developed so that its use promotes these improvements. Methods: Hypotheses of how the use of SLCA can promote improvement of social conditions in the life cycle are formulated, after which theories and empirical findings from relevant fields of research are used to address...... the validity of these hypotheses. Results: Three in some cases potentially overlapping SLCA approaches are presented, assumed to create a beneficial effect in the life cycle in different ways. However, empirical and theoretical findings show that the beneficial effects proposed to arise from the use of each...

  16. Firm Life Cycle, Book-Tax Differences and Earnings Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to show if the life cycle explains the relation between the Book-Tax Differences (BTDs and earnings persistence, as well as to inform on the future gains and their relation with the BTDs. Therefore, univariate tests were applied to verify the differences between the mean BTDS, life cycle stages and regression coefficient for the Earnings Before Income Tax (EBIT. The study focused on Brazilian publicly traded companies between 2009 and 2013. The results indicated that the control of earnings persistence was related with the stages of the life cycle. The information relevance of the life cycle and the Book-Tax Differences for earnings persistence is registered. In conclusion, the firm life cycle should be included in the analysis of the relation between the BTDs and earnings persistence. The evidence registered here is crucial to identify the quality of the earnings and incorporate them into earnings valuation models.

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Pizzol, Massimo; Achten, Wouter M J;

    2016-01-01

    , maintenance and material replacement. The study includes a sensitivity analysis focusing on the lifespan of buildings, occupancy rate and discount and inflation rates. The functional unit was formulated as the ‘Lodging of one additional guest per night’, and the time horizon is 50 years of building lifespan....... Both primary and secondary data were used in the life cycle inventory. Results and discussion The modern building has the highest global warming potential (kg CO2-eq) as well as higher costs over 50 years of building lifespan. The results show that the use stage is responsible for the largest share...

  18. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  19. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  20. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  1. The life-cycle squeeze: The interaction of men's occupational and family life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, V K

    1974-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing one structural source of pressure for wives to contribute to family income. This is the "life-cycle squeeze"-the situation where a man's resources are inadequate to meet the needs engendered by the number and ages of his children. Studies of how economic needs vary by family life-cycle stage indicate that one high point of need occurs when men are in their forties and early fifties. However, 1960 Census data on earnings patterns by age indicate that in only relatively high-level professional, managerial and sales occupations do average earnings peak at the same time family income needs are peaking. For most blue-collar and many medium- and low-level white collar occupations, median earnings are highest for younger men, and men at an age when family costs are at their maximum are earning somewhat less, on the average. As a consequence, the families of such men run the risk of a deterioration in their level of living unless an additional income is brought into the household.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Magnesia Spinel Brick Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Özkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources in the production of construction materials has become a necessity both in Europe and Turkey. Construction products in Europe should have European Conformity (CE and Environmental Product Declaration (EPD, an independently verified and registered document in line with the European standard EN 15804. An EPD certificate can be created by performing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. In this particular work, an LCA study was carried out for a refractory brick production for environmental assessment. In addition to the LCA, the Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis was also applied for economic assessment. Firstly, a cradle-to-gate LCA was performed for one ton of magnesia spinel refractory brick. The CML IA method included in the licensed SimaPro 8.0.1 software was chosen to calculate impact categories (namely, abiotic depletion, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, ozone depletion potential, and photochemical oxidation potential. The LCC analysis was performed by developing a cost model for internal and external cost categories within the software. The results were supported by a sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the production of raw materials and the firing process in the magnesia spinel brick production were found to have several negative effects on the environment and were costly.

  3. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  4. Life cycle assessment and the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2012-01-01

    Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...

  5. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  6. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts).

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System (Case Study: ... solid waste management systems for determine the optimum municipal solid waste ... include water pollution, air pollution, consumed energy and waste residues.

  8. Life Cycle Engineering – from methodology to enterprise culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo; Poll, Christian

    2003-01-01

    of methodologies and tools for life cycle assessment and development of more eco-efficient products, from complex to simplified, catering to the needs of especially small and medium-sized enterprizes. The tools and data are in place, but dissemination lacks behind. Propagation of life cycle thinking and life cycle......As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number...... engineering to larger parts of industry is attempted by strengthening the market pull through integrated product policy measures, and at the same time pushing through information activities, training and dissemination of tools. Experience hitherto shows that these forces are insufficient and that stronger...

  9. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the .... of successful applications of Petri nets include distributed database systems, communication protocols, .... Concepts and Design". McGraw-Hill Computer.

  10. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  11. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Residues in field crops grown and harvested for human consumption are the main contributor to overall human exposure toward agricultural pesticides for the general population. However, exposure from crop residues is currently not considered in life cycle assessment practice. We therefore...... present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  13. Life cycle assessment of a wind farm and related externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte

    2000-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the assessment of energy and emissions related to the production and manufacture of materials for an offshore wind farm as well as a wind farm on land based on a life cycle analysis (LCA) model. In Denmark a model has been developed for life cycle assessments of different...... materials. The model is able to assess the energy use related to the production, transportation and manufacture of 1 kg of material. The energy use is divided into fuels used in order to estimate the emissions through the life cycle. In the paper the model and the attached assumptions are described......, and the model is demonstrated for two wind farms. The externalities for the wind farms are reported, showing the importance of life cycle assessment for renewable energy technologies. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  15. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... on the product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline....

  16. Life-cycle of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-31

    Mar 31, 1988 ... Table 1 Published data on the life-cycle of Eudrilus eugeniae. Neuhauser. Rodriguez et al. .... reached this stage irridescent testes were discernable ventrally through the body .... animal waste products. The decrease in worm ...

  17. Understanding Life Cycle Issues: A Resource for School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews life cycle theories of developmental psychology and examines their applications in addressing the needs of adults who work in schools. Structural changes are needed if schools are to be responsive to the developmental needs of adults. (BJV)

  18. A framework for social life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. To enhance the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool in business decision-making, a methodology for Social life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is being developed. Social LCA aims at facilitating companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner...... by providing information about the potential social impacts on people caused by the activities in the life cycle of their product. The development of the methodology has been guided by a business perspective accepting that companies, on the one hand, have responsibility for the people affected...... of the companies along the life cycle to the product. This need is not present in Environmental LCA, where we base the connection on the physical link which exists between process and product. (2) Boundaries of the product system are determined with respect to the influence that the product manufacturer exerts...

  19. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential ... development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at ..... systems.Agric. Wmles 2: 43--60. RAMISCH. H. & GRAFF. o. 1985.

  20. Life cycle of the oriental compost worm Perionyx excavatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-21

    Mar 21, 1989 ... production, the life cycle of the vermicomposting species, Perionyx excavatus, was studied. The development, growth and reproduction of P. excavatus were investigated. ..... reproductive system of the earthworm: Perionyx.

  1. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  2. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  3. Development of substance flow based Life Cycle Assessment tool for sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method to quantify environmental impacts of products or systems. It is often done by correlating material and energy demands with certain input characteristics. An attempt was made to evaluate the robustness of the substance flow based LCA for wastewater and sludge...... treatment processes correlate sufficiently with the solids content of wastewater influent, while energy use correlates with the total input volume. However, the correlations appeared to be stronger when individual treatment processes were separately analysed....

  4. Executive overview and introduction to the SMAP information system life-cycle and documentation standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the five volume set of Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards is provided with information on its use. The overview covers description, objectives, key definitions, structure and application of the standards, and document structure decisions. These standards were created to provide consistent NASA-wide structures for coordinating, controlling, and documenting the engineering of an information system (hardware, software, and operational procedures components) phase by phase.

  5. Getting AM Up to SpeedAcross the Army Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Getting AM Up to Speed Across the Army Life Cycle Stacey L. Clark Clark is deputy director of Systems Engineering for the U.S. Army Research...internal volume of payloads that currently are taken up by printed circuit boards and increase lethality. • Multi-use materials—structural materials...data. As of yet, there are no additively manufactured items in the Army inventory that have achieved full materiel release. To date , AM has been

  6. CORE COMPETENCIES AND PHASES OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Selma Zone Fekih; Koubaa, Manel Belguith

    2013-01-01

    Organizations evolve according to well-defined phases during which it must raise some competencies more than others. This study discusses the importance of core competencies according to the phases of the life cycle of the organization. In this research, we mobilize the core competencies approach to explore the competence required at each stage of the organizational life cycle. The quantitative study of 50 Tunisian companies operating in the food sector shows that the importance of core ...

  7. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  8. Life Cycle Development of Obesity and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaco, Sandra; Eriksson, Tor; Skalli, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how obesity and some of its determinants develop over individuals’ life cycles. In particular we examine empirically the role and relative importance of early life conditions (parents’ education and socioeconomic status) and individuals’ own education as adults and how their impacts on the probability of overweight and obesity evolves over the life cycle. As the data set includes information about the individuals’ health behaviours (smoking and physical exercise) ...

  9. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  10. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-01-01

    Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on...

  11. Reverse food logistics during the product life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, IP

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine reverse logistics across the food product life cycle. Based on a literature review of reverse logistics factors in food industry a set of measures were derived. A survey was conducted to examine the impact of reverse food logistics to supply chain performance across the different product life-cycle stages. A detailed questionnaire was sent to 200 practitioners with experience in food supply chain operations. In total, 48 usable questionnaires were returned, resulti...

  12. How can a life cycle inventory parametric model streamline life cycle assessment in the wooden pallet sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, Francesco; Ren, Jingzheng

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the use of parameterization within the life cycle inventory (LCI) in the wooden pallet sector, in order to test the effectiveness of LCI parametric models to calculate the environmental impacts of similar products. Starting from a single case study, the objectives of this paper......-linear regression allowed to define a correlation between the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) category indicators considered and the most influencing parameters.The definition of LCI parametric model in the wooden pallet sector can effectively be used for calculating the environmental impacts of products......; these correlations can be used to improve the design of new wooden pallets.The conceptual scheme for defining the model is based on ISO14040-44 standards. First of all, the product system was defined identifying the life cycle of a generic wood pallet, as well as its life cycle stages. A list of independent...

  13. How can a life cycle inventory parametric model streamline life cycle assessment in the wooden pallet sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Felice, Francesco, Di; Ren, Jingzheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study discusses the use of parameterization within the life cycle inventory (LCI) in the wooden pallet sector, in order to test the effectiveness of LCI parametric models to calculate the environmental impacts of similar products. Starting from a single case study, the objectives......-based regression and one multiple non-linear regression allowed to define a correlation between the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) category indicators considered and the most influencing parameters. Conclusions The definition of LCI parametric model in the wooden pallet sector can effectively be used......; these correlations can be used to improve the design of new wooden pallets. Methods The conceptual scheme for defining the model is based on ISO14040-44 standards. First of all, the product system was defined identifying the life cycle of a generic wood pallet, as well as its life cycle stages. A list of independent...

  14. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to...

  15. Life-cycle-costs - reciprocating versus rotating compressors; Life-Cycle-Costs von Kolben- und Turbokompressoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierniak, S. [HGC Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Compression Systems

    2001-11-01

    Modern natural gas compression is a very diversified business both globally and from application to application. This article provides a short and comprehensive comparison between two leading gas compression technologies. Due to fundamental differences in the technologies, a direct comparison is difficult and some generalisations must be made. It will be shown the principal benefits and disadvantages of both technologies and the impact of these characteristics to the operating costs of typical applications. Today's market is divided between centrifugal compressors driven by gas turbines and reciprocating compressors driven by electric motors or gas fuelled, spark ignited piston engines. The selection is based, in some degree, on either traditional application for the service type or a clear technological benefit over the other. Naturally there are many aspects with impact on the decision making process. One of the most important is reliability of the package (driver and compressor). Local norms, codes and regulations are a jungle, as well as diverse end user preferences, all of which have to be clarified on a case to case basis: and these have an impact on the investment price as well. Generally it can be said that with smaller size units the most important aspects are investment price and quick delivery. With larger units, life cycle costs take on a greater degree of significance in the process. (orig.)

  16. Life Cycle of Dust in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    To a great extent, our understanding of the life cycle of dust is based on the observational and theoretical studies of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, which will be the topic of this contribution. Over past years, a large volume of observations with unprecedented spatial resolution has been accumulated for the Milky Way. It permits investigations of different stages of the life cycle of dust, from its formation in stellar sources to destruction in star-forming regions and supernovae shocks. Observations of dust emission, extinction, polarisation of light, and interstellar element depletions in the solar neighbourhood provide the most accurate constraints for the reference dust models applied to study extragalactic systems. However, global spatial studies of the circumstellar and interstellar dust are complicated in the Milky Way disk because of high extinction, confusion along the line of sight and large uncertainties in distances. In contrast, the favourable location in the sky and the proximity of...

  17. Irrational Beliefs, Life Cycles of a Couple and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Reza, Karaminia; Seyed-Mahmoud, Mirzamani; Asiye, Ramezani; Reza, Taghavi Mohammad

    The present study assessed the relationships between irrational beliefs and the life cycles for couples that decided to divorce. One hundred and seventy eight people including 120 women and 58 males who were referred to the divorce court were requested to fill in The Irrational Beliefs Inventory. The results showed that the majority (37.1%) of the couples referred to Court were in the third part of the life cycle (raising children). Most divorced subjects had a life length between 1 to 5 years (44%). The highest mean scores of irrational beliefs (296.9) were found for the fifth part of the life cycle (retirement and death). Analysis showed couples in the fifth and third part of the life cycle had significantly higher irrational beliefs than the couples in the other parts of the life cycle. Irrational beliefs such as Anxious Over-concern, Frustrated Reaction and Helplessness for Change had the highest mean scores while, the Problem Avoiding, Emotional Irresponsibility and High Self-Expectation had the lowest mean scores.

  18. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  19. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costs for pre-disaster waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yohei; Peii, Tsai; Tabata, Tomohiro; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities. Ensuring resilience in the face of earthquakes and tsunamis by renovating flood-preventing facilities is extremely important in decreasing the production of wastes, especially in coastal regions. Next, the transportation network for transporting combustibles in disaster waste to temporary storage sites, incineration plants, and landfill was constructed using an optimization model. The results showed that if flood-preventing facilities do not function properly, the installation of temporary incineration facilities becomes essential. Life-cycle emissions of CO2, SOx, NOx, and PM and the costs of removal, storage, and treatment of combustibles were calculated as 258,000t, 618t, 1705t, 7.9t, and 246millionUSD, respectively, in the case of functioning flood-preventing facilities. If flood-preventing facilities do not function, the quantity of environmentally unfriendly emissions and the costs increase. This result suggested the significance of renovation in order to maintain the conditions of flood-preventing facilities to decrease the environmental burden and costs as well as keep the production of disaster waste at a minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack; Alting, Leo

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP...... to the tools for design for disassembly. Life Cycle Engineering is defined, and a systematic hierarchy is presented for the different levels at which environmental impacts from industry can be addressed by the engineer in order to improve the eco-efficiency of the industry. The role of industry in meeting...... the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current...

  1. Life Cycle Development of Obesity and Its Determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Sandra; Eriksson, Tor; Skalli, Ali

    their impacts on the probability of overweight and obesity evolves over the life cycle. As the data set includes information about the individuals’ health behaviours (smoking and physical exercise) at various ages we can also examine the impact of these at different stages of the persons’ life cycle. The data......This paper is concerned with how obesity and some of its determinants develop over individuals’ life cycles. In particular we examine empirically the role and relative importance of early life conditions (parents’ education and socioeconomic status) and individuals’ own education as adults and how...... used in the empirical analysis is from a common detailed questionnaire study carried out in six different European countries (Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, the Netherlands and the U.K.) and which was answered by about 6,000 individuals aged 50 to 65 at the time of the survey. Obesity indicators...

  2. EASEWASTE-life cycle modeling capabilities for waste management technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope The management of municipal solid waste and the associated environmental impacts are subject of growing attention in industrialized countries. EU has recently strongly emphasized the role of LCA in its waste and resource strategies. The development of sustainable solid...... waste management systems applying a life-cycle perspective requires readily understandable tools for modelling the life cycle impacts of waste management systems. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the structure, functionalities and LCA modelling capabilities of the PC-based life cycle oriented...... waste management model EASEWASTE, developed at the Technical University of Denmark specifically to meet the needs of the waste system developer with the objective to evaluate the environmental performance of the various elements of existing or proposed solid waste management systems. Materials...

  3. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus...

  4. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  5. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  6. Oil Points - Life Cycle Evaluations without the Data Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Environmental aspects of products in their whole life cycle are of increasing importance in industry [1]. Therefore, several methods and tools for environmental life cycle evaluation have been developed during the last years. Formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the state-of-the-art in environmental...... evaluation, usually involves the handling of a considerable amount of data in order to obtain an assessment with sufficient coverage of all potential environmental impacts of the product. Obtaining these data is very often a major obstacle in conducting an LCA. Furthermore, this data intensity results...... in an equally high time consumption.Simplified, indicator-based methods have been developed to facilitate rough evaluations in relatively short periods of time [2, 3]. Unlike complex LCA methods, which are to be used by specialists, these simplified methods can be used by product developers. However, any...

  7. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  8. Construction of life cycle assessment software system platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-ping; ZUO Yu-hui

    2007-01-01

    There has not been life cycle assessment (LCA) software applicable to China's products. To faciliate the develop-ment of LCA software system in China, we built an object-oriented LCA software system plantform based on LCA international standards ISO 14040 to ISO 14043 and the commonness of diverse products. The system includes six modules: disassembly module, data collection module, arithmetic module, drawing module, database module and control module. It evaluates all economic and environmental impacts during the whole life cycle of a product. The integrated life cycle inventory database system allows dynamic expansion, which makes the effort required for data collection reduce with the increase of the system's application. With the improvement of human environmental-awareness, the demand of environment-friendly products is increasing, and ecological design of products has become a critical part in products development. Consummation of the LCA software system will provide a powerful tool for designing and developing Chinese ecological products.

  9. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-02-27

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis.

  10. Normalisation and weighting in life cycle assessment: quo vadis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Laurent, Alexis; Sala, Serenella

    2017-01-01

    as research gaps in normalisation and weighting. Based on this information, the article wants to provide guidance to developers and practitioners. The underlying work was conducted under the umbrella of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, Task Force on Cross-Cutting issues in life cycle impact assessment...... (LCIA). Methods: The empirical work consisted in (i) an online survey to investigate the perception of the LCA community regarding the scientific quality and current practice concerning normalisation and weighting; (ii) a classification followed by systematic expert-based assessment of existing methods......Purpose: Building on the rhetoric question “quo vadis?” (literally “Where are you going?”), this article critically investigates the state of the art of normalisation and weighting approaches within life cycle assessment. It aims at identifying purposes, current practises, pros and cons, as well...

  11. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies.

  12. Role of nondestructive evaluation in life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H.

    1997-12-18

    This paper provides an overview of some common NDE methods and several examples for the use of different NDE techniques throughout the life cycle of a product. NDE techniques are being used to help determine material properties, design new implants, extend the service life of aircraft, and help dispose of radioactive waste in a safe manner. It is the opinion of this author and others that the NDE community needs to work more closely with end users in the life cycle of a product to better incorporate NDE techniques. The NDE community needs to highlight the importance of NDE in the entire life-cycle process of a product by showing real costs savings to the manufacturing community.

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION: LIFE CYCLE OF THE NATIONAL GAMES ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS. VIDYA NITIN PATIL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing importance of sustainable undertaking, purchasing and building, designers, consultants and pavement managers now tend to make more rational decisions than before when comparing the pros and cons of the construction, maintenance and management of various types of road pavements. Asphalt and concrete pavements offer specific advantages that need to be compared when selecting the most favorable option for long-life pavements. Financial decisions can be based on life cycle cost. Life Cycle Cost analysis is to arrive at such an economic equitable assessment of competing design alternatives and it further useful for budget planning. The paper describes life cycle cost analysis of the assets of road pavement byusing present worth method. The information regarding the user cost and vehicle operating cost as per IRC recommendation is also discussed in detail.

  14. Inclusion of Social Aspects in Life Cycle Assessment of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla

    underlying modelling of social impacts. Concrete models for inclusion of four impact categories representing fundamental labour rights violations are developed and tested in six case studies. The results of the case studies are used to evaluate the Social LCA method and the specific models for labour rights......This Industrial PhD thesis presents the development of a social life cycle assessment (LCA) method for application in life cycle management in companies. The method aims to facilitate companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner by enabling decisions on the basis of knowledge...... about their direct and indirect social impacts throughout the life cycle of their products. The developed methodology of Social LCA consists of (1) a framework for Social LCA (2) a method to perform quantitative Social LCA (phases, steps and activities), and (3) methods and principles to develop...

  15. A framework for social life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    conducting responsible business. (4) A new area of protection, Human dignity and Well-being, is defined and used to guide the modelling of impact chains. (5) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights serves as normative basis for Social LCA, together with local or country norms based on socio......Goal, Scope and Background. To enhance the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool in business decision-making, a methodology for Social life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is being developed. Social LCA aims at facilitating companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner...... by providing information about the potential social impacts on people caused by the activities in the life cycle of their product. The development of the methodology has been guided by a business perspective accepting that companies, on the one hand, have responsibility for the people affected...

  16. Life cycle assessment applied to nanomaterials in solid waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis

    for assessing engineered nanoparticles. To support the impact assessment of engineered nanoparticles in the life cycle of nanoproducts and in solid waste management systems, a comprehensive review of toxicological data for nanosilver and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles was conducted and it enabled......-observed-adverse-effect levels and effect factors applicable in risk assessment and life cycle impact assessment, respectively. The developed effect factors for TiO2 and Ag particles were applied on two simplified LCA case studies, namely the annual consumption of food containing TiO2 nanoparticles in the United Kingdom and a T...... be negligible when compared to other contributions to human health impacts in the nanoproduct life cycle. More than the results themselves, these case studies, along with the developed methodology for investigating the relationships between the physicochemical properties of the particles and their toxic effects...

  17. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  18. Life cycle assessment and the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2012-01-01

    Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...... to grave, which is very complex for many foods, and to support choices of consumption. The LCA methodology is supported by public standards and public policy measures and has proved its value in business development for more environmentally friendly products. It is an essential feature that the effects...

  19. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinru He

    Full Text Available The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Willow Production; Livscykelanalys av Salixproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2006-05-15

    The aim of this study is to make a life cycle assessment (LCA) of willow production (Salix) based on current cultivation practices and commercial clones. The purpose is to describe the environmental impact of the different phases in the production system and identify phases which have a significant impact on the total life cycle emissions. The production of willow is assumed to take place in southern Sweden on good agricultural soils. The results show that the production of willow is an energy efficient biomass production system which gives 20 times more energy in the form of biomass than the required energy input. In comparison with cultivation of annual energy crops, such as rape and wheat, the energy balance (energy output/energy input) of willow production is more than 3 times higher. The emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants leading to eutrophication, acidification and creation of photochemical oxidants are often 2 to 4 times lower in willow production. The phase in willow production which requires the highest energy input, some 50 %, is fertilisation. Fertilisation also causes the highest emissions, often between 50 to 80 %, of the total life cycle emissions. Thereafter comes harvesting, with about 30 % of the energy input and 7 to 15 % of the emissions (except for the emissions leading to the creation of photochemical oxidants, some 50%), followed by establishment and transportation which normally contribute to 2 to 10 % of the total life cycle emissions. A measure to efficiently reduce the life cycle emissions of willow production is through a higher efficiency in the production of commercial fertilisers including flue-gas cleaning, leading to reduced emissions, particularly of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Other alternatives are utilising nutrient-rich organic waste products, such as sewage sludge and municipal waste water as fertilisers, which are already in practice in some willow cultivations today. Changed biomass yields, transportation distances

  1. Life cycle, individual thrift, and the wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modigliani, F

    1986-11-01

    One theory of the determinants of individual and national thrift has come to be known as the life cycle hypothesis of saving. The state of the art on the eve of the formulation of the hypothesis some 30 years ago is reviewed. Then the theoretical foundations of the model in its original formulation and later amendment are set forth, calling attention to various implications, some distinctive to it and some counterintuitive. A number of crucial empirical tests, both at the individual and the aggregate level, are presented as well as some applications of the life cycle hypothesis of saving to current policy issues.

  2. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of the wind farm alpha ventus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner H.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessments (LCA is an important tool for industry and policy makers, used to determine the actual emissions of a product or technology throughout its whole life cycle. In case of energy production systems or power plants, analysis of energy required to produce the materials and processes; emissions resulting from various processes for materials production and processes resulting into their Cumulated Energy Demand (CED and Global Warming Potential (GWP become important parameters when making decisions on further research, development and deployment of any technology. The method of carrying out such analysis is explained through a case study.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella; Fusi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...... of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...

  5. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  6. Normalisation and weighting in life cycle assessment: quo vadis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Laurent, Alexis; Sala, Serenella

    2017-01-01

    as research gaps in normalisation and weighting. Based on this information, the article wants to provide guidance to developers and practitioners. The underlying work was conducted under the umbrella of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, Task Force on Cross-Cutting issues in life cycle impact assessment...... for normalisation and weighting according to a set of five criteria: scientific robustness, documentation, coverage, uncertainty and complexity. Results and discussion: The survey results showed that normalised results and weighting scores are perceived as relevant for decision-making, but further development...... as well as to developers of the underlying methods....

  7. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Camobreco, Vince [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duffield, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graboski, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapouri, Housein [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  8. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin

  9. PRODUCT DATA PREDICTION WITH UNCERTAINTY IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Suiran; Wang Chengtao; Kimura Fumihiko

    2003-01-01

    Various kinds of data are used in new product design and more accurate data make the design results more reliable. Even though part of product data can be available directly from the existing similar products, there still leaves a great deal of data unavailable. This makes data prediction a valuable work. A method that can predict data of product under development based on the existing similar products is proposed. Fuzzy theory is used to deal with the uncertainties in data prediction process. The proposed method can be used in life cycle design, life cycle assessment (LCA) etc. Case study on current refrigerator is used as a demonstration example.

  10. Life cycle assessment of capital goods related to waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    , maintenance and demolition of capital goods. Capital goods are defined as buildings, machinery, trucks and infrastructure at the facility. A LCA was performed using two modelling programmes: Simapro and EASEWASTE. This paper assesses the importance of including capital goods when performing LCAs of waste......The environmental impacts from the life cycle of products and systems were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool. Today most LCAs of waste management systems only considers the impacts from the operation of the system but neglects the environmental impacts from construction...

  11. Life cycle assessment of Icelandic Atlantic salmon Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the environmental impacts of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in sea cages in Tálknafjörður, North West of Iceland. Methodologically the study was based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the functional unit was 1 metric tonne of the whole Atlantic salmon produced in sea cage system and delivered to a processing plant in Patreksfjörður. The life cycle model included the feed production (including feed raw materials production), hatchery, sea-cage farm, faming equipmen...

  12. Research on large equipment maintenance system in life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhang, Nan

    2017-06-01

    In order to change the current disadvantages of traditional large equipment maintenance concept, this article plans to apply the technical method of prognostics and health management to optimize equipment maintenance strategy and develop large equipment maintenance system. Combined with the maintenance procedures of various phases in life cycle, it concluded the formulation methods of maintenance program and implement plans of maintenance work. In the meantime, it takes account into the example of the dredger power system of the Waterway Bureau to establish the auxiliary platform of ship maintenance system in life cycle.

  13. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  14. The data life cycle applied to our own data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions.

  15. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 2, Data Analysis-The Methods describes the methods for carrying out data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and demonstrates how the results of fact gathering can be used to produce and verify the analysis deliverables. A number of alternative methods of analysis other than normalization are suggested. Comprised of seven chapters, this book shows the tasks to be carried out in the logical order of progression-preparation, collection, analysis of the existing system (which comprises the tasks of synthesis, verification, an

  16. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 1, Data Analysis-The Deliverables provides a comprehensive treatment of data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and all the deliverables that need to be collected in analysis. The purpose of deliverables is explained and a number of alternative ways of collecting them are discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of what """"analysis"""" actually means, with particular reference to tasks such as hardware planning and software evaluation and where they fit into the overall cycle. The ne

  17. The accuracy comparison between ARFIMA and singular spectrum analysis for forecasting the sales volume of motorcycle in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitohang, Yosep Oktavianus; Darmawan, Gumgum

    2017-08-01

    This research attempts to compare between two forecasting models in time series analysis for predicting the sales volume of motorcycle in Indonesia. The first forecasting model used in this paper is Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA). ARFIMA can handle non-stationary data and has a better performance than ARIMA in forecasting accuracy on long memory data. This is because the fractional difference parameter can explain correlation structure in data that has short memory, long memory, and even both structures simultaneously. The second forecasting model is Singular spectrum analysis (SSA). The advantage of the technique is that it is able to decompose time series data into the classic components i.e. trend, cyclical, seasonal and noise components. This makes the forecasting accuracy of this technique significantly better. Furthermore, SSA is a model-free technique, so it is likely to have a very wide range in its application. Selection of the best model is based on the value of the lowest MAPE. Based on the calculation, it is obtained the best model for ARFIMA is ARFIMA (3, d = 0, 63, 0) with MAPE value of 22.95 percent. For SSA with a window length of 53 and 4 group of reconstructed data, resulting MAPE value of 13.57 percent. Based on these results it is concluded that SSA produces better forecasting accuracy.

  18. Forecasting of exported volume for brazilian fruits by time series analysis: an arima/garch approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdinardo Moreira Barreto de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to offer econometric forecasting models to the Brazilian exported volume fruits, with a view to assisting the planning and production control, also motivated by the existence of a few published papers dealing with this issue. In this sense, it was used the ARIMA/GARCH models, considering, likewise, the occurrence of a multiplicative stochastic seasonality in these series. They were collected 300 observations of exported net weight (kg between Jan/1989 and Dec/2013 of the following fruits: pineapple, banana, orange, lemon, apple, papaya, mango, watermelon, melon and grape, which selection criteria was its importance in the exported basket fruit, because they represented 97% of total received dollars, and 99% of total volume sold in 2010, of a population about 28 kinds of exported fruits. The results showed that it was not only observed the existence of a 12 month multiplicative seasonality in banana and mango. On the other hand, they were identified two fruits groups: (1 those which are continuously exported, and (2 those which have export peaks. On the quality of the models, they were considered satisfactory for six of the ten fruits analyzed. On the volatility, it was seen a high persistence in banana and papaya series, pointing to the existence of a structural break in time series, which could be linked to the economic crises happened in the last 17 years.

  19. Life-cycle Economic and Environmental Effects of Green, Gray and Hybrid Stormwater Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, J. R.; Taptich, M. N.; Horvath, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities throughout the U.S. are seeking efficient ways to manage stormwater for many reasons, including flood control, pollution management, water supply augmentation and to prepare for a changing climate. Traditionally, cities have relied primarily on gray infrastructure, namely sewers, storage and treatment facilities. In these systems, urban runoff, its volume increasing as impervious surfaces expand, is channeled to a wastewater plant where it is mixed with raw sewage prior to treatment or it is discharged, generally untreated, to local water bodies. These facilities are inflexible and expensive to build and maintain. Many systems are deteriorating and/or approaching, if not exceeding, their design capacity. Increasingly, more innovative approaches that integrate stormwater management into the natural environment and that make sense at both local and regional scales are sought. Identifying the best stormwater solution will require evaluating the life-cycle economic costs associated with these alternatives, including costs associated with construction, operation, and maintenance including regulatory and permitting costs, financing, as well as other indirect costs (e.g., avoided wastewater processing or system capacity expansion, increased property value) and non-economic co-benefits (i.e, aesthetics, habitat provision). Beyond conventional life-cycle costing, applying life-cycle assessment (LCA) will contribute to more holistic and sustainable decision-making. LCA can be used to quantitatively track energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental effects associated with constructing, operating, and maintaining green and gray infrastructure, including supply chain contributions. We will present the current state of knowledge for implementing life-cycle costing and LCA into stormwater management decisions for green, gray and hybrid infrastructure.

  20. Revisiting the life cycle of dung fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Newcombe; Jason Campbell; David Griffith; Melissa Baynes; Karen Launchbaugh; Rosemary Pendleton

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem...

  1. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operati

  2. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, DW; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-01-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  3. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed...

  4. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  5. Job Mobility and Earnings over the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    The prospect of a job change for any reason creates a disincentive for a worker to invest in training that is specific to the current job, and therefore those who change jobs frequently may earn less over their life cycle than those who, other things equal, seldom change jobs. (Author/CT)

  6. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  7. Environmentally sensitive life-cycle traits have low elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Olsen, Mette; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2010-01-01

    a high sensitivity to chemical toxicants tend to have a low elasticity, meaning that changes in them have a relatively low impact on population growth rate, compared to other life-cycle traits. This makes evolutionary sense in that there should be selection against variability in population growth rate...

  8. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  9. Innovative predictive maintenance concepts to improve life cycle management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.

    2014-01-01

    For naval systems with typically long service lives, high sustainment costs and strict availability requirements, an effective and efficient life cycle management process is very important. In this paper four approaches are discussed to improve that process: physics of failure based predictive maint

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  11. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, DW; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-01-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahle, A.H.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-togate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, a

  13. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Systems. Kenneth E. Marks, H. Garrison Massey, and Brent D. Bradley. Rand No. R-2287-AF. Santa Monica CA: The Rand Corporation, October 1978. AD...AFB OH, September 1982. AD A123045. Bryan, Noreen S.; Jacqueline J. Rosen; and Nancey T. Marland. "A New Life Cycle Cost Model: Flexible, Interactive

  14. An introduction to Life-cycle Thinking and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    This booklet descibes how enterprises can begin developing cleaner products based on a life-cycle perspective. It focuses on a simple approach to preventive environmental initiatives, where enterprises can begin at a level that matches their ambitions and their preconditions. The report is aimed...... at enterprises that, irregardless of size or sector, are interested in reducing environmental impacts from their products....

  15. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, lab...

  16. DDP - a tool for life-cycle risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, S. L.; Feather, M. S.; Hicks, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    At JPL we have developed, and implemented, a process for achieving life-cycle risk management. This process has been embodied in a software tool and is called Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP). The DDP process can be succinctly stated as: determine where we want to be, what could get in the way and how we will get there.

  17. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, D.W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T.; Rebitzer, G.

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  18. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  19. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  20. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  1. Analisa Life Cycle Cost pada Green Building Diamond Building Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trixy Firsani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mengingat kenyataan bahwa seluruh emisi CO2 yang ada di dunia lebih dari sepertiganya dihasilkan oleh bangunan[1], maka dibutuhkan suatu antispasi untuk mengeliminir akan fakta tersebut, yaitu melalui penerapan suatu konsep bangunan ramah lingkungan atau biasa disebut dengan konsep green building. Salah satu bangunan yang mengadopsi konsep green building tersebut adalah Diamond Building Malaysia. Bangunan ini menghabiskan biaya yang relatif tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan biaya pada pembangunan konvensional. Namun, dengan konsep green building yang memfokuskan pada pengefisiensi energi sepanjang siklus hidup proyek, penerapan konsep tersebut tentunya akan berbalik menjadi suatu keuntungan yang berkesinambungan pada biaya operasionalnya. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan suatu studi analisa Life Cycle Cost untuk melihat seberapa besar biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh suatu bangunan berkonsep green building selama periode yang ditetapkan. Dalam melakukan analisa Life Cycle Cost dibutuhkan biaya-biaya yang relevan, antara lain Biaya Awal, Biaya Operasional dan Perawatan, Biaya Energi, Biaya Penggantian, dan Nilai Sisa. Analisa dilakukan dengan menggunakan Present Worth Methode, dimana periode analisa ditentukan selama 10 tahun. Dari hasil analisa Life Cycle Cost dengan kategori biaya yang terdiri dari Biaya Awal, Biaya Energi, Biaya Operasional dan Pemeliharaan, serta Biaya Penggantian, diperoleh total biaya siklus Diamond Building Malaysia adalah sebesar RM 235.096.883atau sebesar Rp 759.290.649.000. Jika memasukkan Nilai Sisa dalam kategori biaya Life Cycle Cost tersebut, total biaya hidup Diamond Building menjadi RM 186.646.883 atau sebesar Rp 559.940.649.000.

  2. THE LIFE CYCLE OF SHOPPING CENTERS AND POSSIBLE REVITALIZATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept of shopping center life cycle. The concept is considered a possible explanation for the death of certain types of shopping centers and birth of others. Of course that there are also other theories that explains this evolut

  3. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing USAF Weapon System Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard ........................................................... 87 Bibliography...bolt that, in March 2000, struck a Philips semiconductor plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico , created a 10-minute blaze that contaminated millions of...strategic planning of weapon systems as they mature and progress through the life cycle. 87 Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard 88

  4. Teaching Life Cycles: The Four-Dimensional Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that life cycles and the concept of the four-dimensional organism should be the most important idea in teaching high school biology in the United Kingdom. Presents a set of concepts and terms with a view to improving the perceived confusion in present teaching situations. (TW)

  5. Life-Cycle Costing for Training System Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Steve L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses annual cost and present worth methods as two basic ways of calculating life-cycle cost to make purchasing decisions when replacing training systems. A training cost analysis worksheet to aid in asking comprehensive questions about training costs as they currently exist is included. (MBR)

  6. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  7. Life cycle impacts of North American wood panel Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; D. Kaestner; A. M. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Manufacturing building products such as wood panels impacts the environment, including contributing to climate change. This study is a compilation of four studies quantifying these impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method on five wood-based panel products made in North America during 2012. LCA is an internationally accepted and standardized method for...

  8. Role of phytolectin in the life cycle of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnykova N. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review the basic properties of plant lectins and their physiological role in the life cycle of plants are considered. There are data on the current state of the researches of phytolectins and lectin-like proteins as well as designation of the main directions of further study on the functioning of these proteins in the plant physiological processes.

  9. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on the basis of manufacturer brands. For instance, in the growth stage of the product life cycle, retailers expand private labels to a number of product categories and use the push strategy while manufacturers tend to expand their distribution network in the expansion of their brands and predominantly use the pull strategy in doing so. Furthermore, there is a focus shift from low-price strategy, predominantly used in the introduction phase, to increasing the quality and private label value in the later stages of the product life cycle.

  10. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...

  11. Sustainable Nanotechnology: Through Green Methods and Life-Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapinder Sawhney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Citing the myriad applications of nanotechnology, this paper emphasizes the need to conduct “life cycle” based assessments as early in the new product development process as possible, for a better understanding of the potential environmental and human health consequences of nanomaterials over the entire life cycle of a nano-enabled product. The importance of this reasoning is further reinforced through an illustrative case study on automotive exterior body panels, which shows that the perceived environmental benefits of nano-based products in the Use stage may not adequately represent the complete picture, without examining the impacts in the other life cycle stages, particularly Materials Processing and Manufacturing. Nanomanufacturing methods often have associated environmental and human health impacts, which must be kept in perspective when evaluating nanoproducts for their “greenness.” Incorporating life-cycle thinking for making informed decisions at the product design stage, combining life cycle and risk analysis, using sustainable manufacturing practices, and employing green chemistry alternatives are seen as possible solutions.

  12. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  13. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result in...

  14. Product Life Cycle: Moving from Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Buchin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant, bar, and hospitality trends are rapidly changing, and businesses must be more proactive than ever before to continuously stimulate business and prepare for a products natural life cycle. This article will explore a model of predicting PLC and strategic practices that can extend the mature phase of a restaurant or bar.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahle, A.H.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-togate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to,

  16. Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.

  17. Transport biofuels - a life-cycle assessment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    Life-cycle studies of the currently dominant transport biofuels (bioethanol made from starch or sugar and biodiesel made from vegetable oil) show that solar energy conversion efficiency is relatively poor if compared with solar cells and that such biofuels tend to do worse than conventional fossil

  18. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  19. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  20. Methods for global sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Evelyne A.; Bokkers, Eddy; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Input parameters required to quantify environmental impact in life cycle assessment (LCA) can be uncertain due to e.g. temporal variability or unknowns about the true value of emission factors. Uncertainty of environmental impact can be analysed by means of a global sensitivity analysis to

  1. Progress in Multi-Disciplinary Data Life Cycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Prabhune, A.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Streit, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern science is most often driven by data. Improvements in state-of-the-art technologies and methods in many scientific disciplines lead not only to increasing data rates, but also to the need to improve or even completely overhaul their data life cycle management. Communities usually face two kinds of challenges: generic ones like federated authorization and authentication infrastructures and data preservation, and ones that are specific to their community and their respective data life cycle. In practice, the specific requirements often hinder the use of generic tools and methods. The German Helmholtz Association project ’’Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis” (LSDMA) addresses both challenges: its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs) closely collaborate with communities in joint research and development to optimize the communities data life cycle management, while its Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides generic data tools and services. We present most recent developments and results from the DLCLs covering communities ranging from heavy ion physics and photon science to high-throughput microscopy, and from DSIT.

  2. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  3. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of polysacc

  4. Site-dependent life-cycle impact assessment of acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, Josepha Maria Barbara; Schöpp, W.; Blok, Kornelis;

    1998-01-01

    for acidification, eutrophication via air; and tropospheric ozone formation. The application of the acidification factors in LCIA is very straightforward. The only additional data required, the geographical site of the emission, is generally provided by current life-cycle inventory analysis. The acidification...

  5. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  6. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...

  7. Advancing life cycle economics in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2005-01-01

    Advancing construction and facilities management requires the ability to estimate and evaluate the economic consequences of decisions in a lifetime perspective. A survey of state-of-the-art on life cycle economics in the Nordic countries showed that, despite a number of similarities, no strong co...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  9. Optimal Housing, Consumption, and Investment Decisions over the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus

    2011-01-01

    We derive explicit solutions to life-cycle utility maximization problems involving stock and bond investment, perishable consumption, and the rental and ownership of residential real estate. Prices of houses, stocks and bonds, and labor income are correlated. Because of a positive correlation bet...

  10. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  11. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  12. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  13. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  14. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  16. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) of the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Lombardi, L. [Dipartamento di Energetica ' ' Sergio Stecco' ' , Universita degli studi di Firenze, Via di Santa Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The paper assesses the life cycle of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO). Such life cycle involves 4 stages: 1) collection, 2) pre-treatment, 3) delivery and 4) transesterification of UCO. Generally, UCO is collected from restaurants, food industries and recycling centres by authorised companies. Then, UCO is pre-treated to remove solid particles and water to increase its quality. After that, it is charged in cistern trucks and delivered to the biodiesel facility to be then transesterified with methanol to biodiesel. The production of 1 ton of biodiesel is evaluated by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impact and by an Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA) to account for the exergy input to the system. A detailed list of material and energy inputs is done using data from local companies and completed using Ecoinvent 1.2 database. The results show that the transesterification stage causes 68% of the total environmental impact. The major exergy inputs are uranium and natural gas. If targets set by the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan are achieved, the exergy input for producing biodiesel would be reduced by 8% in the present system and consequently environmental impacts and exergy input reduced up to 36% in 2010. (author)

  17. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  18. Probabilistic runoff volume forecasting in risk-based optimization for RTC of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the incorporation of stochastic grey-box models for urban runoff forecasting into a full-scale, system-wide control setup where setpoints are dynamically optimized considering forecast uncertainty and sensitivity of overflow locations in order to reduce combined sewer...... overflow risk. The stochastic control framework and the performance of the runoff forecasting models are tested in a case study in Copenhagen (76 km2 with 6 sub-catchments and 7 control points) using 2-h radar rainfall forecasts and inlet flows to control points computed from a variety of noisy...... smoothing. Simulations demonstrate notable improvements of the control efficiency when considering forecast information and additionally when considering forecast uncertainty, compared with optimization based on current basin fillings only....

  19. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  20. Estimating soil carbon change and biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions with economic, ecosystem and life-cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z.; Dunn, J.; Kwon, H. Y.; Mueller, S.; Wander, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production can alter soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of lands producing those crops and the crops they displace, possibly resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. LUC GHG emissions included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) have at times been estimated to be so great that biofuels did not offer a greenhouse gas reduction compared to conventional fossil fuels. To improve the accuracy of emissions estimates, SOC changes must be considered at a finer spatial resolution and take into account climate, soil, land use and management factors. This study reports on the incorporation of global LUC as predicted by a computable general equilibrium model (i.e., GTAP) and spatially-explicit modeled SOC estimates (using surrogate CENTURY) for various biofuel feedstock scenarios into a widely-used LCA model (i.e., GREET). Resulting estimates suggest: SOC changes associated with domestic corn production might contribute 2-6% or offset as much as 5% of total corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions. On the other hand, domestic LUC GHG emissions for switchgrass ethanol have the potential offset up to 60% of GHG emissions in the fuel's life cycle. Further, large SOC sequestration is predicted for Miscanthus feedstock production, enabling Miscanthus-based ethanol systems to offset all life-cycle GHG emissions and create a net carbon sink. LUC GHG emissions for ethanol derived from corn stover are small compared to other sources. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm soil) were estimated to be 59-66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -7 - -0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  1. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Pacific Northwest Economic and Electricity Use Forecast. Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-02-01

    This publication documents the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used to prepare BPA's Whitebook. It is divided into: intoduction, summary of 1993 Whitebook electricity demand forecast, conservation in the load forecast, projection of medium case electricity sales and underlying drivers, residential sector forecast, commercial sector forecast, industrial sector forecast, non-DSI industrial forecast, direct service industry forecast, and irrigation forecast. Four appendices are included: long-term forecasts, LTOUT forecast, rates and fuel price forecasts, and forecast ranges-calculations.

  2. Life cycle of Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) (Crustacea, Branchiopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, M N; Baldochi, A; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Conchostraca (clam shrimps) are a group of microcrustaceans found in freshwater habitats. They inhabit the benthos, yet many can swim actively and are often associated with macrophytes. They are filter-feeders, deriving their food from suspended particles or solids stirred up from the bottom. In Brazil, five species have been recorded and the life cycle of one of these, Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) was investigated in this study. Specimens were collected from fish-farming tanks in upstate São Paulo and from the floodplain of the Miranda River, in the Mato Grosso swamplands of center-west, Brazil. We determined the following variables: post-embryonic development, duration of life cycle (longevity), mean period between broods, duration of instars and individual growth. Taxonomic features of the Cyclestheria sp. specimens from Mato Grosso were also assessed to check the possibility that they belonged to another species of the same genus or a separate ecotype of C. hislopi.

  3. Externalities in a life cycle model with endogenous survival☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael; Wrzaczek, Stefan; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    We study socially vs individually optimal life cycle allocations of consumption and health, when individual health care curbs own mortality but also has a spillover effect on other persons’ survival. Such spillovers arise, for instance, when health care activity at aggregate level triggers improvements in treatment through learning-by-doing (positive externality) or a deterioration in the quality of care through congestion (negative externality). We combine an age-structured optimal control model at population level with a conventional life cycle model to derive the social and private value of life. We then examine how individual incentives deviate from social incentives and how they can be aligned by way of a transfer scheme. The age-patterns of socially and individually optimal health expenditures and the transfer rate are derived. Numerical analysis illustrates the working of our model.

  4. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack; Alting, Leo

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP...... the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current...... drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified....

  5. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  6. The Velocity of Money in a Life-Cycle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Wang, Yougui; Qiu, Hanqing

    2005-01-01

    The determinants of the velocity of money have been examined based on life-cycle hypothesis. The velocity of money can be expressed by reciprocal of the average value of holding time which is defined as interval between participating exchanges for one unit of money. This expression indicates that the velocity is governed by behavior patterns of economic agents and open a way to constructing micro-foundation of it. It is found that time pattern of income and expense for a representative individual can be obtained from a simple version of life-cycle model, and average holding time of money resulted from the individual's optimal choice depends on the expected length of relevant planning periods.

  7. Confronting product life thinking with product life cycle analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2001-01-01

    Industry is increasingly being confronted with the need to consider the whole life cycle effects of its products, in order to make environmental improvements of any significance. There is a danger that naive environmental decisions are made, due to apparent lack of data or actual lack of insight....... This paper describes a case study, where a class of students was presented with a product from the Danish company, Danfoss A/S, and given the task of carrying out an initial environmental evaluation of the product. This evaluation consisted of both a "life cycle check" and an exercise where the students were...... to "read" the environment out of the product, in order to systematically, quickly and efficiently come to some design recommendations for the company. The phrases "LCA" and "product life thinking" will be described and differentiated and a pattern identified for their cooperative effect in use....

  8. Life cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    Existing product life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating cause of environmental impacts. All studies focus on energy consumption and the dominating role of paper is primarily based on the energy-related impact categories global...... warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Ecotoxicity and human toxicity, which are related to emissions of chemicals etc., are only included to a limited degree or not at all. In this paper we include the impacts from chemicals emitted during the life cycle of sheet fed offset printed matter....... This is done by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used. In cases with available data also upstream emissions from the production of printing materials are included...

  9. Towards Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Assessment of Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    . The life cycle assessment (LCA) method has been verified as a systematic tool, which enables the fully assessment and complete comparison for the environmental impact among different bridge options through a life cycle manner. The study presented in this thesis is focused on railway bridges, as the LCA...... an overview introduction that serves as a supplementary description for this research work. It outlines the background theory, current development status, the LCA implementation into the railway bridges, as well as the developed excel-based LCA tool. Part two, includes three appended papers which provides...... of a bridge to fulfill the environmental requirements. Therefore, the development of LCA for railway bridges still needs further collaborative efforts from government, industry and research institutes....

  10. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  11. Life cycle assessment of capital goods related to waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts from the life cycle of products and systems were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool. Today most LCAs of waste management systems only considers the impacts from the operation of the system but neglects the environmental impacts from construction......, maintenance and demolition of capital goods. Capital goods are defined as buildings, machinery, trucks and infrastructure at the facility. A LCA was performed using two modelling programmes: Simapro and EASEWASTE. This paper assesses the importance of including capital goods when performing LCAs of waste...... incineration with efficient energy recovery. The environmental costs of the capital goods related to an incinerator was assessed and compared to the operation of the incinerator. The environmental loads from the capital goods were found to be insignificant compared to the benefits from the energy recovery from...

  12. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA AS A TOOL FOR BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the development of sustainable production systems leads organizations to seek the support of management tools for decision-making. Considering the whole life cycle of the product, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA has an important role in this scenario. The objective of this paper is to present, through the theoretical discussion, the role of LCA in strategic planning of the organization. It showed the enormous potential for decision making on the environmental aspect, but also the critical factor in the development shares in the competitive context. The use of LCA can reduce the environmental impacts of the system under study (primary purpose and guide the range of advantages in the fields of marketing, legislation and environmental labeling, competitive strategies, efficiency use of resources and others.

  13. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  14. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish--metagenesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-07-08

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  15. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  16. Evolutionary ecology of Odonata: a complex life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Most insects have a complex life cycle with ecologically different larval and adult stages. We present an ontogenetic perspective to analyze and summarize the complex life cycle of Odonata within an evolutionary ecology framework. Morphological, physiological, and behavioral pathways that generate carry-over effects across the aquatic egg and larval stages and the terrestrial adult stage are identified. We also highlight several mechanisms that can decouple life stages including compensatory mechanisms at the larval and adult stages, stressful and stochastic events during metamorphosis, and stressful environmental conditions at the adult stage that may overrule effects of environmental conditions in the preceding stage. We consider the implications of these findings for the evolution, selection, and fitness of odonates; underline the role of the identified numerical and carry-over effects in shaping population and metapopulation dynamics and the community structure across habitat boundaries; and discuss implications for applied conservation issues.

  17. Life cycle energy of single landed houses in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Building enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost and 14-17% of the total material mass. The direct as well as indirect influence of the enclosure materials plays an important role in the building life cycle energy. Single landed houses, the typical houses in Indonesia, have been chosen for this study. The life cycle energy of the house enclosures and energy consumed during their life spans shows intriguing results. The initial embodied energy of typical brick and clay roof enclosures is 45 GJ compared to the other typical walls and roof material (cement based) which is 46 GJ. However, over the 40 years life span of the houses, the clay based ones have a better energy performance than the cement based ones, 692 GJ versus 733 GJ, respectively. The material selection during the design phase is thus crucial since the buildings have at least 40-50 years' life span. (author)

  18. When Product Life Cycle Meets Customer Activity Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing companies have traditionally focused their efforts on designing, developing and producing products to offer on the market. Today global competition and demands for greater company responsibility of products throughout their entire life cycle are driving manufacturing companies...... of products throughout their life cycle by designing integrated solutions of products and services. This approach has been dubbed ‘product/service-systems (PSS)’ (Mont, 2004). Although relationship marketing and product/service-system design have their roots in each their own research fields - marketing...... approaches can be a step on the path to sustainable development as this will enable and motivate companies to reuse, rationalise and enhance their products and services more efficiently throughout their life phases (Manzini & Vezzoli, 2002). Based on a year’s participation and observation in a development...

  19. A system boundary identification method for life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    of processes considered, and the gradient of the fitting curve trends to zero gradually. According to the threshold rules, a relatively accurate system boundary could be obtained.It is found from this research that the system boundary curve describes the growth of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results......Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a product, process, or service. The scientific scope and boundary definition are important to ensure the accuracy of LCA results. Defining the boundary in LCA is difficult and there are no commonly...... accepted scientific methods yet. The objective of this research is to present a comprehensive discussion of system boundaries in LCA and to develop an appropriate boundary delimitation method.A product system is partitioned into the primary system and interrelated subsystems. The hierarchical relationship...

  20. A Literature review of life cycle assessment for bridge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the whole world is confronted with great challenges related to environmental issues. As a fundamentalinfrastructure in transport networks, railway bridges are responsible for numerous material and energy consumption throughtheir life cycle, which in turn leads to significant...... environmental burdens. However, present management of railway bridgeinfrastructures is mainly focused on the technical and financial aspects, whereas the environmental assessment is rarely integrated. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is deemed as a systematic method for also assessing the environmental impact...... of products and systems, but its application in railway bridge infrastructures is rare. Very limited literature and research studies are available in this area. In order to incorporate the implementation of LCA into railway bridges and set new design criteria, this article performs an elaborate literature...

  1. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    .g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept...... of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included......The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e...

  2. Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. This study presents a prospective life cycle assessment for the production of a sodium-ion battery with a layered transition metal oxide as a positive electrode material and hard carbon as a negative electrode material on the battery component level. The complete and transparent inventory data are disclosed, which can easily be used as a basis for future environmental assessments. Na-ion batteries are found ...

  3. Managing Life-Cycle Information of Aircraft Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    starting to implement Product Life Cycle Management ( PLM ), a closed-loop system that encompasses internationally standardized data-exchange technology...aircraft have much to gain from the use of tracking technologies in support of a PLM system. To investigate how efficiencies can be attained in the...missing the card. The problem stems from the lack of reliability of the card-based system. Moving to an automated PLM system would address these

  4. Technical Progress in Transport and the Tourism Area Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Kato; James Mak

    2010-01-01

    Richard ButlerÕs tourism area life cycle envisions tourism destinations to evolve in stages from exploration to rapid growth followed by slackening, stagnation, and even decline. The eventual slow-down in tourism growth is attributed to the destinations reaching their physical and social carrying capacities. This article examines the evolution of Hawaii as a tourism destination from 1922 to 2009. We demonstrate that tourism growth in Hawaii has declined but not because the destination has rea...

  5. Planning Social Expenses by Product Life Cycle Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Shvets

    2013-01-01

    Social spending is among the components of the total cost of every unit produced. Their planning and valuation is appropriate for the purpose of reaching the maximum social effect against the minimum costs of the business resources. For estimation of social costs as well as for defining their internal structure, the Article suggests keeping records and planning social costs by the product life cycle stages. According to the author, the proposed method of cost planning will make it possible to...

  6. Economy Meets Environment: An Integrated Life Cycle Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Floegl; Christina Ipser; Susanne Geissler; Hildegund Mötzl; Ulrike Radosch

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research project LEKOECOS is to quantify the environmental and economic resources consumed by a building during planning, construction and in the utilisation and operation stage. The complexity of the utilisation process over the long life span requires a calculation model with well-orchestrated normative definitions and idealisations. The presented environmental-economical model is based on the life cycle costs model LEKOS, developed by the Danube University Krems, and t...

  7. Blackboard Architecture Programming for Product Life Cycle Stage Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere, D

    2008-01-01

    The product life cycle concept suggests that a product passes through four stages of evolution: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. As the product evolves and passes through these four stages, profit is affected, and different strategies have to be employed to ensure that the product is a success within its market, therefore there is a need to define in time in which of the stages the product is at the moment. The blackboard architecture can be successfully used for the de...

  8. Life cycle analysis on the design of induction motors

    OpenAIRE

    Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Martínez Piera, Eusebio; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Herein is reported an application of life cycle analysis (LCA), using the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy Using Products (MEEUP), in order to assess the influence of some design parameters in the environmental impact of three-phase induction motors. A motor design procedure to minimize the total environmental impact, based on data obtained from commercial motors, is presented. This procedure is specially intended for the low power range due to the greater potential for e...

  9. Life-cycle assessment of international vacation packages

    OpenAIRE

    Veselkova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to perform a Life Cycle Assessment in order to explore environmental impacts associated with a vacation package. It identified the phases of the holiday that generated the largest impact, the most significant impact categories and quantified the impacts generated. The results of LCA have demonstrated that impacts from the vacation package occur in all of the eighteen midpoint impact categories, with the largest contributions from air travel and electricity consumption. Fu...

  10. Life Cycle Evolution and Systematics of Campanulariid Hydrozoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci 89: 8750-8753. Brock MA. 1970. Ultrastructural studies on the life cycle of a short...lab, genomic DNA was extracted using DNEasy extraction kits (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s protocol. The entire 18S rDNA and portions of...primarily in temperate and boreal regions, with Laomedea pseudodichotoma, found only off the tropical west coast of Africa (Vervoort, 1959), as the

  11. Life-Cycle Finance and the Design of Pension Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie; Jérôme Detemple; Marcel Rindisbacher

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific literature on consumer financial decisions over the life cycle, outlining its implications for the design of pension plans. It begins with a review of advances in the theory of rational financial planning and wealth management. It then summarizes the recent empirical literature on the actual behavior of households regarding saving, investing, and insuring their consumption in old age. Finally, it briefly comments on the practical implications of the theo...

  12. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sarancha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the life cycle assessment method and introduces opportunities for method performance in healthcare system settings. LSA draws attention to careful use of resources, environmental, human and social responsibility. Modelling of environmental and technological inputs allows optimizing performance of the system. Various factors and parameters that may influence effectiveness of different sectors in healthcare system are detected. Performance optimization of detected parameters could lead to better system functioning, higher patient safety, economic sustainability and reduce resources consumption.

  13. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long QIU; Alexander B.TAYLOR; Hilarv A.McMANUS

    2012-01-01

    All sexually reproducing eukaryotes have a life cycle consisting of a haploid and a diploid phase,marked by meiosis and syngamy (fertilization).Each phase is adapted to certain environmental conditions.In land plants,the recently reconstructed phylogeny indicates that the life cycle has evolved from a condition with a dominant free-living haploid gametophyte to one with a dominant free-living diploid sporophyte.The latter condition allows plants to produce more genotypic diversity by harnessing the diversity-generating power of meiosis and fertilization,and is selectively favored as more solar energy is fixed and fed into the biosystem on earth and the environment becomes more heterogeneous entropically.Liverworts occupy an important position for understanding the origin of the diploid generation in the life cycle of land plants.Hornworts and lycophytes represent critical extant transitional groups in the change from the gametophyte to the sporophyte as the independent free-living generation.Seed plants,with the most elaborate sporophyte and the most reduced gametophyte (except the megagametophyte in many gymnosperms),have the best developed sexual reproduction system that can be matched only by mammals among eukaryotes:an ancient and stable sex determination mechanism (heterospory) that enhances outcrossing,a highly bimodal and skewed distribution of sperm and egg numbers,a male-driven mutation system,female specialization in mutation selection and nourishment of the offspring,and well developed internal fertilization.The study of evolution of the land plant life cycle requires a multidisciplinary approach that considers morphology,development,genetics,phylogeny,ecology,and evolution in an integrated fashion,and will deepen our understanding of plant evolution.

  14. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nuss

    Full Text Available We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining. For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use, and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories.

  15. New Approaches in Usable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lean NPD practices (many) • Lean Production & Operations Practices (many) • Supply Chain Operations Reference ( SCOR ) Model , Best Practices Make Deliver...NEW APPROACHES IN REUSABLE BOOSTER SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE COST MODELING Edgar Zapata National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center...Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC

  16. Metracker version 1.5: Life-cycle performance metricstracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2002-01-17

    Buildings often do not perform as well in practice as expected during pre-design planning, nor as intended at the design stage, nor even as measured during commissioning and maintenance operations. While this statement is generally considered to be true, it is difficult to quantify the impacts and long-term economic implications of a building in which performance does not meet expectations. This leads to a building process that is devoid of quantitative feedback that could be used to detect and correct problems both in an individual building and in the building process itself. A key element in this situation is the lack of a standardized method for documenting and communicating information about the intended and actual performance of a building. This deficiency leads to several shortcomings in the life-cycle management of building information. Planners have no means of clearly specifying their expectations. Designers do not concisely document their design intent. Commissioning personnel have no standardized method for documenting the results of performance testing. Post-occupancy building performance cannot readily be compared to expectations in an attempt to evaluate and improve design and operation decisions. Lastly, without quantification of the magnitude of performance problems it is difficult to motivate building process participants to alter their current practice. This document describes an information management concept and a prototype tool based on this concept that has been developed to address this situation. The Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) has been designed to manage a wide range of building related information across the life cycle of a building project. Metracker is a prototype implementation of BLISS based on the International Alliance for Interoperability's (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The IFC is an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry

  17. Life cycle reversion of Laodicea undulata (Hydrozoa, Leptomedusae) from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    久保田, 信

    2006-01-01

    A mature medusa of Laodicea undulata collected at Okinawa Island, Japan, displayed life cycle reversion, i. e. direct transformation to the polyp stage. The morphology of the reverted polyp is briefly described. This species appears to be the second potentially immortal animal in the Metazoa, after another hydromedusa Turritopsis nutricula, although the present polyp colony, comprising a maximum of 4 zooids despite a wide extension of stolons, degenerated after 5 months without producing a ne...

  18. Life cycle of phytoreoviruses visualized by electron microscopy and tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eMiyazaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice dwarf virus (RDV and Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV, members of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, are known as agents of rice disease, because their spread results in substantial economic damage in many Asian countries. These viruses are transmitted via insect vectors, and they multiply both in the plants and in the insect vectors. Structural information about the viruses and their interactions with cellular components in the life cycle are essential for understanding viral infection and replication mechanisms. The life cycle of the viruses involves various cellular events such as cell entry, synthesis of viral genome and proteins, assembly of viral components, viral egress from infected cells, and intra- and inter-cellular transports. This review focuses on the major events underlying the life cycle of phytoreoviruses, which has been visualized by various EM imaging techniques, including cryo-electron microscopy and tomography, and demonstrates the advantage of the advanced EM imaging techniques to investigate the viral infection and replication mechanisms.

  19. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S

    2016-11-01

    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).

  20. Environmental sustainability modeling with exergy methodology for building life cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘猛; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    As an important human activity,the building industry has created comfortable space for living and work,and at the same time brought considerable pollution and huge consumption of energy and recourses. From 1990s after the first building environmental assessment model-BREEAM was released in the UK,a number of assessment models were formulated as analytical and practical in methodology respectively. This paper aims to introduce a generic model of exergy assessment on environmental impact of building life cycle,taking into consideration of previous models and focusing on natural environment as well as building life cycle,and three environmental impacts will be analyzed,namely energy embodied exergy,resource chemical exergy and abatement exergy on energy consumption,resource consumption and pollutant discharge respectively. The model of exergy assessment on environmental impact of building life cycle thus formulated contains two sub-models,one from the aspect of building energy utilization,and the other from building materials use. Combining theories by ecologists such as Odum,building environmental sustainability modeling with exergy methodology is put forward with the index of exergy footprint of building environmental impacts.

  1. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  2. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as −28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Life cycle assessment of products and technologies. LCA Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, H.; Nors, M. (eds.)

    2009-12-15

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland organised a Symposium 'Life Cycle Assessment of Products and Technologies' on the 6th of October, 2009. The Symposium gave a good overview of methods, tools and applications of Life Cycle Assessment developed and utilised in several technology fields of VTT. The 12 Symposium papers deal with recent LCA studies on products and technologies. The scope ranges from beverage cups to urban planning, from inventory databases to rating systems. Topical issues relating to climate change concern biorefineries and the overall impacts of the utilisation of biomass. The calculation of carbon footprints is also introduced through paper products and magazines. One example of LCA tools developed at VTT addresses cement manufacturing. VTT's transport emission database, LIPASTO, was introduced in detail. The use of LCA methods and life cycle thinking is described in various contexts: product development in relation to precision instruments; selection of materials and work processes in relation to sediment remediation project; and procedures of sustainability rating through VTT's office building Digitalo. The Climate Bonus project presented a demonstrated ICT support that informs about the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprints of households. (orig.)

  4. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections.

  5. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  6. Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Worthington, J.C. (Sybase, Inc. (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

  7. Life cycle assessment-driven selection of industrial ecology strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Fulvio; Cellura, Maurizio; Lo Brano, Valerio; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an application of the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the planning and environmental management of an “eco-industrial cluster.” A feasibility study of industrial symbiosis in southern Italy is carried out, where interlinked companies share subproducts and scraps, services, structures, and plants to reduce the related environmental impact. In particular, the research focuses on new recycling solutions to create open recycling loops in which plastic subproducts and scraps are transferred to external production systems. The main environmental benefits are the reduction of resource depletion, air emissions, and landfilled wastes. The proposed strategies are also economically viable and they suggest cost abatement for the involved companies. This research shows the need for a multidisciplinary approach to data processing and to complexity managing of the investigated systems. In this context, life-cycle thinking is required to be promoted throughout the economy, as well to be as a part of all decisions on products and other criteria such as functionality, health, and safety. The Life-Cycle Assessment approach can be assumed as a methodology for influencing decision makers to make sustainable choices.

  8. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  9. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  10. Failure of engineering artifacts: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Frate, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, is concerned with the moral and social aspects related to the causes and consequences of technological failures. But what is meant by failure, and what does it mean that a failure has occurred? The subject of this paper is how engineers use and define this notion. Although a traditional definition of failure can be identified that is shared by a large part of the engineering community, the literature shows that engineers are willing to consider as failures also events and circumstance that are at odds with this traditional definition. These cases violate one or more of three assumptions made by the traditional approach to failure. An alternative approach, inspired by the notion of product life cycle, is proposed which dispenses with these assumptions. Besides being able to address the traditional cases of failure, it can deal successfully with the problematic cases. The adoption of a life cycle perspective allows the introduction of a clearer notion of failure and allows a classification of failure phenomena that takes into account the roles of stakeholders involved in the various stages of a product life cycle.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara

    2016-09-01

      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  12. Forecast of Tourism Traffic Volume Based on Four Stages Forecast%基于四阶段法的旅游交通量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王頠; 王卫峰; 杜厚俊

    2011-01-01

    Highway tourism traffic is a very important part of road transportation. With the development of modern tourism, highway tourism traffic has become increasingly conspicuous in road transportation. However, there is a lack of effective prediction method for highway tourism traffic. The theory of four stages forecast is adopted in this paper. Taking the construction of highway in Lichuan and Wanzhou area as an example, based on comprehensive analysis of regional society and economy, tourist number and the development of tourism industry, predict regional highway tourism traffic amount. Based on analysis of distribution of highway tourism traffic volume in the basic year, the amount of each section is determined. The highway tourism traffic volume of Lichuan and Wanzhou area is efficiently forecasted.%公路旅游交通是公路交通运输业的重要组成部分,随着现代旅游业的发展,公路旅游交通在公路交通运输业中的地位日益显现,然而目前缺乏有效的预测公路旅游交通量的方法.采用四阶段分析理论,以利用和万州地区高速公路建设为分析对象,在分析区域社会经济、旅游人数和旅游产业发展趋势的基础上,预测区域旅游交通总量,在分析基年旅游交通量分布的基础上确定各路段的交通出行量,有效地预测了利用和万州地区高速公路建设中的旅游交通量.

  13. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  14. A novel Bass-type model for product life cycle quantification using aggregate market data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2014-01-01

    Product LifeCycle(PLC)isawidelyacceptedconceptthathasbeengivensignificant attentionin operations managementandmarketingliterature.However,itsquantification remainsamajor challenge. ThisstudyaimstodevelopauniqueandoriginalanalyticalmodelforquantifyingPLCsusing

  15. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle

  16. Controversial aspects of the life cycle of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amin

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a well-known helminth parasite, with significant economic and public health importance all over the world. It has been known since more than 630 years ago and a considerable research work has been carried out on the life cycle of this important parasite. In the hepatic phase of the life cycle of F. hepatica, it is assumed that the young flukes, after about 6-7 weeks of migration in the liver parenchyma, enter into the bile ducts of the definitive hosts and become sexually mature. Even though the secretion of cysteine peptidases including cathepsin L and B proteases by F. hepatica may justify this opinion, because of several scientific reasons and based on the experimental studies conducted in different animals (reviewed in this article), the entry of parasites into the bile ducts, after their migration in the liver parenchyma seems to be doubtful. However, considering all the facts relating to the hepatic and biliary phases of the life cycle of F. hepatica, two alternative ideas are suggested: 1) some of the migrating juvenile flukes may enter into the bile ducts immediately after reaching the liver parenchyma while they are still very small, or 2) when newly excysted juvenile flukes are penetrating into the intestinal wall to reach the liver through the abdominal cavity, a number of these flukes may enter into the choleduct and reach the hepatic bile ducts, where they mature. According to the previously performed natural and experimental studies in different animals and human beings, the supporting and opposing evidences for the current opinion as well as the evidences that might justify the two new ideas are reviewed and discussed briefly. In conclusion, our present knowledge about the time and quality of the entry of F. hepaticas into the bile ducts, seems to be insufficient, therefore, there are still some dark corners and unknown aspects in this field that should be clarified.

  17. Fabrication and life cycle assessment of organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Annick

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for renewable energy has resulted in a new interest for alternative technologies such as organic photovoltaics. With efficiencies exceeding 8% for both polymer and small molecule photovoltaics, organic photovoltaics are now being commercialized due to their flexibility and low weight which allow for their adoption in new applications such as portable electronics, smart fabrics, and building-integrated photovoltaics. To date, most research efforts have been focused on increasing power efficiency with little assessment of potential negative impacts associated with their large scale production. It is generally assumed that organic photovoltaics have low environmental impacts and are by nature inexpensive to produce since they are often solution processed. In the present work, a comprehensive analysis of the life cycle embodied energy for C60 and C70 fullerenes which are the most common acceptor molecules in organic photovoltaics, has been performed from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes. The embodied energy of all fullerenes was calculated to be an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals. These results have enabled the life cycle impact associated with the production of various types of organic photovoltaics to be calculated, including polymer, small molecule and multi-junction devices. An outcome of the life cycle assessment for organic photovoltaics shows that small molecule devices require significant fabrication energy from high vacuum processing and their efficiency is limited by poor absorption in the near-infrared (NIR). Therefore, a solution processing approach with novel NIR absorbing molecules in multi-junction devices has been developed in order to minimize the total cumulative energy. The combined efforts have led to the first demonstration of a spray-coated small molecule photovoltaic NIR device, using a combination of ZnPc and Al

  18. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  19. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics and tools for green buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Jennifer F; Lippiatt, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    Building sector stakeholders need compelling metrics, tools, data, and case studies to support major investments in sustainable technologies. Proponents of green building widely claim that buildings integrating sustainable technologies are cost effective, but often these claims are based on incomplete, anecdotal evidence that is difficult to reproduce and defend. The claims suffer from 2 main weaknesses: 1) buildings on which claims are based are not necessarily "green" in a science-based, life cycle assessment (LCA) sense and 2) measures of cost effectiveness often are not based on standard methods for measuring economic worth. Yet, the building industry demands compelling metrics to justify sustainable building designs. The problem is hard to solve because, until now, neither methods nor robust data supporting defensible business cases were available. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory is beginning to address these needs by developing metrics and tools for assessing the life cycle economic and environmental performance of buildings. Economic performance is measured with the use of standard life cycle costing methods. Environmental performance is measured by LCA methods that assess the "carbon footprint" of buildings, as well as 11 other sustainability metrics, including fossil fuel depletion, smog formation, water use, habitat alteration, indoor air quality, and effects on human health. Carbon efficiency ratios and other eco-efficiency metrics are established to yield science-based measures of the relative worth, or "business cases," for green buildings. Here, the approach is illustrated through a realistic building case study focused on different heating, ventilation, air conditioning technology energy efficiency. Additionally, the evolution of the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability multidisciplinary team and future plans in this area are described.

  20. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  1. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  2. Building effectiveness communication ratios for improved building life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, E.; Keane, M.; McCarthy, J. [Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE; O' Donnell, J. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE

    2005-07-01

    The construction and operation of buildings consumes 35 per cent of total U.S. energy production. Although the application of building energy simulation models in early design stages can significantly increase performance throughout the building life cycle, energy simulation modeling has not been widely adopted by the design community. The complexity and length of time needed to prepare energy models are considered to be barriers, as well as the lack of energy appraisal tools capable of modeling a wide spectrum of hybrid heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A performance-based strategy using building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building Information Models (BIM) was presented in this paper. The strategy aimed to link currently fragmented stages within the building life cycle. It was suggested that the ability to share and exchange information will reduce the amount of user time required for building simulation models. The proposed Building Energy Monitoring Analyzing and Communication (BEMAC) framework is an integrated environment that allows users to share data with other applications through an integrated data model. The data models allow each participant to employ tools specific to their needs without compromising or corrupting project data. Data values elicited from the model act as best-possible values. It was anticipated that by assigning spaces within the simulation model with proposed HVAC systems, reproductions of the energy use by these mechanical systems can contribute to overall energy data representation and analysis. Idealized Effectiveness Ratios and Performance Effectiveness Ratios were discussed in relation to a case study of the Glucksman Art Gallery at the National University of Ireland. Results indicated that the Idealized Effectiveness Ratio is applicable across the entire building life cycle, while the Performance Effectiveness Ratio allows facility managers to investigate the energy saving potential of the

  3. Integrated manure utilization system life-cycle value assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Neabel, D. [Pembina Inst. for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    A life-cycle assessment of the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Highmark Renewables' development of an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) were presented. The assessment focused on an evaluation of factors of primary importance to government, investors and the livestock industry. IMUS technology uses manure as a resource to produce electricity, heat, bio-based fertilizer and reusable water. Results of the assessment indicated that IMUS plants have the potential to be financially viable if a power purchase of $90 MWh on average can be purchased from a 30,000 head livestock operation. A capital cost of under $11 million is necessary, and an established biofertilizer price of $50 per tonne should be established. An IMUS plant was estimated to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 80 per cent when compared to land spreading. Reductions are accomplished through displacing electricity from the provincial grid and reducing nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from spreading of manure The IMUS plants lessen environment impacts by reducing the extraction and consumption of non-renewable resources, and by displacing an estimated 11,700 GJ of coal and natural gas per 1000 head of cattle per year. In addition, various pathogens within manure are eliminated. The plants have the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with the disposal of deadstock. The systems reduce manure odour, lessen truck traffic and are expected to contribute to rural economic diversification. Barriers to further implementation of IMUS were discussed, as well as emerging opportunities for IMUS developers. It was concluded that the initial assessments of the IMUS were positive. Further investigation is needed to determine actual life-cycle performance of the operations. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  5. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  6. Application of monetary valuation in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Pizzol, Massimo; Miguel, Brandão;

    Monetary valuation, or monetarisation, is the determination of the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. Although monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), in particular in the weighting phase, several challenges...... for LCA. For the two surveys, the total number of respondents was 209. The critial review showed that observed- and revealed-preference methods and the abatement cost method have limited applicability in LCA, whereas the conjoint analysis method and the budget constraint method are the best options...

  7. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Germana; Di Caprio, Giorgia; Fimia, Gian Maria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Marco; Alonzi, Tonino

    2016-02-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral persistence and pathogenesis are due to the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, mainly lipid metabolism and innate immunity. In particular, HCV exploits the lipoprotein machineries for almost all steps of its life cycle. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge concerning the interplay between HCV and lipoprotein metabolism. We discuss the role played by members of lipoproteins in HCV entry, replication and virion production.

  8. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. Theresults indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies overenergy......, cost-optimal “zero” energybalance accounts only for the building related energy use....... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin-Ioan Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases HCV infection becomes chronic, causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV affects the cholesterol homeostasis and at the molecular level, every step of the virus life cycle is intimately connected to lipid metabolism. In this review, we present an update on the lipids and apolipoproteins that are involved in the HCV infectious cycle steps: entry, replication and assembly. Moreover, the result of the assembly process is a lipoviroparticle, which represents a peculiarity of hepatitis C virion. This review illustrates an example of an intricate virus-host interaction governed by lipid metabolism.

  10. Uncertainties in life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to assess environmental performances of waste management systems in many studies. The uncertainties inherent to its results are often pointed out but not always quantified, which should be the case to ensure a good decisionmaking process. This paper proposes...... a method to assess all parameter uncertainties and quantify the overall uncertainty of the assessment. The method is exemplified in a case study, where the goal is to determine if anaerobic digestion of organic waste is more beneficial than incineration in Denmark, considering only the impact on global...

  11. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  12. Course Content for Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerswiet, Jack; Duflou, Joost; Dewulf, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to create an awareness of Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign in Engineering students. Topics covered in an LCE/EcoDesign course will create an awareness of environmental impacts, especially in other design course projects. This paper suggests that an awareness of product impact...... upon the environment must be created at an early stage in undergraduate education. Deciding what to include in an LCE/EcoDesign Course can be difficult because there are many different views on the subject. However, there are more similarities than differences. All LCE/ EcoDesign Engineering courses...

  13. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  14. Technology and manufacturing process selection the product life cycle perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pecas, Paulo; Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    This book provides specific topics intending to contribute to an improved knowledge on Technology Evaluation and Selection in a Life Cycle Perspectives. Although each chapter will present possible approaches and solutions, there are no recipes for success. Each reader will find his/her balance in applying the different topics to his/her own specific situation. Case studies presented throughout will help in deciding what fits best to each situation, but most of all any ultimate success will come out of the interplay between the available solutions and the specific problem or opportunity the reader is faced with.

  15. A New Model for the Organizational Knowledge Life Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Lella, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Actual organizations, in particular the ones which operate in evolving and distributed environments, need advanced frameworks for the management of the knowledge life cycle. These systems have to be based on the social relations which constitute the pattern of collaboration ties of the organization. We demonstrate here, with the aid of a model taken from the theory of graphs, that it is possible to provide the conditions for an effective knowledge management. A right way could be to involve the actors with the highest betweeness centrality in the generation of discussion groups. This solution allows the externalization of tacit knowledge, the preservation of knowledge and the raise of innovation processes.

  16. Ethical aspects of life cycle assessments of diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Since the turn of the century a growing chorus of researchers has been espousing reduced meat and dairy intake as a partial strategy to transition towards a sustainable food system. Many of these studies have been predicated on a life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and though transparent...... in communicating their work within that framework, it has largely gone unmentioned that LCA involves a number of choices by the assessor and LCA methodology developers that are ultimately subjective. This study uses a consequential LCA of the average Danish diet in comparison to model vegetarian and vegan diets...

  17. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...... be described as a variance simulation based on individual data points used in an LCA. This article develops and proposes a taxonomy for LCAs based on extensive research in the LCA, management, and economic literature. This taxonomy can be used ex ante to support planning and communication between an AN and DM...

  18. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle, Book 3: Activity Analysis - The Deliverables provides a comprehensive coverage of the deliverables of activity analysis. The book also details purpose of each deliverable in the context of the next tasks in the systems development cycle (SDC). The text first covers the concept of deliverables and the benefits of making deliverables visible. In the second chapter, the book introduces the main concepts and diagrammatic techniques of activity analysis. The third chapter deals with the important classes or categories of concept, while the fourth

  19. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle...

  20. LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verones, Francesca; Bare, Jane; Bulle, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Increasing needs for decision support and advances in scientific knowledge within life cycle assessment (LCA) led to substantial efforts to provide global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators under the auspices of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. As part o...

  1. Technological and regulatory aspects of quality management during the life cycle of investment and construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kropyvko Serhii Maksymovych

    2016-01-01

    The division of the life cycle of investment and construction projects in four phases, based on their technological features, is proposed in the article. Regulatory aspects of quality management during each phase of the life cycle of investment and construction projects are analyzed. The model of quality management during the phases of the life cycle of investment and construction project is developed.

  2. THE COST FOR THE ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE OF THE PRODUCT RESPECTING QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Man; Vladimir Modrak; Ioan Constantin Dima; Piotr Pachura

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues concerning life cycle of products. Taking into account the limitation of the life cycle of products and strategic investments that require the use of certain technologies, the decision of setting forth a new product on the market should rely upon the costs of its life cycle.

  3. The value of the exergetic life cycle assessment besides the LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.L.; Hirs, Gerard G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the value of the exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) has been analysed. The ELCA uses the framework of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and can be seen as the exergy analysis of a complete life cycle. The value of the ELCA besides the LCA has been discussed. It is shown that the ELCA

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  5. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Newcombe

    Full Text Available Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  6. Host cell kinases and the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Lupberger, Joachim; Doerig, Christian; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relies on virus-host interactions with human hepatocytes, a context in which host cell kinases play critical roles in every step of the HCV life cycle. During viral entry, cellular kinases, including EGFR, EphA2 and PKA, regulate the localization of host HCV entry factors and induce receptor complex assembly. Following virion internalization, viral genomes replicate on endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranous webs. The formation of membranous webs depends on interactions between the HCV NS5a protein and PI4KIIIα. The phosphorylation status of NS5a, regulated by PI4KIIIα, CKI and other kinases, also acts as a molecular switch to virion assembly, which takes place on lipid droplets. The formation of lipid droplets is enhanced by HCV activation of IKKα. In view of the multiple crucial steps in the viral life cycle that are mediated by host cell kinases, these enzymes also represent complementary targets for antiviral therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  8. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  9. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  11. Chromatinization of the KSHV Genome During the KSHV Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppal, Timsy [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, 1664 N Virginia Street, MS 320, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Jha, Hem C. [Department of Microbiology and the Tumor Virology Program of the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 201E Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Verma, Subhash C. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, 1664 N Virginia Street, MS 320, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Robertson, Erle S., E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology and the Tumor Virology Program of the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 201E Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) belongs to the gamma herpesvirus family and is the causative agent of various lymphoproliferative diseases in humans. KSHV, like other herpesviruses, establishes life-long latent infection with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated by both the viral and cellular factors. Recent advancements in identifying the expression profiles of viral transcripts, using tilling arrays and next generation sequencing have identified additional coding and non-coding transcripts in the KSHV genome. Determining the functions of these transcripts will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by KSHV in altering cellular pathways involved in promoting cell growth and tumorigenesis. Replication of the viral genome is critical in maintaining the existing copies of the viral episomes during both latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle. The replication of the viral episome is facilitated by viral components responsible for recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes and replication factors for altering the chromatin complexity and replication initiation functions, respectively. Importantly, chromatin modification of the viral genome plays a crucial role in determining whether the viral genome will persist as latent episome or undergo lytic reactivation. Additionally, chromatinization of the incoming virion DNA, which lacks chromatin structure, in the target cells during primary infection, helps in establishing latent infection. Here, we discuss the recent advancements on our understating of KSHV genome chromatinization and the consequences of chromatin modifications on viral life cycle.

  12. Support for life-cycle product reuse in NASA's SSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.

  13. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  14. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  15. Life cycle methodology for copper : allocation and recycling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobling-Reisemann, S. [Bremen Univ., Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Production Engineering; Tikana, L.; Sievers, H.; Klassert, A. [Deutsches Kupferinstitut, Dusseldorf (Germany). Life Cycle Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of different methodologies available for recycling and assessing the life cycles of copper ores. Approaches towards allocation in life cycle assessments (LCA) included detailed modelling; system expansion; physical allocation; economic allocation; and subsequent-use allocation. Approaches towards recycling included system expansion, cut-off approaches, open loop approach; value corrected substitution; and the cascade approach. Sulphuric acid and steam are produced as by-products during copper production, and most copper ores contain molybdenum, gold, silver, and nickel. The environmental impacts of copper by-products must be considered when conducting LCAs. Existing standards allow different implementation methods for recycling and allocation into metal LCAs, and the selection of a methodology can significantly influence the ecological profile of copper and copper products. Allocation is needed when processes with more than 1 function are investigated. ISO standards recommend avoiding allocation problems by using detailed system modelling. Allocation factors should be chosen that reflect the physical relationship between the functional units produced and their associated environmental burdens. Case studies were presented to demonstrate allocations of co- and byproducts and recycling in copper production. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  17. Concepts and tools for the software life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-10-01

    The life cycle process for large software-intensive systems is an extremely intricate and complex process involving many people performing amid a very large base of evolving computer programs, documentation and data. To be successful, the process must be well conceived, planned and conducted; however, the nature of scientific and other high-technology projects involving large-scale software is such that conceptualization, planning and implementation to the degree of detail required is so laborintensive and unmotivating as to be counter-productive and seldom cost-effective. The tools, techniques and aids needed to engineer, manage and administrate a large software-intensive task are themselves parts of a large software base, and are incurred only at great expense. This paper focuses on the needs of the software life cycle in terms of supporting tools and methodologies. The concept of a distributed network for engineering, management and administrative functions for engineering, management and administrative functions is outlined, and the key characteristics of localized subnets in high-communications-traffic areas of software activity are discussed. A formal, deliberate, structured, systems-engineered approach toward the construction of uniform, coordinated tools is proposed as a means to reduce development and maintenance costs, foster creativity, enhance reliability, promote standardization and sustain human motivation.

  18. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres.

  19. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Gerphagnon

    Full Text Available Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids. However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes, spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  20. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  1. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  2. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  4. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-01-01

    Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes), spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  5. Mexican Bottom of Barrel Life Cycle environmental improvement proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Fernandez, Georgina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Growing economies have the dual challenge of economical and industrial growing, but in a sustainable way and with protection of Ecosystems, all prior requirements are a must that are either satisfied or Human Kind will suffer the irreparable loss of Earth Biosphere. Prospective studies show that for the period 1990-2010 the petroleum will be heavier and richer in sulphur. In order to make a more sustainable use of Mexican heavy petroleum the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil can be modified through the proposal of producing an activated carbon (CAFOB) from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and Mexican petroleum coke applied in the flue gases desulphuration, therefore, experimental activated carbon was made from Mexican petroleum vacuums residue and petroleum coke and desulphuration adsorption tests of a synthetic flue gas mixture similar in composition to flue gases produced from the burning of Mexican heavy fuel oil were made. Commercial activated carbons were used as reference materials. The CAFOB180M experimental activated carbon showed a good desulphuration capacity compared to commercial activated carbon, showing its potentiality in the process of evolving the actual 'Life Cycle' of Mexican Bottom of Barrel crude oil to a more sustainable one. (author)

  6. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Recycling: Mathematical and Graphical Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakatani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical framework of the life cycle inventory (LCI analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA of recycling is systematically reviewed with the aid of graphical interpretation. First, the zero burden approach, which has been applied to LCI analyses of waste management systems, is theoretically justified in terms of relative comparison of waste management options. As recycling is a multi-functional system including the dual functions of waste management and secondary material production, the allocation issue needs to be handled in LCIs of recycling, and two forms of system expansion, i.e., the avoided burden and product basket approaches, have dominated to avoid the allocation problem. Then, it is demonstrated that conclusions derived from both approaches should mathematically be identical as far as system boundaries are correctly defined. A criticism against system expansion is also reviewed from the viewpoint of ambiguity of what-if scenarios. As an approach to this issue, market-based consequential LCA is discussed in the context of LCI analyses of open-loop recycling.

  7. e-Commerce security – A life cycle approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sengupta; C Mazumdar; M S Barik

    2005-04-01

    The rapid evolution of computing and communication technologies and their standardizations have made the boom in e-commerce possible. Lowering of the cost of operation, increase in the speed of transactions, and easy global reach to customers and vendors have been the reasons for the overwhelming popularity of this new way of commerce. This article examines the issues related to the security of the assets and transactions in the e-commerce components and activities. Since large public money is involved in the transactions, the role of information security and privacy is not exaggerated in this kind of business. After examining the technologies used in e-commerce, the article goes on to identify the security requirement of ecommerce systems from perceived threats and vulnerabilities. Then e-commerce security is viewed as an engineering management problem and a life cycle approach is put forward. How the e-commerce systems can be made secure using the life cycle approach is outlined. The relevant standards and laws are also discussed in the perspective of e-commerce. The article closes with some future research directions and conclusions.

  8. An Agent-Based Model of Institutional Life-Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Wäckerle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We use an agent-based model to investigate the interdependent dynamics between individual agency and emergent socioeconomic structure, leading to institutional change in a generic way. Our model simulates the emergence and exit of institutional units, understood as generic governed social structures. We show how endogenized trust and exogenously given leader authority influences institutional change, i.e., diversity in institutional life-cycles. It turns out that these governed institutions (destructure in cyclical patterns dependent on the overall evolution of trust in the artificial society, while at the same time, influencing this evolution by supporting social learning. Simulation results indicate three scenarios of institutional life-cycles. Institutions may, (1 build up very fast and freeze the artificial society in a stable but fearful pattern (ordered system; (2 exist only for a short time, leading to a very trusty society (highly fluctuating system; and (3 structure in cyclical patterns over time and support social learning due to cumulative causation of societal trust (complex system.

  9. A Spatio-Temporal Building Exposure Database and Information Life-Cycle Management Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing volume and complexity of data collected from a variety of sources, the efficient management of geospatial information becomes a key topic in disaster risk management. For example, the representation of assets exposed to natural disasters is subjected to changes throughout the different phases of risk management reaching from pre-disaster mitigation to the response after an event and the long-term recovery of affected assets. Spatio-temporal changes need to be integrated into a sound conceptual and technological framework able to deal with data coming from different sources, at varying scales, and changing in space and time. Especially managing the information life-cycle, the integration of heterogeneous information and the distributed versioning and release of geospatial information are important topics that need to become essential parts of modern exposure modelling solutions. The main purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual and technological framework to tackle the requirements implied by disaster risk management for describing exposed assets in space and time. An information life-cycle management solution is proposed, based on a relational spatio-temporal database model coupled with Git and GeoGig repositories for distributed versioning. Two application scenarios focusing on the modelling of residential building stocks are presented to show the capabilities of the implemented solution. A prototype database model is shared on GitHub along with the necessary scenario data.

  10. Studying the effect on system preference by varying coproduct allocation in creating life-cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary Ann

    2007-10-15

    How one models the input and output data for a life-cycle assessment (LCA) can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, specific guidance is still lacking: Earlier research focused on the effects of applying various allocation schemes to industrial processes when creating life-cycle inventories. To determine the impact of different allocation approaches upon product choice, this study evaluated the gas- and water-phase emissions during the production, distribution, and use of three hypothetical fuel systems (data that represent conventional gasoline and gasoline with 8.7 and 85% ethanol were used as the basis for modeling). This paper presents an explanation of the allocation issue and the results from testing various allocation schemes (weight, volume, market value, energy, and demand-based) when viewed across the entire system. Impact indicators for global warming, ozone depletion, and human health noncancer (water impact) were lower for the ethanol-containing fuels, while impact indicators for acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, human health criteria, and photochemical smog were lower for conventional gasoline (impacts for the water-related human health cancer category showed mixed results). The relative ranking of conventional gasoline in relation to the ethanol-containing fuels was consistent in all instances, suggesting that, in this case study, the choice of allocation methodology had no impact on indicating which fuel has lower environmental impacts.

  11. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  12. Life cycle management and assessment: approaches and visions towards sustainable manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Alting, Leo; Arndt, Günther

    2000-01-01

    Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only mean extended responsibility of the parties concerned. Economically successful business areas can also be explored. Whether new service...... concepts are required, new regulations have been passed or consumer values are changing, the differences between business areas are disappearing. Life cycle management (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, manufacturing and life cycle activities...

  13. Life cycle energy analysis of reclaimed water reuse projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; C Chang, Andrew; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output life cycle analysis to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on sewage discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, we apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  14. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle: A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically, i

  15. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle: A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically,

  16. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results.

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  18. Life cycle assessment of an SOFC/GT process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olausson, Pernilla

    1999-06-01

    For the last few years much effort has been put into the research on different kinds of fuel cells, since these are considered to be both an efficient and environment friendly way to convert energy. The fuel cell studied here is the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that works at a high temperature (800-1000 C) and today achieves a stand-alone electric efficiency of approximately 50%. When integrating the SOFC in a gas turbine process (SOFC/GT process) an efficiency of 70-75% can be reached. The SOFC and the SOFC/GT process are considered to be environment friendly regarding the discharges during operation. Especially formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is low since the SOFC temperatures are low compared to NO{sub x} formation temperatures. To study the whole environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process a life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out to find the `hot spots` in the process` life cycle. Since the SOFC/GT process is under development today the collected data are mainly from literature and articles based on laboratory results. When performing the LCA only the SOFC-module and the gas turbine are included. A collection of data of all processes included, extraction of minerals, processing of raw material, production of the components, operation of the SOFC/GT process and transports between all these processes. These data are then added up and weighted in impact categories to evaluate the total environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process. All these steps are performed according to the ISO 14040-series. The stand-alone most contributing phase during the life cycle of the SOFC/GT process was found to be the production of the SOFC. All processes during the production of the SOFC are carried out under laboratory circumstances, which require more energy and materials than if the processes were commercialised and optimised. For the SOFC/GT process to be competitive with other energy converting processes regarding the discharges of emissions to the air, the use of

  19. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  1. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En-vironmental...... conditions. It is concluded that the conceptual background and the purpose of the tools are different but that there are overlaps where they may benefit from each other and they do complement each other in an overall environmental effort....... Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...

  2. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Evaluation of life cycle inventory data for recycling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Damgaard, Anders; Jensen, Morten Bang

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews databases on material recycling (primary as well as secondary production) used in life cycle assessments (LCA) of waste management systems. A total of 366 datasets, from 1980 to 2010 and covering 14 materials, were collected from databases and reports. Totals for CO2-equivalent...... emissions were compared to illustrate variations in the data. It was hypothesised that emissions from material production and the recycling industry had decreased over time due to increasing regulation, energy costs and process optimisation, but the reported datasets did not reveal such a general trend...... the primary production of newsprint, HDPE and glass were 238%, 443% and 452%, respectively. For steel and aluminium the differences were 1761% and 235%, respectively. There is a severe lack of data for some recycled materials; for example, only one dataset existed for secondary cardboard. The study shows...

  4. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  6. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... on the complete product integrated polymer solar cell. We have compared this portable lighting system with other lighting solutions, namely: a kerosene lamp in a remote rural area in Africa (Ethiopia), as a replacement of a silicon PV based lamp, in place of a torch with non-rechargeable lead-acid battery...

  7. Comparing life cycle assessments of different biofuel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Yuan, Juhong

    2013-06-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has shown that first generation biofuels provide a little to no benefit for greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions compared to petroleum fuels, particularly when indirect effects are considered. Second generation fuels are intended to achieve greater GHG reductions and avoid other sustainability issues. LCAs of second generation biofuels exhibit great variability and uncertainty, leading to inconclusive results for the performance of particular pathways (combinations of feedstocks and fuels). Variability arises in part because of the prospective nature of LCAs for future fuels; however, a review of recent articles on biofuel LCA methodology indicates two additional sources of variability: real sources such as spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and methodological sources such as choices for co-product allocation methods and system boundary definition.

  8. Concepts and Tools for the Software Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The tools, techniques, and aids needed to engineer, manage, and administer a large software-intensive task are themselves parts of a large softwaare base, and are incurred only at great expense. The needs of the software life cycle in terms of such supporting tools and methodologies are highlighted. The concept of a distributed network for engineering, management, and administrative functions is outlined, and the key characteristics of localized subnets in high-communications-traffic areas of software activity are discussed. A formal, deliberate, structured, systems-engineering approach for the construction of a uniform, coordinated tool set is proposed as a means to reduce development and maintenance costs, foster adaptability, enhance reliability, and promote standardization.

  9. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...

  10. A method for reducing software life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, W. O.; Holland, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The advent of new hardware and software tools permits a new approach to preparing, presenting, and maintaining software specifications and corresponding source programs. Any real reduction in software life cycle costs must make highly skilled human effort more efficient especially on large, complex, and long-lasting software projects. When these skilled human functions are examined closely, it is seen that critical factors include the way one communicates with oneself and then with others and finally with computers. Thus, there has been a long and active proliferation of programming languages and, more recently, a number of programming design languages to supplement older methods, such as flowcharting. One way to achieve cost reduction is to provide documentation tools whose use increases the effectiveness of skilled humans.

  11. Multi-life cycles utilization of retired satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Retired geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellites affect the GEO orbit environment in outer space. According to the new concept of modern design, the authors propose creatively a method of reusing retired GEO communication satellites, through adjusting retired GEO satellites to slightly inclined orbit geosynchronous (SIGSO) satellites. After these retired satellites are applied to the navigation and communication system, integrity of navigation system and positioning accuracy of the system is improved. Meanwhile, some transponders on these retired satellites can be used to establish a new satellite communication service, and initiate the study and utilization of the multi-life cycle for retired satellites. Experimental results show that this project has significant social value and can make remarkable economic benefit.

  12. Multi-life cycles utilization of retired satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI HuLi; AI GuoXiang; HAN YanBen; MA LiHua; CHEN JiBin; GENG JianPing

    2009-01-01

    Retired geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellites affect the GEO orbit environment in outer apace.According to the new concept of modern design,the authors propose creatively a method of reusing retired GEO communication satellites,through adjusting retired GEO satellites to slightly inclined orbit geosynchronous (SIGSO) satellites.After these retired satellites are applied to the navigation and communication system,integrity of navigation system and positioning accuracy of the system is improved.Meanwhile,some transponders on these retired satellites can be used to establish a new satellite communication service,and initiate the study and utilization of the multi-life cycle for retired satellites.Experimental results show that this project has significant social value and can make remarkable economic benefit.

  13. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. The results indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies over energy......, cost-optimal “zero” energy balance accounts only for the building related energy use....... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  14. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal...... capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...

  15. Life cycle assessment and additives: state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concerns about possible toxic effects from additives/impurities accumulated in globally recycled waste/resources like paper and plastics was one of the main reasons for starting up the EU FP7 Coordination Action project RiskCycle (www.wadef.com/projects/riskcycle). A key aim of the project...... is to identify research needs within this area focusing on both risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). Besides the sectors on paper and plastics also lubricants, textiles, electronics and leather are included in RiskCycle. On plastics a literature review regarding the state of knowledge...... on additives/impurities in LCA has been performed within RiskCycle. Several inventory databases (LCI data) have been investigated and the result shows that most LCI databases use PlasticsEurope data for plastics production. Most of these data are aggregated and do not include additives. Regarding...

  16. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  17. Capabilities For Modelling Of Conversion Processes In Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Zarrin, Bahram; Tonini, Davide

    Life cycle assessment was traditionally used for modelling of product design and optimization. This is also seen in the conventional LCA software which is optimized for the modelling of single materials streams of a homogeneous nature that is assembled into a final product. There has therefore been...... little focus on the chemical composition of the functional flows, as flows in the models have mainly been tracked on a mass basis, as emphasis was the function of the product and not the chemical composition of said product. Conversely, in modelling of environmental technologies, such as wastewater...... considering how the biochemical parameters change through a process chain. A good example of this is bio-refinery processes where different residual biomass products are converted through different steps into the final energy product. Here it is necessary to know the stoichiometry of the different products...

  18. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    -scale environmental impacts. In parallel, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as a widely used and recommended framework to assess environmental impacts of products, including globalscale impacts. For over a decade, LCA has been applied to seafood supply chains, leading to new insights into the environmental...... impact of seafood products. We present insights from seafood LCA research with particular focus on evaluating fisheries management, which strongly influences the environmental impact of seafood products. Further, we suggest tangible ways in which LCA could be taken up in management. By identifying trade......-offs, LCA can be a useful decision support tool and avoids problem shifting from one concern (or activity) to another. The integrated, product-based and quantitative perspective brought by LCA could complement existing tools. One example is to follow up fuel use of fishing, as the production and combustion...

  19. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... lost (mortality) and years of impaired life (morbidity). Qualitative severity approaches tend to arrange potency-based indicators in categories, avoiding the need to quantitatively express differences in severity. Based on the proposed criteria and current state of the knowledge, toxicological potency...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment and the Environmental Certification Systems of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Bueno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment (LCA is an important methodology for the assessment of building components and systems and should be used within the building environmental performance certification systems. The present paper reports on the state of the art of LCA as a tool for the assessment of building components and analyzes its application in the environmental certification systems of building. The analysis of the existing systems for the environmental certification of buildings has revealed that among the four main and most employed systems of environmental certification of buildings currently used, Green Globes is the only one which uses the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of building components. The other systems use the assessment of building components by the recognition of product attributes, such as cost, durability, renewability and recycled content. The weakness of the attributes approach lies in the fact that these attributes are treated in isolation and lack the whole concept of impact.

  1. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  2. Life cycle assessment of offshore and onshore sited wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    This report makes up the final reporting for the project 'Life cycle assessment (LCA) of turbines Analysis of possibilities of product directed environmental optimisation'. The purpose of the project is to carry through a life cycle assessment of an offshore wind farm and an onshore wind farm, respectively, as a basis for assessment of environmental improvement possibilities for wind farms through their life cycles. Likewise, the results are used to elaborate an environmental declaration of contents for power delivered to the grid from both types of wind farms. The project states the environmental impact for electricity produced at Horns Reef offshore wind farm and Tjaereborg onshore wind farm, respectively, as representatives for contemporary Danish offshore wind farms and onshore wind farms, respectively. Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed at an utmost favourably location with regard to wind, which means that the production at this wind farm is high compared with other onshore wind farms in Denmark. The high production rate is a factor that is taken into account when assessing the impact on the environment emanating from this wind farm. The results of the environmental life cycle assessments that have been carried out for the two wind farms do not show significant variance. If it is taken into account that Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed utmost favourably, the comparison shows that power from an average located onshore wind farm would have a more adverse or corresponding environmental impact as an unfavourably located offshore wind farm. The results show that it is the turbines that causes the largest environmental impact and not to a very high extent the transmission grid. For the turbines, the all-important environmental contribution comes from manufacturing and removal of the turbines, as it is the materials that cause the large environmental strain. The operation of the wind farms gives practically no contribution to the total

  3. Investigation on life cycle assessment of lead and zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabere Nazari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead and zinc production is one of the main predisposing factors of excessive greenhouse gases emissions, air pollution and water consumption. In this paper, the environmental problems of lead and zinc production in Calcimin plant are expressed and life cycle assessment of this plant is assessed. The data regarding the amount of induced global warming and pollution, acidification, and depletion of water resources were collected and discussed. It was concluded that depletion of water resources affected the environment and this was the main issue of the lead and zinc production of this plant. According to the results, in the global warming’s impact category, the proportion of carbon dioxide is more than that of methane. The results also showed that in the acidification’s impact category, the nitrogen oxide proportion is greater compared to that of the sulfur dioxide.

  4. Reliability and life-cycle analysis of deteriorating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and critically discusses modern engineering system degradation models and their impact on engineering decisions. In particular, the authors focus on modeling the uncertain nature of degradation considering both conceptual discussions and formal mathematical formulations. It also describes the basics concepts and the various modeling aspects of life-cycle analysis (LCA).  It highlights the role of degradation in LCA and defines optimum design and operation parameters. Given the relationship between operational decisions and the performance of the system’s condition over time, maintenance models are also discussed. The concepts and models presented have applications in a large variety of engineering fields such as Civil, Environmental, Industrial, Electrical and Mechanical engineering. However, special emphasis is given to problems related to large infrastructure systems. The book is intended to be used both as a reference resource for researchers and practitioners and as an academic text ...

  5. Research on Standard Flow for materials life cycle assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Xiang-hua; NIE Zuo-ren; WANG Zhi-hong; ZUO Tie-yong

    2004-01-01

    For the sake of objectivity of the interpretation in life cycle assessment (LCA), the concept and the design proposal of Standard Flow were put forward. Standard Flow was defined as the collection of related environmental load parameters that represent the specific development degree of certain industrial process(es) by the function unit. A novel methodological approach called the Standard Flow Comparing, was developed for LCA. The indicator for potential of process improvement and its weighting factor were derived. To a certain degree the problem of the identification and selection of process development objects in LCA was solved. The concept of Standard Flow and the method of Standard Flow Comparing are introduced, formulized and analyzed.

  6. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, Shveta; Borjesson, Pal; Sharma, Pankaj K; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively. Electricity production from straw replaces the coal based electricity and resulted in benefits in most of the environmental impacts whereas use as an animal fodder resulted in eutrophication benefits. The burning of straw is a harmful practice of managing straw in India which can be avoided by utilizing straw for bioenergy.

  7. Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baranzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, Modigliani proposed a theory of spending in which people make intelligent choices about their spending at each age limited by the resources available over their lives. By using assets and debts, working people can provide for their retirement and tailor their spending to their needs at each age independent of income at each age. The theory predicts that national saving depends on the growth of national income, not its level, and that aggregate wealth depends on the length of retirement. Fifty years later, the life-cycle hypothesis remains an essential part of economists' thinking. Without it, we would have much less to say about the private and public provision of social security, the effects of the stock market on the economy, the effects of demographic change on national saving, the role of saving in economic growth, and the determinants of national wealth.

  8. A Simulation Model for the Waterfall Software Development Life Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Software development life cycle or SDLC for short is a methodology for designing, building, and maintaining information and industrial systems. So far, there exist many SDLC models, one of which is the Waterfall model which comprises five phases to be completed sequentially in order to develop a software solution. However, SDLC of software systems has always encountered problems and limitations that resulted in significant budget overruns, late or suspended deliveries, and dissatisfied clients. The major reason for these deficiencies is that project directors are not wisely assigning the required number of workers and resources on the various activities of the SDLC. Consequently, some SDLC phases with insufficient resources may be delayed; while, others with excess resources may be idled, leading to a bottleneck between the arrival and delivery of projects and to a failure in delivering an operational product on time and within budget. This paper proposes a simulation model for the Waterfall development proce...

  9. Life cycle detection of prestress in large prestressed reinforcement structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiu-mei; DU Yan-liang; SUN Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    To monitor the stress state of prestressed reinforcement in large reinforcement prestressed structure, two sensing structures, namely the direct spiral-winding structure and sawtooth modulated structure, were designed based on the ordinary communication optical fiber. The sensing theories were analyzed, and the experimental studies were also carried out. The quasi-distributed sensing system based on optical time domain reflective technology was established. The detection wavelength and spatial resolution were analyzed, and the estimation formula of maximal number of sensing point was also given. The results show that the system can realize the quasi-distributed test of measurand with single fiber, which helps to simplify the in-out wires. Moreover it can take on the important task of long-term and continuous monitoring of prestress, which helps to realize the life cycle detection of prestress, and play an important role in the estimating of bridge health state.

  10. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts......Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  11. Life cycle assessment of edible insects for food protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    . However, to obtain a true assessment of this, more information is needed about the production systems. Currently, only six studies applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) method to insect production systems have been published. The studies are heterogenous and thus difficult to compare. The aim...... of this paper was to establish a versatile reference framework that would allow for the selection of standardized settings for LCA applications in insect production systems, taking both the peculiarity of each system and the latest developments in food LCA into account. It is recommended that future LCAs...... of insect production systems take the following into account: (1) clear definition of the insect species and life stages included in the LCA, (2) use of at least two of the following types of functional units: nutritional, mass, or economic-based, (3) collection of empirical data in situ (e.g., on farms...

  12. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results......, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing...... waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely...

  13. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  14. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  15. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  16. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  17. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  18. Feature Based Machining Process Planning Modeling and Integration for Life Cycle Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changyi

    2006-01-01

    Machining process data is the core of computer aided process planning application systems. It is also provides essential content for product life cycle engineering. The character of CAPP that supports product LCE and virtual manufacturing is analyzed. The structure and content of machining process data concerning green manufacturing is also examined. A logic model of Machining Process Data has been built based on an object oriented approach, using UML technology and a physical model of machining process data that utilizes XML technology. To realize the integration of design and process, an approach based on graph-based volume decomposition was apposed. Instead, to solve the problem of generation in the machining process, case-based reasoning and rule-based reasoning have been applied synthetically. Finally, the integration framework and interface that deal with the CAPP integration with CAD, CAM, PDM, and ERP are discussed.

  19. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  20. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.