WorldWideScience

Sample records for life test approach

  1. Bayesian Approach for Constant-Stress Accelerated Life Testing for Kumaraswamy Weibull Distribution with Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd-Alla EL-Helbawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated life tests provide quick information on the life time distributions by testing materials or products at higher than basic conditional levels of stress such as pressure, high temperature, vibration, voltage or load to induce failures. In this paper, the acceleration model assumed is log linear model. Constant stress tests are discussed based on Type I and Type II censoring. The Kumaraswmay Weibull distribution is used. The estimators of the parameters, reliability, hazard rate functions and p-th percentile at normal condition, low stress, and high stress are obtained. In addition, credible intervals for parameters of the models are constructed. Optimum test plan are designed. Some numerical studies are used to solve the complicated integrals such as Laplace and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

  2. A Tale of Two Chambers: Iterative Approaches and Lessons Learned from Life Support Systems Testing in Altitude Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The drive for the journey to Mars is in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and life support systems to take humans to the Red Planet. The journey that development hardware takes before its final incarnation in a fully integrated spacecraft can take years, as is the case for the Orion environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Through the Pressure Integrated Suit Test (PIST) series, NASA personnel at Johnson Space Center have been characterizing the behavior of a closed loop ECLSS in the event of cabin depressurization. This kind of testing - one of the most hazardous activities performed at JSC - requires an iterative approach, increasing in complexity and hazards). The PIST series, conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) 11-ft Chamber, started with unmanned test precursors before moving to a human-in-the-loop phase, and continues to evolve with the eventual goal of a qualification test for the final system that will be installed on Orion. Meanwhile, the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program is an effort to research and develop technologies that will work in concert to support habitation on Mars. September 2015 marked the first unmanned HESTIA test, with the goal of characterizing how ECLSS technologies work together in a closed environment. HESTIA will culminate in crewed testing, but it can benefit from the lessons learned from another test that is farther ahead in its development and life cycle. Discussing PIST and HESTIA, this paper illustrates how we approach testing, the kind of information that facility teams need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful testing, and how we can apply what we learn to execute future tests.

  3. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  4. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  6. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    ELC – Extended Life Coolant SCA – Supplemental Coolant Additive SOW – Scope of Work SwRI – Southwest Research Institute TARDEC – Tank Automotive...ethylene or propylene glycol and 35% extended life coolant #1 (ELC1) with a balance of water. At a higher ELC1 content of 45% or 50%, the mass loss...UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 478 by Gregory A. T. Hansen Edwin A

  7. Life Before Tests: A District's Coordinated Health Approach for Addressing Children's Full Range of Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, depression, abuse of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Sugary snacks and drinks, vending machines, obesity and bullying. Guns, gang violence, school shootings and test scores. Teen-age birth rates, one-parent households, lack of health or dental care, and, dropouts. All of these issues are interconnected and intertwined with education…

  8. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  9. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the

  10. A systems approach to water recovery testing for space life support - Initial biomedical results from the ECLSS Water Recovery Test and plans for testbed utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Laurie A.; Crump, William J.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Among the challenges of designing and constructing Space Station Freedom is the development of the water system. A review of past efforts in reclaiming waste water in enclosed environments reveals that there are many gaps in the biomedical understanding of this process. Some of the key uncertainties of human interaction with a closed water system include determining potential contaminants and establishing safe levels of multiple compounds in the enclosed system of Space Station. Another uncertainty is the microbial constituency of such a system and what impact it could have on crew health and performance. The use of iodine as the passive biocide may have both an indirect and direct impact on the crew. In this paper the initial results of the Water Recovery Test are reviewed from a biomedical perspective, revealing areas where more information is needed to develop the ECLSS water system. By including the approach of 'man as a subsystem', consideration is given to how man interacts with the total water system. Taking this systems approach to providing the crew with a safe source of water gives useful insight into the most efficient design and utilization of closed system testbeds.

  11. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  12. Integrated Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Will; Liechty, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a testing methodology undertaken on the Facilities Development and Operations Contract (FDOC) by Lockheed Martin. The methodology was defined with the intent of reducing project schedule time to enable NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to be able to deliver the Mission Control Center (MCC) 21 project as quickly as possible. 21 represents the 21st century where NASA JSC is updating its control center with new technology and operational concepts in order to support NASA customers wanting to use control center assets to support space vehicle operations. In collaboration with the NASA customer, a new test concept was conceived early during MCC21 project planning with the goal of reducing project delivery time. One enabler that could help reduce delivery time was testing. Within the project, testing was performed by two entities, software development responsible for subsystem testing and system test responsible for system integration testing. The MCC21 project took a deliberate review of testing to determine how it could be performed differently to realize an overall reduction in test time to support the goal of a more rapid project delivery.

  13. APPROACHES TO QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSISQUANTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa E. Danilina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews different approaches to quality of life measurement used in Russian and international statistics. It outlines the essence of J. Stiglitz’s recommendations on development of quality of life statistical indicators, analyses proposals and practical application of innovative approaches of quality of life measurement by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE. The paper reviews Rosstat’s (Russian Federal State Statistics Service new research as well as an independent research in the area of quality of life research. The authors make proposals to extend the list of aspects analyzed an quality of life research and underline the importance of such a review through regional specifics. They suggest extending the system of quality of life statistical indicators by certain coefficients characterizing economic development disparity and its influence on the quality of life.

  14. Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.

  15. Ni-MH storage test and cycle life test

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, R. Dan; Klein, Glenn C.; Schmidt, David F.

    1994-02-01

    Gates Aerospace Batteries is conducting two long term test programs to fully characterize the NiMH cell technology for aerospace applications. The first program analyzes the effects of long term storage upon cell performance. The second program analyzes cycle life testing and preliminary production lot testing. This paper summarizes these approaches to testing the NiMH couple and culminates with initial storage and testing recommendations. Long term storage presents challenges to deter the adverse condition of capacity fade in NiMH cells. Elevated but stabilized pressures and elevated but stabilized end-of-charge voltages also appear to be a characteristic phenomenon of long term storage modes. However, the performance degradation is dependent upon specific characteristics of the metal-hydride alloy. To date, there is no objective evidence with which to recommend the proper method for storage and handling of NiMH cells upon shipment. This is particularly critical due to limited data points that indicate open circuit storage at room temperature for 60 to 90 days will result in irrecoverable capacity loss. Accordingly a test plan was developed to determine what method of mid-term to long-term storage will prevent irrecoverable capacity loss. The explicit assumption is that trickle charging at some rate above the self-discharge rate will prevent the irreversible chemical changes to the negative electrode that result in the irrecoverable capacity loss. Another premise is that lower storage temperatures, typically 0 C for aerospace customers, will impede any negative chemical reactions. Three different trickle charge rates are expected to yield a fairly flat response with respect to recoverable capacity versus baseline cells in two different modes of open circuit. Specific attributes monitored include: end-of-charge voltage, end-of-charge pressure, mid-point discharge voltage, capacity, and end-of-discharge pressure. Cycle life testing and preliminary production lot

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Accelerated Life Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hua; WANG Ya-shun; CHEN Xun; WEN Xi-sen

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated life test (ALT) is an important branch of reliability test and is a focus of research both for statisticians and reliability engineers. The paper outlines the four topics of study embodied in ALT: statistical analysis of constant-stress test, step-stress test and progressive stress test, and optimal design of ALT. It gives a general review of engineering applications of ALT, and points out some possible directions in ALT, gives some suggestions for further study.

  17. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  18. The ROF+ methodology for grease life testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Pieter Martin; van den Kommer, A.; Lindgren, H.; Deinhofer, L.

    2013-01-01

    Very often, the service life of grease lubricated rolling bearings is determined by the so called “grease life”. This can be tested on R0F test rigs, which have been available for this since more than 40 years. Recently, this technology has been updated and is now called R0F+. The R0F+ can be used a

  19. LIFE PREDICTION APPROACH FOR RANDOM MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Wang Dejun

    2005-01-01

    According to the concept of critical plane, a life prediction approach for random multiaxial fatigue is presented. First, the critical plane under the multiaxial random loading is determined based on the concept of the weight-averaged maximum shear strain direction. Then the shear and normal strain histories on the determined critical plane are calculated and taken as the subject of multiaxial load simplifying and multiaxial cycle counting. Furthermore, a multiaxial fatigue life prediction model including the parameters resulted from multiaxial cycle counting is presented and applied to calculating the fatigue damage generated from each cycle. Finally, the cumulative damage is added up using Miner's linear rule, and the fatigue prediction life is given. The experiments under multiaxial loading blocks are used for the verification of the proposed method. The prediction has a good correction with the experimental results.

  20. An artificial life approach to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, D

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that an Artificial Life approach to language tends to change the research agenda on language which has been shared by both the symbolic paradigm and classical connectionism. Artificial Life Neural Networks (ALNNs) are different from classical connectionist networks because they interact with an independent physical environment; are subject to evolutionary, developmental, and cultural change, and not only to learning; and are part of organisms that have a physical body, have a life (are born, develop, and die), and are members of genetic and sometimes, cultural populations. Using ALNNs to study language shifts the emphasis from research on linguistic forms and laboratory-like tasks to the investigation of the emergence and transmission of language, the use of language, its role in cognition, and language as a populational rather than as an individual phenomenon.

  1. Apparent life threatening events (ALTE: diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Manuel Toro-Monjaraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTE are a form of clinical presen- tation of various problems or diseases in children under one year of age. A frequency of 0.6/1000 newborns is estimated. In Mexico, there is no known incidence, systematic approach or guidelines for hospital discharge, so we performed a literature review. Its etiology may be gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine or-idiopathic. The detailed history and physical examination provide an outline to select the laboratory and imaging studies to perform.

  2. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Approach to the Patient with Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Cadena, Rhonda S; Pineda, Jose

    2015-12-01

    Coma is an acute failure of neuronal systems governing arousal and awareness and represents a medical emergency. When encountering a comatose patient, the clinician must have an organized approach to detect easily remediable causes, prevent ongoing neurologic injury, and determine a hierarchical plan for diagnostic tests, treatments, and neuromonitoring. Coma was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because timely medical and surgical interventions can be life-saving, and the initial work-up of such patients is critical to establishing a correct diagnosis.

  3. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lag......The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected...... with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval...... development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development and the sediment concentrations of some metals (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), acid-volatile sulphides (AVS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  4. Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Collette

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT is a solution for assessing thereliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS. A procedure for QALT is shownin this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMSaccelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combinedtests: thermal (high temperature and mechanical stress. Two variants of mechanical stressare used: vibration (at a fixed frequency and tilting. Original equipment for testing at tiltingand high temperature is used. Tilting is appropriate as application-driven stress, because thetilt movement is a natural environment for devices used for automotive and aerospaceapplications. Also, tilting is used by MEMS accelerometers for anti-theft systems. The testresults demonstrated the excellent reliability of the studied devices, the failure rate in the“worst case” being smaller than 10-7h-1.

  5. ON THE DISTRIBUTION THEORY FOR SOME CONSTRAINED LIFE TESTING EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RELIABILITY, *TEST METHODS, * DISTRIBUTION THEORY , MATHEMATICAL MODELS, STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DECISION THEORY, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS, THESES.

  6. Two approaches to the study of the origin of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares two approaches that attempt to explain the origin of life, or biogenesis. The more established approach is one based on chemical principles, whereas a new, yet not widely known approach begins from a physical perspective. According to the first approach, life would have begun wit

  7. Clarifying substituted judgement: the endorsed life approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John; Wendler, David

    2015-09-01

    A primary goal of clinical practice is to respect patient autonomy. To promote this goal for patients who have lost the ability to make their own decisions, commentators recommend that surrogates make their treatment decisions based on the substituted judgment standard. This standard is commonly interpreted as directing surrogates to make the decision the patient would have made in the circumstances, if the patient were competent. However, recent commentators have argued that this approach--attempting to make the decision the patient would have made if competent--is theoretically problematic, practically infeasible, and ignores the interests of the patient's family and loved ones. These commentators conclude that the substituted judgment standard should be revised significantly, or abandoned altogether. While this response would avoid the cited problems, it also would require substantial changes to clinical practice and would raise significant problems of its own. The present paper thus considers the possibility that the criticisms do not point to problems with the substituted judgment standard itself; instead, they point to problems with the way it is most commonly interpreted. This analysis suggests that the substituted judgment standard need not be dramatically revised or abandoned. Instead, it should be interpreted in a way that effectively promotes respect for the autonomy of incompetent patients. The 'endorsed life' interpretation described here helps clinicians and surrogates to achieve this important goal. To clarify this approach, we explain how it differs from three other recently proposed alternatives to the standard interpretation of the substituted judgment standard.

  8. Optimal life-style mix: an inductive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven

    2009-01-01

    There are three approaches to assessing life balance: (a) assessing how well the reality of a person’s life fits preconceptions of what a balanced life should be, (b) assessing how balanced people think their own life is, and (c) assessing which lifestyle mixes yield the most happiness. In theory, t

  9. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  10. Life cycle test of the NOXSO process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.T.; Haslbeck, J.L.; Neal, L.G.

    1990-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data generated by the NOXSO Life Cycle Test Unit (LCTU). The NOXSO process is a dry flue gas treatment system that employs a reusable sorbent. The sorbent consists of sodium carbonate impregnated on a high-surface-area gamma alumina. A fluidized bed of sorbent simultaneously removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas at a temperature of 250{degrees}F. The spent sorbent is regenerated for reuse by treatment at high temperature with a reducing gas. This regeneration reduces sorbed sulfur compounds to SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and elemental sulfur. The SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are then converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus-type reactor. The sulfur produced is a marketable by-product of the process. Absorbed nitrogen oxides are decomposed and evolved on heating the sorbent to regeneration temperature.

  11. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemons, T. G.; Riddell, W. T.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Wawrzynek, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate NASCRAC (trademark) version 2.0, a second generation fracture analysis code, for verification and validity. NASCRAC was evaluated using a combination of comparisons to the literature, closed-form solutions, numerical analyses, and tests. Several limitations and minor errors were detected. Additionally, a number of major flaws were discovered. These major flaws were generally due to application of a specific method or theory, not due to programming logic. Results are presented for the following program capabilities: K versus a, J versus a, crack opening area, life calculation due to fatigue crack growth, tolerable crack size, proof test logic, tearing instability, creep crack growth, crack transitioning, crack retardation due to overloads, and elastic-plastic stress redistribution. It is concluded that the code is an acceptable fracture tool for K solutions of simplified geometries, for a limited number of J and crack opening area solutions, and for fatigue crack propagation with the Paris equation and constant amplitude loads when the Paris equation is applicable.

  12. Antirandom Testing: A Distance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hui Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random testing requires each test to be selected randomly regardless of the tests previously applied. This paper introduces the concept of antirandom testing where each test applied is chosen such that its total distance from all previous tests is maximum. This spans the test vector space to the maximum extent possible for a given number of vectors. An algorithm for generating antirandom tests is presented. Compared with traditional pseudorandom testing, antirandom testing is found to be very effective when a high-fault coverage needs to be achieved with a limited number of test vectors. The superiority of the new approach is even more significant for testing bridging faults.

  13. Forecasting method of fatigue life test data for metal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀亮; 邱显焱; 谭冠军

    2001-01-01

    GM(1, 1) model of grey system theory is used to forecast fatigue life test data for metal materials. The method can reduce test time and save test cost, and reliability indexes of metal materials can be obtained quickly. The results of an example show that grey system theory has a high precision for forecasting fatigue life test data for metal materials. A valuable method is put forward, which can effectively reduce the fatigue life test time for metal materials.

  14. A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, JCW

    2000-01-01

    Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

  15. Integrative Life Planning: A Holistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sunny Sundal

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief description of integrative life planning (ILP), the career theory/concept created in the 1990s by the author. It describes what she calls "the heart of ILP," the 6 critical life tasks and their applications.

  16. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  17. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The IR environment of the space craft varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. The result is a situation where a radiator sized for the maximal heat load in the most adverse situation is subject to freezing on the dark side of the orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when there is too much being produced by the space craft to reject to space, and then feeding that energy back into the thermal loop when conditions are more favorable. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration LLO missions. In order to validate the performance of PCM Heat Exchangers, a life test is being conducted on four n-Pentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed.

  18. Origins of Life Research: a Bibliometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Taşkın, Zehra

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc.), and popular journals (Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres and Astrobiology) for OoL research are identified. Moreover, interdisciplinary research conducted through research networks, institutions (NASA, Caltech, University of Arizona, University of Washington, CNRS, etc.), and keywords & concepts (astrobiology, life, Mars, amino acid, prebiotic chemistry, evolution, RNA) are explored.

  19. Certain Generalisations of Bartholomew's Problem in Life Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1971-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain generalisations of the Bartholomew's problem in Life testing have been discussed namely when a number of items are placed on test at different times, when the life of times follows normal distribution and when items with two components are placed on test.

  20. Environmental education - an approach based on the concept of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fourie

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education is described as an enterprise aiming at a philosophy of life and therefore as a matter of life. This suggests the concept of life as a natural foundation for an approach to environmental education. Therefore a reflection on the phenomenon of life is offered in which the 'philosophy of life' or vitalist philosophy is reviewed. It is argued that life is a multi-levelled phenomenon and that a monolithic view of life is inadequate. A functional definition of life is proposed in which the microbiological description of life, its link with the abiotic aspect of reality, its other relationships and its spiritual potential are respected. This is used as the ground for an exemplary discussion of life at the levels suggested by the philosophical reflection, viz. life and the individual (which concentrates mainly on the biological aspect, life and the community (concentrating on the social aspect, life and the ecosystem (concentrating primarily on the relationship between abiotic and biotic, and life and the cosmos (which reaches the limit of the authors' task. The need for an ethic is related to these levels and the idea of responsibility is developed with recourse to ancient texts in which comparable ethical implications for the environment are contained. Finally, some practical suggestions are made for implementing the results of the argument in environmental education.

  1. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  2. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  3. Life History Approach: Biographies and psycho-societal Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    -societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning...... in intended as well as unintended learning, in formal education as well as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind......, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho...

  4. Life and Quantum Biology, an Interdisciplinary Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Driessen, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly increasing interest in the quantum properties of living matter stimulates a discussion of the fundamental properties of life as well as quantum mechanics. In this discussion often concepts are used that originate in philosophy. In the present work a classic philosophical tradition based on Aristotle and Aquinas is employed which surprisingly is able to make important aspects in science intelligible. Especially one could mention the unity in living objects and the occurrence of qualitative changes in quantum mechanics. It is recommended that scientists and philosophers have a strong interaction that enriches both. Scientists could redirect their investigation, as paradigm shifts like the one originating from quantum mechanics give new insight about the relation between the system en the components. Whereas philosophers could use scientific results as a consistency check for the philosophical framework for understanding reality.

  5. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated Life Test (ALT) has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, accelera...

  6. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  7. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemmons, T. G.; Lambert, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Verification and validation of the basic information capabilities in NASCRAC has been completed. The basic information includes computation of K versus a, J versus a, and crack opening area versus a. These quantities represent building blocks which NASCRAC uses in its other computations such as fatigue crack life and tearing instability. Several methods were used to verify and validate the basic information capabilities. The simple configurations such as the compact tension specimen and a crack in a finite plate were verified and validated versus handbook solutions for simple loads. For general loads using weight functions, offline integration using standard FORTRAN routines was performed. For more complicated configurations such as corner cracks and semielliptical cracks, NASCRAC solutions were verified and validated versus published results and finite element analyses. A few minor problems were identified in the basic information capabilities of the simple configurations. In the more complicated configurations, significant differences between NASCRAC and reference solutions were observed because NASCRAC calculates its solutions as averaged values across the entire crack front whereas the reference solutions were computed for a single point.

  8. Benchmark Tests for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-house test capability has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive testing to aid the development of analytical life prediction methodology and to experimentally aid in verification of the flight-design component's life. The new facility includes two test rigs that are performing creep testing of the SRG heater head pressure vessel test articles at design temperature and with wall stresses ranging from operating level to seven times that (see the following photograph).

  9. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  10. Fatigue Life Analysis of Cantilever Probe on Wafer Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Te-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research utilizes the finite element analysis software (ANSYS to stimulate the different probe material quality (tungsten, SUS304 stainless steel, SUS316L stainless steel and SKD11 tool steel, respectively during wafer tests. Under a room temperature of (25°C, the stress and fatigue life (cycles of probing test of the cantilever probe were measured with an OverDriver (OD of 20µm, 40µm, 50µm, 60µm and 80µm, respectively. First, to obtain the magnitude of pinpoint shift of the probe under wafer test and the OverDriver is 50µm. And, calculate the fatigue life of the probe. Then, a probe model with the same characteristics as the experiment is created and the probe fatigue life analyzed with the ANSYS. After the reliability of the model is ascertained, the wafer tests of different probe materials are stimulated under different OverDriver circumstances to calculate its stress and fatigue life. The results indicate that the greatest stress measured during the wafer test of the tungsten, SUS304 stainless steel, SUS316L stainless steel and SKD11 tool steel cantilever probe are all smaller than the yield strength, and the fatigue life could reach over one hundred K cycles. When catalogued by the cantilever probe fatigue life during one hundred K cycles, the life span, in order, is tungsten < SUS316L stainless steel < SUS304 stainless steel < SKD11 tool steel.

  11. Benchmark notch test for life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domas, P. A.; Yau, J.; Sharpe, W. N.; Ward, M.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft gas turbine engine components are subjected to severe stress, temperature, and environmental conditions. Economic and reliabilty demands have prompted inordinate effort in development of analytic methods to predict stresses and strains in aircraft engines. There remains, however, the need to check or verify these analytical methodologies against actual experimental data measurements. The laser interferometric strain displacement gage was recognized as having the potential to accomplish this task and was employed in this program. The actual strains incurred at the root of a discontinuity in cyclically loaded test samples subjected to inelastic deformation at high temperature where creep deformation readily occur were measured. The steady-state, cyclic stress-strain response at the root of the discontinuity in the tested samples was analyzed for comparison with the measured results. A comprehensive set of local notch root strain measurements for a variety of load patterns in an Inconel 718 notch specimen at 649 C (1200 F) was obtained and documented using the laser interferometric strain displacement gage.

  12. Life Prediction on a T700 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cylinder with Limited Accelerated Life Testing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated life testing investigation was conducted on a composite cylinder that consists of aluminum alloy and T700 carbon fiber. The ultimate failure stress predictions of cylinders were obtained by the mixing rule and verified by the blasting static pressure method. Based on the stress prediction of cylinder under working conditions, the constant stress accelerated life test of the cylinder was designed. However, the failure data cannot be sufficiently obtained by the accelerated life test due to the time limitation. Therefore, most of the data presented to be high censored in high stress level and zero-failure data in low stress level. When using the traditional method for rupture life prediction, the results showed to be of lower confidence. In this study, the consistency of failure mechanism for carbon fiber and cylinder was analyzed firstly. According to the analysis result, the statistical test information of carbon fiber could be utilized for the accelerated model constitution. Then, rupture life prediction method for cylinder was proposed based on the accelerated life test data and carbon fiber test data. In this way, the life prediction accuracy of cylinder could be improved obviously, and the results showed that the accuracy of this method increased by 35%.

  13. Battery Technology Life Verification Test Manual Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this Technology Life Verification Test (TLVT) Manual is to help guide developers in their effort to successfully commercialize advanced energy storage devices such as battery and ultracapacitor technologies. The experimental design and data analysis discussed herein are focused on automotive applications based on the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV, HEV, and PHEV, respectively) performance targets. However, the methodology can be equally applied to other applications as well. This manual supersedes the February 2005 version of the TLVT Manual (Reference 1). It includes criteria for statistically-based life test matrix designs as well as requirements for test data analysis and reporting. Calendar life modeling and estimation techniques, including a user’s guide to the corresponding software tool is now provided in the Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual (Reference 2).

  14. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: we consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: Mission-specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  15. Regulation Of Hydraulic Fracturing In South Africa: A Project Life-Cycle Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note deals with the 2015 regulations pertaining to hydraulic fracturing in South Africa from a project life-cycle approach. A brief history of the fragmentation of the regulation of environmental and mining related matters is provided, followed by a discussion of the application of the 2015 regulations during the project life cycle, ie the pre-commencement phase, the design and authorisation phase, the testing phase, the operational phase and the decommissioning and closure phase.

  16. A Semiotic Approach to Food and Ethics in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how food can be analysed in terms of signs and codes of everyday life, and especially how food can be used to express ethical concerns. The paper investigates the potential of a semiotic conceptual analysis: How can the semiotic approach be used to analyse...... expressions of ethics and food ethics in everyday life? The intention is to explore from a theoretical point of view and with constructed cases, how semiotics can be used to analyse the role of food as an expression of ethics in everyday life among families, friends and colleagues: How do foodstuffs function...... as signs of ethics in everyday life? How is food used to send signals about care and concern? How are the signs of food ethics perceived? It is concluded that analysing ethical considerations with respect to food with the help of the semiotic model can show us perspectives that otherwise would be difficult...

  17. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...

  18. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximow, B.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerated life test of sufficient duration to generate a minimum of 50% cumulative failures in lots of CMOS devices was conducted to provide a basis for determining the consistency of activation energy at 250 C. An investigation was made to determine whether any thresholds were exceeded during the high temperature testing, which could trigger failure mechanisms unique to that temperature. The usefulness of the 250 C temperature test as a predictor of long term reliability was evaluated.

  19. Quantitative accelerated degradation testing: Practical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein, E-mail: seyed-h.mohammadian.1@ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada) and Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Ait-Kadi, Daoud, E-mail: Daoud.Aitkadi@gmc.ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Routhier, Francois, E-mail: Francois.Routhier@rea.ulaval.c [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The concept of accelerated testing by tracking degradation of samples over test time needs to be developed for reliability estimation. This paper aims at proposing practical approaches to conduct accelerated degradation testing on new and available used samples. For this purpose, product failure is related to a suitable physical property. Then, its failure time is defined as the expected time in which its property reaches the critical level. Degradation model of field samples returned from service due to a degrading failure mode has been estimated based on the least square method, and available gap between manufacturer criterion and user's claim (to report a failure) has also been discussed. For a product under some stresses, a general formula has been proposed by the superposition principle in order to estimate its degradation for independent and dependent failure modes. If used samples are available, and acceleration factor of the related test is unknown, partial aging method has been presented to considerably shorten the test time.

  20. Toxicogenomic approaches in developmental toxicology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua F; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of toxicogenomic applications provides new tools to characterize, classify, and potentially predict teratogens. However, due to the vast number of experimental and statistical procedural steps, toxicogenomic studies are challenging. Here, we guide researchers through the basic framework of conducting toxicogenomic investigations in the field of developmental toxicology, providing examples of biological and technical factors that may influence response and interpretation. Furthermore, we review current, diverse applications of toxicogenomic-based approaches in teratology testing, including exposure-response characterization (dose and duration), chemical classification studies, and cross-model comparisons study designs. This review is intended to guide scientists through the challenging and complex structure of conducting toxicogenomic analyses, while considering the many applications of using toxicogenomics in study designs and the future of these types of "omics" approaches in developmental toxicology.

  1. Regime variance testing - a quantile approach

    CERN Document Server

    gajda, Janusz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to testing time series that exhibit behavior related to two or more regimes with different statistical properties. Motivation of our study are two real data sets from plasma physics with observable two-regimes structure. In this paper we develop estimation procedure for critical point of division the structure change of a time series. Moreover we propose three tests for recognition such specific behavior. The presented methodology is based on the empirical second moment and its main advantage is lack of the distribution assumption. Moreover, the examined statistical properties we express in the language of empirical quantiles of the squared data therefore the methodology is an extension of the approach known from the literature. The theoretical results we confirm by simulations and analysis of real data of turbulent laboratory plasma.

  2. 08301 Final Report -- Group Testing in the Life Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Group testing AKA smart-pooling is a general strategy for minimizing the number of tests necessary for identifying positives among a large collection of items. It has the potential to efficiently identify and correct for experimental errors (false–positives and false–negatives). It can be used whenever tests can detect the presence of a positive in a group (or pool) of items, provided that positives are rare. Group testing has numerous applications in the life sciences, such as physical ma...

  3. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  4. RISK BASED TESTING A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochin Sharma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier Testers used to concentrate on only functionality, usability or performance sort of testing. Many of these derived by the customer’s desire or need. Same thing was with the risk based testing. If an application used to be real time based or crucial in terms or national security or economic then it was considered to be a risk based testing candidate. But business of individual has equalimportance for the people. Hence now risked based scenario and testing is a must do strategy. But based on the various factors how will you decide when an event or activity is under risk and should be treated on priority based. In real time projects many activities cannot be decided as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ criteria. For example in a project if any one person is left out of 10 members’ team. It cannot be treated as crucial, but if 5 members left within short span of time. This 50% breakdown in work force definitely be consider as critical, so here we can wave a red (priority signal. So fuzzy approach can be consider as an important deal with respect of risk management

  5. New Approaches in Usable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lean NPD practices (many) • Lean Production & Operations Practices (many) • Supply Chain Operations Reference ( SCOR ) Model , Best Practices Make Deliver...NEW APPROACHES IN REUSABLE BOOSTER SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE COST MODELING Edgar Zapata National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center...Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC

  6. Life cycle methodology for copper : allocation and recycling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobling-Reisemann, S. [Bremen Univ., Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Production Engineering; Tikana, L.; Sievers, H.; Klassert, A. [Deutsches Kupferinstitut, Dusseldorf (Germany). Life Cycle Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of different methodologies available for recycling and assessing the life cycles of copper ores. Approaches towards allocation in life cycle assessments (LCA) included detailed modelling; system expansion; physical allocation; economic allocation; and subsequent-use allocation. Approaches towards recycling included system expansion, cut-off approaches, open loop approach; value corrected substitution; and the cascade approach. Sulphuric acid and steam are produced as by-products during copper production, and most copper ores contain molybdenum, gold, silver, and nickel. The environmental impacts of copper by-products must be considered when conducting LCAs. Existing standards allow different implementation methods for recycling and allocation into metal LCAs, and the selection of a methodology can significantly influence the ecological profile of copper and copper products. Allocation is needed when processes with more than 1 function are investigated. ISO standards recommend avoiding allocation problems by using detailed system modelling. Allocation factors should be chosen that reflect the physical relationship between the functional units produced and their associated environmental burdens. Case studies were presented to demonstrate allocations of co- and byproducts and recycling in copper production. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  8. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  9. Burnout, quality of life, motivation, and academic achievement among medical students: A person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Mataroria P; Henning, Marcus A; Alyami, Hussain; Krishna, Sanjeev; Zeng, Irene; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Hill, Andrew G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify burnout and quality of life profiles of medical students and determine their associations with academic motivation and achievement on progress tests using a person-oriented approach. Medical students (n = 670) in Year 3 to Year 5 at the University of Auckland were classified into three different profiles as derived from a two-step cluster analysis using World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scores and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory scores. The profiles were used as independent variables to assess differences in academic motivation and achievement on progress tests using a multivariate analysis of co-variance and repeated measures analysis of co-variance methods. The response rate was 47%. Three clusters were obtained: Higher Burnout Lower Quality of Life (n = 62, 20%), Moderate Burnout Moderate Quality of Life (n = 131, 41%), and Lower Burnout Higher Quality of Life (n = 124, 39%). After controlling for gender and year level, Higher Burnout Lower Quality of Life students had significantly higher test anxiety (p Burnout and Quality of Life profiles of medical students are associated with differences in academic motivation and achievement over time.

  10. Design stage confirmation of lifetime improvement for newly modified products through accelerated life testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein, E-mail: seyed-h.mohammadian.1@ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada) and Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Ait-Kadi, Daoud, E-mail: Daoud.Aitkadi@gmc.ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    After a modification to the original version of a product and before mass production, the expected improvement in the product lifetime or reliability needs to be validated. This paper presents three approaches based on accelerated life testing to verify, estimate and confirm the lifetime or reliability of a newly modified product at design stage: ALT comparative approach, reliability estimation approach, and reliability validation test. Test samples of the original and modified versions are expected to fail during the tests in order to obtain their failure time data. In ALT comparative approach, the statistical comparison between failure time data of the original and modified versions is used to verify the required improvement in lifetime. In reliability estimation approach, the relationship made between available lifetime and failure time data of the original version is used to extrapolate lifetime data of the modified version from its failure time data. Since modified versions are usually highly reliable, all test samples might survive the tests (without any failures) that results in the lack of failure time data for statistical analysis. To confirm a level of service reliability with confidence, reliability validation test is presented to make an estimate of the number of samples required to survive the tests. To fulfill the same level of confidence for fewer number of prototypes (as test samples), the test time must be extended. On the other hand, more prototypes are needed to pass a shorter test time if there are any time constraints.

  11. Quality of life in Dermatology: tests for its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Restrepo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life can be approached from the perspective of different dimensions, among them: economic, religious, spiritual, sociological and health-related. Changes in the perception of health can affect either one of these dimensions. Satisfaction and well-being of patients are becoming ever more important. These considerations have stimulated the development of scales to measure and quantify the quality of life in order to assess the impact on it of chronic diseases and therapeutic interventions, as well as to define the allocation of resources. Presently, many scales are available to evaluate the quality of life in dermatological patients; among them, DLQI and Skindex 29 are the most frequently used. We present a review of the literature concerning this subject.

  12. Space-flight experience and life test performance of a synthetic hydrocarbon lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Bill

    1995-01-01

    An alternative wet lubricant known as Pennzane(TM) SHF X-2000 is recommended for some spaceflight bearing systems. The performance characteristics between Pennzane(TM) SHF X-2000 and Bray 815Z were compared. The life tests showed excellent performances with continuous operation approaching three years in conservative operating environments. Space flight performance data are provided for several of the tested mechanisms which are operating in-orbit since February 1994.

  13. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  14. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  15. A Communicative Approach to Second Language Testing and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    CUNLIFFE, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the communicative approach to second language teaching and discusses testing students' communicative performance. It is of primary importance that testing should reflect the approach to teaching that has been adopted; hence, this paper includes a brief description of the communicative approach to second language instruction. This approach is then related to testing procedures used to evaluate students' communicative performance.

  16. Failure of engineering artifacts: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Frate, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, is concerned with the moral and social aspects related to the causes and consequences of technological failures. But what is meant by failure, and what does it mean that a failure has occurred? The subject of this paper is how engineers use and define this notion. Although a traditional definition of failure can be identified that is shared by a large part of the engineering community, the literature shows that engineers are willing to consider as failures also events and circumstance that are at odds with this traditional definition. These cases violate one or more of three assumptions made by the traditional approach to failure. An alternative approach, inspired by the notion of product life cycle, is proposed which dispenses with these assumptions. Besides being able to address the traditional cases of failure, it can deal successfully with the problematic cases. The adoption of a life cycle perspective allows the introduction of a clearer notion of failure and allows a classification of failure phenomena that takes into account the roles of stakeholders involved in the various stages of a product life cycle.

  17. Experimental support for an immunological approach to the search for life on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Wittmeyer, Jennifer; Avci, Recep; Pincus, Seth

    2005-02-01

    We propose a three-phase approach to test for evidence of life in extraterrestrial samples. The approach capitalizes on the flexibility, sensitivity, and specificity of antibody-antigen interactions. Data are presented to support the first phase, in which various extraction protocols are compared for efficiency, and in which a preliminary suite of antibodies are tested against various antigens. The antigens and antibodies were chosen on the basis of criteria designed to optimize the detection of extraterrestrial biomarkers unique to living or once-living organisms.

  18. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé; Montmerle, Thierry; Pascal, Robert; Reisse, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This review emerged from several interdisciplinary meetings and schools gathering a group of astronomers, geologists, biologists, and chemists, attempting to share their specialized knowledge around a common question: how did life emerge on Earth? Their ultimate goal was to provide some kind of answer as a prerequisite to an even more demanding question: is life universal? The resulting state-of-the-art articles were written by twenty-five scientists telling a not-so linear story, but on the contrary, highlighting problems, gaps, and controversies. Needless to say, this approach yielded no definitive answers to both questions. However, by adopting a chronological approach to the question of the emergence of life on Earth, the only place where we know for sure that life exists; it was possible to break down this question into several sub-topics that can be addressed by the different disciplines. The main chapters of this review present the formation and evolution of the solar system (3); the building of a habi...

  19. Life time test in direct borohydride fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamard, Romain [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Salomon, Jeremie; Martinent-Beaumont, Audrey [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coutanceau, Christophe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-09-05

    The electric performances of direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) are evaluated in terms of power density and life time with respect to the NaBH{sub 4} concentration. A DBFC constituted of an anionic membrane, a 0.6 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2} anode and a commercial non-platinum based cathode led to performances as high as 200 mW cm{sup -2} at room temperature and with natural convection of air. Electrochemical life time test at 0.55 mA cm{sup -2} with a 5 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution shows a voltage diminution of 1 mV h{sup -1} and a drastic drop of performances after 250 h. The life time is twice longer with 2 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution (450 h) and the voltage decrease is 0.5 mV h{sup -1}. Analyses of the components after life time tests indicate that voltage loss is mainly due to the degradation of the cathode performance. Crystallisation of carbonate and borate is observed at the cathode side, although the anionic membrane displays low permeability to borohydride. (author)

  20. Design of Multithreaded Software The Entity-Life Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sandén, Bo I

    2011-01-01

    This book assumes familiarity with threads (in a language such as Ada, C#, or Java) and introduces the entity-life modeling (ELM) design approach for certain kinds of multithreaded software. ELM focuses on "reactive systems," which continuously interact with the problem environment. These "reactive systems" include embedded systems, as well as such interactive systems as cruise controllers and automated teller machines.Part I covers two fundamentals: program-language thread support and state diagramming. These are necessary for understanding ELM and are provided primarily for reference. P

  1. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  2. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  3. A relational ethical approach to end-of-life delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Brajtman, Susan; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Delirium is a condition of acute onset and fluctuating course in which a person's level of consciousness and cognition become disturbed. Delirium is a common and distressing phenomenon in end-of-life care, yet it is underrecognized and undertreated. In this article, we review qualitative descriptions of the delirium experience in end-of-life care, found through a systematic search of academic databases, to generate insight into the intersubjective nature of the delirium experience. Our analysis of retrieved studies advances an understanding of the relational ethical dimensions of this phenomenon, that is, how delirium is lived by patients, families, and health care providers and how it affects the relationships and values at stake. We propose three themes that explain the distressing nature of delirium in palliative care: 1) experiences of relational tension; 2) challenges in recognizing the delirious person; and 3) struggles to interpret the meaning of delirious behaviors. By approaching end-of-life delirium from a perspective of relational ethics, attention is focused on the implications for the therapeutic relationship with patients and families when delirium becomes part of the dying trajectory.

  4. e-Commerce security – A life cycle approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sengupta; C Mazumdar; M S Barik

    2005-04-01

    The rapid evolution of computing and communication technologies and their standardizations have made the boom in e-commerce possible. Lowering of the cost of operation, increase in the speed of transactions, and easy global reach to customers and vendors have been the reasons for the overwhelming popularity of this new way of commerce. This article examines the issues related to the security of the assets and transactions in the e-commerce components and activities. Since large public money is involved in the transactions, the role of information security and privacy is not exaggerated in this kind of business. After examining the technologies used in e-commerce, the article goes on to identify the security requirement of ecommerce systems from perceived threats and vulnerabilities. Then e-commerce security is viewed as an engineering management problem and a life cycle approach is put forward. How the e-commerce systems can be made secure using the life cycle approach is outlined. The relevant standards and laws are also discussed in the perspective of e-commerce. The article closes with some future research directions and conclusions.

  5. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  6. Structure service life assessment under combined loading using probability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Kepka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic research approach for probabilistic assessment of vehicle structure fatigue endurance under multiaxial loading. One representative welded structural detail of the bottom joint plate of an articulated bus was selected for the case study. The character of the loading on the joint during a service test is analyzed and discussed. The methodology for estimation of the damage level in the joint builds on deterministic procedures for railway vehicle assessment based on shear, longitudinal and transverse stress components. This approach based on the equivalent stress and particular load capacity factors was expanded to include the probabilistic perspective

  7. COMBINATORIAL DESIGN APPROACHES FOR TEST GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Nie Changhai

    2005-01-01

    The n-way combination testing is a specification-based testing criterion, which requires that for a system consisted of a few parameters, every combination of valid values of arbitrary n(n ≥ 2) parameters be covered by at least one test. This letter proposed two different test generation algorithms based on combinatorial design for the n-way coverage criterion. The automatic test generators are implemented and some valuable empirical results are obtained.

  8. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Objective Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. Methods We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. Results The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations banks were between 45% and 75% shorter than paper-based WHOQOL measures. Across the four domains, a high standard of reliability (alpha>.90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Conclusions Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items. PMID:27694100

  10. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Valderas, Jose; Skevington, Suzanne

    2016-09-30

    Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations .90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items.

  11. Data Acquisition and Control for Multiple Composite Life Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    to operate the card into resident memory. These commands act as functions which can be called from many high level languages . Documentation for...aqui3ition software for Bundle Life Testing 10 ’written by J. W. Emery 15’ June 1988 20’ 25 ’This program is designed to aquire data from the Labmaster 26...5 ’Data aquisition software for Calibration of the Equipment 10’ written by J. W. Emery 15 ’June 1988 20 25 ’This program is designed to aquire data

  12. A diagnostic approach to test priorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, A.; Abreu, R.; Gross, H.; Van Gemund, A.

    2010-01-01

    In development processes with high code production rates testing typically triggers fault diagnosis to localize the detected failures. However, current test prioritization algorithms are tuned for failure detection rate rather than diagnostic information. Consequently, unnecessary diagnostic effort

  13. Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Test-based accountability as well as value-added asessments and much experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet, we know little regarding fundamental properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of measurement error and its implications for…

  14. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  15. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  16. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  17. Approaches to understanding life before the rise of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Woodward

    2010-05-01

    The Archean fossil record is notably poor. Despite major advances in deciphering the record of life in Proterozoic successions, attempts to push this understanding back into Archean time have produced frustratingly meager results. Our approach to developing a deeper understanding of the Archean biosphere has been by interrogating the biogeochemical cycles of Fe, S, and C, and reconstructing conspicuous patterns of electron transduction in ancient marine sedimentary basins. We've been working with recently collected diamond drill cores obtained by the Agouron Drilling Project through the Transvaal Supergroup from the Griqualand West structural basin in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. This sedimentary framework is unique because it captures and provides a view of geobiological processes operating in a wide range of paleoenvironments. Three drill cores cover the development, progradation, and ultimate demise (by drowning) of the Campbellrand carbonate platform (ca. 2590Ma-2500Ma); one captures the platform top shallow marine and intertidal paleoenvironments, the other two run through slope and basinal sections (rich in banded iron formation) deposited adjacent to the platform margin increasing in water depth (to likely more than 1 km). With geobiological data and observations from these cores we can begin to reconstruct the flow of electrons in Late Archean Earth surface environments. In this talk I will present the results of two studies aimed at constraining the interplay between Fe, C, and S. Results from this approach to understanding Archean life may provide, in an integrated fashion, insight into a time before the rise of oxygen, where the fossil record and commensurate biological understanding remain penurious

  18. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  19. Treatment of Test Anxiety: A Computerized Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Anica

    2010-01-01

    Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…

  20. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  1. Quality of life in schizophrenia: A grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Mike

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health related quality of life (HRQoL in schizophrenia has predominantly been conducted using lengthy interviewer administered questionnaires, many of which have not been validated for use with schizophrenic samples. The present study seeks to address the dearth of qualitative research by conducting a small-scale qualitative exploration of the impact of schizophrenia on HRQoL. Method The study was conducted using the qualitative approach of grounded theory. Six individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated (3 men, 3 women. Mean age of participants was 33.3 years (range 20–55, mean length of illness was 12 years (range 2–38 years and average length of interviews was 47 minutes (range 20–70. Results Ten HRQoL domains were identified as being important: (1 barriers placed on relationships; (2 reduced control of behaviours and actions; (3 loss of opportunity to fulfil occupational roles; (4 financial constraints on activities and plans; (5 subjective experience of psychotic symptoms; (6 side effects and attitudes to medication; (7 psychological responses to living with schizophrenia; (8 labelling and attitudes from others; (9 concerns for the future and (10 positive outcomes from experiences. Conclusions Domains identified by participants encompassed a wide range of factors that may be expected to contribute generally to engaging in a positive quality of life. Participants identified that it was the loss of these things as a direct consequence of having schizophrenia that influenced their HRQoL. It would appear that in the main, factors that are secondary to the experience of schizophrenia are of most importance to participants. Suggestions are also made in the discussion for future research.

  2. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  3. Identifying acute coronary syndrome patients approaching end-of-life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fenning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is common in patients approaching the end-of-life (EoL, but these patients rarely receive palliative care. We compared the utility of a palliative care prognostic tool (Gold Standards Framework (GSF and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE score, to help identify patients approaching EoL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 172 unselected consecutive patients with confirmed ACS admitted over an eight-week period were assessed using prognostic tools and followed up for 12 months. GSF criteria identified 40 (23% patients suitable for EoL care while GRACE identified 32 (19% patients with ≥ 10% risk of death within 6 months. Patients meeting GSF criteria were older (p = 0.006, had more comorbidities (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 1.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.007, more frequent hospitalisations before (p = 0.001 and after (0.0001 their index admission, and were more likely to die during follow-up (GSF+ 20% vs GSF- 7%, p = 0.03. GRACE score was predictive of 12-month mortality (C-statistic 0.75 and this was improved by the addition of previous hospital admissions and previous history of stroke (C-statistic 0.88. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted a potentially large number of ACS patients eligible for EoL care. GSF or GRACE could be used in the hospital setting to help identify these patients. GSF identifies ACS patients with more comorbidity and at increased risk of hospital readmission.

  4. A Bayesian Nonparametric Approach to Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George; Walker, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    A Bayesian nonparametric model is introduced for score equating. It is applicable to all major equating designs, and has advantages over previous equating models. Unlike the previous models, the Bayesian model accounts for positive dependence between distributions of scores from two tests. The Bayesian model and the previous equating models are…

  5. Fatigue life estimation for different notched specimens based on the volumetric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of notch radius for different notched specimens has been studied on the values of stress concentration factor, notch strength reduction factor, and fatigue life duration of the specimens. The material which has been selected for this investigation is Al 2024T3 . Volumetric approach has been applied to obtain the values of notch strength reduction factor and results have been compared with those obtained from the Neuber and Peterson methods. Load controlled fatigue tests of mentioned specimens have been conducted on the 250kN servo-hydraulic Zwick/Amsler fatigue testing machine with the frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue lives of the specimens have also been predicted based on the available smooth S-N curve of Al2024-T3 and also the amounts of notch strength reduction factor which have been obtained from volumetric, Neuber and Peterson methods. The values of stress and strain around the notch roots are required to predict the fatigue life of notched specimens, so Ansys finite element code has been used and non-linear analyses have been performed to obtain the stress and strain distributions around the notches. The plastic deformations of the material have been simulated using multi-linear kinematic hardening and cyclic stress-strain relation. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job for predicting the fatigue life of the notched specimens.

  6. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  7. Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Sandra A.; Miller, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The second edition of "Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach" is a text for undergraduate students new to the field of psychological testing. Using a conversational format, the authors aim to prepare students to be informed consumers as test users or test takers. Features new to the second edition include: (1) New Content; (2)…

  8. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  9. Life skills in educational contexts : testing the effects of an intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, António Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training program on students’ acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group (n = 41) that took part in a life skills program, or a control group (n = 43). Participants completed the Youth Experiences Scale 2.0, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Expectations about Academic Achievement. Results ...

  10. Multicomponent Equilibrium Models for Testing Geothermometry Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Travis L. McLing

    2013-02-01

    Geothermometry is an important tool for estimating deep reservoir temperature from the geochemical composition of shallower and cooler waters. The underlying assumption of geothermometry is that the waters collected from shallow wells and seeps maintain a chemical signature that reflects equilibrium in the deeper reservoir. Many of the geothermometers used in practice are based on correlation between water temperatures and composition or using thermodynamic calculations based a subset (typically silica, cations or cation ratios) of the dissolved constituents. An alternative approach is to use complete water compositions and equilibrium geochemical modeling to calculate the degree of disequilibrium (saturation index) for large number of potential reservoir minerals as a function of temperature. We have constructed several “forward” geochemical models using The Geochemist’s Workbench to simulate the change in chemical composition of reservoir fluids as they migrate toward the surface. These models explicitly account for the formation (mass and composition) of a steam phase and equilibrium partitioning of volatile components (e.g., CO2, H2S, and H2) into the steam as a result of pressure decreases associated with upward fluid migration from depth. We use the synthetic data generated from these simulations to determine the advantages and limitations of various geothermometry and optimization approaches for estimating the likely conditions (e.g., temperature, pCO2) to which the water was exposed in the deep subsurface. We demonstrate the magnitude of errors that can result from boiling, loss of volatiles, and analytical error from sampling and instrumental analysis. The estimated reservoir temperatures for these scenarios are also compared to conventional geothermometers. These results can help improve estimation of geothermal resource temperature during exploration and early development.

  11. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  12. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  13. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  14. Methodology for Life Testing of Refractory Metal/Sodium Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this work was to establish an approach to generate carefully controlled data that can conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. To accomplish this goal acceleration is required to compress 10 years of operational life into 3 years of laboratory testing through a combination of increased temperature and mass fluence. Specific test series have been identi3ed, based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications, to investigate long term corrosion rates. The refractory metal selected for demonstration purposes is a Molybdenum-44.5%Rhenium alloy formed by powder metallurgy. The heat pipe makes use of an annular crescent wick design formed by hot isostatic pressing of Molybdenum-Rhenium wire mesh. The heat pipes are filled using vacuum distillation and purity sampling is considered. Testing of these units is round-the-clock with 6-month destructive and non-destructive inspection intervals to identify the onset and level of corrosion. Non-contact techniques are employed for providing power to the evaporator (radio frequency induction heating at I to 5 kW per unit) and calorimetry at the condenser (static gas gap coupled water cooled calorimeter). The planned operating temperature range would extend from 1123 to 1323 K. Accomplishments prior to project cancellation included successful demonstration of the heat pipe wick fabrication technique, establishment of all engineering designs, baselined operational test requirements and procurement/assembly of supporting test hardware systems.

  15. Lanthanide Complexes as a Test for Evidence of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeannette

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the interaction of lanthanide metals with biological organic molecules and to develop a technique to detect these compounds in the solid state and in situ in Mars and other planetary bodies. The detection of these complexes should provide evidence of life past or present. In addition, detection of the metals alone will provide important information about the geological history of a planetary body. Lanthanides were chosen as our focus of interest because they form very stable complexes with organic molecules in solution and they produce intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. The rare earth complexes available are mostly synthetic for diverse applications in medicine. There is not much work done on the complexes that form in nature. Lanthanides have many applications and they are mined aR over the world, however, since the interest has been only in the elements, the analytical techniques employed destroy any organic ligands that may be present. In order to determine if and which lanthanide complexes form in nature and their concentration, soil samples have been collected from areas rich in soluble lanthanide compounds like phosphates and also rich in vegetation. The soil samples will be analyzed and the lanthanide complexes if present will be isolated and characterized. A spectrometer to detect the lanthanide complexes in situ and in the solid state will be designed. In this workshop, the research approach and its implications will be discussed.

  16. Mainstreaming life cycle thinking through a consistent approach to footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Brad; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental Life Cycle Impact Assessment has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The initial work involved forming a consensual position on the difference between footprints and existing LCA impact......-alone and not part of a framework intended for comprehensive environmental performance assessment. Accordingly, footprints are universally defined as metrics used to report life cycle assessment results addressing an Area of Concern....

  17. Prediction Approach to Life on Wing for Civil Aeroengine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Xiang; ZUO Hong-fu; ZHANG Hai-jun

    2008-01-01

    To reduce engine maintenance cost and support safe operation, a prediction method of engine life on wing was proposed. This method is a kind of regression model which is a function of the condition monitoring and failure data. Key causes of engine removals were analyzed, and the life limit due to performance deterioration was predicted by proportional hazards model. Then the scheduled removal causes were considered as constraints of engine life to predicte the final life on wing. Application of the proposed prediction method to the case of CF6-80C2A5 engine fleet in an airline proved its effectiveness.

  18. Constant-Step Stress Accelerated Life Test of VFD under Logarithmic Normal Distribution Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the life problem of vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) within shorter time, and reduce the life prediction cost, a constant-step stress accelerated life test was performed with its cathode temperature increased. Statistical analysis was done by applying logarithmic normal distribution for describing the life, and least square method (LSM) for estimating logarithmic normal parameters. Self-designed special software was used to predict the VFD life. It is verified by numerical results that the VFD life follows logarithmic normal distribution,and that the life-stress relationship satisfies linear Arrhenius equation completely. The accurate calculation of the key parameters enables the rapid estimation of VFD life.

  19. Theory-Based Approaches to the Concept of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that characterisations of life through lists of properties have several shortcomings and should be replaced by theory-based accounts that explain the coexistence of a set of properties in living beings. The concept of life should acquire its meaning from its relationships with other concepts inside a theory. I illustrate…

  20. A life course approach to mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Joseph L; Wong, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Research on early life socioeconomic status (SES), education and mortality is less established in developing countries. This analysis aims to determine how SES and education are patterned across the life course and associated with adult mortality in Mexico. Data comes from 2001-2012 Mexican Health & Aging Study (Mexican adults age 50+, n= 11,222). Cox proportional hazard models predict mortality using baseline covariates. In unadjusted analyses, similar mortality was seen across levels of early life SES. Lower early life SES was associated with better survival after accounting for education in the younger cohort. Lower education was only associated with mortality in the younger cohort. Early life SES was associated with education but the relationship between education and mortality differed across cohorts in Mexico. Selective survival and differential returns to education may explain differences.

  1. Approaches to the Origin of Life on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A. Kauffman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available I discuss briefly the history of the origin of life field, focusing on the “Miller” era of prebiotic synthesis, through the “Orgel” era seeking enzyme free template replication of single stranded RNA or similar polynucleotides, to the RNA world era with one of its foci on a ribozyme with the capacity to act as a polymerase able to copy itself. I give the history of the independent invention in 1971 by T. Ganti, M. Eigen and myself of three alternative theories of the origin of molecular replication: the Chemotron, the Hypercycle, and Collectively Autocatalytic Sets, CAS, respectively. To date, only collectively autocatalytic DNA, RNA, and peptide sets have achieved molecular reproduction of polymers. Theoretical work and experimental work on CAS both support their plausibility as models of openly evolvable protocells, if housed in dividing compartments such as dividing liposomes. My own further hypothesis beyond that of CAS in themselves, of their formation as a phase transition in complex chemical reaction systems of substrates, reactions and products, where the molecules in the system are candidates to catalyze the very same reactions, now firmly established as theorems, awaits experimental proof using combinatorial chemistry to make libraries of stochastic DNA, RNA and/or polypeptides, or other classes of molecules to test the hypothesis that molecular polymer reproduction has emerged as a true phase transition in complex chemical reaction systems. I remark that my colleague Marc Ballivet of the University of Geneva and I, may have issued the first publications discussing what became combinatorial chemistry, in published issued patents in 1987, 1989 and later, in this field.

  2. Approaches to the origin of life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart A

    2011-11-18

    I discuss briefly the history of the origin of life field, focusing on the "Miller" era of prebiotic synthesis, through the "Orgel" era seeking enzyme free template replication of single stranded RNA or similar polynucleotides, to the RNA world era with one of its foci on a ribozyme with the capacity to act as a polymerase able to copy itself. I give the history of the independent invention in 1971 by T. Ganti, M. Eigen and myself of three alternative theories of the origin of molecular replication: the Chemotron, the Hypercycle, and Collectively Autocatalytic Sets, CAS, respectively. To date, only collectively autocatalytic DNA, RNA, and peptide sets have achieved molecular reproduction of polymers. Theoretical work and experimental work on CAS both support their plausibility as models of openly evolvable protocells, if housed in dividing compartments such as dividing liposomes. My own further hypothesis beyond that of CAS in themselves, of their formation as a phase transition in complex chemical reaction systems of substrates, reactions and products, where the molecules in the system are candidates to catalyze the very same reactions, now firmly established as theorems, awaits experimental proof using combinatorial chemistry to make libraries of stochastic DNA, RNA and/or polypeptides, or other classes of molecules to test the hypothesis that molecular polymer reproduction has emerged as a true phase transition in complex chemical reaction systems. I remark that my colleague Marc Ballivet of the University of Geneva and I, may have issued the first publications discussing what became combinatorial chemistry, in published issued patents in 1987, 1989 and later, in this field.

  3. Origin of life : testing the isotopic resonance hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xueshu

    2016-01-01

    The Miller-Urey (MU) experiment provided evidence supporting the abiogenesis theory, and is considered to be the seminal experiment in the context of origin of life. The MU mixture produced in the experiment is assumed to be an essential raw material for life emergence on the primitive Earth or beyond. However, there was no direct experimental evidence that this primordial soup supports life. In this thesis, we provided a proof that the abiotically produced MU mixture can support the growth o...

  4. The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Kee, Terence P; Doloboff, Ivria J; Hampton, Joshua M P; Ismail, Mohammed; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Zeytounian, John; Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how prebiotic geo-electrochemical systems can be modeled as a fuel cell and how laboratory simulations of the origin of life in general can benefit from this systems-led approach. As a specific example, the components of what we have termed the "prebiotic fuel cell" (PFC) that operates at a putative Hadean hydrothermal vent are detailed, and we used electrochemical analysis techniques and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components to test the properties of this PFC and other geo-electrochemical systems, the results of which are reported here. The modular nature of fuel cells makes them ideal for creating geo-electrochemical reactors with which to simulate hydrothermal systems on wet rocky planets and characterize the energetic properties of the seafloor/hydrothermal interface. That electrochemical techniques should be applied to simulating the origin of life follows from the recognition of the fuel cell-like properties of prebiotic chemical systems and the earliest metabolisms. Conducting this type of laboratory simulation of the emergence of bioenergetics will not only be informative in the context of the origin of life on Earth but may help in understanding whether life might emerge in similar environments on other worlds.

  5. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines.

  6. Life Is a Test. It Is Only a Test.生命,只是一场考试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2002-01-01

    One of my favourite posters says,“Life is a test. It is only a test.Had this been a real life you would have been instructed where to go and what to do .”Whenever I think of this humorous bit of wisdom,it reminds me not to take my lift so seriously.

  7. Economy Meets Environment: An Integrated Life Cycle Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Floegl; Christina Ipser; Susanne Geissler; Hildegund Mötzl; Ulrike Radosch

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research project LEKOECOS is to quantify the environmental and economic resources consumed by a building during planning, construction and in the utilisation and operation stage. The complexity of the utilisation process over the long life span requires a calculation model with well-orchestrated normative definitions and idealisations. The presented environmental-economical model is based on the life cycle costs model LEKOS, developed by the Danube University Krems, and t...

  8. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  9. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  10. A general approach to testing multifaceted personality constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J G; Lehn, D A; Tedlie, J C

    1991-12-01

    Some personality characteristics are composed of multiple, distinct subcomponents (e.g., Type A, hardiness, attributional style, self-monitoring). The advantages and disadvantages of 3 typical approaches to testing these constructs are reviewed. An alternative approach based on structural equation modeling is then offered. This approach has many advantages over its alternatives, including the provision of an explicit test of the structure of the multifaceted construct, the simultaneous test of the effects of this general construct and the unique aspects of its subcomponents, and the explicit consideration of measurement error. Although the modeling approach does have limitations, these limitations are equally applicable to all of its alternatives. Indeed, the principal disadvantages of the modeling approach seem to be its statistical complexity and the lack of education regarding its proper use.

  11. Constant-step stress accelerated life test of VFD under Weibull distribution case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ping; GENG Xin-min

    2005-01-01

    Constant-step stress accelerated life test of Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD) was conducted with increased cathode temperature. Statistical analysis was done by applying Weibull distribution for describing the life, and Least Square Method (LSM)for estimating Weibull parameters. Self-designed special software was used to predict the VFD life. Numerical results showed that the average life of VFD is over 30000 h, that the VFD life follows Weibull distribution, and that the life-stress relationship satisfies linear Arrhenius equation completely. Accurate calculation of the key parameter enabled rapid estimation of VFD life.

  12. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary constitutes an important component of language and its study has ... what testing under this approach has contributed to the teaching of vocabulary. ... of vocabulary size has led to standardisation of methods, as well as insight into ...

  13. Sequentiality of daily life physiology: an automatized segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave-Jallon, J; Baconnier, P; Tanguy, S; Eymaron, M; Rongier, C; Guméry, P Y

    2013-09-01

    Based on the hypotheses that (1) a physiological organization exists inside each activity of daily life and (2) the pattern of evolution of physiological variables is characteristic of each activity, pattern changes should be detected on daily life physiological recordings. The present study aims at investigating whether a simple segmentation method can be set up to detect pattern changes on physiological recordings carried out during daily life. Heart and breathing rates and skin temperature have been non-invasively recorded in volunteers following scenarios made of "daily life" steps (13 records). An observer, undergoing the scenario, wrote down annotations during the recording time. Two segmentation procedures have been compared to the annotations, a visual inspection of the signals and an automatic program based on a trends detection algorithm applied to one physiological signal (skin temperature). The annotations resulted in a total number of 213 segments defined on the 13 records, the best visual inspection detected less segments (120) than the automatic program (194). If evaluated in terms of the number of correspondences between the times marks given by annotations and those resulting from both physiologically based segmentations, the automatic program was better than the visual inspection. The mean time lags between annotation and program time marks remain variables time series recorded in common life conditions exhibit different successive patterns that can be detected by a simple trends detection algorithm. Theses sequences are coherent with the corresponding annotated activity.

  14. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  15. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  16. Economic evaluations and diagnostic testing: an illustrative case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Sabina; Orlando, Rosanna; Roberts, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a clear process of synthesizing test accuracy data when conducting economic evaluations of diagnostic tests for health technology assessment (HTA) assessors and health economists. We appraised the methods advocated for using diagnostic test accuracy data in economic evaluations. We used a case study of fetal anemia in which data from a screening test are used in combination with a confirmatory test. We developed a step-by-step guide and consider two scenarios: when data on test accuracy from several studies are based on (i) the same test threshold for positivity and (ii) different test thresholds. We conclude that each approach has its strengths and limitations. We show that the optimal operating point of the test should be identified to determine the true cost-effectiveness of the test. We advocate that these issues require a multidisciplinary team of health economists, decision modelers and statisticians.

  17. New approaches to the exploration: planet Mars and bacterial life

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Planet Mars past environmental conditions were similar to the early Earth, but nowadays they are similar to those of a very cold desert, irradiated by intense solar UV light. However, some terrestrial lifeform showed the capability to adapt to very harsh environments, similar to the extreme condition of the Red Planet. In addition, recent discoveries of water in the Martian permafrost and of methane in the Martian atmosphere, have generated optimism regarding a potentially active subsurface Mars' biosphere. These findings increase the possibility of finding traces of life on a planet like Mars. However, before landing on Mars with dedicated biological experiments, it is necessary to understand the possibilities of finding life in the present Martian conditions. Finding a lifeform able to survive in Martian environment conditions may have a double meaning: increasing the hope of discovering extraterrestrial life and defining the limits for a terrestrial contamination of planet Mars. In this paper we present th...

  18. Photons in Natural and Life Sciences An Interdisciplinary Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The book describes first the principle photon generation processes from nuclear reactions, electron motion and from discrete quantum transitions. It then focuses on the use of photons in various selected fields of modern natural and life sciences. It bridges disciplines such as physics, chemistry, earth- and materials science, proteomics, information technology, photoelectrochemistry, photosynthesis and spintronics. Advanced light sources and their use in natural and life sciences are emphasized and the effects related to the quantum nature of photons (quantum computing, teleportation) are described. The content encompasses among many other examples the role of photons on the origin of life and on homochirality in biology, femtosecond laser slicing, photothermal cancer therapy, the use of gamma rays in materials science, photoelectrochemical surface conditioning, quantum information aspects and photo-spintronics. The book is written for scientists and graduate students from all related disciplines who are int...

  19. Improving Quality of Life in Nursing Homes: The Structured Resident Interview Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard B. Degenholtz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life (QOL of the approximately 1.5 million nursing facility (NF residents in the US is undoubtedly lower than desired by residents, families, providers, and policy makers. Although there have been important advances in defining and measuring QOL for this population, there is a need for interventions that are tied to standardized measurement and quality improvement programs. This paper describes the development and testing of a structured, tailored assessment and care planning process for improving the QOL of nursing home residents. The Quality of Life Structured Resident Interview and Care Plan (QOL.SRI/CP builds on a decade of research on measuring QOL and is designed to be easily implemented in any US nursing home. The approach was developed through extensive and iterative pilot testing and then tested in a randomized controlled trial in three nursing homes. Residents were randomly assigned to receive the assessment alone or both the assessment and an individualized QOL care plan task. The results show that residents assigned to the intervention group experienced improved QOL at 90- and 180-day follow-up, while QOL of residents in the control group was unchanged.

  20. Improving Quality of Life in Nursing Homes: The Structured Resident Interview Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenholtz, Howard B.; Resnick, Abby L.; Chia, Lichun

    2014-01-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of the approximately 1.5 million nursing facility (NF) residents in the US is undoubtedly lower than desired by residents, families, providers, and policy makers. Although there have been important advances in defining and measuring QOL for this population, there is a need for interventions that are tied to standardized measurement and quality improvement programs. This paper describes the development and testing of a structured, tailored assessment and care planning process for improving the QOL of nursing home residents. The Quality of Life Structured Resident Interview and Care Plan (QOL.SRI/CP) builds on a decade of research on measuring QOL and is designed to be easily implemented in any US nursing home. The approach was developed through extensive and iterative pilot testing and then tested in a randomized controlled trial in three nursing homes. Residents were randomly assigned to receive the assessment alone or both the assessment and an individualized QOL care plan task. The results show that residents assigned to the intervention group experienced improved QOL at 90- and 180-day follow-up, while QOL of residents in the control group was unchanged. PMID:25371822

  1. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  2. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

      Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...

  3. Global Trends in Life Expectancy: A Club Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2009-01-01

    Excluding the HIV prevalence rate from the threshold candidates re-allocates a considerable number of the members of the High AIDS club, indicating that incomes, literacy, and fertility are unable to predict AIDS completely. The similarity of economic and demographic conditions in the Low Literacy and High AIDS clubs, however, raises concerns about life expectancy convergence in the future.

  4. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

      Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...

  5. Transport biofuels - a life-cycle assessment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    Life-cycle studies of the currently dominant transport biofuels (bioethanol made from starch or sugar and biodiesel made from vegetable oil) show that solar energy conversion efficiency is relatively poor if compared with solar cells and that such biofuels tend to do worse than conventional fossil

  6. Reverse logistics network design: a holistic life cycle approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daaboul, Joanna; Le Duigou, Julien; Penciuc, Diana; Eynard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    .... This article addresses the issue of designing the reverse logistics network assuring the needed volume of recycled aluminum for the production of L-shaped front lower control arms for personal cars. It details the developed method and demonstrator for designing a reverse logistics network based on a life cycle assessment.

  7. On an Approach to Testing and Modeling Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    E. L. Thorndike contributed significantly to the field of educational and psychological testing as well as more broadly to psychological studies in education. This article follows in his testing legacy. I address the escalating demand, across societal sectors, to measure individual and group competencies. In formulating an approach to measuring…

  8. On an Approach to Testing and Modeling Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    E. L. Thorndike contributed significantly to the field of educational and psychological testing as well as more broadly to psychological studies in education. This article follows in his testing legacy. I address the escalating demand, across societal sectors, to measure individual and group competencies. In formulating an approach to measuring…

  9. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  10. An innovation integrated approach to testing motorcycle drive chain lubricants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, P.M.; Priest, M.

    2004-01-01

    An innovative integrated approach to the testing and comparison of motorcycle drive chain lubricants is presented. This is a novel way of testing the lubrication by using loaded operating chains and sprockets. A test rig has been designed to operate chains and sprockets in a clean environment and allow direct comparison between different lubricants. The advantage of this method over previous techniques is that it allows the differentiation of lubricants in a more controlled operating environm...

  11. A review on software testing approaches for cloud applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Siddiqui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has actually been invented to be the latest computing standard that will work several distinctive research areas, such as software testing. Testing cloud applications will keep its unique characteristics that involve more recent testing techniques. Software testing helps to reduce the need for hardware and software services and also provide adaptable and valuable cloud platform. Testing within the cloud platform is easily manageable based on new test models and criteria. Prioritization approach is made responsive to build much better relationship between test cases. These test cases are clustered dependent on priority level. The resources can be used properly by applying load balancing algorithm. Cloud guarantees maximum usage of existing resources. But, security defined as a primary problem in cloud. At the present time, organizations are progressively moving excited about deploying and making use of ready-prepared business applications, with particular short-term to the marketplace. The possible lack of capital budgets for software planning and on principle deployments, along with the swift progression of cloud these are the reasons why one should make the interest on business application. However, these are the interests that help make the SaaS based business application on-demand. In this paper different approaches has been discussed that will help to extend the cloud environment. Also, the study of several well-known software testing approaches.

  12. Energy storage capacitors: Aging and diagnostic approaches for life validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjeant, W.J. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Larson, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MacDougall, F.W. [Aerovox, Inc., New Bedford, MA (United States); Kohlberg, I. [I. Kohlberg Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant increases in capacitor reliability have been achieved through a combination of advanced manufacturing techniques, new materials, and diagnostic methodologies to provide requisite life-cycle reliability for high energy pulse applications. Recent innovations in analysis of aging, including dimensional analysis, are introduced for predicting component performance and fault tolerance. In addition, voltage scaling issues that may drive bank fault-tolerance performance are described.

  13. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  14. Changing life jacket wearing behavior: an evaluation of two approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Thomas; Chow, Wendy

    2014-05-01

    In the United States during 1999-2012, about 4 per cent of adults wore life jackets while engaged in recreation on powerboats. Educational campaigns have promoted life jacket use. Mandatory use regulations target primarily children or boaters on personal watercrafts or water skiing. We describe findings from two interventions - 'Wear It California!', a targeted marketing campaign in the California Delta region and mandatory wear regulations at four US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) lakes in the state of Mississippi. Before the campaign in the Delta, adult wear was 8.5 per cent, increasing to 12.1 per cent during the first year, dipping to 9.4 per cent during the second year, and rising slightly to 10.5 per cent 3 plus years after the campaign. Before mandatory regulations at USACE lakes, adult wear was 13.7 per cent, increasing to 75.6 per cent during the first year, 70.1 per cent during the second year, and remaining high at 68.1 per cent in the third year. Policymakers should consider these findings when choosing how to increase life jacket use.

  15. Constructing a Life That Works: Part 2, An Approach to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Cathy; Ungar, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The 1st article (C. Campbell & M. Ungar, 2004) of this 2-part exploration of postmodern approaches to family therapy and narrative approaches to career counseling explored the differences between traditional trait and factor counseling models and postmodern approaches using life narratives and social constructionism. In this 2nd article, the…

  16. A Program Recognition and Auto-Testing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C. Pai

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the software testing are to assess and improve the quality of the software. An important problem in software testing is to determine whether a program has been tested enough with a testing criterion. To raise a technology to reconstruct the program structure and generating test data automatically will help software developers to improve software quality efficiently. Program recognition and transformation is a technology that can help maintainers to recover the programs' structure and consequently make software testing properly. In this paper, a methodology to follow the logic of a program and transform to the original program graph is proposed. An approach to derive testing paths automatically for a program to test every blocks of the program is provided. A real example is presented to illustrate and prove that the methodology is practicable. The proposed methodology allows developers to recover the programs' design and makes software maintenance properly.

  17. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  18. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether

  19. Life table tests of evolutionary theories of senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, R M

    1988-01-01

    The phenomenon of senescence requires both evolutionary and proximate explanations. The most widely accepted evolutionary explanation for senescence is that it never gets exposed to natural selection because environmental hazards kill all individuals before the age at which senescence causes decreased fitness. If this explanation is sufficient, wild populations should not demonstrate senescence, and their mortality rates should therefore remain constant during adult life, except when environmental causes of mortality have recently decreased. The alternative explanation for the persistence of the genes that cause senescence is that they have been selected for because they have pleiotropic effects that are beneficial early in life when the force of selection is strongest. Where this is the case, mortality rates should increase with age in wild populations. A method is described for using life table data to calculate an estimate of the intensity of selection acting on senescence in wild populations. This method is applied to a variety of life tables. The results suggest that pleiotropic genes may be important causes of senescence in some populations, but not in others. This has implications for research on the proximate mechanisms of senescence.

  20. Approaches to the Origin of Life on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    I discuss briefly the history of the origin of life field, focusing on the “Miller” era of prebiotic synthesis, through the “Orgel” era seeking enzyme free template replication of single stranded RNA or similar polynucleotides, to the RNA world era with one of its foci on a ribozyme with the capacity to act as a polymerase able to copy itself. I give the history of the independent invention in 1971 by T. Ganti, M. Eigen and myself of three alternative theories of the origin of molecular repli...

  1. A real-life, ecologically valid test of executive functioning : The executive secretarial task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, Kirsten F.; Evans, Jonathan J.; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of neuropsychological assessment is predicting a person's level of functioning in daily life. Making predictions about everyday executive functioning based on tests is problematic because of the contrast between demands made in the test environment and demands made in everyday life (Sha

  2. STATISTICAL INFERENCE OF WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION FOR TAMPERED FAILURE RATE MODEL IN PROGRESSIVE STRESS ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ronghua; FEI Heliang

    2004-01-01

    In this note, the tampered failure rate model is generalized from the step-stress accelerated life testing setting to the progressive stress accelerated life testing for the first time. For the parametric setting where the scale parameter satisfying the equation of the inverse power law is Weibull, maximum likelihood estimation is investigated.

  3. Life Stress and Reading Comprehension Test Scores in the Middle School Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maryann Clementi

    A study determined the relationship between life stress and reading comprehension test scores on the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills. Subjects, 41 middle-school students attending Lincoln School in Garwood, New Jersey, were surveyed as to the amount of life stress prevalent in their lives. In addition, the Iowa scores for reading comprehension were…

  4. Testing of the masonry arches of the Brooklyn Bridge approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Hemant S.

    1996-11-01

    Diagnostic procedures play an important role in performing a condition survey of a structure. Specialized tests are used during a field survey to supplement visual observations. The tests provide valuable information regarding the internal condition of the structure and quality of the construction materials. The tests also help in determining the extent of damage, if any. Recently, a team of consulting engineers performed a study to determine the remaining capacity of the Brooklyn Bridge approaches for the Department of Transportation, City of New York. Using advanced diagnostic procedures such as impact-echo and flatjack testing, additional information was gathered to assist in the study. Impact-echo testing was helpful in identifying the condition of the brick soffits which were covered with pneumatically- applied concrete, and flatjack testing was useful in determining in-situ compressive strength and compression modulus of the brick masonry. The paper describes the work and the testing results.

  5. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  6. A Life Space Perspective to Approach Individual Demographic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robette, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe concept of life space refers to the different locations with which individualsinteract along their life course. In this article we present several methodologicalproposals to describe and measure various territories to which individualsrelate over time, taking advantage of a rich data source, the Biographies etentourage survey. We produce relevant indicators which can be used in thestudy of different demographic processes and demonstrate how this perspectiveelegantly formalizes the linked dynamics of interactive non-independenttrajectories in the case of the couples’ activity space.RésuméLe concept d’espace de vie désigne l’ensemble des lieux avec lesquels unindividu est en relation au cours de sa vie. Dans cet article, plusieurs méthodessont proposées pour décrire et mesurer les différents territoires auxquels lesindividus sont attachés au fil du temps, en mettant pour cela à profit la richessedes données de l’enquête Biographies et entourage. Plusieurs indicateurs sontconstruits, qui peuvent être utilisés pour l’étude de processus démographiquesvariés. La pertinence d’une perspective en termes d’espace de vie est enfinvalidée par l’analyse des interactions dynamiques entre trajectoires nonindépendantes,appliquée aux espaces d’activité des couples.

  7. An approach to model based testing of multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Shafiq; Nadeem, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous agents perform on behalf of the user to achieve defined goals or objectives. They are situated in dynamic environment and are able to operate autonomously to achieve their goals. In a multiagent system, agents cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. Testing of multiagent systems is a challenging task due to the autonomous and proactive behavior of agents. However, testing is required to build confidence into the working of a multiagent system. Prometheus methodology is a commonly used approach to design multiagents systems. Systematic and thorough testing of each interaction is necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to testing of multiagent systems based on Prometheus design artifacts. In the proposed approach, different interactions between the agent and actors are considered to test the multiagent system. These interactions include percepts and actions along with messages between the agents which can be modeled in a protocol diagram. The protocol diagram is converted into a protocol graph, on which different coverage criteria are applied to generate test paths that cover interactions between the agents. A prototype tool has been developed to generate test paths from protocol graph according to the specified coverage criterion.

  8. An Approach to Model Based Testing of Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq Ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous agents perform on behalf of the user to achieve defined goals or objectives. They are situated in dynamic environment and are able to operate autonomously to achieve their goals. In a multiagent system, agents cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. Testing of multiagent systems is a challenging task due to the autonomous and proactive behavior of agents. However, testing is required to build confidence into the working of a multiagent system. Prometheus methodology is a commonly used approach to design multiagents systems. Systematic and thorough testing of each interaction is necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to testing of multiagent systems based on Prometheus design artifacts. In the proposed approach, different interactions between the agent and actors are considered to test the multiagent system. These interactions include percepts and actions along with messages between the agents which can be modeled in a protocol diagram. The protocol diagram is converted into a protocol graph, on which different coverage criteria are applied to generate test paths that cover interactions between the agents. A prototype tool has been developed to generate test paths from protocol graph according to the specified coverage criterion.

  9. Mediation Approaches at the Beginning or End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edmund G

    2015-01-01

    The approaches used in mediation may help ethics consultants, especially in difficult cases. In this piece, I primarily discuss these techniques. I also discuss how clinicians may be of the most help to parents of infants with severe genetic conditions, to research participants, and to patients who may be at risk for Alzheimer's disease and their surrogate decision makers.

  10. Teaching Grade 5 Life Science with a Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Ozlem Sila; Adali, Belgin

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a case study approach on students' achievement and attitudes towards viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protista. Fifth-grade students (N = 88) from two different classes were involved in the study. One intact class was assigned as the experimental group, whereas the other intact class…

  11. Designing renewable energy systems a life cycle assessment approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Leda

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses a multi-objective optimization approach in LCA that allows the flexible construction of comprehensive Pareto fronts to help understand the weightings and relative importance of its elements. The methodology is applied to the pertinent topics of thermochemical wood conversion, deep geothermal energy, and regional energy planning.

  12. Life cycle management and assessment: approaches and visions towards sustainable manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Alting, Leo; Arndt, Günther

    2001-01-01

    (Enhanced version of keynote paper from Annals of the CIRP Vol. 43/2000) Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only mean extended responsibility of the parties concerned. Econom...... the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their prospects and further development....

  13. Modern psychometric approaches to analysis of scales for health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical...... psychometric testing or as the primary methodological approach. We will use the term modern psychometric methods to refer to psychometric methods for multi-item scales that (1) examine the contribution of each item to the measurement properties of the overall scale and (2) recognize that items are categorical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...

  14. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...... standards. This paper identifies some of the problems in using and interpreting the results for predicting ageing based upon ISOS consensus standard test data. Design of Experiments (DOE) in conjunction with data from ISOS consensus standards are used as the basis for developing life test models for OPV...

  15. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  16. Ernst Zermelo an approach to his life and work

    CERN Document Server

    Ebbinghaus, Heinz Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This biography sheds light on all facets of the life and the achievements of Ernst Zermelo (1871-1953). Zermelo is best-known for the statement of the axiom of choice and his axiomatization of set theory. However, he also worked in applied mathematics and mathematical physics. His dissertation, for example, promoted the calculus of variations, and he created the pivotal method in the theory of rating systems. The presentation of Zermelo's work explores motivations, aims, acceptance, and influence. Selected proofs and information gleaned from letters add to the analysis. The description of his personality owes much to conversations with his late wife Gertrud. This second edition provides additional information. The system of citations has been adapted to that of Zermelo's Collected Works in order to facilitate side-by-side reading and thus profit from the thorough commentaries written for the Collected Works by experts in the respective fields. All facts presented are documented by appropriate sources. The bio...

  17. Life insurance and breast cancer risk assessment: adverse selection, genetic testing decisions, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Weber, Barbara; FitzGerald, Genevieve; Hershey, John C; Pauly, Mark V; Lemaire, Jean; Subramanian, Krupa; Asch, David A

    2003-07-30

    Life insurance industry access to genetic information is controversial. Consumer groups argue that access will increase discrimination in life insurance premiums and discourage individuals from undergoing genetic testing that may provide health benefits. Conversely, life insurers argue that without access to risk information available to individuals, they face substantial financial risk from adverse selection. Given this controversy, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of breast cancer risk information on life insurance purchasing, the impact of concerns about life insurance discrimination on use of BRCA1/2 testing, and the incidence of life insurance discrimination following participation in breast cancer risk assessment and BRCA1/2 testing. Study participants were 636 women who participated in genetic counseling and/or genetic testing at a University based clinic offering breast cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, and BRCA1/2 testing between January 1995 and May 2000. Twenty-seven women (4%) had increased and six (1%) had decreased their life insurance since participation in breast cancer risk assessment. The decision to increase life insurance coverage was associated with predicted breast cancer risk (adjusted OR 1.03 for each 1% absolute increase in risk, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and being found to carry a mutation in BRCA1/2 (OR 5.10, 95% CI 1.90-13.66). Concern about life insurance discrimination was inversely associated with the decision to undergo BRCA1/2 testing (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.85). No respondent reported having life insurance denied or canceled. In this cohort of women, these results indicate that information about increased breast cancer risk is associated with increase in life insurance purchasing, raising the possibility of adverse selection. Although fear of insurance discrimination is associated with the decision not to undergo BRCA1/2 testing, there was no evidence of actual insurance discrimination from BRCA1

  18. The quest for better quality-of-life - learning from large-scale shaking table tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M.; Sato, E.; Nagae, T.; Kunio, F.; Takahito, I.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake engineering has its origins in the practice of “learning from actual earthquakes and earthquake damages.” That is, we recognize serious problems by witnessing the actual damage to our structures, and then we develop and apply engineering solutions to solve these problems. This tradition in earthquake engineering, i.e., “learning from actual damage,” was an obvious engineering response to earthquakes and arose naturally as a practice in a civil and building engineering discipline that traditionally places more emphasis on experience than do other engineering disciplines. But with the rapid progress of urbanization, as society becomes denser, and as the many components that form our society interact with increasing complexity, the potential damage with which earthquakes threaten the society also increases. In such an era, the approach of ”learning from actual earthquake damages” becomes unacceptably dangerous and expensive. Among the practical alternatives to the old practice is to “learn from quasi-actual earthquake damages.” One tool for experiencing earthquake damages without attendant catastrophe is the large shaking table. E-Defense, the largest one we have, was developed in Japan after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. Since its inauguration in 2005, E-Defense has conducted over forty full-scale or large-scale shaking table tests, applied to a variety of structural systems. The tests supply detailed data on actual behavior and collapse of the tested structures, offering the earthquake engineering community opportunities to experience and assess the actual seismic performance of the structures, and to help society prepare for earthquakes. Notably, the data were obtained without having to wait for the aftermaths of actual earthquakes. Earthquake engineering has always been about life safety, but in recent years maintaining the quality of life has also become a critical issue. Quality-of-life concerns include nonstructural

  19. The LIFE child study: a life course approach to disease and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quante Mirja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1 monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2 non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases.

  20. SYNTHETIC STRESS LIFE TESTING OF MECHATRONIC PRODUCTS UNDER VARIABLE STRESS SPECTRUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mechatronic products usually endure the variable stress spectrum when they operate in certain operational condition and environmental condition, which obey the Weibull distribution. In accordance with the features of mechatronic product, this paper analyzes the failure mode, its corresponding sensitive stress and the design principles of life testing profiles. Based on the above analyses, this paper presents a synthetic stress life testing method based on the hybrid Weibull distribution and its statistical method under variable stress spectrum to evaluate the reliability and life indices of mechatronic products. Because the mechatronic products have many characteristics such as high price, long life and small testing samples, the synthetic stress life testing method under variable load spectrum can simulate the real various spectra, decrease the life testing time and reduce the testing samples. So it is effective to carry out the life testing to mechatronic products. The application results of hydraulic pumps indicate that this method can easily handle the experimental data under variable amplitude spectrum, obtain the high precision parameters point estimation and confidence interval estimation and reduce the testing cost greatly.

  1. Relevance of philosophy of life and optimism for psychological distress among individuals in a stage where death is approaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Sidenvall, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Sjödén, Per-Olow; Nordin, Karin

    2006-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the relevance of philosophy of life as well as optimism for the psychological distress among Swedish individuals in a stage where death is approaching. Sixty-nine persons were included; of these were 42 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and 26 were partners to these patients. The participants' philosophy of life was studied through a semi-structured interview. The interview statements were subjected to content analysis. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test and psychological distress by the Hospitality and Depression Scale. The results showed that optimistic respondents had less psychological distress. Two aspects of philosophy of life had relevance for such distress. These were wondering about why the cancer had occurred and having a feeling of being able to live a good life having or living near a person with advanced cancer. In conclusion, the above-mentioned aspects of philosophy of life as well as optimism have relevance for psychological distress among these individuals, which stress the importance that health-care staff address both patients' and their partners' concerns about their philosophy of life.

  2. The empirical foundations of psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L S

    1990-01-01

    The view that psychoanalytic approaches to psychological testing lack empirical foundations is disputed by systematically examining the ways in which psychoanalytic theory expands the sources of data available to the psychological tester at each step in the assessment process. The contention is made that it is unscientific to restrict the concept of what constitutes scientific rigor to formal experimentation with statistical analysis.

  3. A New Approach for Testing the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinger, Klaus D.; Rasch, Dieter; Yanagida, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    Though calibration of an achievement test within psychological and educational context is very often carried out by the Rasch model, data sampling is hardly designed according to statistical foundations. However, Kubinger, Rasch, and Yanagida (2009) recently suggested an approach for the determination of sample size according to a given Type I and…

  4. Accelerated Life Test for Photovoltaic Cells Using Concentrated Light

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas; Petru Adrian Cotfas; Dan Ion Floroian; Laura Floroian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method developed to significantly reduce the necessary time for the ageing tests for different types of photovoltaic cells. Two ageing factors have been applied to the photovoltaic cells: the concentrated light and the temperature. The maximum power of the photovoltaic cells was monitored during the ageing process. The electrical dc and ac parameters of the photovoltaic cells were measured and analyzed at 1 sun irradiance, before and after the test stress. During the...

  5. Aspects across Software Life Cycle: A Goal-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Yu, Yijun; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Ernst, Neil; Sampaio Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar; Mylopoulos, John

    Goal modeling fits model-driven engineering (MDE) in that it captures stakeholder concerns and the interdependencies using concepts that are much less bound to the underlying implementation technology and are much closer to the problem languages. Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) provides language constructs to facilitate the representation of multiple perceptions and to alleviate tangling and scattering concerns. Synthesis of AOSD and MDE not only manages software complexity but also improves productivity, as well as model quality and longevity. In this paper, we propose a model-driven framework for tracing aspects from requirements to implementation and testing, where goal models become engineering assets and straightforward model-to-code transformation bridges the gap between domain concepts and implementation technologies. We test our hypotheses and evaluate the framework’s applicability and usefulness with a case study of an open-source e-commerce platform written in PHP.

  6. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  7. A Bound Test Approach to Cointegration of Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh Habibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Given the high contribution of tourism industry in the Malaysian economy, Malaysia has a vast view to increase its market share of the international tourist arrivals in the Asia Pacific region. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the long run and short run demand for tourism from top ten markets (country. Approach: To accomplish this objective the ARDL bound test approach to cointegration was carried out for quarterly time series data from 1998:Q1 to 2007: Q3. A three-stage procedure followed to test the direction of causality. In the first stage the order of integration was tested using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips Perron (PP unit root tests. The second stage involved testing for the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between arrivals, income, tourism price, tourism substitute price and travel cost. The third stage involved constructing standard Granger-type causality tests augmented with a lagged error-correction term where the series were cointegrated. Results: The result of ADF and PP unit root tests confirmed that all variables were stationary at first difference. In addition the results indicated that a long run relationship and between variables. Conclusion: The results indicated that tourists from these ten countries seem to be highly sensitive to the price and the alternative destinations are complementary to Malaysia. In addition the results showed that the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, 2003 had a negative affects significantly affected Malaysia’s tourism demand.

  8. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  9. An Energy-Critical Plane Based Fatigue Damage Approach for the Life Prediction of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitatzis, N.; Savaidis, G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new energy-critical plane based fatigue damage approach for the assessment of the fatigue life under uniaxial and multiaxial proportional and non-proportional fatigue loading. The proposed approximate method, based on Farahani's multiaxial fatigue damage model, takes into account the critical plane orientations during a loading cycle and the values of the respective damage parameters on them. The uniqueness of the proposed method lies on the fact that it considers a weighted contribution of each critical plane orientation to the material damage. The relative weighting factors depend on the declination of each critical plane with respect to the critical plane, where the damage parameters exhibit their maximum values during a fatigue loading cycle. Herein, several low, mid and high-cycle fatigue loading cases are being investigated. The induced elastic-plastic stress-strain states are approximated by means of respective finite element analyses (FEA). Several experimental fatigue data derived from uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests on StE460 steel alloy thin-walled hourglass-type specimens have been used to verify the model's calculation accuracy. Comparison of experimental and calculated fatigue lives confirm remarkable fatigue life calculation accuracy in all cases examined.

  10. Carbon footprint of forest and tree utilization technologies in life cycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, András; Pécsinger, Judit

    2017-04-01

    In our research project a suitable method has been developed related the technological aspect of the environmental assessment of land use changes caused by climate change. We have prepared an eco-balance (environmental inventory) to the environmental effects classification in life-cycle approach in connection with the typical agricultural / forest and tree utilization technologies. The use of balances and environmental classification makes possible to compare land-use technologies and their environmental effects per common functional unit. In order to test our environmental analysis model, we carried out surveys in sample of forest stands. We set up an eco-balance of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak, spruce, acacia, poplar and short rotation energy plantations (willow, poplar). We set up the life-cycle plan of the surveyed working systems by using the GaBi 6.0 Professional software and carried out midpoint and endpoint impact assessment. Out of the results, we applied the values of CML 2001 - Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) [kg CO2-Equiv.] and Eco-Indicator 99 - Human health, Climate Change [DALY]. On the basis of the values we set up a ranking of technology. By this, we received the environmental impact classification of the technologies based on carbon footprint. The working systems had the greatest impact on global warming (GWP 100 years) throughout their whole life cycle. This is explained by the amount of carbon dioxide releasing to the atmosphere resulting from the fuel of the technologies. Abiotic depletion (ADP foss) and marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MAETP) emerged also as significant impact categories. These impact categories can be explained by the share of input of fuel and lube. On the basis of the most significant environmental impact category (carbon footprint), we perform the relative life cycle contribution and ranking of each technologies. The technological life cycle stages examined

  11. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The evolution and plasticity of life histories upon variation in nutrition : on aging focused integrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Joost van den

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe studies of life history traits under variation in nutrition focused on ageing. The predictive adaptive response is a type of plastic response which is advantageous later in life, rather than immediately. We tested with a resource allocation model whether for a relatively sh

  13. GPS Block IIF Rubidium Frequency Standard Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    lines . In this case, the clock was turned off to prevent possible damage to the unit. All other test components continued to operate without...2007, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. [2] R. Beard, J. White, J. Brad, S. Stebbins , J. Smathers, T. Myers, F. Danzy, A. Frank, W. Reid, and J

  14. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

  16. Integrating Existentialism and Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, William R.

    2012-01-01

    As workers face a changing and ever-complex employment landscape, traditional career theories and approaches may not be sufficient in meeting career challenges. Calls for integrated career theories have emerged as more people seek meaning and purpose in their lives and careers. This article proposes a career counseling option that integrates…

  17. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  18. CIS-based registration of quality of life in a single source approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riek Markus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documenting quality of life (QoL in routine medical care and using it both for treatment and for clinical research is not common, although such information is absolutely valuable for physicians and patients alike. We therefore aimed at developing an efficient method to integrate quality of life information into the clinical information system (CIS and thus make it available for clinical care and secondary use. Methods We piloted our method in three different medical departments, using five different QoL questionnaires. In this setting we used structured interviews and onsite observations to perform workflow and form analyses. The forms and pertinent data reports were implemented using the integrated tools of the local CIS. A web-based application for mobile devices was developed based on XML schemata to facilitate data import into the CIS. Data exports of the CIS were analysed with statistical software to perform an analysis of data quality. Results The quality of life questionnaires are now regularly documented by patients and physicians. The resulting data is available in the Electronic Health Record (EHR and can be used for treatment purposes and communication as well as research functionalities. The completion of questionnaires by the patients themselves using a mobile device (iPad and the import of the respective data into the CIS forms were successfully tested in a pilot installation. The quality of data is rendered high by the use of automatic score calculations as well as the automatic creation of forms for follow-up documentation. The QoL data was exported to research databases for use in scientific analysis. Conclusion The CIS-based QoL is technically feasible, clinically accepted and provides an excellent quality of data for medical treatment and clinical research. Our approach with a commercial CIS and the web-based application is transferable to other sites.

  19. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-01-01

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results. PMID:26610495

  20. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  1. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-11-19

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  2. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  3. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  4. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Alternative Approaches to Causality Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehdanz, Katrin (Christian-Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany)); Maddison, David J. (Univ. of Birmingham, Dept. of Economics, Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. More recently this technique has been extended to looking at the relationship between carbon emissions and GDP per capita. These analyses frequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper compares the standard fixed-dynamic-effects approach to a heterogenous panel approach testing for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP per capita and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity. Overall there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita

  5. Single Component Sorption-Desorption Test Experimental Design Approach Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phil WInston

    2011-09-01

    A task was identified within the fission-product-transport work package to develop a path forward for doing testing to determine behavior of volatile fission products behavior and to engage members of the NGNP community to advise and dissent on the approach. The following document is a summary of the discussions and the specific approaches suggested for components of the testing. Included in the summary isare the minutes of the conference call that was held with INL and external interested parties to elicit comments on the approaches brought forward by the INL participants. The conclusion was that an initial non-radioactive, single component test will be useful to establish the limits of currently available chemical detection methods, and to evaluated source-dispersion uniformity. In parallel, development of a real-time low-concentration monitoring method is believed to be useful in detecting rapid dispersion as well as desorption phenomena. Ultimately, the test cycle is expected to progress to the use of radio-traced species, simply because this method will allow the lowest possible detection limits. The consensus of the conference call was that there is no need for an in-core test because the duct and heat exchanger surfaces that will be the sorption target will be outside the main neutron flux and will not be affected by irradiation. Participants in the discussion and contributors to the INL approach were Jeffrey Berg, Pattrick Calderoni, Gary Groenewold, Paul Humrickhouse, Brad Merrill, and Phil Winston. Participants from outside the INL included David Hanson of General Atomics, Todd Allen, Tyler Gerczak, and Izabela Szlufarska of the University of Wisconsin, Gary Was, of the University of Michigan, Sudarshan Loyalka and Tushar Ghosh of the University of Missouri, and Robert Morris of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF CRANKSHAFT MADE OF MATERIAL 48MnV BASED ON FATIGUE TESTS,DYNAMIC SIMULATION AND FEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqing; PU Gengqiang; WANG Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    S-N curve and fatigue parameters of 48MnV are obtained using small sample tests and staircase or up and down method, which paves the way for predicting fatigue life of crankshaft made of 48MnV. The fatigue life of the crankshaft of a six-cylinder engine is calculated using different damage models such as S-N method, normal strain approach, Smoth-Watson-Topper (SWT)-Bannantine approach, shear strain approach, and Fatemi-Socie method based on dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) of crankshaft. The results indicate that the traditional calculation is conservative and the residual fatigue life of crankshaft is sufficient to maintain next life cycle if the crankshaft is remanufactured after its end of life.

  7. Two-step sensitivity testing of parametrized and regionalized life cycle assessments: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, Christopher L; de Baan, Laura; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Comprehensive sensitivity analysis is a significant tool to interpret and improve life cycle assessment (LCA) models, but is rarely performed. Sensitivity analysis will increase in importance as inventory databases become regionalized, increasing the number of system parameters, and parametrized, adding complexity through variables and nonlinear formulas. We propose and implement a new two-step approach to sensitivity analysis. First, we identify parameters with high global sensitivities for further examination and analysis with a screening step, the method of elementary effects. Second, the more computationally intensive contribution to variance test is used to quantify the relative importance of these parameters. The two-step sensitivity test is illustrated on a regionalized, nonlinear case study of the biodiversity impacts from land use of cocoa production, including a worldwide cocoa products trade model. Our simplified trade model can be used for transformable commodities where one is assessing market shares that vary over time. In the case study, the highly uncertain characterization factors for the Ivory Coast and Ghana contributed more than 50% of variance for almost all countries and years examined. The two-step sensitivity test allows for the interpretation, understanding, and improvement of large, complex, and nonlinear LCA systems.

  8. Life testing of implantable batteries for a total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, R A; Wolga, A E; Ochs, B D; Yu, L S; Kung, R T

    1993-01-01

    Although lithium cells may promise to be ideal as a rechargeable internal battery for a TAH, NiCd cells remain the most easily accessible off the shelf energy source. Twelve 1.2 A.hr prismatic NiCd (Sanyo, San Diego, CA) cells in series are being tested under the load condition of our TAH. The load consisted of a 1.5 A DC current with 1 A pulses of 40 msec duration at 3.33 Hz (100 bpm), a condition that can generate up to 8 L/min of cardiac output at physiologic pressures. Cells were tested at 37 degrees C. Cell voltages and temperatures were monitored. Testing was accelerated to five charge/discharge cycles per day. Discharge was terminated when any one cell dropped below 1.1 V. Charging (C/4) was continued until the battery voltage indicated a change in slope. Cell temperatures remained below 42 degrees C throughout the charge/discharge cycle. The battery pack settled to a nearly constant capacity of over 25 min after 10 cycles and has accumulated more than 1,000 cycles. Voltage differences among cells were small (SD mV), indicating consistency among cells. NiCd cells can serve as a reliable interim for TAH internal battery application.

  9. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  10. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  11. Integration and validation testing for PhEDEx, DBS and DAS with the PhEDEx LifeCycle agent

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data handled by the CMS dataflow and workflow management tools poses new challenges for cross-validation among different systems within CMS experiment at LHC. To approach this problem we developed an integration test suite based on the LifeCycle agent, a tool originally conceived for stress-testing new releases of PhEDEx, the CMS data-placement tool. The LifeCycle agent provides a framework for customising the test workflow in arbitrary ways, and can scale to levels of activity well beyond those seen in normal running. This means we can run realistic performance tests at scales not likely to be seen by the experiment for some years, or with custom topologies to examine particular situations that may cause concern some time in the future.The LifeCycle agent has recently been enhanced to become a general purpose integration and validation testing tool for major CMS services (PhEDEx, DBS, DAS). It allows cross-system integration tests of all three components to be performed in contr...

  12. A novel testing approach for SSRF digital power supply controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xinhua; LU Songlin; LI Rui; XU Ruinian; SHEN Tianjian

    2008-01-01

    Digital power supply controller is one of the key parts of SSRF high resolution high stability magnet power supply system.It is very essential to keep any degradation of these excellent properties by any stages as small as possible via careful testing when the controller is developed.In this study,a novel testing approach was presented,with which a novel closed conrail loop without actual power converter was constructed,and the new developed SSRF Digital Controller can work well in it.

  13. Another Approach to Test Gravity around a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars orbiting around the black hole at our galactic center provide us a unique testing site for gravity. In this work, we propose an approach to probe the gravity around the black hole introducing two phenomenological parameters which characterize deviation from the vacuum Einstein theory. The two phenomenological parameters are associated with the energy momentum tensor in the framework of the Einstein theory. Therefore, our approach can be regarded as the complement to the parametrized post-Newtonian framework in which phenomenological parameters are introduced for deviation of gravitational theories from general relativity. In our formulation, we take the possibility of a relativistic and exotic matter component into account. Since the pulsar can be regarded as a test particle, as the first step, we consider geodesic motions in the system composed of a central black hole and a perfect fluid whose distribution is static and spherically symmetric. It is found that the mass density of the fluid and a param...

  14. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  15. Rare Earth or Cosmic Zoo: Testing the Frequency of Complex Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, W.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2017-02-01

    We propose how to test between two major hypotheses about the frequency of life in the universe (Rare Earth and Cosmic Zoo) using future remote sensing capabilities targeted at exoplanets and site visits of planetary bodies in our solar system.

  16. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  17. Astronaut Russell Schweickart suits up for test of life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart suits up to participate in an altitude verification test of the Apollo Portable Life Support System flight unit in Crew Systems Division's 8-ft. altitude chamber in Building 7, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC).

  18. Parallel approach to MEMS and micro-optics interferometric testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawińska, M.; Beer, S.; Gastinger, K.; Gorecki, C.; Haugholt, K. H.; Józwik, M.; Lambelet, P.; Paris, R.; Styk, A.; Zeitner, U.

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents the novel approach to an interferometric, quantitative, massive parallel inspection of MicroElectroMechanicalSystems (MEMS), MicroOptoElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS) and microoptics arrays. The basic idea is to adapt a micro-optical probing wafer to the M(O)EMS wafer under test. The probing wafer is exchangeable and contains one of the micro-optical interferometer arrays based on: (1) a low coherent interferometer array based on a Mirau configuration or (2) a laser interferometer array based on a Twyman-Green configuration. The optical, mechanical, and electro-optical design of the system and data analysis concept based on this approach is presented. The interferometer arrays are developed and integrated at a standard test station for micro-fabrication together with the illumination and imaging modules and special mechanics which includes scanning and electrostatic excitation systems. The smart-pixel approach is applied for massive parallel electro-optical detection and data reduction. The first results of functional tests of the system are presented. The concept is discussed in reference to the future M(O)EMS and microoptics manufacturers needs and requirements.

  19. Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pablo; Ascension Carmona, Maria; Berlanga, Jose; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN Spain is the world's first and third largest producer of olive oil and almond, respectively. Despite huge efforts in the last years by the production sector towards intensification, cultural issues relative to the traditional rain-fed crop management know how, prevent farmers from adoption of sustainable irrigation management practices. Consequently, even though there has been progress in irrigation management research for these two crops, adoption of modern irrigation techniques by farmers has been slow. Sustainable irrigation strategies for olive and almond orchards are being designed, implemented, validated and disseminated under the framework of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN project, through a participatory approach. The implementation of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN innovative and demonstrative actions has been carried out in an irrigation district of Southern Spain (Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme, Andalusia). The approach designed has four phases: i) design and implementation of sustainable irrigation strategies in demonstration farms; ii) dissemination of best irrigation practices which were tested in the initial year throughout the irrigation scheme by the irrigation advisory service; iii) assessment of degree of adoption and re-design of the dissemination strategies; and, iv) based on the results obtained, elaboration of sustainable irrigation guidelines for knowledge transfer in the district at regional and national levels to promote changes in irrigation practices. Participatory approaches have proven to be effective tools for successful irrigation strategies design and diffusion, especially in traditional rain fed crops such as olive and almond trees in the Mediterranean countries. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  20. [Introduction to] : "Sustainability of constructions : integrated approach to life-time structural engineering"

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Blok, Rijk; Gervásio, H.; Veljkovic, Milan, ed. lit.; Plewako, Zbigniew, ed. lit.; Landolfo, Raffaele; Ungureanu, Viorel

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the COST Action C25 ‘Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approach lo Life-time Structural Engineering” is to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through the collection and collaborative analysis of scientific results concerning life-time structural engineering and especially integration of environmental assessment methods and tolls of structural engineering. Sustainability of Construction, European Science Foundation : Cost...

  1. Traveling-wave tube reliability estimates, life tests, and space flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Speck, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Infant mortality, useful life, and wearout phase of twt life are considered. The performance of existing developmental tubes, flight experience, and sequential hardware testing are evaluated. The reliability history of twt's in space applications is documented by considering: (1) the generic parts of the tube in light of the manner in which their design and operation affect the ultimate reliability of the device, (2) the flight experience of medium power tubes, and (3) the available life test data for existing space-qualified twt's in addition to those of high power devices.

  2. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25-39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study.

  3. Two approaches to life in the Second Temple period: Deuteronomy and Qoholet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Lombaard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The prosaic Mosaic death in Deuteronomy 34 leaves the way of life [foreign font omitted] as constituted in [foreign font omitted]. That is, par excellence: Life [foreign font omitted] is found in words. In Qohelet, another kind of existentialism, in the face of death, is found, namely in the sensual life of enjoyment of food, drink and companionship. These two approaches constitute different, competing Second Temple period conceptions of how to live, despite death, coram Deo. These two conceptions indicate the existence of more than one ethos within ancient Judaic society – a dynamic often lacking in the South African context.

  4. A life course approach to injury prevention: a "lens and telescope" conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although life course epidemiology is increasingly employed to conceptualize the determinants of health, the implications of this approach for strategies to reduce the burden of injuries have received little recognition to date. Methods The authors reviewed core injury concepts and the principles of the life course approach. Based on this understanding, a conceptual model was developed, to provide a holistic view of the mechanisms that underlie the accumulation of injury risk and their consequences over the life course. Results A "lens and telescope" model is proposed that particularly draws on (a) the extended temporal dimension inherent in the life course approach, with links between exposures and outcomes that span many years, or even generations, and (b) an ecological perspective, according to which the contexts in which individuals live are critical, as are changes in those contexts over time. Conclusions By explicitly examining longer-term, intergenerational and ecological perspectives, life course concepts can inform and strengthen traditional approaches to injury prevention and control that have a strong focus on proximal factors. The model proposed also serves as a tool to identify intervention strategies that have co-benefits for other areas of health. PMID:21899775

  5. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  6. [Life history interview--an effective approach to building positive doctor-patient relations and guide to proper end of life home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Yamanashi, Irotomo; Miyamori, Tadashi

    2010-12-01

    The acclaimed psychiatrist, Arthur Kleinman, proposed Life History Interview as a way of enabling doctors to truly listen to a patient who is suffering from chronic disease. Two cases of terminally ill patients were carried out with Life History Interview. When speaking of the end of life home care, Life History Interview is an effective approach in building positive doctor-patient relations in the early stages. It truly allows for a good foundation for providing a proper care.

  7. Abandoning the common law: medical negligence, genetic tests and wrongful life in the Australian High Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-05-01

    The Australian High Court recently found that the common law could allow parents to claim tortious damages when medical negligence was proven to have led to the birth of an unplanned, but healthy, baby (Cattanach v Melchior (2003) 215 CLR 1). In Harriton v Stephens (2006) 80 ALJR 791; [2006] HCA 15 and Waller v James; Waller v Hoolahan (2006) 80 ALJR 846; [2006] HCA 16 the High Court in a six-to-one decision (Kirby J dissenting) decided that no such claim could be made by a child when medical negligence in failing to order an in utero genetic test caused the child severe disability. In an era when almost all pregnancies will soon require patented fetal genetic tests as part of the professional standard of care, the High Court, by barring so-called "wrongful life" (better termed "wrongful suffering") claims, may have created a partial immunity from suit for their corporate manufacturers and the doctors who administer them. What lessons can be learnt from this case about how the Australian High Court is, or should be, approaching medical negligence cases and its role as guardian of the Australian common law?

  8. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of assets in prefeasibility studies is the main cause of unplanned investment in the later stages of the life cycle of investment, and also of a number of problems in the functioning and unfulfilling or partially fulfilling the goals of the system. PROCESS OF EQUIPPING THE MoD AND THE SAF WITH AME Legislation governing the process of equipping the Ministry of Defence (MoD and the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF with AME is based on the Regulation on equipping the Yugoslav Army with weapons and military equipment in peacetime, from 1996, and on several Standards of National Defense (SNO 0477/83, SNO 1096/85, SNO 8196/92, SNO 9000/97, etc.. Due to a number of social and organizational changes in the defense system, this regulation is not in full compliance with real-time requirements. The analysis of legal regulations and activities in the process of equipping the MoD and the SAF with AME in practice indicates dominance of technical - technological aspects of the equipping analysis, while the economic aspect (primarily aspect of costs is present, but not detailed enough. At best, there is only a static approach to the analysis and evaluation of investment projects, while a dynamic aspect and the aspect of the total cost over the life of assets are not taken into account. ANALYSIS OF COSTS IN THE LIFETIME OF ASSETS Given the non-profit character of military organizations and the possibility to express explicit costs, but not the benefits of investment in equipping with AME

  9. ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING PLAN BASED ON TRUNCATED LIFE TESTS FOR COMPOUND RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,a reliability sampling plan is developed assuming that lifetimes of the test units follow compound Rayleigh distribution and the life test is terminated at a pre-fixed time. This type of sampling plan is used to save the test time in practical situations. The minimum sample size required for ensuringthe specified mean life at specified consumer’s confidence level has been determined. The operating characteristic curve values of the sampling plans are examined with varying ratio of the true mean life to the specified life. The minimum such mean ratios are also obtained to minimize the producer’s risk at the specified level. For illustrative purpose, a numerical example has been discussed.

  10. Subaperture approaches to finishing and testing astronomical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gregory W.; Tricard, Marc

    2004-07-01

    We describe the application of both stitching interferometry and magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) to the surface metrology and final figure correction of large optics. These particular subaperture technologies help to address the need for flexible systems that improve both overall manufacturing time and cost effectiveness. MRF can achieve high volumetric removal rates with a small-footprint tool that is perfectly conformable and highly stable. This tool is therefore well suited to finishing large optics (including aspheres) and correcting mid-spatial frequency errors. The system does not need vacuum, reduces microroughness to below one nm rms on most materials, and is able to meet the figure tolerance specs for astronomical optics. Such a technology is ideally complemented by a system for the stitching of interferometric subaperture data. Stitching inherently enables the testing of larger apertures with higher resolution and, thanks to the inbuilt calibration, even to higher accuracy in many situations. Moreover, given the low-order character of the dominant residual uncertainties in the stitched full-aperture data, such an approach is well suited to adaptive mirrors because the actuators correct precisely these deformations. While this approach enables the non-null testing of parts with greater aspheric departure and can lead to a significantly reduced non-common air path in the testing of long-radius concave parts, it is especially effective for convex optics. That is, stitching is particularly well suited to the testing of secondary mirrors and, alongside the testing of the off-axis primary segments, these are clearly critical challenges for extremely large telescope (ELT) projects.

  11. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  12. Helicopter vibration isolation: Design approach and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.-M.; Goverdovskiy, V. N.; Sotenko, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a strategy based on the approach of designing and inserting into helicopter vibration isolation systems mountable mechanisms with springs of adjustable sign-changing stiffness for system stiffness control. A procedure to extend the effective area of stiffness control is presented; a set of parameters for sensitivity analysis and practical mechanism design is formulated. The validity and flexibility of the approach are illustrated by application to crewmen seat suspensions and vibration isolators for equipment protection containers. The strategy provides minimization of vibrations, especially in the infra-low frequency range which is the most important for crewmen efficiency and safety of the equipment. This also would prevent performance degradation of some operating systems. The effectiveness is demonstrated through measured data obtained from development and parallel flight tests of new and operating systems.

  13. Asteroid modeling for testing spacecraft approach and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Iain; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin; Rowell, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration of asteroids presents autonomous-navigation challenges that can be aided by virtual models to test and develop guidance and hazard-avoidance systems. Researchers have extended and applied graphics techniques to create high-resolution asteroid models to simulate cameras and other spacecraft sensors approaching and descending toward asteroids. A scalable model structure with evenly spaced vertices simplifies terrain modeling, avoids distortion at the poles, and enables triangle-strip definition for efficient rendering. To create the base asteroid models, this approach uses two-phase Poisson faulting and Perlin noise. It creates realistic asteroid surfaces by adding both crater models adapted from lunar terrain simulation and multiresolution boulders. The researchers evaluated the virtual asteroids by comparing them with real asteroid images, examining the slope distributions, and applying a surface-relative feature-tracking algorithm to the models.

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Life Orientation Test-Revised in Treated Opiate Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a measure of dispositional optimism, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, in 121 opiate-dependent patients seeking methadone treatment. Internal consistency was adequate at baseline (alpha = 0.69) and follow-up (alpha = 0.72). Low socioeconomic status and being on disability were…

  15. Safety and Abuse Testing of Energizer LiFeS2 AA Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Baldwin, Laura; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2003-01-01

    The LiFeS2 test program was part of the study on state-of-the-art batteries/cells available in the commercial market. It was carried out in an effort to replace alkaline AA cells for Shuttle and Station applications. A large number of alkaline cells are used for numerous Shuttle and Station applications as loose cells. Other government agencies reported good performance and abuse tolerance of the AA LiFeS2 cells. In this study, only abuse testing was performed on the cells to determine their tolerance. The tests carried out were over-discharge, external short circuit, heat-to-vent, vibration and drop.

  16. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  17. The Design and Life Test of a Multifunction Power Amplifier for Space Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multifunction power amplifier (MFPA is designed and fabricated for the application of point-to-point K-Band backhaul TR module. A DC temperature life test was performed to model the up-limit temperature effect of the designed MFPA under space application. After 240 hours of 100°C life test, the test results illustrate that the designed MFPA has only slight power degradation at the saturation region without change of the linear gain. The general performance of the designed MFPA satisfies the requirement of the application scenario.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT IN A PASSENGER CAR USING THE LIFE CYCLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are an increasingly important aspect of management in the transport sector; new methods have been developed for assessment of the environment in the transport sector using the life cycle approach. The paper presents the application of Well to Wheel (WTW and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in the transport sector. The WTW method focuses on energy analysis and greenhouse gas emissions during the life cycle of fuels. WTW is used to support decision-making on the environmental aspects of transport, particularly with regard to fuel life cycle management, but this method omits important stages in the life cycle, particularly the ones regarding important circular economy guidelines such as reduction of natural resource consumption, impact on human health, etc. The LCA method provides a much broader approach to environmental assessment than WTW. LCA takes into consideration environmental impact in the whole life cycle of the vehicle, from the stage of production, through the period of exploitation, and finally its disposal.

  19. EOS--AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell. 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three. 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operatina at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements throuch the first 18

  20. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation on life sciences engineering (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a life sciences double-glazed air solar collector under simulated conditions is discussed. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar simulator. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. These results and the results of the collector load test are also discussed.

  1. The Kathmandu Declaration: "Life Circle" approach to prevention and care of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, Mahen; Williams, Rhys; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    To formulate strategies and action plans for the prevention and care of diabetes mellitus as part of the implementation of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) United Nations Resolution (UNR) 61/225 through a unique concept of a "Life Circle" approach. Consensus following review of evidence available and presented at a meeting convened to achieve the objective co-chaired by the IDF President and President elect and diabetologists from several countries in the IDF regions. The Kathmandu Declaration presents the concept of a "Life Circle" approach to prevention and care of diabetes--a continuum beginning from preconception, pregnancy, infancy and childhood to adult life in an integrated manner. Emphasis is on the benefits on entering the circle at any point and formulates guidelines that could be incorporated in any national diabetes prevention and care programme, indicating the interactive role of all known aetiological factors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A risk-based approach to life-cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, JA

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to life-cycle impact assessment which is based on the comparison of predicted exploitation or pollution levels with critical levels; the latter representing the carrying capacity of the commodity-supplying or pollutant-receiving environment. The incremental pressure i

  3. Concepts and approaches to study disruption and change of everyday life during flash flood events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and approaches to study disruption and change of everyday life during flash flood events. The dynamics of extreme precipitations and consequential flash-floods in Southern France lead to important variations in vulnerability of people and property across space and time. In turn, these event

  4. Gas Turbine Combustor Liner Life Assessment Using a Combined Fluid/Structural Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, Tiedo; Kampen, van J.F.; Jager, de B.; Kok, J.B.W.

    2007-01-01

    A life assessment was performed on a fighter jet engine annular combustor liner, using a combined fluid/structural approach. Computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed to obtain the thermal loading of the combustor liner and finite element analyses were done to calculate the temperature an

  5. On The Secret Life of Walter Mitty in Light of Formalistic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟李园

    2016-01-01

    The Secret Life of Walter Mitty is a short story written by American writer James Thurber who has been considered the best humorist since Mark Twain. In the light of formalistic approach, through the analysis of the organic structure and characters, the paper tries to reveal the inner logic and theme of the novel.

  6. A risk-based approach to life-cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, JA

    This paper suggests an approach to life-cycle impact assessment which is based on the comparison of predicted exploitation or pollution levels with critical levels; the latter representing the carrying capacity of the commodity-supplying or pollutant-receiving environment. The incremental pressure

  7. A multi-time scale approach to remaining useful life prediction in rolling bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuning; Yan, Ruqiang; Gao, Robert X.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-time scale approach to bearing defect tracking and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction, which integrates enhanced phase space warping (PSW) with a modified Paris crack growth model. As a data-driven method, PSW describes the dynamical behavior of the bearing being tested on a fast-time scale, whereas the Paris crack growth model, as a physics-based model, characterizes the bearing's defect propagation on a slow-time scale. Theoretically, PSW constructs a tracking metric by evaluating the phase space trajectory warping of the bearing vibration data, and establishes a correlation between measurement on a fast-time scale and defect growth variables on a slow-time scale. Furthermore, PSW is enhanced by a multi-dimensional auto-regression (AR) model for improved accuracy in defect tracking. Also, the Paris crack growth model is modified by a time-piecewise algorithm for real-time RUL prediction. Case studies performed on two run-to-failure experiments indicate that the developed technique is effective in tracking the evolution of bearing defects and accurately predict the bearing RUL, thus contributing to the literature of bearing prognosis .

  8. Constructing three emotion knowledge tests from the invariant measurement approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Delgado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM. Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation. Methods Three EK tests—emotion vocabulary (EV, close emotional situations (CES and far emotional situations (FES—were constructed and tested with the RM in a community sample of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18–65, both separately and conjointly. Results It was corroborated that data-RM fit was sufficient. Then, the effect of type of test and emotion on Rasch-modelled item difficulty was tested. Significant effects of emotion on EK item difficulty were found, but the only statistically significant difference was that between “happiness” and the remaining emotions; neither type of test, nor interaction effects on EK item difficulty were statistically significant. The testing of gender differences was carried out after corroborating that differential item functioning (DIF would not be a plausible alternative hypothesis for the results. No statistically significant sex-related differences were found out in EV, CES, FES, or total EK. However, the sign of d indicate that female participants were consistently better than male ones, a result that will be of interest for future meta-analyses. Discussion The three EK tests are ready to be used as components of a higher-level measurement process.

  9. Accumulating approach to the life-cycle pension model: practical advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Azoulay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we make an effort to enhance the practical advantages of the life-cycle pension model. We observe that previous studies are based on a “switching”approach, that is, on the assumption that when a pension fund member reaches a certain age, his accumulated savings are fully switched to another fund with a lower risk profile; we suggest an “accumulating” approach, according to which, at the same age, the member’s previously accumulated wealth continues to be invested in the same fund, while his new regular pension contributions start being directed to another (less risky fund. We consider a hypothetical (average Israeli employee, analyze two age-dependent life-cycle investment distributions of his pension savings, and perform a comparison between the two approaches to the life-cycle model by employing an estimation-based and a simulation-based technique. The results demonstrate that the “accumulating” approach provides: (i higher estimated annualized real returns and real accumulated savings; (ii significantly higher simulated mean and median values of real accumulated savings. Moreover, we document that, though the “accumulating” approach increases the standard deviation of total savings, it does not lead to critically low pension wealth levels even for relatively unfavorable sequences of financial assets’ returns. Therefore, we conclude that the “accumulating” approach to the life-cycle model has a potential significantly to increase pension fund members’ total accumulated wealth relatively to the common “switching” approach, without significantly increasing the members’ risk.

  10. A Statistical Comparative Planetology Approach to the Hunt for Habitable Exoplanets and Life Beyond the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob L.; Abbot, Dorian S.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.

    2017-06-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets and life beyond the solar system is one of the most compelling scientific opportunities of our time. Nevertheless, the high cost of building facilities that can address this topic and the keen public interest in the results of such research requires rigorous development of experiments that can deliver a definitive advancement in our understanding. Most work to date in this area has focused on a “systems science” approach of obtaining and interpreting comprehensive data for individual planets to make statements about their habitability and the possibility that they harbor life. This strategy is challenging because of the diversity of exoplanets, both observed and expected, and the limited information that can be obtained with astronomical instruments. Here, we propose a complementary approach that is based on performing surveys of key planetary characteristics and using statistical marginalization to answer broader questions than can be addressed with a small sample of objects. The fundamental principle of this comparative planetology approach is maximizing what can be learned from each type of measurement by applying it widely rather than requiring that multiple kinds of observations be brought to bear on a single object. As a proof of concept, we outline a survey of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheric water and carbon dioxide abundances that would test the habitable zone hypothesis and lead to a deeper understanding of the frequency of habitable planets. We also discuss ideas for additional surveys that could be developed to test other foundational hypotheses in this area.

  11. Test Population Selection from Weibull-Based, Monte Carlo Simulations of Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Brian L.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue life is probabilistic and not deterministic. Experimentally establishing the fatigue life of materials, components, and systems is both time consuming and costly. As a result, conclusions regarding fatigue life are often inferred from a statistically insufficient number of physical tests. A proposed methodology for comparing life results as a function of variability due to Weibull parameters, variability between successive trials, and variability due to size of the experimental population is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives from a large Weibull distribution, the variation in the L10 fatigue life of aluminum alloy AL6061 rotating rod fatigue tests was determined as a function of population size. These results were compared to the L10 fatigue lives of small (10 each) populations from AL2024, AL7075 and AL6061. For aluminum alloy AL6061, a simple algebraic relationship was established for the upper and lower L10 fatigue life limits as a function of the number of specimens failed. For most engineering applications where less than 30 percent variability can be tolerated in the maximum and minimum values, at least 30 to 35 test samples are necessary. The variability of test results based on small sample sizes can be greater than actual differences, if any, that exists between materials and can result in erroneous conclusions. The fatigue life of AL2024 is statistically longer than AL6061 and AL7075. However, there is no statistical difference between the fatigue lives of AL6061 and AL7075 even though AL7075 had a fatigue life 30 percent greater than AL6061.

  12. Sex differences on Purpose-In-Life Test total and factorial scores among spanish undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences on Purpose-In-Life Test [PIL] (Crumbaugh & Maholic, 1969) total and factorial scores associated to sex, among 309 spanish undergratudates (207 women, 102 men), range 18 to 45 years. PIL Spanish version is used (Noblejas de la Flor, 1994). PIL evalues life meaning achievement vs. existential vacuum. Women achieve higher means on PIL total and factorial scores, and estatistical analysis show that sex is significantly associated to total PIL sc...

  13. SMART empirical approaches for predicting field performance of PV modules from results of reliability tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Kedar Y.; Liu, Bill J. J.; Bheemreddy, Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Gaining an understanding of degradation mechanisms and their characterization are critical in developing relevant accelerated tests to ensure PV module performance warranty over a typical lifetime of 25 years. As newer technologies are adapted for PV, including new PV cell technologies, new packaging materials, and newer product designs, the availability of field data over extended periods of time for product performance assessment cannot be expected within the typical timeframe for business decisions. In this work, to enable product design decisions and product performance assessment for PV modules utilizing newer technologies, Simulation and Mechanism based Accelerated Reliability Testing (SMART) methodology and empirical approaches to predict field performance from accelerated test results are presented. The method is demonstrated for field life assessment of flexible PV modules based on degradation mechanisms observed in two accelerated tests, namely, Damp Heat and Thermal Cycling. The method is based on design of accelerated testing scheme with the intent to develop relevant acceleration factor models. The acceleration factor model is validated by extensive reliability testing under different conditions going beyond the established certification standards. Once the acceleration factor model is validated for the test matrix a modeling scheme is developed to predict field performance from results of accelerated testing for particular failure modes of interest. Further refinement of the model can continue as more field data becomes available. While the demonstration of the method in this work is for thin film flexible PV modules, the framework and methodology can be adapted to other PV products.

  14. Development of Probabilistic Life Prediction Methodologies and Testing Strategies for MEMS and CMC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaan, Osama

    2003-01-01

    This effort is to investigate probabilistic life prediction methodologies for ceramic matrix composites and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and to analyze designs that determine stochastic properties of MEMS. For CMC's this includes a brief literature survey regarding lifing methodologies. Also of interest for MEMS is the design of a proper test for the Weibull size effect in thin film (bulge test) specimens. The Weibull size effect is a consequence of a stochastic strength response predicted from the Weibull distribution. Confirming that MEMS strength is controlled by the Weibull distribution will enable the development of a probabilistic design methodology for MEMS - similar to the GRC developed CARES/Life program for bulk ceramics. A main objective of this effort is to further develop and verify the ability of the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life (CARES/Life) code to predict the time-dependent reliability of MEMS structures subjected to multiple transient loads. A second set of objectives is to determine the applicability/suitability of the CARES/Life methodology for CMC analysis, what changes would be needed to the methodology and software, and if feasible, run a demonstration problem. Also important is an evaluation of CARES/Life coupled to the ANSYS Probabilistic Design System (PDS) and the potential of coupling transient reliability analysis to the ANSYS PDS.

  15. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye;

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  16. Quiet Spike Build-Up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center uses a modified F-15B (836) aircraft as a testbed for a variety of flight research:experiments mounted underneath the aircraft fuselage. The F-15B was selected to fly Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation's (GAC)QuietSpike(TM)(QS) project; however, this experiment is very unique and unlike any of the previous testbed experiments flown on the F-15B. It involves the addition of a relatively long quiet spike boom attached to the radar bulkhead of the aircraft. This QS experiment is a stepping stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate sonic born strength of business jets over land. The QS boom is a concept in Which an aircraft's front-end would be extended prior to supersonic acceleration. This morphing would effectively lengthen the aircraft, reducing peak sonic boom amplitude, but is also expected to partition the otherwise strong bow shock into a series of reduced-strength, non-coalescing shocklets. Prior to flying the Quietspike(TM) experiment on the F-15B aircraft several ground vibration tests (GVT) were required in order to understand the QS modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B. However, due to the project's late hardware delivery of the QS and the intense schedule, a "traditional" GVT of the mated F-1513 Quietspike(tm) ready-for-flight configuration would not have left sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. The objective of the QuietSpike (TM) build-up ground testing approach was to ultimately obtain confidence in the F-15B Quietspike(TM) finite element model (FEM) to be used for the flutter analysis. In order to obtain the F15B QS FEM with reliable foundation stiffness between the QS and the F-15B radar bulkhead as well as QS modal characteristics, several different GVT configurations were performed. EAch of the four GVT's performed had a

  17. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  18. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  19. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-03-23

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  20. Life in the Clouds of Venus? An Experimental Synthetic Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Amatya, D.; Bajar, B.; Geilich, B.; Hu, J.; Jackson, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The surface of Venus constitutes the most hellish and biologically inhospitable planetary surface in our solar system, boasting a pH of 0, blistering winds that can melt lead, and pressures of 60 atm. However, during the earlier years of the solar system, without the runaway greenhouse effect that has plagued the planet, Venus potentially housed oceans and perhaps even life. There is a possibility that microbes could have retreated into hospitable niches in the atmosphere, as suggested by Carl Sagan as early as 1967 [1]. For example, 50 km above the raging hell of the Venusian surface, exists a relatively temperate environment that might serve as reservoir for life. This astrobiology project seeks to explore life at the extremes and to theorize whether microbial communities could not only survive but also reproduce in the Venusian atmosphere. Specifically, we ask: are aerosols viable microbial environments? But before we can test for life in the clouds, we have to develop a proper reporter to visualize cell growth in situ. For this purpose, we aimed to develop cell-growth dependent reporters to serve as remote biosensors for cell growth. We developed two using the polA promoter, a DNA-replication dependent promoter, and nrd operon promoter, a cell-cycle dependent promoter. Using these cell-growth reporters, the next step is to aerosolize microbes expressing these reporters in a suspension chamber adapted from a Millikan Drop Apparatus to assay reproduction in an aerosolized environment. Better yet is to test the reproduction of microbes in a microgravity regime such as on ISS.Approach: We engineered two cell-cycle dependent genetic reporters. One was the polA promoter which codes for DNA Polymerase I, a gene active in DNA replication [2]. The other was the nrdP. The activation of ribonucleotide reductase reduces ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides and is involved in the bacterial cell cycle [3]. This promoter began activation during the initiation of DNA

  1. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements.

  2. Life satisfaction and its correlates among college students in China: a test of social reference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo; Lester, David; Zhou, Chengchao

    2014-08-01

    To study life satisfaction and to test the role of social reference in determining the degree of life satisfaction, we examined a large sample of undergraduate students in China for the correlates of campus life satisfaction. A questionnaire survey was administered at a university and the final sample consisted of 439 respondents aged between 17 and 24 years, from all over the country, and studying different subjects. It was found that freshman students tended to score higher on their life satisfaction than students in other grades and the college students' life satisfaction was positively related to female gender, self-esteem, social support, and the liberal attitudes on female gender roles, but negatively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. Contrary to common beliefs, students from an urban area or from better-off families were not necessarily more satisfied with current life than those students coming from the countryside or low income families. The findings were accounted for by the social reference theory and in this case college students' campus life satisfaction is basically affected by their pre-college life quality as a reference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Child exposure to serious life events, COMT, and aggression: Testing differential susceptibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events.

  4. Some Challenges to the Rough-set Approach to Knowledge Discovery Arising from Real-life Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Since the inception of rough set, significant advances have been made in the theoretical underpinning of the model in general and a large variety of its derivatives in particular. Though some applications have been made with various degrees of success over the years ,the rough set approach to data mining and knowledge discovery in large scale real-life data has not,in the strict sense,been tested. The purpose of rough set is to let data speak for themselves. Thus ,it is intrinsically a theoretical framework catered for real-life data mining and knowledge discovery. However,evidence substantiating such a purpose has been scanty. Often time,theoretical models or arguments are only substantiated by pedagogic examples constructed by the investigators. With the rapid advancement on the theoretical front,it is timely to have a critical scrutiny on the pragmatic side of the research.

  5. Problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos showing daily life for a comprehensive clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Akiko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Takanori; Noda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shingo; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Kajiwara, Hideki; Kondo, Takeshi; Hirota, Yusuke; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2017-02-27

    We examined whether problem-based learning tutorials using patient-simulated videos showing daily life are more practical for clinical learning, compared with traditional paper-based problem-based learning, for the consideration rate of psychosocial issues and the recall rate for experienced learning. Twenty-two groups with 120 fifth-year students were each assigned paper-based problem-based learning and video-based problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos. We compared target achievement rates in questionnaires using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and discussion contents diversity using the Mann-Whitney U test. A follow-up survey used a chi-square test to measure students' recall of cases in three categories: video, paper, and non-experienced. Video-based problem-based learning displayed significantly higher achievement rates for imagining authentic patients (p=0.001), incorporating a comprehensive approach including psychosocial aspects (pmaterials.

  6. The hard parts of the Cambrian Explosion: a palaeobiological approach to testing the 'biomineralization toolkit' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan

    2017-04-01

    The Cambrian Explosion was the most dramatic event in the history of animal life on Earth, yet the processes underlying it are poorly understood not least the role of biomineralization in driving this fundamental evolutionary episode. One explanation for this event, based on observations on the developmental and molecular biology of modern organisms, is that all animals inherited a common 'toolkit' of genes, independently co-opted to similar tasks, including building skeletons. This initially imprecise 'toolkit' was subsequently honed by the acquisition of more and more complex gene regulatory networks. This predicts that animal skeletons, and by inference their organic frameworks, should exhibit a higher degree of morphological plasticity at their origin than later in their evolutionary history - a prediction that is virtually untested. Here I set out a new approach to testing this prediction, by quantifying the phenotypic variation displayed in fossil remains of some of the earliest animal skeletons, over multiple scales from microscopic variations in their component biominerals to how skeletons themselves are put together. This approach will provide direct evidence to test the importance of the genetic basis of the skeleton in the origin of the animals, making a significant contribution to our understanding of this crucial event in the history of life on Earth, including the evolution of our own ancestors.

  7. Classical test theory versus Rasch analysis for quality of life questionnaire reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarca Rosa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments may offer satisfactory results, their length often limits the extent to which they are actually applied in clinical practice. Efforts to develop short questionnaires have largely focused on reducing existing instruments. The approaches most frequently employed for this purpose rely on statistical procedures that are considered exponents of Classical Test Theory (CTT. Despite the popularity of CTT, two major conceptual limitations have been pointed out: the lack of an explicit ordered continuum of items that represent a unidimensional construct, and the lack of additivity of rating scale data. In contrast to the CTT approach, the Rasch model provides an alternative scaling methodology that enables the examination of the hierarchical structure, unidimensionality and additivity of HRQOL measures. METHODS: In order to empirically compare CTT and Rasch Analysis (RA results, this paper presents the parallel reduction of a 38-item questionnaire, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, through the analysis of the responses of a sample of 9,419 individuals. Results CTT resulted in 20 items (4 dimensions whereas RA in 22 items (2 dimensions. Both instruments showed similar characteristics under CTT requirements: item-total correlation ranged 0.45–0.75 for NHP20 and 0.46–0.68 for NHP22, while reliability ranged 0.82–0.93 and 0.87–94 respectively. Conclusions Despite the differences in content, NHP20 and NHP22 convergent scores also showed high degrees of association (0.78–0.95. Although the unidimensional view of health of the NHP20 and NHP22 composite scores was also confirmed by RA, NHP20 dimensions failed to meet the goodness-of fit criteria established by the Rasch model, precluding the interval-level of measurement of its scores.

  8. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  9. Failure modes and effects criticality analysis and accelerated life testing of LEDs for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, M.; Christou, A.

    2012-12-01

    While use of LEDs in Fiber Optics and lighting applications is common, their use in medical diagnostic applications is not very extensive. Since the precise value of light intensity will be used to interpret patient results, understanding failure modes [1-4] is very important. We used the Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) tool to identify the critical failure modes of the LEDs. FMECA involves identification of various failure modes, their effects on the system (LED optical output in this context), their frequency of occurrence, severity and the criticality of the failure modes. The competing failure modes/mechanisms were degradation of: active layer (where electron-hole recombination occurs to emit light), electrodes (provides electrical contact to the semiconductor chip), Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) surface layer (used to improve current spreading and light extraction), plastic encapsulation (protective polymer layer) and packaging failures (bond wires, heat sink separation). A FMECA table is constructed and the criticality is calculated by estimating the failure effect probability (β), failure mode ratio (α), failure rate (λ) and the operating time. Once the critical failure modes were identified, the next steps were generation of prior time to failure distribution and comparing with our accelerated life test data. To generate the prior distributions, data and results from previous investigations were utilized [5-33] where reliability test results of similar LEDs were reported. From the graphs or tabular data, we extracted the time required for the optical power output to reach 80% of its initial value. This is our failure criterion for the medical diagnostic application. Analysis of published data for different LED materials (AlGaInP, GaN, AlGaAs), the Semiconductor Structures (DH, MQW) and the mode of testing (DC, Pulsed) was carried out. The data was categorized according to the materials system and LED structure such as AlGaInP-DH-DC, Al

  10. A multistate life table approach to understanding return and reentry migration between Mexico and the United States during later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Vega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical research describes retirement migration to Mexico as a viable option for some older Americans. However, far less research examines this phenomenon among Mexican immigrants in the United States. The literature that does address this topic treats international migration as a singular occurrence and does not examine the possibility of return and subsequent reentry between countries. This omission creates an important gap in our knowledge of international retirement migration, considering the strong transnational ties that Mexican immigrants maintain to their home and destination countries. Objective: Using a multistate life table approach, this study examines the rate of return to Mexico and reentry back into the United States among Mexican males aged 50 and older with U.S. migration experience, as well as the number of years spent in both countries. Results: Results show that the rate of reentry from Mexico into the United States declined from 3.33Š at ages 50-54 to less than 1Š at age 70 and older (pConclusions: Although rates of return and reentry among this population are relatively low, they provide insight into the potential life course factors driving the migration patterns of a population of increasing size and relevance in the United States.

  11. Modelling pesticide emission patterns in agricultural life cycle inventories using a modular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Domenech, Xavier

    In the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of field crops, the system description and inventory analysis provides information about the identities and quantities of pesticide applied, the form and the pattern of application. The field itself is seen as part of the technosphere, the ecosphere beginning...... pesticide fractions reaching the different environment compartments is used for the application of LCA to apple production in New Zealand. The approach has been developed to be used in the life cycle inventory (LCI) of agricultural systems. This framework allows the consideration of site...

  12. Optimization Parameters of tool life Model Using the Taguchi Approach and Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompan Chomsamutr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to compare the cutting parameters of turning operation the work pieces of medium carbon steel (AISI 1045 by finding the longest tool life by Taguchi methods and Response Surface Methodology: RSM. This research is to test the collecting data by Taguchi method. The analyses of the impact among the factors are the depth of cut, cutting speed and feed rate. This research found that the most suitable response value; and tool life methods give the same suitable values, i.e. feed rate at 0.10 mm/rev, cutting speed at 150 m/min, and depth of cut at 0.5 mm, which is the value of longest tool life at 670.170 min, while the average error is by RSM at the percentage of 0.07 as relative to the testing value.

  13. Housing and Quality of Life for Migrant Communities in Western Europe: A Capabilities Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Housing is an important determinant of quality of life and migrants are more likely to encounter poor quality housing than natives. This paper draws on the capabilities approach to welfare economics to examine how issues of housing and neighborhood conditions influence quality of life and opportunities for migrants in Western Europe. The analysis utilizes data from the second European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS to explore variation in life and housing satisfaction between migrants and non-migrants (natives in Western Europe and whether being a migrant and living in an ethnically diverse neighborhood contribute to lower satisfaction. The results show that migrants are more likely to experience lower levels of life and housing satisfaction and that living in a diverse neighborhood is negatively associated with life and housing satisfaction. While diverse, inner-city neighborhoods can increase opportunities for labor market access, social services and integration, the tendency towards clustered settlement by migrants can also compound housing inequality. Conversely, migrant homeowners are on average substantially more satisfied with the quality of public services and of their neighborhood and have lower material deprivation than both migrant and non-migrant renters. The findings draw attention to the need to address housing and neighborhood conditions in order to improve opportunities for integration and well-being. 

  14. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  15. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  16. Testing evolutionary models of senescence: traditional approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Chloe; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-12-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of senescence is a paradox. Why has senescence not been more effectively selected against given its associated decreases in Darwinian fitness? Why does senescence exist and how has it evolved? Three major theories offer explanations: (1) the theory of mutation accumulation suggested by PB Medawar; (2) the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy suggested by GC Williams; and (3) the disposable soma theory suggested by TBL Kirkwood. These three theories differ in the underlying causes of aging that they propose but are not mutually exclusive. This paper compares the specific biological predictions of each theory and discusses the methods and results of previous empirical tests. Lifespan is found to be the most frequently used estimate of senescence in evolutionary investigations. This measurement acts as a proxy for an individual's rate of senescence, but provides no information on an individual's senescent state or "biological age" throughout life. In the future, use of alternative longitudinal measures of senescence may facilitate investigation of previously neglected aspects of evolutionary models, such as intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity in the process of aging. DNA methylation data are newly proposed to measure biological aging and are suggested to be particularly useful for such investigations.

  17. Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josue; Witte, Claudia; Lange, Benjamin; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; von Steinbuechel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empiric

  18. Preterm children quality of life evaluation: a qualitative study to approach physicians’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einaudi Marie-Ange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While data for preterm children health-related quality of life are available, there are little data on the perception of health-related quality of life evaluation by physicians who manage preterm children, or its use in real life and decision making. The aim of this qualitative study is to highlight among physicians, themes of reflection about health-related quality of life in extremely preterm children (less than 28 weeks’ gestation. Methods Focus groups at a French University Hospital with physicians who manage extremely preterm children: obstetricians, intensive care physicians, neonatal physicians and paediatric neurologists. The focus groups allowed the participants to discuss (drawing on their personal experience, three principal topics regarding the health-related quality of life of preterm children: representation, expectations in daily practice and evaluation method. Results We included fourteen participants in the three focus groups. Many themes emerged from the focus groups: approaches for defining health-related quality of life and difficulties of utilization, the role that health-related quality of life should have in the system of care, the problem of standards and evidence-based decision making. Physicians had difficulties with taking positions regarding this concept. There were no differences by gender, age or seniority, but points of view varied by specialty and type of practice. Physicians who had longer specialized care for extremely preterm children were more sensitive to the impact of preterm complications on health-related quality of life. Conclusions This study provides preliminary results about physicians’ perspective on the health-related quality of life of extremely preterm children. The themes emerged from the focus groups are classically described in other domains but not all in so clear a way (definition, interests and limits, ethical reflection. This approach was never developed in the field

  19. Test of Antonovsky's postulate: high sense of coherence helps people avoid negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwälder, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    This study tested Antonovsky's postulate that a high sense of coherence (SOC) helps people avoid negative life events. It was assumed that negative life events that were uncontrollable would not show this effect, while those events that potentially could be controlled would show a significant relationship with SOC. 1,012 female nurses (M age=46.9 yr.; SD=8.9) participated in this longitudinal study and were divided into groups with low, moderate, and high SOC. Sixteen negative life events were categorized into uncontrollable and controllable events, with the controllable events divided into three sub-categories. Five one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for independent measures followed up with post hoc tests were performed, with the number of experienced events in a given category by each participant (at Time 2) as the dependent variable and the three SOC groups (formed at Time 1) as the independent variable. The results indicated that the high SOC group reported fewer controllable negative life events, while there was no significant relationship between the SOC level and uncontrollable negative life events. The findings support the postulate in Antonovsky's model, with the distinction between controllable and uncontrollable negative life events.

  20. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  1. Creating a duet: The Couples Life Story Approach in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Spencer, Beth; Campbell, Ruth; Kurokowa, Yukiko; Ito, Mio

    2016-07-01

    There is a global need for interventions that help couples who are dealing with dementia. This paper describes the way in which interventionists from the United States and Japan participated in the development of an intervention for dyads in which one person is experiencing memory loss. The 5-week intervention, the Couples Life Story Approach, helps dyads to reminisce about their life together as a couple, to work on their patterns of communication, and to develop a Life Story Book. Based on an analysis of cases conducted in the United States (n = 20 couples) and Japan (n = 9 couples), this paper highlights the cross-fertilization process that has occurred as interventionists from the two countries have shared their experiences with one another. Using case illustrations, the discussion focuses on the clinical themes that have emerged for couples in the United States and Japan.

  2. Integrated approach for characterizing and comparing exposure-based impacts with life cycle impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To address hazardous chemicals in consumer products, chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) is an emerging approach combining hazard and exposure assessment with technical and economic feasibility. Life cycle aspects are typically not consistently considered in CAA, but are relevant to avoid decis...... ions that involve burden shifting or that result in only incremental improvement. Focusing in the life cycle impacts on widely accepted and applied impact categories like global warming potential or cumulative energy demand aggregating several impact categories will lead to underestimations of life...... cycle emissions of potentially harmful chemicals and their proposed replacements. Hence, an assessment framework is required that is able to account for near-field consumer exposure to chemicals in products during and after product use as well as population far-field exposure to chemical emissions...

  3. Dependence of patients' life quality on severity of oral pathology: optimization of treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova S.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goals include: 1 assessment the quality of life of those patients who have defects of tooth rows not replaced by orthopedic appliances on the basis of the complex analysis; 2 choice of more reasonable method of treatment. The use of dental questionnaires such as Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14 while treating oral pathology allows both optimizing an approach to choosing an appropriate treatment method and making more successful prognosis as to the efficiency of treatment being performed. The quality of life of those patients who have tooth rows defects not replaced by orthopedic appliances depends on sex, age, family status, employment and extent of tooth rows defects. Patients with tooth rows defects not replaced by orthopedic appliances accompanied by diseases of peri-odontium are characterized by worse quality of life. This fact must be taken into consideration while planning patients' treatment

  4. Health-related quality of life research and the capability approach of Amartya Sen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, M A; Busschbach, J J; Karssing, E D

    2001-01-01

    Standardised health-related quality of life questionnaires play an increasing role as measures of outcome in the evaluation of health care interventions. However, problems can arise when the selected functions or dimensions of such standardised measures are not in line with the intervention that is the focus of the research. Furthermore, the subjective element of quality of life makes standardised questionnaires vulnerable to the coping mechanism, thereby decreasing their sensitivity. The capability approach of the economist and philosopher Amartya Sen offers a descriptive concept that contributes to a better understanding of these problems. This article provides an introduction to the ideas of Sen for researchers who wish to go beyond the traditional framework of measuring health-related quality of life.

  5. Metacognitive and social cognition approaches to understanding the impact of schizophrenia on social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan-Msika, Moran; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Kravetz, Shlomo; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-02-01

    While some studies view metacognition and social cognition as representing the same phenomenon, others suggest that they represent distinctive sets of abilities that are related to different outcomes. The current study used a cross-sectional design that includes samples of persons with schizophrenia (N=39) and healthy individuals (N=60) to further explore the distinction between social cognition and metacognition and their associations with social quality of life. The Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Faux-Pas Task, Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (IPII), Metacognition Assessment Scale - Abbreviated (MAS-A), and Social Quality of Life Scale were administrated to all participants. Correlations, t-tests and regressions were conducted. Results showed that persons with schizophrenia performed more poorly on all measures than healthy controls. Social cognition and metacognition measures were related for the combined total sample, but only a few associations were found among both sub-samples. A diagnosis of schizophrenia and metacognitive capacity, but not social cognition, predicted social quality of life. Self-reflectivity had a negative relationship to social quality of life while understanding of others' minds had a positive relation to social quality of life. The current study provides evidence that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in both social cognition and metacognition and that those deficits may be distinct and have different kinds of relationships with social quality of life. Clinical implications include the need to emphasize narrative aspects of psychotherapy in order to promote metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric health-related quality of life: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. METHODS: The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations, functional status (developmental status, developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3-5 years old participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. RESULTS: Model fit was χ2 = 5.5; df = 6; p = 0.48; SRMR  = 0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. CONCLUSIONS: The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations.

  7. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  8. An individualized and everyday life approach to cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaux, M-N; Fonteneau, B; Larøi, F; Offerlin-Meyer, I; Danion, J-M; Van der Linden, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person's everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person's cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  9. The Third Age and the Baby Boomers: Two Approaches to the Social Structuring of Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gilleard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines two contrasting positions in interpreting contemporary change in later life. These are summarily represented by a cohort approach that focuses upon the baby boomers and a generational approach that focuses upon the third age. We argue that understanding the role of the sixties’ cultural revolution for the emergence of the third age offers a broader conceptual understanding of the transformation of later life than that provided by the more restrictive and restricting framework of a baby boom cohort. That many people, particularly in the USA, self identify with the term ‘baby boomer’ reflects not so much the power of cohorts as structuring influences on the ‘conscience collective’ as the role of the market and the media in shaping their social identities.

  10. A life-cycle approach to food and nutrition security in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sandhya; Sekher, Madhushree; Pritchard, Bill; Rammohan, Anu

    2015-04-01

    India's poor performance on critical food and nutrition security indicators despite substantial economic prosperity has been widely documented. These failings not only hamper national progress, but also contribute significantly to the global undernourished population, particularly children. While the recently passed National Food Security Act 2013 adopts a life-cycle approach to expand coverage of subsidized food grains to the most vulnerable households and address food security, there remains much to be desired in the legislation. Access to adequate food for 1.24 billion people is a multifaceted problem requiring an interconnected set of policy measures to tackle the various factors affecting food and nutrition security in India. In the present opinion paper, we discuss a fivefold strategy that incorporates a life-cycle approach, spanning reproductive health, bolstering citizen participation in existing national programmes, empowering women, advancing agriculture and better monitoring the Public Distribution System in order to fill the gaps in both access and adequacy of food and nutrition.

  11. The Quality of Life and relevant Approaches based on Capabilities and Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Șimandan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research regarding the quality of life developed different approaches concerning the use of objective and subjective indicators, as well as the relevance of hypotheses, propositions and methods of analysis or of evaluation. Starting from the conceptual difficulties regarding the term of ‘quality of life’, this article focuses upon the contributions of Amartya Sen on the relationships between resources, liberties, capabilities, functionalities and human development. A separate section attempts to capture the shift of accent from the approaches of a quantitative type towards those of a qualitative type, founded on capabilities, functionalities, and the factors of conversion of resources into elements of quality of subjective life. The following sections are consecrated to the contributions to the development of the model proposed by Amartya Sen and to the reception of this model by a few specialists in the field, as well as to its relevance within scientific research and the foundation of public policies.

  12. Life Cycle Approach to designing, manufacturing and assessing a Living Wall System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giordano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times Life Cycle Approach in building design and construction was set up by means technical standards (e.g. CEN/TC 350 as well as comprehensive impact assessment methods (e.g. LEED® and ITACA. Although standards and methods may be considered as accurate and exhaustive, product and system design needs a further organisation and systematisation of those environmental requirements tricky to take into account in preliminary design. It stands to reason such trickiness becomes more important in industrial research projects. Starting with the assumption that there is an urgent need to overcome the gap between design and production, the paper deals with the outcomes of a research project focused on detailed designing, manufacturing and monitoring of a Living Wall System (LWS aimed at carrying into action a Life Cycle Approach.

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Life Orientation Test-Revised with Competitive Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaneal, Renee N.

    2012-01-01

    Current reviews outside of sport indicate that the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) items load on two separate factors (optimism and pessimism) and, therefore, should be treated as independent constructs. However, researchers in the sport sciences continue to use the single composite score reflecting a unidimensional definition of optimism.…

  14. Alkali metal pool boiler life tests for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding an alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system to supply heat more uniformly to the heater head tubes. One issue with liquid metal pool boilers is unstable boiling. Stable boiling is obtained with an enhanced boiling surface containing nucleation sites that promote continuous boiling. Over longer time periods, it is possible that the boiling behavior of the system will change. An 800-h life test was conducted to verify that pool boiling with the chosen fluid/surface combination remains stable as the system ages. The apparatus uses NaK boiling on a - 100 + 140 stainless steel sintered porous layer, with the addition of a small amount of xenon. Pool boiling remained stable to the end of life test. The pool boiler life test included a total of 82 cold starts, to simulate startup each morning, and 60 warm restarts, to simulate cloud cover transients. The behavior of the cold and warm starts showed no significant changes during the life test. In the experiments, the fluid/surface combination provided stable, high-performance boiling at the operating temperature of 700 C. Based on these experiments, a pool boiler was designed for a full-scale 25-kWe Stirling system.

  15. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  16. Longitudinal Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…

  17. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.; Brandhof, Van den E.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Ven, van der L.T.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vos, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 ¿M was followed by exp

  18. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R V; Brandhof, E J van den; Leonards, P E G; Ven, L T M van der; Wester, P W; Vos, J G

    2006-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 muM was followed by ex

  19. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R V; Brandhof, E J van den; Leonards, P E G; Ven, L T M van der; Wester, P W; Vos, J G

    2006-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 muM was followed by

  20. Toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a partial life-cycle test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.; Brandhof, Van den E.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Ven, van der L.T.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vos, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicological effects of the widely used flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were assessed in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of adult fish during 30 days to water-borne TBBPA in nominal concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1.5 ¿M was followed by

  1. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-01-15

    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Fatigue Life Prediction of Whole System for Offshore Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方华灿; 段梦兰; 许发彦; 吴永宁; 樊晓东

    2001-01-01

    The failure of one or even more components usually does not lead to the collapse of the whole structure. Most of theanalysis of fatigue is centered on only a single component which the researchers are interested in or much attentionshould be paid to. However, the collapse of a structure is the result of failure of a series of components in a specific orderor path. This paper proposes an integrated approach to fatigue life prediction of whole structural system for offshoreplatforms, mainly describing the basic principles and prediction method. A method is presented for determining the fail-ure path of the whole structure system and calculating the fatigue life in the determined failure path. The correspondingfinal collapse criteria for the whole structure system are discussed. A simple method of equivalent fatigue stress range cal-culation and a mathematical model of structural component fatigue life estimation in consideration of sea wave and seaice loads are provided. As an application of the proposed approach, a fixed production platform Bohai No. 8 is chosenfor the predication of fatigue life of the whole structure system by means of the software OSFAC developed based on thepresent methods.

  3. Life-times of quantum resonances through the Geometrical Phase Propagator Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, G. E.; Karanikas, A. I.; Diakonos, F. K.

    2016-12-01

    We employ the recently introduced Geometric Phase Propagator Approach (GPPA) (Diakonos et al., 2012) to develop an improved perturbative scheme for the calculation of life times in driven quantum systems. This incorporates a resummation of the contributions of virtual processes starting and ending at the same state in the considered time interval. The proposed procedure allows for a strict determination of the conditions leading to finite life times in a general driven quantum system by isolating the resummed terms in the perturbative expansion contributing to their generation. To illustrate how the derived conditions apply in practice, we consider the effect of driving in a system with purely discrete energy spectrum, as well as in a system for which the eigenvalue spectrum contains a continuous part. We show that in the first case, when the driving contains a dense set of frequencies acting as a noise to the system, the corresponding bound states acquire a finite life time. When the energy spectrum contains also a continuum set of eigenvalues then the bound states, due to the driving, couple to the continuum and become quasi-bound resonances. The benchmark of this change is the appearance of a Fano-type peak in the associated transmission profile. In both cases the corresponding life-time can be efficiently estimated within the reformulated GPPA approach.

  4. From Welfare to Well-being: new approaches for a good life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Selvaggio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reflect on some analysis conducted by researchers as Laura Balbo, Mary Catherine Bateson and Martha Nussbaum who, although having not had direct relations among them or specific partnerships, have greatly contributed to elaborate concepts and categories regarding our new vision of the well-being. This concept, so dear to the economist Amartya Sen, draws nourishment from thoughts and lived belonging to women’s life experience, particularly as concerning their capacity to organize their daily and family life, taking care of others, shouldering the vulnerabilities and building their biographical paths with creativity and adaptation. So we can understand what is a good life through the realization of our abilities, that is of each person, and not using a utility calculation. This involves a new approach to life quality and human development, that is exactly the capabilities approach described by Sen, rehashed by Nussbaum but, for some aspects, it was already present into the studies which characterize the gender prospective.

  5. Test sequencing problem arising at the design stage for reducing life cycle cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shigang; Hu Zheng; Wen Xisen

    2013-01-01

    Previous test sequencing algorithms only consider the execution cost of a test at the application stage.Due to the fact that the placement cost of some tests at the design stage is considerably high compared with the execution cost,the sequential diagnosis strategy obtained by previous methods is actually not optimal from the view of life cycle.In this paper,the test sequencing problem based on life cycle cost is presented.It is formulated as an optimization problem,which is non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard).An algorithm and a strategy to improve its computational efficiency are proposed.The formulation and algorithms are tested on various simulated systems and comparisons are made with the extant test sequencing methods.Application on a pump rotational speed control (PRSC) system of a spacecraft is studied in detail.Both the simulation results and the real-world case application results suggest that the solution proposed in this paper can significantly reduce the life cycle cost of a sequential fault diagnosis strategy.

  6. A transdisciplinary approach to wearables, big data and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungmee Park; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    2014-01-01

    Today, the term "wearable" goes beyond the traditional definition of clothing; it refers to an accessory that enables personalized mobile information processing. We define the concept of wearables, present their attributes and discuss their role at the core of an ecosystem for harnessing big data. We discuss the concept of a meta-wearable and propose a transdisciplinary approach to transform the field and enhance the quality of life for everyone.

  7. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  8. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Karl-Johan; Kiryunin, Andrey; Pospelov, Guennadi; ATLAS Calorimeter Group

    2011-04-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at |η| = 3.2 in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |η| = 0.45 of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap beam test. The local hadron calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap beam test data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations are presented.

  9. SLS Flight Software Testing: Using a Modified Agile Software Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Albanie T.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is an advanced launch vehicle for a new era of exploration beyond earth's orbit (BEO). The world's most powerful rocket, SLS, will launch crews of up to four astronauts in the agency's Orion spacecraft on missions to explore multiple deep-space destinations. Boeing is developing the SLS core stage, including the avionics that will control vehicle during flight. The core stage will be built at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA using state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment. At the same time, the rocket's avionics computer software is being developed here at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. At Marshall, the Flight and Ground Software division provides comprehensive engineering expertise for development of flight and ground software. Within that division, the Software Systems Engineering Branch's test and verification (T&V) team uses an agile test approach in testing and verification of software. The agile software test method opens the door for regular short sprint release cycles. The idea or basic premise behind the concept of agile software development and testing is that it is iterative and developed incrementally. Agile testing has an iterative development methodology where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between cross-functional teams. With testing and development done incrementally, this allows for increased features and enhanced value for releases. This value can be seen throughout the T&V team processes that are documented in various work instructions within the branch. The T&V team produces procedural test results at a higher rate, resolves issues found in software with designers at an earlier stage versus at a later release, and team members gain increased knowledge of the system architecture by interfacing with designers. SLS Flight Software teams want to continue uncovering better ways of developing software in an efficient and project beneficial manner

  10. Fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stents: a two-scale plasticity-damage model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente dos Santos, H A F; Auricchio, F; Conti, M

    2012-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the present decade. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, as a result of the high number of cyclic loads these devices are subjected to in vivo, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents has gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure, without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. This work presents a fatigue life numerical method for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents. The method is based on a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model in which both plasticity and damage mechanisms are assumed to take place at a scale smaller than the scale of the representative volume element. The fatigue failure criterion is based on the Soderberg relation. The method is applied to the fatigue life assessment of both PalmazShatz and Cypher stent designs. Validation of the method is performed through comparison of the obtained numerical results with some experimental results available for the PalmazShatz stent design. The present study gives also possible directions for future research developments in the framework of the numerical fatigue life assessment of real balloon-expandable stents.

  11. Psychological approach to successful ageing predicts future quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliffe Steve

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public policies aim to promote well-being, and ultimately the quality of later life. Positive perspectives of ageing are underpinned by a range of appraoches to successful ageing. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline biological, psychological and social aproaches to successful ageing predicted future QoL. Methods Postal follow-up in 2007/8 of a national random sample of 999 people aged 65 and over in 1999/2000. Of 496 valid addresses of survivors at follow-up, the follow-up response rate was 58% (287. Measures of the different concepts of successful ageing were constructed using baseline indicators. They were assessed for their ability to independently predict quality of life at follow-up. Results Few respondents achieved all good scores within each of the approaches to successful ageing. Each approach was associated with follow-up QoL when their scores were analysed continuously. The biomedical (health approach failed to achieve significance when the traditional dichotomous cut-off point for successfully aged (full health, or not (less than full health, was used. In multiple regression analyses of the relative predictive ability of each approach, only the psychological approach (perceived self-efficacy and optimism retained significance. Conclusion Only the psychological approach to successful ageing independently predicted QoL at follow-up. Successful ageing is not only about the maintenance of health, but about maximising one's psychological resources, namely self-efficacy and resilience. Increasing use of preventive care, better medical management of morbidity, and changing lifestyles in older people may have beneficial effects on health and longevity, but may not improve their QoL. Adding years to life and life to years may require two distinct and different approaches, one physical and the other psychological. Follow-up health status, number of supporters and social activities, and self-rated active ageing

  12. An analysis of float service life test data of VRLA batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, W.L. [Exide Electronics, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes a statistical method for analyzing data from float service life tests of VRLA batteries. The purpose of this work was to develop a model with the following characteristics. First, it would allow test data from different batteries and test conditions to be pooled, as long as they were from the same design. Secondly, it would provide estimates at discharge rates other than the ones actually used in the test. Finally, it was desired for the model to be able to predict the time to various capacities of interest to a better resolution than the typical 3-5 years to 80% (of rated) capacity given by the battery manufacturers. The batteries in this analysis are valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) types, ranging in capacity from 4 Ah to 17 Ah, from two manufacturers. The float service life of a battery will be divided into two distinct time periods. The first being that time, from the beginning of the test, when the capacity of the battery is relatively constant. The second period is defined as that when the battery capacity begins to decrease much more rapidly until end of life is reached. (orig.)

  13. Life testing of conductively coupled thermoelectric cells. Final report for task 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.; Klee, P.; Hanson, J.; Nakahara, J.

    1997-09-26

    Four conductively coupled thermoelectric cells, developed under the SP100 program, have been life tested. These cells, referred to as TOC (Task Order Contract) cells, were fourth generation cells, and incorporated design improvements to extend operating life. GS526 glass had been added to suppress the loss of Ge from the MoGe bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite. The previous generation was life limited by the degradation of this electrical bond at the SiGe to graphite hot side interface due to the Ge loss. This led to abnormal internal resistance trends. The TOC cell test data and post test diagnostic have confirmed the effectiveness of the perimeter glass. Three of the four cells demonstrated normal electrical performance trends. The fourth cell (No. 139) tested at JPL showed an abnormal increase in internal resistance and a shift in temperature levels at 12,400 hours following a facility shutdown and restart. When the cell was removed from the test fixture, separation occurred between the hot side compliant pad facesheet and the niobium filament bundles. No degradation of the bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite was found and the change in slope of the internal resistance was attributed to changes in the rate of dopant precipitation caused by the shift in temperature levels.

  14. Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis: A Test Of Turkish Economy By ARDL Bound Testing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku ALTUNÖZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Balassa-Samuelson effect is a popular theme at last years that introduced by Bèla Balassa (1964 and Paul Samuelson (1964. This concept, suggests that a differentiation at international level between the relative rates of productivity of the tradable and non tradable sectors may cause structural and permanent deviations from the purchasing power parity. In this essay, related variables are tested through Balassa-Samuelson Effect in terms of Turkey-European Economy. The choice of econometric technique used to estimate the model was important because the regressors in the model appeared to be a mixture of I(0 and I(1 processes. Thus ARDL bounds testing approaches to co integration analysis in estimating the long-run determinants of the real exchange rates. Given the dataset and econometric techniques used, the results do not support the B-S hypothesis.

  15. Performance Characterization of a Microchannel Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchanger Throughout an Extended Duration Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds Ebony

    2011-01-01

    Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchangers (L/L HX) are an integral portion of any spacecraft active thermal control system. For this study the X-38 L/L HX was used as a baseline. As detailed in a previous ICES manuscript, NASA paired with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a Microchannel L/L HX (MHX). This microchannel HX was designed to meet the same performance characteristics as the aforementioned X-38 HX. The as designed Microchannel HX has a 26% and 60% reduction in mass and volume, respectively. Due to the inherently smaller flow passages the design team was concerned about fouling affecting performance during extended missions. To address this concern, NASA has developed a test stand and is currently performing an 18 month life test on the MHX. This report will detail the up-to-date performance of the MHX during life testing.

  16. Planning failure-censored constant-stress par tially accelerated life test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Ismail; Abdulhakim A Al-Babtain

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the case of the failure-censored constant-stress partial y accelerated life test (CSPALT) for highly reliable materials or products assuming the Pareto distribution of the second kind. The maximum likelihood (ML) method is used to estimate the parameters of the CSPALT model. The performance of ML estimators is investigated via their mean square error. Also, the average confidence interval length (IL) and the associated co-verage probability (CP) are obtained. Moreover, optimum CSPALT plans that determine the optimal proportion of the test units al-located to each stress are developed. Such optimum test plans minimize the generalized asymptotic variance (GAV) of the ML estimators of the model parameters. For il ustration, Monte Carlo simulation studies are given and a real life example is provided.

  17. Three Approaches to Data Analysis Test Theory, Rough Sets and Logical Analysis of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chikalov, Igor; Lozina, Irina; Moshkov, Mikhail; Nguyen, Hung Son; Skowron, Andrzej; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the following three approaches to data analysis are presented:  - Test Theory, founded by Sergei V. Yablonskii (1924-1998); the first publications appeared in 1955 and 1958, -           Rough Sets, founded by Zdzisław I. Pawlak (1926-2006); the first publications appeared in 1981 and 1982, -           Logical Analysis of Data, founded by Peter L. Hammer (1936-2006); the first publications appeared in 1986 and 1988. These three approaches have much in common, but researchers active in one of these areas often have a limited knowledge about the results and methods developed in the other two. On the other hand, each of the approaches shows some originality and we believe that the exchange of knowledge can stimulate further development of each of them. This can lead to new theoretical results and real-life applications and, in particular, new results based on combination of these three data analysis approaches can be expected.

  18. SOURCES OF DIFFERENCES IN CALCULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL TEST RESULTS OF FATIGUE LIFE OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef SZALA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation results are the base for evaluation of fatigue life of structural elements during machine design processes. It results from the fact that there are no material objects in the phase of existence of a product. Reliability of tests results is an essential element in the calculation fatigue life evaluation method and it can be evaluated by comparison of the results with experimental ones. In the paper there was performed an analysis of the chosen factors essentially influencing conformity of calculation results and experimental test ones connected with basic elements of a calculation algorithm including: - elaboration and analysis of service loadings of a structural element, - determination and analysis of cyclic properties of structural elements, - selection of fatigue damage accumulation hypothesis being a description of fatigue life processes. The mentioned analysis was illustrated with examples of fatigue life tests performed in the Machine Design Department of the University of Technology and Agriculture within the research grant no. 2221/B/T02/2010/39 financed by The Ministry of Science and Higher Education and National Science Centre.

  19. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64-minute charge (VT at 1,507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5 percent DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60 percent DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.90 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (minus 5 deg) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at plus 3 deg. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at plus 10 deg. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements

  20. Economic Reliability Acceptance Sampling Plans from Truncated Life Tests based on the Burr Type XII Percentiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque Mughal (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, economic reliability acceptance sampling plan (ERASP is developed for the Burr type XII distribution when the life test is truncated at pre-specified designed parameters. The minimum termination time is necessary to ensure that the specified life percentile is found under a given producer’s risk. The operating characteristic values of the proposed plan are presented for various parameters. A comparative study of proposedplan and existing plan developed by Lio et al. (2010 is also discussed. The result is illustrated by a real dataset example.

  1. Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Ishikawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV testing is the entry point for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Decreasing external funding for the HIV response in some low- and middle-income countries has triggered the question of whether a focused approach to HIV testing targeting pregnant women in high-burden areas should be considered. This study aimed at determining and comparing the cost-effectiveness of universal and focused HIV testing approaches for pregnant women across high to very low HIV prevalence settings. Methods: We conducted a modelling analysis on health and cost outcomes of HIV testing for pregnant women using four country-based case scenarios (Namibia, Kenya, Haiti and Viet Nam to illustrate high, intermediate, low and very low HIV prevalence settings. We used subnational prevalence data to divide each country into high-, medium- and low-burden areas, and modelled different antenatal and testing coverage in each. Results: When HIV testing services were only focused in high-burden areas within a country, mother-to-child transmission rates remained high ranging from 18 to 23%, resulting in a 25 to 69% increase in new paediatric HIV infections and increased future treatment costs for children. Universal HIV testing was found to be dominant (i.e. more QALYs gained with less cost compared to focused approaches in the Namibia, Kenya and Haiti scenarios. The universal approach was also very cost-effective compared to focused approaches, with $ 125 per quality-adjusted life years gained in the Viet Nam-based scenario of very low HIV prevalence. Sensitivity analysis further supported the findings. Conclusions: Universal approach to antenatal HIV testing achieves the best health outcomes and is cost-saving or cost-effective in the long term across the range of HIV prevalence settings. It is further a prerequisite for quality maternal and child healthcare and for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  2. A STUDY IN TERMS OF SOCIAL MARKETING APPROACH: THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study which was carried out, in terms of social marketing approach, has the purpose of investigating the effects of physical exercises on aged 65 years and over people on quality of life. In this study, a campaign, in social marketing scope was organized and it was advertised by flyers aim to determine the effects of physical activities on life quality of randomly selected volunteer men, above 65 years old who stay in Mugla Abide-H.Nuri Öncüer Senior Center. Moreover, a presentation about physical activity and quality of life was submitted and informed about the programme to 57 senior center participants. The photo and slogan was used and prepared as a flyer to create an effect on participants for this campaign. These flyers were given to participants before the study and waited one week to create awareness about to study. The survey was made and the study was started a week after the flyers were given to participants. The exercises were continued during 8 weeks. The SF 36 quality of life scale, its validity and reliability studies were investigated by Pinar(1996 and Demirsoy(1996, was made under the supervisor of three trainer to randomly selected 27 person from senior center. The results of pre-test and final-test were determined by using SPSS 18 software. As a result, %47 of participants who were impressed from Social marketing programme decided to participate to this study. There were significant differences in some variances (subscales like physical function, body pain, general health, social function and physical health when compared before and after programme.

  3. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |eta| = 0.45 of Atlas have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap test beam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested on the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to MC simulations are presented.

  4. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  5. Testing for Stock Market Contagion: A Quantile Regression Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Park (Sung); W. Wang (Wendun); N. Huang (Naijing)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Regarding the asymmetric and leptokurtic behavior of financial data, we propose a new contagion test in the quantile regression framework that is robust to model misspecification. Unlike conventional correlation-based tests, the proposed quantile contagion test

  6. Synergistic Development, Test, and Qualification Approaches for the Ares I and V Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E.; Taylor, James L.; Patterson, Alan; Stephens, Samuel E.; Tyson, Richard W.; Hueter, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is designing and developing the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles for access to the International Space Station (ISS) and human exploration of the Moon. The Ares I consists of a first stage reusable five-segment solid rocket booster, a upper stage using a J-2X engine derived from heritage experience (Saturn and Space Shuttle External Tank programs), and the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Ares V is designed to minimize the development and overall life-cycle costs by leveraging off of the Ares I design. The Ares V consists of two boosters, a core stage, an earth departure stage (EDS), and a shroud. The core stage and EDS use LH2/LO2 propellants, metallic propellant tanks, and composite dry structures. The core stage has six RS-68B upgraded Delta IV engines while the EDS uses a J-2X engine for second stage ascent and trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn. System and propulsion tests and qualification approaches for Ares V elements are being considered as follow-on extensions of the Ares I development program. Following Ares I IOC, testing will be conducted to verify the J-2X engine's orbital restart and TLI burn capability. The Ares I upper stage operation will be demonstrated through integrated stage development and acceptance testing. The EDS will undergo similar development and acceptance testing with additional testing to verify aspects of cryogenic propellant management, operation of sub-systems in a space simulation environment, and orbital re-start of the main propulsion system. RS-68B certification testing will be conducted along with integrated core stage development and acceptance testing. Structural testing of the Ares V EDS and core stage propellant tanks will be conducted similar to the Ares I upper stage. The structural qualification testing may be accomplished with separate propellant tank test articles. Structural development and qualification testing of the dry structure will be pursued as

  7. A Multistate Life Table Approach to Understanding Return and Reentry Migration between Mexico and the United States During Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Alma; Brazil, Noli

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research describes retirement migration to Mexico as a viable option for some older Americans. However, far less research examines this phenomenon among Mexican immigrants in the United States. The literature that does address this topic treats international migration as a singular occurrence and does not examine the possibility of return and subsequent reentry between countries. This omission creates an important gap in our knowledge of international retirement migration considering the strong transnational ties that Mexican immigrants maintain to the home and destination countries. Using a multistate life table approach, this study examines the rate of return to Mexico and reentry back into the United States among Mexican males aged 50 and older with U.S. migration experience, as well as the number of years spent in both countries. Results show that the rate of reentry from Mexico into the United States declined from 3.33% at age 50-54 to less than 1% at age 70 and older (p-valueMexico from the United States increased from 3.19% at age 50 to 54 to 4.44%at age 65 to 69 and dropped to less than 2% at age 70 and older (p-valuelife course factors driving the migration patterns of a population of increasing size and relevance in the United States.

  8. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  9. A Test Approach for Look-Up Table Based FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Atoofian; Zainalabedin Navabi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a test architecture for minimum number of test configurations in test of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) LUTs (Look Up Tables). The test architecture includes a TPG (Test Pattern Generator) that is tested while it is generating test data for LEs (Logic Elements) that form the CUT (Circuit Under Test). This scheme eliminates the need for switching LEs between CUT, TPG and ORA (Output Response Analyzer) and having to perform many more reconfigurations of the FPGA. An external ORA locates faults of the FPGA under test. In addition to the LUTs,a scheme is presented for testing other parts of LEs. Compared with other methods, the presented scheme uses the least number of reconfigurations of an FPGA for its LUT testing.

  10. A computational approach for thermomechanical fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnasamy, Ram-Kumar; Seifert, Thomas; Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a computational approach for fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes is presented and applied to a dissimilar weld between tubes made of the nickel base alloy Alloy617 tube and the 12% chromium steel VM12. The approach comprises the calculation of the residual stresses in the welded tubes with a multi-pass dissimilar welding simulation, the relaxation of the residual stresses in a post weld heat treatment (PWHT) simulation and the fatigue life prediction using the remaining residual stresses as initial condition. A cyclic fiscoplasticity model is used to calculate the transient stresses and strains under thermocyclic service loadings. The fatigue life is predicted with a damage parameter which is based on fracture mechanics. The adjustable parameters of the model are determined based on LCF and TMF experiments. The simulations show, that the residual stresses that remain after PWHT further relax in the first loading cycles. The predicted fatigue lives depend on the residual stresses and, thus, on the choice of the loading cycle in which the damage parameter is evaluated. It the first loading cycle, where residual stresses are still present, is considered, lower fatigue lives are predicted compared to predictions considering loading cycles with relaxed residual stresses. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of Useful Life of Lubricants Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Vector Projection Approach (VPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Bovornsethanant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In general, engine oil is usually changed as defined by car or lubricant manufacturers, which is according to mileage. However, it was found from past researches that, at the predefined mileage or timeframe, most lubricant is still acceptably usable and efficient. Approach: This research aimed to calculate useful life of lubricant in order to reach its maximum usefulness. The method of study began by collecting data that indicates deterioration of lubricant by increasing mileage which includes total base number, viscosity, iron and flash point. Then the data was analyzed by means of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP. These variables were used to construct a model for calculating appropriate useful life of lubricant by using vector projection approach. It was found from this study that the defined mileage for changing lubricant, which is generally at 5,000 km, is not appropriate. Results: Results of the study suggest that the most appropriate mileage for change of lubricant is at 12,000 km. Conclusion: It could be concluded that collection of data about characteristics of lubricant and use of model for calculating useful life of lubricant can define appropriate interval change of lubricant.

  12. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Strom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective: To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulationbased evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results: The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6% than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005. We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04, validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion: Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  13. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-11-07

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline.

  14. A quantile regression approach to the analysis of the quality of life determinants in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Broccoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to explain the effect of important covariates on the health-related quality of life (HRQol in elderly subjects. Methods. Data were collected within a longitudinal study that involves 5256 subject, aged +or= 65. The Visual Analogue Scale inclused in the EQ-5D Questionnaire, tha EQ-VAS, was used to obtain a synthetic measure of quality of life. To model EQ-VAS Score a quantile regression analysis was employed. This methodological approach was preferred to an OLS regression becouse of the EQ-VAS Score typical distribution. The main covariates are: amount of weekly physical activity, reported problems in Activity of Daily Living, presence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypercolesterolemia, hypertension, joints pains, as well as socio-demographic information. Main Results. 1 Even a low level of physical activity significantly influences quality of life in a positive way; 2 ADL problems, at least one cardiovascular disease and joint pain strongly decrease the quality of life.

  15. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  16. Lessons Learned in Software Testing A Context-Driven Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaner, Cem; Pettichord, Bret

    2008-01-01

    Decades of software testing experience condensed into the most important lessons learned.The world's leading software testing experts lend you their wisdom and years of experience to help you avoid the most common mistakes in testing software. Each lesson is an assertion related to software testing, followed by an explanation or example that shows you the how, when, and why of the testing lesson. More than just tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid, Lessons Learned in Software Testing speeds you through the critical testing phase of the software development project without the extensive trial an

  17. Development of Probabilistic Life Prediction Methodologies and Testing Strategies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaan, Osama M.

    2003-01-01

    This effort is to investigate probabilistic life prediction methodologies for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and to analyze designs that determine stochastic properties of MEMS. This includes completion of a literature survey regarding Weibull size effect in MEMS and strength testing techniques. Also of interest is the design of a proper test for the Weibull size effect in tensile specimens. The Weibull size effect is a consequence of a stochastic strength response predicted from the Weibull distribution. Confirming that MEMS strength is controlled by the Weibull distribution will enable the development of a probabilistic design methodology for MEMS - similar to the GRC developed CARES/Life program for bulk ceramics. Another potential item of interest is analysis and modeling of material interfaces for strength as well as developing a strategy to handle stress singularities at sharp corners, filets, and material interfaces. The ultimate objective of this effort is to further develop and verify the ability of the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structuredlife (CARES/Life) code to predict the time-dependent reliability of MEMS structures subjected to multiple transient loads. Along these lines work may also be performed on transient fatigue life prediction methodologies.

  18. Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas

    2011-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through research and development programs from 2007 to 2010 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3,4. Life and performance tests have continued through 2010, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  19. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Botkin, Michael E.; Draper, Russell S.; Coletta, Jason

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2012 with the U.S. Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 with triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200 with triad pixels) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia. Life and performance tests have continued through 2013, and this data will be presented along with a comparison to previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems, where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  20. A Unified Approach to Constructing Nonparametric Rank Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-06

    82177 - , % 2- W -T- . ,o.. .o I" Va - , . - ,.-- tic, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, and the Wald - Wolfowitz statistic for the two-sample...linear, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Wald - Wolfowitz (1940) "runs test", the so-called "tests based on exceeding observations" (H;jek 32...metric U induces the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic, for equal sample sizes. The following result shows that the Wald - Wolfowitz test statistic is also

  1. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, KJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Pospelov, G

    2010-01-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at $|eta| = 3.2$ in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at $|eta| = 0.45$ of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap testbeam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  2. Methodologically sound: Evaluating the psychometric approach to the assessment of human life history [reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Black, Candace Jasmine; García, Rafael Antonio; Fernandes, Heitor Barcellos Ferreira; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Woodley of Menie, Michael Anthony

    2015-04-06

    Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014) have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH) strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS). As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1) A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2) our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3) our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4) our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  3. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014 have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS. As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1 A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2 our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3 our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4 our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  4. Modelling pesticide emission patterns in agricultural life cycle inventories using a modular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Domenech, Xavier

    pesticide fractions reaching the different environment compartments is used for the application of LCA to apple production in New Zealand. The approach has been developed to be used in the life cycle inventory (LCI) of agricultural systems. This framework allows the consideration of site......In the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of field crops, the system description and inventory analysis provides information about the identities and quantities of pesticide applied, the form and the pattern of application. The field itself is seen as part of the technosphere, the ecosphere beginning...... outside the boundaries of the field or below the ploughing zone. To determine emissions of pesticide ingredients, we need to model their fate in the field system in order to quantify the fractions which cross its boundaries entering into the ecosphere. A modular framework for the calculation of organic...

  5. Psychological distress and quality of life associated with genetic testing for breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Posluszny, Donna M; Somers, Tamara J; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Baum, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    This study investigated short- and long-term psychological outcomes associated with BRCA1/2 genetic testing in women with a personal or family history of breast cancer. Participants included 126 women considering genetic testing. Questionnaires were administered prior to testing, one week, three and six months after result disclosure. Results indicated no systematic effects of testing based on personal cancer history. Mutation carriers and women who elected not to be tested reported greater perceived risk and intrusive and avoidant thoughts at follow-up time points than did women who received negative (uninformative) or variant results. Mutation carriers reported more distress at the three-month follow-up but by six months the effects of test result on distress dissipated and groups were comparable. Cluster analyses identified two groups of individuals based on distress at baseline; these groups were used to predict psychological outcomes after testing. Distress remained constant in both groups: those who were high at baseline remained high and those who were low remained low. Test results did not moderate this effect. Results suggest that genetic testing for BRCA1/2 does not increase distress or have deleterious effects on quality of life over the long term. However, sub-groups of women may report more distress over time. These data indicate the need for more targeted counseling to individuals who report high levels of distress when considering genetic testing.

  6. Benefits of Considering More than Temperature Acceleration for GaN HEMT Life Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Coutu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the validity of Arrhenius accelerated-life testing when applied to gallium nitride (GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT lifetime assessments, where the standard assumption is that only critical stressor is temperature, which is derived from operating power, device channel-case, thermal resistance, and baseplate temperature. We found that power or temperature alone could not explain difference in observed degradation, and that accelerated life tests employed by industry can benefit by considering the impact of accelerating factors besides temperature. Specifically, we found that the voltage used to reach a desired power dissipation is important, and also that temperature acceleration alone or voltage alone (without much power dissipation is insufficient to assess lifetime at operating conditions.

  7. Reflections on using biographical approaches in end-of-life care: dignity therapy as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Olav; Threlkeld, Guinever; Street, Annette F; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of nonpharmacologic interventions using biographical approaches at the end of life (EoL) is being increasingly recognized, but less attention is paid to processes impeding realization of this potential. In this article, Swedish and Australian researchers reflect on and problematize experiences using one biographical approach, dignity therapy (DT), in EoL care in Sweden. We use this as an example, focusing on critical examination of the process of applying DT in practice, examining frictions experienced in recruiting participants, collecting the data, and creating a biography. We discuss issues regarding agency, which became evident in the recruitment process and choices made about participation, and the power differentials manifested in the interactive process of eliciting stories and crafting them into a final product. We also raise salient questions about how research and practice with biographical approaches in EoL care might better build on and further existing knowledge to better reflect the complexities of everyday life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. An Approach Model for Employees' Improving Quality of Work Life (IQWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dargahi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organizational features can affect how employers view on their QWL is an important consideration for employ­ees interested in improving employees' job satisfaction.The research reported here aimed to provide the processes used to investigate and implement a pathway for TUMS Employ­ees Improving of Quality of Work Life as an approach model.Methods: A Quality of Work Life Strategic Planning Committee was formed to focus on enhancing TUMS employees' qual­ity of work life. In the next step 30 QWL teams consisting of managers and employees were conducted in each of 15 as all of TUMS Hospitals. Committee members identified similar key themes of dissatisfaction. Based on the key themes identi­fied, a survey was developed by QWL Strategic Planning by the questionnaires which distributed to 942 employees and 755 of them were returned. The collected data were saved by SPSS software and analyzed by statistical method.Results: The results from the survey showed that the perceived strongest areas among 12 categories developed by QWL Strate­gic Planning Committee that employees agreed to improve on their QWL were communication, leadership monetary an non- monetary compensation and support. This committee evaluated the outcomes of QWL managers and employees teams to improve the employees, quality of work life at 15 TUMS Hospitals.Conclusion: The QWL Strategic Planning Committee recommend a new approach model to suggest the ways which impres­sive on the employees' improving QWL.

  9. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Gompertz Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan for Gompertz distribution under a truncated life test is developed. For different acceptance numbers, consumer’s confidence levels and values of the ratio of the experimental time to the specified mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ensure the specified mean lifetime are obtained. The operating characteristic function values and the associated producer’s risks are also presented. An example is provided to illustrate the acceptance sampling plan.

  10. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  11. General principles and approaches to wound prevention and care at end of life: an overview .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemo, Diane

    2012-05-01

    The incidence and prevalence of wounds in persons at the end of life is largely unknown, but wounds are estimated to occur in at least one third of hospice patients. At the end of life, healthcare professionals must help the patient and/ or family decide whether the goals of wound prevention and care should focus on healing or palliation. At all times, it is important to consider that a palliative approach does not negate the potential for wound improvement or even closing before death. A review of the literature suggests that, in general, few differences exist between the general principles of wound prevention and care and an optimal palliative care plan. For example, maintenance of a moist wound environment is recommended to facilitate healing in general protocols of care. In end-of-life patients, dressings should be used for general comfort and prevention of skin exposure to wound exudate and to reduce the number of potentially painful dressing changes. Risk factors for tissue breakdown and pressure ulcer development are also similar. Palliative care patients with limited mobility and physical activity are at highest risk for developing pressure ulcers, but measures to help prevent these wounds may have to be adjusted to meet the overall goals of palliative care for a particular patient. Wounds encountered mainly in cancer patients - eg, fungating and radiation wounds - can pose important challenges for healthcare professionals and are very stressful for the patient. Pressure ulcers, fungating, and radiation wounds at the end of life are to be managed palliatively with the overall goal to minimize pain and odor, enhance comfort, and potentially improve the condition of the ulcer. Although research remains limited, it is clear the clinician and patient must balance best wound prevention and management practices while promoting patient dignity, self-esteem, and quality of life.

  12. Learning About Dying and Living: An Applied Approach to End-of-Life Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to expand on prior research in end-of-life communication and death and dying communication apprehension, by developing a unique course that utilizes a hospice setting and an applied, service-learning approach. Therefore, this essay describes and discusses both students' and my experiences over a 7-year period from 2008 through 2014. The courses taught during this time frame provided an opportunity to analyze students' responses, experiences, and discoveries across semesters/years and cocultures. This unique, 3-credit, 14-week, service-learning, end-of-life communication course was developed to provide an opportunity for students to learn the theories related to this field of study and to apply that knowledge through volunteer experiences via interactions with dying patients and their families. The 7 years of author's notes, plus the 91 students' electronically submitted three reflection essays each (273 total documents) across four courses/years, served as the data for this study. According to the students, verbally in class discussions and in numerous writing assignments, this course helped lower their death and dying communication apprehension and increased their willingness to interact with hospice patients and their families. Furthermore, the students' final research papers clearly demonstrated how utilizing a service-learning approach allowed them to apply classroom learnings and interactions with dying patients and their families at the hospice, to their analyses of end-of-life communication theories and behaviors. The results of these classes suggest that other, difficult topic courses (e.g., domestic violence, addiction, etc.) might benefit from a similar pedagogical approach.

  13. Tools for in service monitoring and testing of riser to prevent failure and extend service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Haakon; Bondevik, Jon Olav; Skjerve, Haavard; Tveit, Oeyvind [SeaFlex AS, Asker (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Exploration and development of new oil and gas fields is heavily dependant on use of flexible pipes and many field developments would not have been possible without them. The number of flexible risers in service is constantly increasing since relatively few offshore projects have reached the estimated operational life and the operational lifetime of several fields in-service has been extended due to new and improved technology. Many risers have been in service over a large number of years. Some risers have been operated under demanding conditions such as severe dynamic loads, high pressure and temperatures. One may in some cases find that risers actually have shorter service life than estimated in the design phase due to the severe operational conditions. In order to extend the use of the riser, some risers may have to be modified and re-terminated and prepared for a new and less demanding application. In order to operate risers safely, it is important to re-assess the fatigue life in order to prevent potential riser failure. The operator should implement methods and tools for in-service monitoring and testing. This paper addresses efficient and reliable methods and tools for monitoring of critical operational parameters as well as in-service riser testing. A brief description of structural failure modes will also be given in order to understand how to interpret test results in view of potential failure modes. (author)

  14. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  15. Fatigue Life Assessment of Selected Engineering Materials Based on Modified Low-Cycle Fatigue Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanical tests were carried out on ductile iron of EN-GJS-600-3 grade and on grey cast iron of EN-GJL-250 grade.The fatigue life was evaluated in a modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF, which enables the determination of parameters resulting fromthe Manson-Coffin-Morrow relationship.The qualitative and quantitative metallographic studies conducted by light microscopy on selected samples of ductile iron with spheroidalgraphite and grey cast iron with lamellar graphite (showing only small variations in mechanical properties, confirmed also smallvariations in the geometrical parameters of graphite related with its content and morphological features.

  16. The Metamemory Approach to Confidence: A Test Using Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.; Sampaio, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The metamemory approach to memory confidence was extended and elaborated to deal with semantic memory tasks. The metamemory approach assumes that memory confidence is based on the products and processes of a completed memory task, as well as metamemory beliefs that individuals have about how their memory products and processes relate to memory…

  17. CardioVINEdb: a data warehouse approach for integration of life science data in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormeier, Benjamin; Hippe, Klaus; Töpel, Thoralf; Hofestädt, Ralf

    2010-06-28

    One of the major challenges in bioinfomatics is to integrate and manage data from different sources as well as experimental microarray data and present them in a user-friendly format. Therefore, we present CardioVINEdb, a data warehouse approach developed to interact with and explore life science data. The data warehouse architecture provides a platform independent web interface that can be used with any common web browser. A monitor component controls and updates the data from the different sources to guarantee up-todateness. In addition, the system provides a "static" and "dynamic" visualization component for interactive graphical exploration of the data.

  18. A United Methodist approach to end-of-life decisions: intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobaben, James R

    1997-12-01

    The position of the United Methodist Church on end-of-life decisions is best described as intentional ambiguity or ambiguous intentions or both. The paper analyzes the official position of the denomination and then considers the actions of a U.M.C. bishop who served as a foreman for a trial of Dr. Jack Kevorkian. In an effort to find some common ground within an increasingly divided denomination, the work concludes with a consideration of the work of John Wesley and his approach to human death.

  19. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  20. Testing for Stock Market Contagion: A Quantile Regression Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Park (Sung); W. Wang (Wendun); N. Huang (Naijing)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Regarding the asymmetric and leptokurtic behavior of financial data, we propose a new contagion test in the quantile regression framework that is robust to model misspecification. Unlike conventional correlation-based tests, the proposed quantile contagion test allows

  1. Design of the fiber optic support system and fiber bundle accelerated life test for VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Ian M.; Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heisler, James T.; Mock, Jason R.; Mollison, Nicholas T.; Good, John M.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Anderson, Seth C.; Bauer, Svend M.; Kelz, Andreas; Roth, Martin M.; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2010-07-01

    The quantity and length of optical fibers required for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX) create unique fiber handling challenges. For HETDEX‡, at least 33,600 fibers will transmit light from the focal surface of the telescope to an array of spectrographs making up the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). Up to 96 Integral Field Unit (IFU) bundles, each containing 448 fibers, hang suspended from the telescope's moving tracker located more than 15 meters above the VIRUS instruments. A specialized mechanical system is being developed to support fiber optic assemblies onboard the telescope. The discrete behavior of 448 fibers within a conduit is also of primary concern. A life cycle test must be conducted to study fiber behavior and measure Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) as a function of time. This paper focuses on the technical requirements and design of the HETDEX fiber optic support system, the electro-mechanical test apparatus for accelerated life testing of optical fiber assemblies. Results generated from the test will be of great interest to designers of robotic fiber handling systems for major telescopes. There is concern that friction, localized contact, entanglement, and excessive tension will be present within each IFU conduit and contribute to FRD. The test apparatus design utilizes six linear actuators to replicate the movement of the telescope over 65,000 accelerated cycles, simulating five years of actual operation.

  2. Walking in postpoliomyelitis syndrome: The relationships between time-scored tests, walking in daily life and perceived mobility problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.D. Horemans (Herwin); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); A. Beelen (Anita); H.J. Stam (Henk); F. Nollet (Frans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare walking test results with walking in daily life, and to investigate the relationships between walking tests, walking activity in daily life, and perceived mobility problems in patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Subjects: Twenty-four ambulant patients with po

  3. Benchmark Calibration Tests Completed for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2005-01-01

    A major phase of benchmark testing has been completed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/), where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive experimentation to aid the development of an analytical life-prediction methodology. Two special-purpose test rigs subjected SRG heater-head pressure-vessel test articles to accelerated creep conditions, using the standard design temperatures to stay within the wall material s operating creep-response regime, but increasing wall stresses up to 7 times over the design point. This resulted in well-controlled "ballooning" of the heater-head hot end. The test plan was developed to provide critical input to analytical parameters in a reasonable period of time.

  4. Effect of test frequency on the in vitro fatigue life of acrylic bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Janna, Si; Carroll, Michael

    2003-03-01

    The goal of the present work was to test the hypothesis that test frequency, f, does not have a statistically significant effect on the in vitro fatigue life of an acrylic bone cement. Uniaxial constant-amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted on 12 sets of cements, covering three formulations with three very different viscosities, two different methods of mixing the cement constituents, and two values of f (1 and 10 Hz). The test results (number of fatigue stress cycles, N(f)) were analyzed using the linearized form of the three-parameter Weibull equation, allowing the values of the Weibull mean (N(WM)) to be determined for each set. Statistical analysis of the lnN(f) data, together with an examination of the N(WM) estimates, showed support for the hypothesis over the range of f used. The principal use and explanation of the present finding are presented.

  5. Development and usability testing of a web-based cancer symptom and quality-of-life support intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpin, S E; Halpenny, B; Whitman, G; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, W B; Berry, D L

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility and acceptability of computerized screening and patient-reported outcome measures have been demonstrated in the literature. However, patient-centered management of health information entails two challenges: gathering and presenting data using "patient-tailored" methods and supporting "patient-control" of health information. The design and development of many symptom and quality-of-life information systems have not included opportunities for systematically collecting and analyzing user input. As part of a larger clinical trial, the Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer-II project, participatory design approaches were used to build and test new features and interfaces for patient/caregiver users. The research questions centered on patient/caregiver preferences with regard to the following: (a) content, (b) user interface needs, (c) patient-oriented summary, and (d) patient-controlled sharing of information with family, caregivers, and clinicians. Mixed methods were used with an emphasis on qualitative approaches; focus groups and individual usability tests were the primary research methods. Focus group data were content analyzed, while individual usability sessions were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. We identified 12 key patient/caregiver preferences through focus groups with 6 participants. We implemented seven of these preferences during the iterative design process. We deferred development for some of the preferences due to resource constraints. During individual usability testing (n = 8), we were able to identify 65 usability issues ranging from minor user confusion to critical errors that blocked task completion. The participatory development model that we used led to features and design revisions that were patient centered. We are currently evaluating new approaches for the application interface and for future research pathways. We encourage other researchers to adopt user-centered design approaches when building

  6. Daily life stress and the cortisol awakening response: testing the anticipation hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Powell

    Full Text Available The cortisol awakening response (CAR is a distinct facet of the circadian cortisol rhythm associated with various health conditions and risk factors. It has repeatedly been suggested that the CAR could be a result of the anticipated demands of the upcoming day (stress anticipation and could support coping with daily life stress. In a sample of 23 healthy participants CARs were assessed on two consecutive days by measures of salivary cortisol upon awakening (S1 and 30 and 45 minutes later, which were aggregated to the area under the curve increase (AUCI. Stress anticipation was assessed immediately after awakening. On the same days, daily life stress and distress were assessed six times per day based on a quasi-randomized design using handheld computers. Associations were tested by day using regression analysis and standard multilevel/mixed effects models for longitudinal data. The CAR AUCI moderated the effect of daily life stress on distress; higher CAR increases were associated with attenuated distress responses to daily life stress on both days (day 1: p = .039; day 2: p = .004 adjusted for age, gender, sleep quality, time of awakening and oral contraceptive use. Lagged-effects and redundancy models showed that this effect was not due to prior-day CAR increases but specific for same day CARs. On day 2, associations between daily life stress and distress were stronger when individuals showed a higher S1 cortisol level, but this effect was similar for S1 on day 1, and the day 2 effect of S1 became non-significant when S1 on day 1 was controlled. No associations were found between stress anticipation and CARs. Findings indicate that the CAR increase is associated with successful coping with same-day daily life stress.

  7. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Goldberg

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration of new avenues for testing based on the advances in cell biology.

  8. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure...... to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered...

  9. A new approach to test generation for combinational circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-hui; HOU Yan-li; HU Jia-wei; LAN Hai-yan

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the generation of high-quality test set in the shortest possible time, the test generation for combinational circuits (CC) based on the chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm is presented according to the analysis of existent problems of CC test generation, and an appropriate CPSO algorithm model has been constructed. With the help of fault simulator, the test set of ISCAS' 85 benchmark CC is generated using the CPSO, and some techniques are introduced such as half-random generation, and simulation of undetected faults with original test vector and inverse test vector. Experimental results show that this algorithm can generate the same fault coverage and small-size test set in short time compared with other known similar methods, which proves that the proposed method is applicable and effective.

  10. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  11. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  12. Literary Genres in Social Life: A Narrative, Audio-visual and Poetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe González Gutiérrez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposal, "Literary Genres in Social Life: a Narrative, Audio-visual and Poetic Approach", attempts, by objective, to present/display to the academic psychology community and compatible social science disciplines the main contributions of literary genre theory through a social constructionist understanding of narrations and daily stories, and by means of an interactive construction of narrative collage. This work, sustained by an investigation financed by the University Santo Tomás in Bogota, Colombia, "Understanding of structuralist literary theories in the development of the narrative 'I' within the social constructionist approach", tries to propose alternative spaces for the presentation of its investigative results through the expression of metaphors, visual narrative sequences and interactive artistic forms, which invite the spectator to share in and to include/understand important concepts in the consolidation of social forms of construction of the quotidian. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802373

  13. Approaches to end-of-life decision-making in the NICU: insights from Dostoevsky's The Grand Inquisitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J J; Graham, N; Schreiber, M D; Goodwin, M

    2006-07-01

    For many parents stopping life-sustaining medical treatment on their dying infant is psychologically impossible. Dostoevsky's insights into human behavior, particularly the fact that individuals do not want the anxiety and guilt associated with responsibility for making difficult decisions, might change the way physicians approach parents for permission to withdraw life-prolonging medical interventions on dying infants.

  14. Methodological Approach for the Sustainability Assessment of Development Cooperation Projects for Built Innovations Based on the SDGs and Life Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D. Maier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological approach for a sustainability assessment of development cooperation projects. Between the scientific disciplines there is no agreement on the term of “sustainability”. Whereas the definition of sustainability within the context of development cooperation frequently highlights the long-term success of an intervention, the United Nations herald the inclusion of social, economic and environmental aspects. This paper proposes to bridge this gap by providing an analytical framework that uses nine impact category groups based on thematic priorities of sustainable development derived from the Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, the long-term effectiveness of a project is taken into consideration. These impact category groups comprise the analytical framework, which is investigated by the Life Cycle Assessment and an indicator-based analysis. These data are obtained through empirical social research and the LCA inventory. The underlying concept is based on life cycle thinking. Taking up a multi-cycle model this study establishes two life cycles: first, the project management life cycle; and, second, the life cycle of a project’s innovation. The innovation’s life cycle is identified to have the greatest impact on the target region and the local people and is consequently of primary interest. This methodological approach enables an ex-post sustainability assessment of a built innovation of a development cooperation project and is tested on a case study on Improved Cooking Stoves in Bangladesh.

  15. Homothetic Efficiency and Test Power: A Non-Parametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heufer (Jan); P. Hjertstrand (Per)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We provide a nonparametric revealed preference approach to demand analysis based on homothetic efficiency. Homotheticity is a useful restriction but data rarely satisfies testable conditions. To overcome this we provide a way to estimate homothetic efficiency of

  16. Taking a life Course Perspective on Social Assistance use in Canada: A different approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cooke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a life course perspective on social assistance use in Canada can offer a more nuanced theoretical understanding of both individuals’ experiences and the importance of social structure, than more traditional sociological or economic approaches to welfare use. We also propose that examining social assistance use in this way does not require longitudinal quantitative or qualitative data, as is sometimes suggested, but that cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative data can be interpreted through a life course lens. We demonstrate this by examining the covariates of social assistance receipt using crosssectional quantitative data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, and by analyzing qualitative interviews with recipients about the process of beginning and barriers to ending benefit receipt. These analyses show not only how the cross-sectional data can easily be considered from the perspective of the life course, but also how this perspective provides a more satisfactory understanding of how social assistance policies can be thought of as both providing resources that are important in individual decision-making and as shaping lives.

  17. A Machine Learning Approach to Test Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahmcke, Christina Mackeprang

    2007-01-01

    Programs for gene prediction in computational biology are examples of systems for which the acquisition of authentic test data is difficult as these require years of extensive research. This has lead to test methods based on semiartificially produced test data, often produced by {\\em ad hoc......} techniques complemented by statistical models such as Hidden Markov Models (HMM). The quality of such a test method depends on how well the test data reflect the regularities in known data and how well they generalize these regularities. So far only very simplified and generalized, artificial data sets have...... been tested, and a more thorough statistical foundation is required. We propose to use logic-statistical modelling methods for machine-learning for analyzing existing and manually marked up data, integrated with the generation of new, artificial data. More specifically, we suggest to use the PRISM...

  18. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  19. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  20. Novel Electrochemical Test Bench for Evaluating the Functional Fatigue Life of Biomedical Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, M. F.; Dubinskiy, S.; Zhukova, Y.; Korobkova, A.; Pustov, Y.; Brailovski, V.; Prokoshkin, S.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present work was first to develop and validate a test bench that simulates the in vitro conditions to which the biomedical implants will be actually subjected in vivo. For the preliminary application assessments, the strain-controlled fatigue tests of biomedically pure Ti and Ti-Nb-Zr alloy in simulated body fluid were undertaken. The in situ open-circuit potential measurements from the test bench demonstrated a strong dependence on the dynamic cycling and kind of material under testing. The results showed that during fatigue cycling, the passive oxide film formed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Zr alloy was more resistant to fatigue degradation when compared with pure Ti. The Ti-Nb-Zr alloy exhibited prolonged fatigue life when compared with pure Ti. The fractographic features of both materials were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical results and the fractographic evidence confirmed that the prolonged functional fatigue life of the Ti-Nb-Zr alloy is apparently ascribable to the reversible martensitic phase transformation.

  1. A quantile regression approach for modelling a Health-Related Quality of Life Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cavrini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to propose a new approach for modeling the EQ-5D index and EQ-5D VAS in order to explain the lifestyle determinants effect using the quantile regression analysis. Methods. Data was collected within a cross-sectional study that involved a probabilistic sample of 1,622 adults randomly selected from the population register of two Health Authorities of Bologna in northern Italy. The perceived health status of people was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. The Visual Analogue Scale included in the EQ-5D Questionnaire, the EQ-VAS, and the EQ-5D index were used to obtain the synthetic measures of quality of life. To model EQ-VAS Score and EQ-5D index, a quantile regression analysis was employed. Quantile Regression is a way to estimate the conditional quantiles of the VAS Score distribution in a linear model, in order to have a more complete view of possible associations between a measure of Health Related Quality of Life (dependent variable and socio-demographic and determinants data. This methodological approach was preferred to an OLS regression because of the EQ-VAS Score and EQ-5D index typical distribution. Main Results. The analysis suggested that age, gender, and comorbidity can explain variability in perceived health status measured by the EQ-5D index and the VAS.

  2. On the parallels between cosmology and astrobiology: a transdisciplinary approach to the search for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Charles Morphy D.; Alabi, Leticia P.; Friaça, Amâncio C. S.; Galante, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The establishment of cosmology as a science provides a parallel to the building-up of the scientific status of astrobiology. The rise of astrobiological studies is explicitly based on a transdisciplinary approach that reminds of the Copernican Revolution, which eroded the basis of a closed Aristotelian worldview and reinforced the notion that the frontiers between disciplines are artificial. Given the intrinsic complexity of the astrobiological studies, with its multifactorial evidences and theoretical/experimental approaches, multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives are mandatory. Insulated expertise cannot grasp the vastness of the astrobiological issues. This need for integration among disciplines and research areas is antagonistic to excessive specialization and compartmentalization, allowing astrobiology to be qualified as a truly transdisciplinary enterprise. The present paper discusses the scientific status of astrobiological studies, based on the view that every kind of life, Earth-based or not, should be considered in a cosmic context. A confluence between 'astro' and 'bio' seeks the understanding of life as an emerging phenomenon in the universe. Thus, a new epistemological niche is opened, pointing to the development of a pluralistic vision for the philosophy of astrobiology.

  3. Testing the applicability of a model of oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mello dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test Wilson & Cleary’s conceptual model of the direct and mediated pathways between clinical and non-clinical variables in relation to oral health-related quality of life. A random sample of 578 older people was evaluated. Wilson & Cleary’s conceptual model was tested using structural equations modeling including: biological variables, symptom status, functional health, oral health perceptions, oral health-related quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14. In the final model, edentulism was negatively correlated to dissatisfaction of appearance of their dental prostheses (r = -0.25. Worse functional status was correlated with poor oral health perception (r = 0.24. Being aged over 68 (r = 0.25, being a female (r = 0.39 and living in rural areas (r = 0.15 had a direct effect on the edentulism. Age had a direct effect on OHIP-14 (r = -0.15. There was an indirect effect of sex on OHIP-14 via functional status (r = 0.12. The present findings partially support Wilson & Cleary’s model framework.

  4. Testing the applicability of a model of oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Camila Mello Dos; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model of the direct and mediated pathways between clinical and non-clinical variables in relation to oral health-related quality of life. A random sample of 578 older people was evaluated. Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model was tested using structural equations modeling including: biological variables, symptom status, functional health, oral health perceptions, oral health-related quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). In the final model, edentulism was negatively correlated to dissatisfaction of appearance of their dental prostheses (r = -0.25). Worse functional status was correlated with poor oral health perception (r = 0.24). Being aged over 68 (r = 0.25), being a female (r = 0.39) and living in rural areas (r = 0.15) had a direct effect on the edentulism. Age had a direct effect on OHIP-14 (r = -0.15). There was an indirect effect of sex on OHIP-14 via functional status (r = 0.12). The present findings partially support Wilson & Cleary's model framework.

  5. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED)-XL performance and life test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-05-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the OLED-XL devices over the standard OLED displays, publishing results at the 2007 and 2008 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2. In 2008, eMagin Corporation made additional improvements on the lifetime of their displays and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. A summary of the life and performance tests run at CERDEC NVESD will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  6. Application of the Life Safety Code to a Historic Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Lemke, Paul R.; Lewis, William L.; Covell, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has conducted a study to assess alternatives to refurbishing existing launch vehicle modal test facilities as opposed to developing new test facilities to meet the demands of a very fiscally constrained test and evaluation environment. The results of this study showed that Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand (TS) 4550 could be made compliant, within reasonable cost and schedule impacts, if safety processes and operational limitations were put in place to meet the safety codes and concerns of the Fire Marshall. Trades were performed with key selection criteria to ensure that appropriate levels of occupant safety are incorporated into test facility design modifications. In preparation for the ground vibration tests that were to be performed on the Ares I launch vehicle, the Ares Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) organization evaluated the available test facility options, which included the existing mothballed structural dynamic TS4550 used by Apollo and Shuttle, alternative ground vibration test facilities at other locations, and construction of a new dynamic test stand. After an exhaustive assessment of the alternatives, the results favored modifying the TS4550 because it was the lowest cost option and presented the least schedule risk to the NASA Constellation Program for Ares Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT). As the renovation design plans and drawings were being developed for TS4550, a safety concern was discovered the original design for the construction of the test stand, originally built for the Apollo Program and renovated for the Shuttle Program, was completed before NASA s adoption of the currently imposed safety and building codes per National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code [NFPA 101] and International Building Codes. The initial FITO assessment of the design changes, required to make TS4550 compliant with current safety and building standards, identified a significant cost increase and schedule impact

  7. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE EDUCATION OF LIFE-MEANINGFUL VALUES OF TEENAGERS AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinа Zhurba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the conceptual approaches to the upbringing in the education of life-meaningful values of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. The definition of life-meaningful values has been given up. The major problems and contradictions in the upbringing of the Ukrainian children were paid attention to. The dependence of the result of upbringing, from the desire and the participation of all actors: children, parents, teachers is pointed out. Conceptual approaches to education of life values meaning are analyzed on the methodological, theoretical and practical levels. The aspects of the previous researches have been underlined. In this context, a systematic approach determines the integrity of the educational process in primary and high school. Synergetic approach combines the organization and self-organization of the growing personality. Humanistic approach recognizes each child's highest value at school, family, and society. Personal-centered approach provides individual attention to him, to free choice of that or other life-meaningful values. Activity approach provides practice and deed activity of children and shows how the value of the meaning of life affects the behavior of the individual. The theoretical level of substantiation of the concept of education of children of teenagers and early youth gives ability to define key points and concepts. Practical level implies the corresponding experimental activity, the determination of propriate pedagogical conditions, the selection of content, forms and methods of education of teenagers and early adolescence. Conceptual approaches offer the opportunity to develop a modern system of education of the values of the meaning of life of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. Implementation of conceptual approaches aimed at qualitative changes in the education of life-meaningful values among of teenagers and early adolescence.

  8. Women Health and Psychological Functioning in Different Periods of Life: Evaluation of Nursing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Terzioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.

  9. Jeewanu, or the 'particles of life'. The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized 'Jeewanu', or 'particle of life'. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called 'coacervate theory' of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  10. A life cycle analysis approach to D and D decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K.L.; Gresalfi, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yerace, P. [Dept. of Energy, Fernald, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management; Flora, J. [West Valley Demonstration Project, NY (United States); Krstich, M.; Gerrick, D. [Environmental Management Solutions, Mason, OH (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes a life cycle analysis (LCA) approach that makes decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of US Department of Energy facilities more efficient and more responsive to the concerns of the society. With the considerable complexity of D and D projects and their attendant environmental and health consequences, projects can no longer be designed based on engineering and economic criteria alone. Using the LCA D and D approach, the evaluation of material disposition alternatives explicitly includes environmental impacts, health and safety impacts, socioeconomic impacts, and stakeholder attitudes -- in addition to engineering and economic criteria. Multi-attribute decision analysis is used to take into consideration the uncertainties and value judgments that are an important part of all material disposition decisions. Use of the LCA D and D approach should lead to more appropriate selections of material disposition pathways and a decision-making process that is both understandable and defensible. The methodology and procedures of the LCA D and D approach are outlined and illustrated by an application of the approach at the Department of Energy`s West Valley Demonstration Project. Specifically, LCA was used to aid decisions on disposition of soil and concrete from the Tank Pad D and D Project. A decision tree and the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Users Guide for Environmental Restoration Projects were used to identify possible alternatives for disposition of the soil and concrete. Eight alternatives encompassing source reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal were defined for disposition of the soil; two alternatives were identified for disposition of the concrete. Preliminary results suggest that segregation and treatment are advantageous in the disposition of both the soil and the concrete. This and other recent applications illustrate the strength and ease of application of the LCA D and D approach.

  11. Measuring What Matters: Robert Sternberg's Enlightened Approach to Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Catherine O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    Psychologist Robert J. Sternberg's conviction that American standardized testing does not accurately reflect a child's intelligence or potential is far from theoretical. As an elementary school student in the 1950s, he scored poorly on the ubiquitous IQ test of the time, freezing up when the school psychologist entered the room. Thankfully for…

  12. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  13. Bayesian Approaches to Imputation, Hypothesis Testing, and Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven J.; Mackey, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces three applications of Bayesian inference to common and novel issues in second language research. After a review of the critiques of conventional hypothesis testing, our focus centers on ways Bayesian inference can be used for dealing with missing data, for testing theory-driven substantive hypotheses without a default null…

  14. Bayes Factor Approaches for Testing Interval Null Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological theories are statements of constraint. The role of hypothesis testing in psychology is to test whether specific theoretical constraints hold in data. Bayesian statistics is well suited to the task of finding supporting evidence for constraint, because it allows for comparing evidence f

  15. Reliability testing of the Danish version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Heaf, James; Prescott, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF) is valuable for assessing the health-related quality of life in patients treated with chronic dialysis. The aim of this study was to translate and test the reliability of the KDQOL-SF for use in Denmark...... involving all patients, two of the disease-specific scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of ... of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients discovered low reliability for three disease-specific scales. The KDQOL-SF manual and the Danish manual for the Short Form 36 (SF36) differed in the scoring of four generic scales: "role limitation-physical", "bodily pain", "general health" and "social function". CONCLUSIONS...

  16. DOES MIGRATION DISRUPT FERTILITY? A TEST USING THE MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher King Manner,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The disruption hypothesis suggests that migration interrupts fertility during the period of the move. This may be due to the psychological and physiological consequences of the stressful situation associated with the movement itself or the fairly common separate living arrangements of spouses during the early stages of the migration process. In this study, we examine the disruption hypothesis using the Malaysian Family Life Survey life history data. We used ordinary least squares and censored regression models to test the effect of marital separation on fertility surrounding the time of migration. While migrants do appear to experience more temporary separations than non-migrants, our analysis failed to indicate any disruptive effect associated with migration.

  17. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  18. Standard test method for ambient temperature fatigue life of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for the determination of strain gage fatigue life at ambient temperature. A suggested testing equipment design is included. 1.2 This test method does not apply to force transducers or extensometers that use bonded resistance strain gages as sensing elements. 1.3 Strain gages are part of a complex system that includes structure, adhesive, gage, leadwires, instrumentation, and (often) environmental protection. As a result, many things affect the performance of strain gages, including user technique. A further complication is that strain gages, once installed, normally cannot be reinstalled in another location. Therefore, it is not possible to calibrate individual strain gages; performance characteristics are normally presented on a statistical basis. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices ...

  19. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  20. The Adapted V-Model: A Practical Approach to Agile Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Ghanim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods largely remove the distinction between phases and roles with no predefined order of activities. Some agile approaches such as Test-Driven Development (TDD switch the traditional order of coding and testing and largely remove the boundary between the two implying that testing is becoming more a technical responsibility of the developers! Testers are complaining of loss of identity and scope within agile teams. In parallel some modern non-agile testing approaches such as Risk-based testing also open the boundaries between testing and analysis and suggest more involvement of testers in business and system analysis and sometimes system architecture. This article devises an adapted version of the V-Model for Scrum and suggests a practical approach that aligns the modern testing approaches with agile methodolgies. Scrum will be taken as a representative for Agile. The proposed approach is developed based on the Testing Process Improvement Guide (TPIG developed by the Software Engineering Competence Center.

  1. Creating a Computer Adaptive Test Version of the Late-Life Function & Disability Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Moed, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background This study applied Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) methodologies to develop a prototype function and disability assessment instrument for use in aging research. Herein, we report on the development of the CAT version of the Late-Life Function & Disability instrument (Late-Life FDI) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods We employed confirmatory factor analysis, IRT methods, validation, and computer simulation analyses of data collected from 671 older adults residing in residential care facilities. We compared accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of scores from CAT versions of two Late-Life FDI scales with scores from the fixed-form instrument. Score estimates from the prototype CAT versus the original instrument were compared in a sample of 40 older adults. Results Distinct function and disability domains were identified within the Late-Life FDI item bank and used to construct two prototype CAT scales. Using retrospective data, scores from computer simulations of the prototype CAT scales were highly correlated with scores from the original instrument. The results of computer simulation, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated those of the fixed-form scales, especially for the 10- or 15-item CAT versions. In the prospective study each CAT was administered in less than 3 minutes and CAT scores were highly correlated with scores generated from the original instrument. Conclusions CAT scores of the Late-Life FDI were highly comparable to those obtained from the full-length instrument with a small loss in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change. PMID:19038841

  2. Examination of Relationship between Self-esteem, Life Satisfaction of Riot Policemen and Their Approach to Dealing with Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhi YİĞİT

    2012-01-01

    Main objective of this study is to examinate of relationship between self-esteem, life satisfaction of riot police and their approach to dealing with stress. Research data has been obtained through using self-esteem scale and inventory of approach to dealing with stress. The first finding is that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between self-esteem of riot police and their life satisfaction. As the self-esteem increases, so the life satisfaction does. The second finding is that...

  3. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices.

  4. Implementing content constraints in alpha-stratified adaptive using a shadow test approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The methods of alpha-stratified adaptive testing and constrained adaptive testing with shadow tests are combined. The advantages are twofold: First, application of the shadow test approach allows the implementation of any type of constraint on item selection in alpha-stratified adaptive testing. Sec

  5. Component Interaction Graph: A new approach to test component composition

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Arup Abhinna

    2010-01-01

    The key factor of component based software development is component composition technology. A Component interaction graph is used to describe the interrelation of components. Drawing a complete component interaction graph (CIG) provides an objective basis and technical means for making the testing outline. Although many researches have focused on this subject, the quality of system that is composed of components has not been guaranteed. In this paper, a CIG is constructed from a state chart diagram and new test cases are generated to test the component composition.

  6. The effect of lubricating oils on bearing fatigue-life using the Evonik RohMax pitting test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Thorsten [Evonik RohMax Additives GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A major requirement for modern driveline lubricants is the need to reduce churning losses and friction in order to deliver continual improvements in fuel efficiency. In trying to achieve this oil formulators target lower and lower viscosities, testing the limits of what is acceptable Churning loss reductions are being made by reducing the viscosity of the lubricating oil. Reduced oil viscosities can lead to reduced oil film thicknesses, especially at high operating temperatures. Thinner oil films can lead to an increase in friction, and a decrease in the fatigue-life capacity in lubricated contacts of bearings and gears in several driveline applications. Extensive fluid testing is required. Current test procedures are subject to extremely high variability, and large numbers of experiments are required to develop high confidence in the test conclusions. This publication introduces a new fatigue-life test method, which in our hands provides a clear improvement in test time, cost, and reproducibility. The test's results enable an estimation of the effect of lubricating oils on bearing fatigue-life. This is done by comparing the results to those obtained with reference oils which have also been tested in the standardized bearing tests for lubricating oils. The effects of operating parameters on test accuracy and repeatability have been studied. The parameters studied are oil temperature, contact pressure, speed and the test specimen batch. In addition to the measurement of bearing fatigue-life, the new test may also be used to study gear fatigue-life. We have used this test to investigate the lubrication oils' influence on fatigue-life in bearings and in gears. In order to extend the comparisons to gear performance the reference fluids were evaluated in standard industry test procedures used for determining gear performance, in particular the FZG test rig, thus establishing an extra insight in the fluids' performance by comparing gear test performance

  7. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because...

  8. Strength of wood versus rate of testing - A theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Strength of wood is normally measured in ramp load experiments. Experience shows that strength increases with increasing rate of testing. This feature is considered theoretically in this paper. It is shown that the influence of testing rate is a phenomenon, which depends on the quality...... of the considered wood. Low quality wood shows lesser influence of testing rate. This observation agrees with the well-known statement made by Borg Madsen that weak wood subjected to a constant load, has a longer lifetime than strong wood. In general, the influence of testing rate on strength increases...... with increasing moisture content. This phenomenon applies irrespective of the considered wood quality such that the above-mentioned order of magnitude observations between low and high quality wood are kept....

  9. Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…

  10. A retrospective approach to testing the DNA barcoding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Chapple

    Full Text Available A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters, and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%, and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%. But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%. For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity.

  11. Homothetic Efficiency and Test Power: A Non-Parametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heufer (Jan); P. Hjertstrand (Per)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We provide a nonparametric revealed preference approach to demand analysis based on homothetic efficiency. Homotheticity is a useful restriction but data rarely satisfies testable conditions. To overcome this we provide a way to estimate homothetic efficiency of consump

  12. An Approach for Search Based Testing of Null Pointer Exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Di Penta, M.; Antoniol, G.

    2011-01-01

    Uncaught exceptions, and in particular null pointer exceptions (NPEs), constitute a major cause of crashes for software systems. Although tools for the static identification of potential NPEs exist, there is need for proper approaches able to identify system execution scenarios causing NPEs. This

  13. Improved approaches to ecotoxicity testing of petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetnenko, Y.; Evans, L. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    Crude oils produced in the North West shelf of Western Australia are highly volatile, a characteristic not shared by most of the Northern Hemisphere crude oils on which internationally accepted toxicity test protocols were developed. Because of this volatility and some other factors, the LC50 and EC50 values obtained from acute toxicity tests will be significantly affected by the changes of toxicant concentration in test solutions during the period of exposure. To address these issues all steps of a standard protocol for crude oil toxicity testing have been revised. A systematic study has been performed on factors which affect petroleum hydrocarbon solubilisation in aqueous systems during test solution preparations. The influence of mixing time, agitation energy and volume/interface ratio on a hydrocarbon concentration in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) was studied for heavy, medium and light crude oils. A study of the sensitivity of marine unicellular algae to WSF of crude oils was conducted with Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis-like sp. and Nitzchia closterium. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons dissolved in test solutions were estimated by UV-spectrometry and GC/FID chemical analyses. When the toxicant concentration decreased during the exposure period, the EC50 values derived from initial or final concentrations either underestimate or overestimate toxicity, respectively. Therefore, weighted average concentrations (WAC) calculated for the whole test period were recommended for expressing hydrocarbon concentrations in test solutions of crude oils. Toxicity indices calculated from WAC of total hydrocarbons for different crude oils can be compared regardless of the rates of hydrocarbon loss. (author)

  14. Implementing Content Constraints in Alpha-Stratified Adaptive Testing Using a Shadow Test Approach. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    The methods of alpha-stratified adaptive testing and constrained adaptive testing with shadow tests are combined in this study. The advantages are twofold. First, application of the shadow test allows the researcher to implement any type of constraint on item selection in alpha-stratified adaptive testing. Second, the result yields a simple set of…

  15. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Test Endpoints for Detecting the Effects of Endocrine Active Substances in Fish Full Life Cycle Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provid...

  16. Ant colony optimization approach for test scheduling of system on chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling; PAN Zhong-liang

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to perform the test of system on chip, the test scheduling determines the test start and finishing time of every core in the system on chip such that the overall test time is minimized. A new test scheduling approach based on chaotic ant colony algorithm is presented in this paper. The optimization model of test scheduling was studied, the model uses the information such as the scale of test sets of both cores and user defined logic. An approach based on chaotic ant colony algorithm was proposed to solve the optimization model of test scheduling. The test of signal integrity faults such as crosstalk were also investigated when performing the test scheduling. Experimental results on many circuits show that the proposed approach can be used to solve test scheduling problems.

  17. Assessment of Advanced Life Support competence when combining different test methods--reliability and validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Lippert, F; Hesselfeldt, R

    2007-01-01

    Summary Robust assessment of Advanced Life Support (ALS) competence is paramount to the credibility of ALS-provider certification and for estimating the learning outcome and retention of ALS competence following the courses. The Euro- pean Resuscitation Council (ERC) provides two sets of MCQs and...... Correlation Coefficients between 0.766 and 0.977. Inter-rater agreements on pass/fail decisions were not perfect. The one MCQ test was significantly more difficult than the other. There were no significant differences between CASTests....

  18. A reliability generalization study of coefficient alpha for the life orientation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt; Bradley, Greg

    2010-07-01

    Dispositional optimism is a widely studied construct in social science and medicine associated with a variety of important psychological and physiological outcomes. Our purpose in this study was to examine coefficient alpha for a popular optimism measure: The Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1985). We utilized a meta-analytic procedure known as reliability generalization to provide an aggregate estimate of coefficient alpha across empirical studies that have employed the scale over time and across populations. Furthermore, we identified sample and demographic characteristics associated with variance in coefficient alpha. We discuss conditions associated with variability in coefficient alpha and provide suggestions for continued research for the LOT.

  19. Quality of life in patients affected by endometrial cancer: comparison among laparotomy, laparoscopy and vaginal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Roberto; Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Marrazzo, Vivienne; Franchi, Laura; Migliavacca, Costanza; Michela, Monica; Merisio, Carla; Modena, Alberto Bacchi; Patrelli, Tito Silvio

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to verify if the surgical approach (laparoscopy/laparotomy/vaginal) in stage-I endometrial cancer treatment, may have effects on intra- and post-operative outcomes and on the patient's quality of life. The study group consisted of patients with histological diagnosis of type-I endometrial adenocarcinoma, stage-I. They were divided into three groups according to surgical approach chosen (laparotomic/laparoscopic/vaginal). Every patient answered a telephone health survey (SF-36) at 30 and 180 days post-surgery. Surgical-operating times, hospitalization length and short/long-term complications after surgery were also compared. The SF-36 survey revealed a better performance status in patients who underwent laparoscopy as compared to those who received laparotomy or vaginal surgery. We found significantly better results considering General Health, Physical Functioning, Role-Physical and Bodily Pain in the laparoscopy group after 30 and 180 days. Patients who underwent laparoscopy had significantly shorter hospitalization and less post-operative complications even if laparoscopy required significantly longer surgical-operating times compared to vaginal surgery. Our data confirm the superiority of the laparoscopic approach respect to the laparotomic and vaginal ones both in term of hospitalization length and post-operative complications.

  20. MOTORCYCLE CRASH TEST CENTRE: A MOVEABLE BARRIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Wong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, researchers have used full-scale motorcycle crash tests in the field of road safety research to simulate different types of crash technique and scenario. This study focuses on the development of laboratory-based motorcycle crash tests. A moveable barrier, designated as a ‘trolley’ in this study, is designed, developed and implemented in a laboratory-based motorcycle crash test. The design of the trolley underwent several versions prior to the final election. Various design considerations and factors, such as the trolley’s flexibility in various impact conditions, were weighted. Finite element analysis and experimental tests examine and explain the details of the design. The purposeful selection of this trolley is discussed, such as how it might meet wide industrial market applications. With a laboratory-based crash test facility, various crash scenarios and motorcycle crashworthiness could be determined in-situ, coupled with a reduction in expense and time. Therefore, this research would serve to enhance yet another aspect of automotive engineering.

  1. Sources of life strengths appraisal scale: a multidimensional approach to assessing older adults' perceived sources of life strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S; Debats, Dominique L

    2014-01-01

    Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults' appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults' appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS) is a promising instrument for appraising older adults' sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life's functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults. Dedicated to the memory of Shanta Khurana whose assistance in the pilot work for the study was invaluable.

  2. Thermal energy storage and heat transfer support program. Task-5 heat pipe life test study. Facilities upgrading and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappan, R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the recommissioning, upgrading, and maintaining of thirty low and five high temperature heat pipe life test rigs. This is an ongoing research effort, originally put together by NASA LeRC, continued by the Air Force. The 92 cm long 1.27 cm dia. spacecraft-type heat pipes have completed nearly 74,000 hours of life tests. They exhibit varying Delta Ts across the length and symptoms of gas accumulation. Life test status and temperature profile for each pipe are presented. The sodium and potassium pipes have undergone relatively less hours of testing (34,000 hours) only. These five pipes are exhibiting normal status. All the life tests will continue till failure and there will be updates of this report.

  3. Bayesian and Empirical Bayes Approaches to Setting Passing Scores on Mastery Tests. Publication Series in Mastery Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh; Saunders, Joseph C., III

    The Bayesian approach to setting passing scores, as proposed by Swaminathan, Hambleton, and Algina, is compared with the empirical Bayes approach to the same problem that is derived from Huynh's decision-theoretic framework. Comparisons are based on simulated data which follow an approximate beta-binomial distribution and on real test results from…

  4. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamala, K.; Anella, F.; Wieczorek, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From...... sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge "sequence space", leading to the question "why these macromolecules, and not the others?" We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides...

  5. An Adaptive Approach to Locating Mobile HIV Testing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Gregg S; Crawford, Forrest W; Cleary, Paul D; Kaplan, Edward H; Paltiel, A David

    2017-07-01

    Public health agencies suggest targeting "hotspots" to identify individuals with undetected HIV infection. However, definitions of hotspots vary. Little is known about how best to target mobile HIV testing resources. We conducted a computer-based tournament to compare the yield of 4 algorithms for mobile HIV testing. Over 180 rounds of play, the algorithms selected 1 of 3 hypothetical zones, each with unknown prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, in which to conduct a fixed number of HIV tests. The algorithms were: 1) Thompson Sampling, an adaptive Bayesian search strategy; 2) Explore-then-Exploit, a strategy that initially draws comparable samples from all zones and then devotes all remaining rounds of play to HIV testing in whichever zone produced the highest observed yield; 3) Retrospection, a strategy using only base prevalence information; and; 4) Clairvoyance, a benchmarking strategy that employs perfect information about HIV prevalence in each zone. Over 250 tournament runs, Thompson Sampling outperformed Explore-then-Exploit 66% of the time, identifying 15% more cases. Thompson Sampling's superiority persisted in a variety of circumstances examined in the sensitivity analysis. Case detection rates using Thompson Sampling were, on average, within 90% of the benchmark established by Clairvoyance. Retrospection was consistently the poorest performer. We did not consider either selection bias (i.e., the correlation between infection status and the decision to obtain an HIV test) or the costs of relocation to another zone from one round of play to the next. Adaptive methods like Thompson Sampling for mobile HIV testing are practical and effective, and may have advantages over other commonly used strategies.

  6. Testing the health promotion model for adherence and quality of life in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penwell-Waines, Lauren; Lewis, Kimberly; Valvano, Abbey; Smith, Suzanne; Rahn, Rebecca; Stepleman, Lara

    2017-02-01

    The nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) presents challenges to health-promoting behaviors (e.g. adherence) and quality of life. The Health Promotion Model (HPM) proposes that these outcomes are explained by individual characteristics (i.e. biological, social, psychological) and behavior-specific cognitions (e.g. self-efficacy). The current study sought to test the HPM in explaining self-reported adherence and MS quality of life among 121 MS patients receiving care in an MS clinic in the southeastern United States. Hierarchical regression models partially supported the HPM for adherence (R(2) = .27) and more fully for quality of life (QoL) (R(2) = .64). Depression and stigma were among the variables most strongly related to both adherence and QoL; contrary to HPM theory, self-efficacy was not significantly related to adherence but was to QoL. Thus, the HPM may help to guide strategies used to improve QoL among individuals living with MS; however, the model may need further refinement to be used with adherence.

  7. A Visual Arts Education pedagogical approach for enhancing quality of life for persons with dementia (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietyen, Ann C; Richards, Allan G

    2017-01-01

    A new and innovative pedagogical approach that administers hands-on visual arts activities to persons with dementia based on the field of Visual Arts Education is reported in this paper. The aims of this approach are to enhance cognition and improve quality of life. These aims were explored in a small qualitative study with eight individuals with moderate dementia, and the results are published as a thesis. In this paper, we summarize and report the results of this small qualitative study and expand upon the rationale for the Visual Arts Education pedagogical approach that has shown promise for enhancing cognitive processes and improving quality of life for persons with dementia.

  8. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, Michelle; Pizarro, Maria Ester; Hall, Graham L.; Ramsey, Kathryn; Foong, Rachel; Saunders, Clare; Robinson, Paul D.; Webster, Hailey; Hardaker, Kate; Kane, Mica; Ratjen, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW) outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria. Methods 50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic). Results Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53–0.83%) to (κ 0.73–0.97%), but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis. Conclusions The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes. PMID:27304432

  9. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Jensen

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria.50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic.Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53-0.83% to (κ 0.73-0.97%, but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis.The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes.

  10. Development of Modeling Approaches for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel R.; Allgood, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency of rocket propul-sion systems is essential for humanity to venture be-yond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rock-ets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. NASA is in the pro-cess of developing a new NTP engine, and is evaluat-ing ground test facility concepts that allow for the thor-ough testing of NTP devices. NTP engine exhaust, hot gaseous hydrogen, is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; how-ever, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. Several options are being investigated to mitigate this hazard potential with one option in particular that completely contains the engine exhaust during engine test operations. The exhaust products are subsequently disposed of between engine tests. For this concept (see Figure 1), oxygen is injected into the high-temperature hydrogen exhaust that reacts to produce steam, excess oxygen and any trace amounts of radioactive noble gases released by off-nominal NTP engine reactor performance. Water is injected to condense the potentially contaminated steam into water. This water and the gaseous oxygen (GO2) are subsequently passed to a containment area where the water and GO2 are separated into separate containment tanks.

  11. Test-state approach to the quantum search problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Nguyen, Le Huy; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2011-05-01

    The search for “a quantum needle in a quantum haystack” is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings—the oracles—is implemented by a given black box. Grover’s algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speedup as compared with the analogous search for “a classical needle in a classical haystack.” Since the outcome of Grover’s algorithm is probabilistic—it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty—the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize “a classical search for the quantum needle” which is deterministic—it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps—and 3.41 times as fast as the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover’s algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grover’s algorithm.

  12. Test-State Approach to the Quantum Search Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2011-01-01

    The search for "a quantum needle in a quantum haystack" is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings---the oracles---is implemented by a given black box. Grover's algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speed-up as compared with the analogous search for "a classical needle in a classical haystack." Since the outcome of Grover's algorithm is probabilistic---it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty---the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize "a classical search for the quantum needle" which is deterministic---it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps---and faster by a factor of 3.41 than the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover's algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grove...

  13. Sustainable product development through a life-cycle approach to product and service creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2005-01-01

    of stakeholders, both in- and outside of the company, in order to deliver an augmented product to the customer in a satisfactory manner – and to be able to sustain this satisfaction throughout the whole company-customer relationship. We can prepare ourselves for a significant change in the way that traditional...... of examples where environmentally-based product-life ‘takeovers’ have been with environmentally-founded goals in mind. Thus the practice of Product-Service-System (PSS) development is born. This paper describes PSS development, an approach to new business definition and development that gives a number of new...... possibilities to the company, ranging from the re-invention of core business, through gaining customer loyalty, expanding the customer base, and importantly, to the possibility of removing some of the traditional environmental problems connected to the consumption behaviour of users. PSS is new as an industrial...

  14. Sustainable Product Development Through a Life-Cycle Approach to Product and Service Creation (Keynote speech)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    at the accounting and evaluation of environmental impacts of a given product or process; and a synthesis-oriented school of practice, targeted at the creation of environmentally improved products or processes, based upon life-cycle insight into the actual use and orientation of existing products on the market....... These two schools of environmental re-search practice are mirrored in the way in which industry approaches environmental problems. Since the definition in 1987 of Sustainable Development [2] efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainabil-ity to the domain of product development, thus...... ingredients of the product or the processes used to create it. Rather, the focus for improvement of a product¿s environmental performance most often lies in the manner in which the product is used and consumed. A product¿s use phase is often environmentally significant, as this is the largest source...

  15. The LifeWatch approach to the exploration of distributed species information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new method of automatically extracting, integrating and presenting information regarding species from the most relevant online taxonomic resources. First, the information is extracted and joined using data wrappers and integration solutions. Then, an analytical tool is used to provide a visual representation of the data. The information is then integrated into a user friendly content management system. The proposal has been implemented using data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the Catalogue of Life (CoL, the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS and the Global Names Index (GNI. The approach improves data quality, avoiding taxonomic and nomenclature errors whilst increasing the availability and accessibility of the information.

  16. The LifeWatch approach to the exploration of distributed species information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Daniel; Fiore, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of automatically extracting, integrating and presenting information regarding species from the most relevant online taxonomic resources. First, the information is extracted and joined using data wrappers and integration solutions. Then, an analytical tool is used to provide a visual representation of the data. The information is then integrated into a user friendly content management system. The proposal has been implemented using data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the Catalogue of Life (CoL), the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) and the Global Names Index (GNI). The approach improves data quality, avoiding taxonomic and nomenclature errors whilst increasing the availability and accessibility of the information.

  17. Sustainable product development through a life-cycle approach to product and service creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2005-01-01

    of stakeholders, both in- and outside of the company, in order to deliver an augmented product to the customer in a satisfactory manner – and to be able to sustain this satisfaction throughout the whole company-customer relationship. We can prepare ourselves for a significant change in the way that traditional...... product manufacturing companies deliver their product to their customers – especially in the western world, where companies no longer can expect to compete on a global market with respect to cost, quality or time. It is our hypothesis, that if carried out correctly (aided by professional methods...... of examples where environmentally-based product-life ‘takeovers’ have been with environmentally-founded goals in mind. Thus the practice of Product-Service-System (PSS) development is born. This paper describes PSS development, an approach to new business definition and development that gives a number of new...

  18. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Globally, soil carbon sequestration is expected to hold a major potential to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, the majority of life cycle assessments (LCA) of agricultural products have not included possible changes in soil carbon sequestration. In the present study, a method...... production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20,100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0-100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the results were...... to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...

  19. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  1. Genetic testing likelihood: the impact of abortion views and quality of life information on women's decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Gail M; Thorn, Judith M

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about factors predicting the likelihood of choosing genetic testing in college aged women versus older women, including knowledge of quality of life (QOL) associated with a disorder. Using vignettes with female college students (Experiment 1: n=257, mean age=19.70 yrs) and female faculty/staff/alumni (Experiment 2: n (nulliparous)=83, mean age=30.20 yrs; n (mothers)=53, mean age=33.77 yrs), we examined the contribution of multiple factors to predicting genetic testing likelihood for cystic fibrosis. We investigated malleable situational factors (style of genetic risk presentation and providing QOL information including physical and social aspects) and stable dispositional factors (abortion views). Parity (i.e., prior births) was more influential in women's genetic testing likelihood than was age. Greater acceptability of abortion for oneself and self-assessed knowledge following QOL information were predictors of higher testing likelihood for college students. Greater acceptability of abortion for another person was a predictor for nulliparous women. Abortion views moderated the effect of predictors for nulliparous women and mothers. Findings encourage genetic counselors to utilize QOL information to promote informed decision making through genetic testing.

  2. Green Roof Evaluation: A Holistic ‘Long Life, Loose Fit, Low Energy’ Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Langston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential to improve the social and environmental performance of detached housing in Australia, yet often they are overlooked due to prohibitive capital cost and a range of other perceptions that are difficult to quantify. A classic evaluation problem is invoked that must balance short and long term benefits. Using two distinct designs of the same floor area, green roof and traditional housing prototypes are analysed to determine the relative ‘breakeven’ point when long-term benefits become feasible. It is discovered that green roofs are unlikely to be viable in their own right, but when coupled with an overall design strategy of long life (durability, loose fit (adaptability and low energy (sustainability they can deliver least cost (affordability over time as well as unlock valuable social and environmental rewards. This outcome can be realised within 25% of a home’s expected design life of at least one hundred years. The results demonstrate that residential green roofs, when integrated as part of a holistic approach, can be both individually and collectively justified on key economic, social and environmental criteria, and are therefore able to claim a valuable contribution towards wider sustainable development goals.

  3. Estimating the biological half-life for radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates: a simplified allometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of organisms other than man. Allometry presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data on radionuclide transfer and metabolism for the many radionuclide-species combinations which may need to be considered. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships and this is not always available. Here, an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data is derived. Biological half-life values are predicted for four radionuclides and compared to available data for a range of species. All predictions were within a factor of five of the observed values when the model was parameterised appropriate to the feeding strategy of each species. This is an encouraging level of agreement given that the allometric models are intended to provide broad approximations rather than exact values. However, reasons why some radionuclides deviate from what would be anticipated from Kleiber's law need to be determined to allow a more complete exploitation of the potential of allometric extrapolation within radioecological models. (orig.)

  4. Life cycle cost analysis of commercial buildings with energy efficient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Kale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In any construction project, cost effectiveness plays a crucial role. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis provides a method of determining entire cost of a structure over its expected life along with operational and maintenance cost. LCC can be improved by adopting alternative modern techniques without much alteration in the building. LCC effectiveness can be calculated at various stages of entire span of the building. Moreover this provides decision makers with the financial information necessary for maintaining, improving, and constructing facilities. Financial benefits associated with energy use can also be calculated using LCC analysis. In the present work, case study of two educational buildings has been considered. The LCC of these buildings has been calculated with existing condition and with proposed energy efficient approach (EEA using net present value method. A solar panel having minimum capacity as well as solar panel with desired capacity as per the requirements of the building has been suggested. The comparison of LCC of existing structure with proposed solar panel system shows that 4% of cost can be reduced in case of minimum capacity solar panel and 54% cost can be reduced for desired capacity solar panel system, along with other added advantages of solar energy.

  5. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  6. Approach of Separately Applying Unit Testing to AspectJ Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; LU Yan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A unit testing approach for AspectJ programs is proposed to separately test aspect units which have their own states. In the approach, aspects under test are converted to classes before execution of unit testing. In the conversion process, the context information passed through pointcut is transformed into advices, then the advices are converted to class member methods, and conflicts in the conversion result, if any, are resolved finally. The unit testing process consists of generating test cases, executing test cases and checking results.

  7. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  8. Genetic testing for inherited heart diseases: longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; O'Brien, Lisa; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-05-03

    Purpose:A genetic diagnosis is an extremely useful tool in the management and care of families with inherited heart diseases, particularly in allowing clarification of risk status of asymptomatic family members. The psychosocial consequences of genetic testing in this group are poorly understood. This longitudinal pilot study sought to determine changes in health-related quality of life in patients and asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for inherited heart diseases.Methods:Individuals attending two specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinics in Australia were invited to participate. Patients undergoing proband or predictive genetic testing for an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder were eligible. The Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (version 2) was administered before the genetic result was given, and follow-up surveys were completed 1-3, 6, and 12 months after the result was given.Results:A total of 54 individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and long QT syndrome completed baseline and at least one follow-up survey, including 33 probands and 21 asymptomatic relatives. Physical and mental component scores analyzed at baseline and 1-3 months were found to be unchanged in all groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed up to 12 months after result.Conclusion:In this longitudinal pilot study, no change in health-related quality of life was observed up to 12 months after the result was given in patients and their asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for an inherited heart disease.Genet Med 2012 advance online publication 3 May 2012.

  9. Life test result of Ricor K529N 1watt linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ilan; Veprik, Alexander; Pundak, Nachman

    2007-04-01

    The authors summarize the results of the accelerated life testing of the Ricor type K529N 1 Watt linear split Stirling cooler. The test was conducted in the period 2003-2006, during which the cooler accumulated in excess of 27,500 working hours at an elevated ambient temperature, which is equivalent to 45,000 hours at normal ambient conditions, and performed about 7,500 operational cycles including cooldown and steady-state phases. The cryocooler performances were assessed through the cooldown time and power consumption; no visible degradation in performances was observed. After the cooler failure and the compressor disassembling, an electrical short was discovered in the driving coil. The analysis has shown that the wire insulating varnish was not suitable for such elevated temperatures. It is important to note that the cooler under test was taken from the earliest engineering series; in the later manufacturing line military grade wire with high temperature insulation was used, no customer complaints have been recorded in this instance Special attention was paid to the thorough examination of the technical condition of the critical components of the cooler interior. In particular, dynamic piston-cylinder seal, flying leads, internal O-rings and driving coil were examined in the compressor. As to the cold head, we focused on studying the conditions of the dynamic bushing-plunger seal, O-rings and displacer-regenerator. In addition, a leak test was performed to assess the condition of the metallic crushed seals. From the analysis, the authors draw the conclusion that the cooler design is adequate for long life performance (in excess of 20,000 working hours) applications.

  10. A review of quality of life after predictive testing for and earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Panegyres, Peter K; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K

    2013-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these "patient reported outcomes" for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance toward predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health-related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care.

  11. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  12. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  13. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  14. Sources of Life Strengths Appraisal Scale: A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Older Adults’ Perceived Sources of Life Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem S. Fry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults’ appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults’ appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS is a promising instrument for appraising older adults’ sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life’s functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults.

  15. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth 4. Building of a Habitable Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé; Albarède, Francis; Claeys, Philippe; Gargaud, Muriel; Marty, Bernard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pinti, Daniele L.

    2006-06-01

    Except the old Jack Hills zircon crystals, it does not exit direct record of the first 500 Ma of the Earth history. Consequently, the succession of events that took place during this period is only indirectly known through geochemistry, comparison with other telluric planets, and numerical modelling. Just after planetary accretion several episodes were necessary in order to make life apparition and development possible and to make the Earth surface habitable. Among these stages are: the core differentiation, the formation of a magma ocean, the apparition of the first atmosphere, oceans and continents as well as the development of magnetic field and of plate tectonics. In the same time, Earth has been subject to extraterrestrial events such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) between 3.95 and 3.8 Ga. Since 4.4 4.3 Ga, the conditions for pre-biotic chemistry and appearance of life were already met (liquid water, continental crust, no strong meteoritic bombardment, etc...). This does not mean that life existed as early, but this demonstrates that all necessary conditions assumed for life development were already present on Earth.

  16. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Thomas B; Kavlock, Robert J; Daston, George P; Stedman, Donald; Hixon, Mary; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technologies for the assessment of developmental toxicology. This session provided an overview of the application of genomics technologies for developmental safety assessment, the use of mouse embryonic stem cells to capture data on developmental toxicity pathways, dynamical cell imaging of zebrafish embryos, the use of computation models of development pathways and systems, and finally, high-throughput in vitro approaches being utilized by the EPA ToxCast program. Issues discussed include the challenges of anchoring in vitro predictions to relevant in vivo endpoints and the need to validate pathway-based predictions with targeted studies in whole animals. Currently, there are 10,000 to 30,000 chemicals in world-wide commerce in need of hazard data for assessing potential health risks. The traditional animal study designs for assessing developmental toxicity cannot accommodate the evaluation of this large number of chemicals, requiring that alternative technologies be utilized. Though a daunting task, technologies are being developed and utilized to make that goal reachable. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. GUICop: Approach and Toolset for Specification-based GUI Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hammoud, Dalal; Zaraket, Fadi A.; Masri, Wes

    2016-01-01

    Oracles used for testing graphical user interface (GUI) programs are required to take into consideration complicating factors such as variations in screen resolution or color scheme when comparing observed GUI elements to expected GUI elements. Researchers proposed fuzzy comparison rules and computationally expensive image processing techniques to tame the comparison process since otherwise the naive matching comparison would be too constraining and consequently impractical. Alternatively, th...

  18. Container Closure Integrity Testing - Practical Aspects and Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mellman, James; Nieto, Alejandra; Wagner, Daniel; Schaar, Matthias; Mathaes, Roman; Kossinna, Juergen; Schmitting, Franz; Dreher, Sascha; Roehl, Holger; Hemminger, Markus; Wuchner, Klaus

    2016-10-27

    The assurance of sterility of a parenteral drug product, prior to any human use, is a regulatory requirement. Hence, all strategies related to container closure integrity (CCI) must demonstrate absence of microbial contamination through leaks as part of the container closure system (CCS) qualification, during manufacturing, for Quality Control purposes and to ensure microbiological integrity (sterility) during storage and shipment up to the end of product shelf life. Current regulatory guidances, which differ between countries and regions, provide limited detail on how to assess CCI. The new revision of USP aims to provide extensive and detailed guidance for CCI assessments for sterile products. However, practical questions and considerations are yet to be addressed by the pharmaceutical industry. These may include: (i) choice of method, e.g., whether a deterministic CCI method (e.g., helium leak) is preferable over probabilistic CCI method (e.g., microbial ingress), (ii) the type of primary packaging (e.g., vial, syringe, device) and (iii) dosage form (e.g., liquid vs lyophilisate), (iv) suitable acceptance criteria and (v) appropriate sample size, (vi) the most appropriate way to introduce artificial leaks into the CCS, (vii) ensure suitable assurance of CCI during Drug Product manufacturing, (viii) evaluate CCI under intended shipment and storage conditions (e.g., in the frozen state). A group of European industry peers have met to discuss these and other related questions in order to provide their viewpoint and best-practice on practical approaches to CCI. Their perspective is provided in this white paper. Through these discussions, it became clear that there is currently no gold standard for CCI test methods or for the generation of artificial leaks; therefore flexibility towards CCI approaches is required. Although there should be flexibility, any CCI approach must consider the intended use (e.g., CCS qualification, routine manufacturing, or Quality Control

  19. An analytical approach for the Propagation Saw Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Gaume, Johan

    2016-04-01

    The Propagation Saw Test (PST) [1, 2] is an experimental in-situ technique that has been introduced to assess crack propagation propensity in weak snowpack layers buried below cohesive snow slabs. This test attracted the interest of a large number of practitioners, being relatively easy to perform and providing useful insights for the evaluation of snow instability. The PST procedure requires isolating a snow column of 30 centimeters of width and -at least-1 meter in the downslope direction. Then, once the stratigraphy is known (e.g. from a manual snow profile), a saw is used to cut a weak layer which could fail, potentially leading to the release of a slab avalanche. If the length of the saw cut reaches the so-called critical crack length, the onset of crack propagation occurs. Furthermore, depending on snow properties, the crack in the weak layer can initiate the fracture and detachment of the overlying slab. Statistical studies over a large set of field data confirmed the relevance of the PST, highlighting the positive correlation between test results and the likelihood of avalanche release [3]. Recent works provided key information on the conditions for the onset of crack propagation [4] and on the evolution of slab displacement during the test [5]. In addition, experimental studies [6] and simplified models [7] focused on the qualitative description of snowpack properties leading to different failure types, namely full propagation or fracture arrest (with or without slab fracture). However, beside current numerical studies utilizing discrete elements methods [8], only little attention has been devoted to a detailed analytical description of the PST able to give a comprehensive mechanical framework of the sequence of processes involved in the test. Consequently, this work aims to give a quantitative tool for an exhaustive interpretation of the PST, stressing the attention on important parameters that influence the test outcomes. First, starting from a pure

  20. Significance of the Trendelenburg test in total hip arthroplasty. Influence of lateral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, V S

    1996-02-01

    The effects of lateral approaches to total hip arthroplasty on abductor weakness and limp were studied in 264 patients with primary osteoarthritis. The Hardinge approach was used in 82 patients, the transtrochanteric approach in 94, and the Liverpool approach in 88. There was no difference in functional level, range of movement, and limp among three lateral approaches. There was no increase in Trendelenburg gait after the Hardinge or Liverpool approach compared with the transtrochanteric approach. It is evident that the Trendelenburg test is a useful part of clinical examination if performed and interpreted correctly.

  1. A Machine Learning Approach to Test Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahmcke, Christina Mackeprang

    2007-01-01

    been tested, and a more thorough statistical foundation is required. We propose to use logic-statistical modelling methods for machine-learning for analyzing existing and manually marked up data, integrated with the generation of new, artificial data. More specifically, we suggest to use the PRISM...... system developed by Sato and Kameya. Based on logic programming extended with random variables and parameter learning, PRISM appears as a powerful modelling environment, which subsumes HMMs and a wide range of other methods, all embedded in a declarative language. We illustrate these principles here...

  2. Creation of a Test Bed Environment for Core Java Applications using White Box Testing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya R. L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Test Bed Environment allows for rigorous, transparent, and replicable testing of scientific theories. However, in software development these test beds can be specified hardware and software environment for the application under test. Though the existing open source test bed environments in Integrated Development Environment (IDEs are capable of supporting the development of Java application types, test reports are generated by third party developers. They do not enhance the utility and the performance of the system constructed. Our proposed system, we have created a customized test bed environment for core java application programs used to generate the test case report using generated control flow graph. This can be obtained by developing a new mini compiler with additional features.

  3. Accelerated cycle-life testing of small sealed lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I.; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. Y.

    An attempt has been made to devise methods for reducing the cycle-testing time of long-life sealed lead/acid batteries. In order for the accelerated test results to equate to the actual field operations, it is assumed that the failure modes under both normal and accelerated conditions must be the same. As a first step in the search for a reliable accelerated test, observations of the battery ageing process have been made under different daily duty cycles, viz., 1 (normal), 8 and 16 cycles/day at ambient temperature and 80% depth-of-discharge. It has been found that the main cause of failure is different for a given duty cycle. This complicates the task of applying accelerated test results to field operations. For the 8 cycles/day schedule, the main cause of failure is degradation of the positive active material. Positive grid corrosion is the main factor in the 16 cycles/day case. Under normal conditions, both grid corrosion and PbO 2 degradation appear to be equally significant.

  4. Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

  5. An Axiomatic Approach to Increase End-of-Life Recovery Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Beng Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at examining the feasibility of using Axiomatic Design (AD for the purpose of increasing end-of-life (EOL recovery profit of a product. A case study that involves keypad assemblies of a mobile phone is presented to demonstrate the usage of AD in this area. Product recovery considerations are only involved in the second part of the case study. As a result, two different handset assemblies are produced. An evaluation of design was performed to determine the approximate EOL recovery profit by utilizing a methodology presented by Kwak et al. (2010. This is followed by a verification of evaluation results using multiple service action (MSA algorithm proposed by S.W. Lye et al. (2000. Both evaluation approaches yield identical and conclusive results: when recovery-related requirements are omitted, application of AD produces a keypad assembly that fulfills the functional requirements derived from customer needs but a more complicated product network is obtained. In contrast, when recovery-related requirements are included during problem definition using axiomatic approach, the disassemblability of the resulted keypad is improved and thus increasing recovery potential in the event of replacing defective keypad, while satisfying product-related requirements.

  6. Approaching Sign Language Test Construction: Adaptation of the German Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired…

  7. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  8. Genetic testing in congenital heart disease:A clinical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie A Chaix; Gregor Andelfinger; Paul Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease(CHD) is the most common type of birth defect. Traditionally, a polygenic model defined by the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors was hypothesized to account for different forms of CHD. It is now understood that the contribution of genetics to CHD extends beyond a single unified paradigm. For example, monogenic models and chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with various syndromic and non-syndromic forms of CHD. In such instances, genetic investigation and testing may potentially play an important role in clinical care. A family tree with a detailed phenotypic description serves as the initial screening tool to identify potentially inherited defects and to guide further genetic investigation. The selection of a genetic test is contingent upon the particular diagnostic hypothesis generated by clinical examination. Genetic investigation in CHD may carry the potential to improve prognosis by yielding valuable information with regards to personalized medical care, confidence in the clinical diagnosis, and/or targeted patient followup. Moreover, genetic assessment may serve as a tool to predict recurrence risk, define the pattern of inheritance within a family, and evaluate the need for further family screening. In some circumstances, prenatal or preimplantation genetic screening could identify fetuses or embryos at high risk for CHD. Although genetics may appear to constitute a highly specialized sector of cardiology, basic knowledge regarding inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and available screening and diagnostic tools, including their strengths and limitations, could assist the treating physician in providing sound counsel.

  9. Testing competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis: A multivariate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina

    2016-02-01

    We test competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis by estimating the coefficients and diagnostic statistics for a cointegrated vector autoregressive model that includes 10 climate variables and four exogenous variables for solar insolation. The estimates are consistent with the physical mechanisms postulated to drive glacial cycles. They show that the climate variables are driven partly by solar insolation, determining the timing and magnitude of glaciations and terminations, and partly by internal feedback dynamics, pushing the climate variables away from equilibrium. We argue that the latter is consistent with a weak form of the Milankovitch hypothesis and that it should be restated as follows: internal climate dynamics impose perturbations on glacial cycles that are driven by solar insolation. Our results show that these perturbations are likely caused by slow adjustment between land ice volume and solar insolation. The estimated adjustment dynamics show that solar insolation affects an array of climate variables other than ice volume, each at a unique rate. This implies that previous efforts to test the strong form of the Milankovitch hypothesis by examining the relationship between solar insolation and a single climate variable are likely to suffer from omitted variable bias.

  10. Thyroid function test in pre-term neonates during the first five weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT is one of the most common congenital endocrinal disorders. The prevalence of CHT is estimated about 1 in 3,000 newborns. The prevalence, etiology and associated disorders of abnormal thyroid screening tests are reported in different ranges. In this study, we assessed the pre-term newborns for CHT and associated factors that influence thyroid function. Methods: One hundred newborns with the gestational age fewer than 35 weeks were investigated. Baseline serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxin (FT4 levels were measured during the first 5 days of life and were repeated during the first 5 weeks. We analyzed the effects of demographic factors and the presence of respiratory distress syndrome on the alteration of thyroid function tests during the first 5 weeks of life. Results: The mean gestational age (GA at delivery was 32.35΁1.97 (range 28 to 35 weeks. CHT was observed in 13(13% preterm infants. GA was the only factor which affect the FT4 changes over the two weeks follow-up (P < 0.001, b: -2.783, Power: 70.2% although the differences between baseline and follow-up amount of TSH were not significantly influenced by GA (P = 0.062, power: 46%. However, the adjusted TSH and FT4 serum level changes during follow-up were significantly different between two groups (between CHT and normal, P = 0.006, 0.000, respectively. Conclusions: It seems that thyroid function tests should be repeated in preterm infants, especially for patients with lower gestational age, to confirm the diagnosis of CHT. Also, CHT should be considered among the newborns that are affected by RDS.

  11. A global approach for sparse representation of uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessments of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Conradsen, Knut; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of key inputs and their effect on results from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models is fundamental. Because parameter importance varies greatly between cases due to the interaction of sensitivity and uncertainty, these features should never be defined a priori. However...... and uncertainty in a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) framework. Methods: The proposed analytical method based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients (SC) is evaluated against Monte Carlo sampling on traditional uncertainty assessment procedures, both for individual parameters and for full parameter sets...... of additivity of variances and GSA is tested on results from both uncertainty propagation methods. Then, we examine the differences in discernibility analyses results carried out with varying numbers of sampling points and parameters. Results and discussion: The proposed analytical method complies...

  12. Life Satisfaction in Brazil: Testing the Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in Five Brazilian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Milfont, Taciano L.; da Fonseca, Patricia Nunes; Coelho, Jorge Artur Pecanha de Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), presenting evidence of its reliability and construct and criterion-related validity. A large Brazilian sample (2,180 participants), from five different populations (undergraduate and high school students, general population,…

  13. Saltatory ontogeny of fishes and sensitive early life stages for ecotoxicology tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Balon, Eugene K; Rawlings, Jane M

    2010-04-15

    Fish display a wide range of developmental ontogenies. These distinctions have taxonomic, evolutionary, and ecological importance in addition to practical implications on the use of fish in aquatic toxicity tests. With respect to animal welfare, vertebrates are afforded protected or non-protected status in the European Union based upon whether they feed endogenously off the yolk or exogenously by procurement and ingestion of food. The concept of saltatory ontogeny suggests development is not gradual but proceeds in leaps separated by a series of stable developmental states. In this context, endogenous/exogenous feeding also distinguishes the developmental phases of embryo (egg), eleutheroembryo (feeding off the yolk sac) and larvae (exogenous feeding) in fish. The recent proposal for the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as an animal alternative to the standard fish acute toxicity test (OECD 203 and equivalent tests) puts a clear focus on the need to identify the non-protected and protected life intervals in test species as well as their sensitivities which coincides with the developmental phases identified in saltatory ontogeny. In this paper we described a method to quantify embryo, eleutheroembryo, and larva phases in Danio rerio, the zebrafish. Danio eleutheroembryos preyed upon 5 different protozoan species (Euglena, Euplotes, Paramecium aurelia, Paramecium bursaria and Paramecium multimicronucleatum) between 24 and 48hr following hatching (85-95% of fish, n=20 per species, 25 degrees C). Based upon these data it is recommended that testing of developing zebrafish embryos should be terminated between 24 and 48hr after hatching in order to be compliant with existing animal welfare legislation within Europe.

  14. [Test to measure basic life support and defibrillation skills in primary care doctors and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabella Abril, Bartomeu; Lacasta Tintorer, David; Clusa Gironella, Thais; Perelló Bratescu, Aina; García Ortega, M A Dolores; Albiach Pla, Antoni; Larrea Tárrega, Salomé

    2010-01-01

    To prepare and validate a tool to measure Basic Life Support (BLS) and semi-automatic defibrillator (SAD) skills adapted for use by health professionals in Primary Care Teams (PCT). To propose an updated version and demonstrate self-sufficiency of the team to use it in a training evaluation. Validation of measurement tools. Study of reliability with repeated measurements after a training course. Drassanes Primary Care Centre. Raval Sud Basic Health Area. Barcelona. Spain. A total of 37 voluntary resuscitators (all doctors/nurses), professional camera, medical controller, computerised mannequin, 6 evaluators. Test preparation methodology. Cardiff Model 3.1. 2 filmed series (professional+domestic), of 26-25 "station type" simulations, separated by 1 month. A training workshop between series. Retrospective evaluation of DVD recordings (5 evaluators). 2nd series scored again at 3 weeks with a blind and random order filmed version. performances classified from worse to best execution. Psychometric analysis: Validity (content/apparent). Test-retest reliability, between-observer and sensitivity to change. Compared to the Cardiff test (46 items) our 83 item test contained 38(46%) new, 34(41%) modified and 11(13%) similar. Between-evaluator reliability, excellent/good in 51/62 items analysed; Within-evaluator and between-filming reliability, excellent/good in all except 1 item; the test score doubled after the training course. A version of the test according to BLS-SAD recommendations is proposed. On there not being useful tools available for Primary Care doctors and nurses, one has been prepared with adequate psychometric guarantees and proven self-sufficient evaluation. We propose the immediate application of the updated version for training evaluation purposes. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. A game-theoretic approach to real-time system testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to the testing of uncontrollable real-time systems. By modelling the systems with Timed I/O Game Automata and specifying the test purposes as Timed CTL formulas, we employ a recently developed timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to synthesize winning...... strategies, and then use these strategies to conduct black-box conformance testing of the systems. The testing process is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the given test purposes. Case study and preliminary experimental results indicate that this is a viable approach to uncontrollable timed...... system testing....

  16. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  17. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  18. MODERN APPROACHES IN COMPLEX LABORATORY TESTING FOR DIPHTHERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kraeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The criteria of reliable validation of population protection against diphtheria on the base of two indices including quantity of antitoxic antibodies to diphtheria and avidity index have been established. For this purposes it was proposed to use the modified variant of ELISA allowed to detect both indices simultaneously. The formula of probable development of diphtheria in case of the close contact with patients or Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria carriers as well as determination of revaccination time have been proposed. The authors developed “The algorithm of population immunity control and assessment of non-susceptibility to diphtheria” and “The algorithm of micro biological testing of clinical samples for C. diphtheriae”.

  19. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory.

  20. Life Skills in Educational Contexts: Testing the Effects of an Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A. Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training programme on students' acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group ("n"?=?41) that took part in a life skills programme, or a control group ("n"?=?43).…

  1. Life Skills in Educational Contexts: Testing the Effects of an Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A. Rui; Marques, Brazelina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a training programme on students' acquisition of life skills, life satisfaction, life orientation and expectations about academic achievement. Participants were allocated to either an intervention group ("n"?=?41) that took part in a life skills programme, or a control group ("n"?=?43). Participants completed the…

  2. [A novel approach to techniques in genetic testing for cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    In molecular targeted drug therapy, genetic screening is carried out to identify the existence of target genes that are specifically expressed in cancer cells. Conventional methods for detecting the mutation of genes in cancer cells through the use of purified DNA is time consuming, especially in the case of the enzymatic treatment of pathological specimens, and it is difficult to finish all these protocols on the same day. Also, depending on the condition of the patients, it may be difficult to perform surgery or biopsy, and pathological specimens are not always obtainable. Thus, sometimes genetic screening using purified DNA and the enzymatic treatment of pathological specimens cannot be performed. We have successfully solved these problems using i-densy, a genetic analysis device, and two different methods of genetic testing for cancer. The first is a method which, without extracting DNA, uses simply pretreated pathological specimens for genetic screening. Using deparaffinized specimens that have only been heat-treated for a short period of time, we were able to obtain the exact same results as if we had extracted DNA. The second is the highly specific genetic screening technique, the MBP-QP method. Using this method, we were able to confirm the detection of genetic mutation from the DNA of blood plasma. It is now possible to screen for the mutation of genes in cancer cells using just a blood sample from patients without using tissue or cells, which also has little burden on the patient.

  3. The K-factor, Covitality, and personality : A Psychometric Test of Life History Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Vásquez, Geneva; Brumbach, Barbara Hagenah; Schneider, Stephanie M R

    2007-03-01

    We present a psychometric test of life history theory as applied to human individual differences using MIDUS survey data (Brim et al. 2000). Twenty scales measuring cognitive and behavioral dimensions theoretically related to life history strategy were constructed using items from the MIDUS survey. These scales were used to construct a single common factor, the K-factor, which accounted for 70% of the reliable variance. The scales used included measures of personal, familial, and social function. A second common factor, Covitality, was constructed from scales for physical and mental health. Finally, a single general factor, Personality, was constructed from scales for the "Big Five" factors of personality. The K-factor, covitality factor, and general personality factor correlated significantly with each other, supporting the prediction that high K predicts high somatic effort and also manifests in behavioral display. Thus, a single higher-order common factor, the Super-K factor, was constructed that consisted of the K-factor, covitality factor, and personality factor.

  4. The Role of Bearing and Scan Mechanism Life Testing in Flight Qualification of the MODIS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyk, Steven G.; Dietz, Brian J.; Street, Kenneth W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Dube, Michael; Sharma, Rajeev; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is an instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite and has been operating successfully since December 1999. MODIS has been viewing the entire Earth's surface and gathering data to better understand the global dynamics and processes occurring on land, in the oceans, and in the lower atmosphere. All observations are made through an extremely high resolution, optically and mechanically precise, scan mirror motor/encoder assembly. The reliable performance of this assembly depends on two duplex bearing pairs lubricated with Pennzane, a synthetic hydrocarbon, formulated with lead napthanate. This paper describes the results of accelerated and operational life tests. It also describes the post-test analyses of the disassembled bearings. Analyses were performed using micro-Raman, micro-FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC). In general, the three sets of bearings in each of the test stations were in very good condition after accumulating 68, 144, and 209 million revolutions, respectively. Some of the bearings exhibited lubricant degradation, indicated by viscous lubricant deposits on the cage and raceways.

  5. Testing the value and life-style model (VALS of psychographic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a psychographic inventory suitable for testing the VALS model of market segmentation within the South African context. Hypotheses relating to value and life-style traits, suggested by prior research, are tested, utilising a sample of white and black respondents in the Johannesburg/Soweto metropolitan area. Results imply that the instrument developed has moderate reliability and can be administered bilingually. The VALS model tested by the instrument suggests that most respondents hold need-driven and outer-directed values. Impllications for value and lifestyle segmentation within the South African context are discussed. Opsomming Hierdie artikel beskryfdie ontwikkeling van 'n psigografiese inventaris geskik vir die toetsing van die VALS-model van marksegmentasie binne Suid-Afrikaanse verband. Hipoteses met betrekking tot waarde- en lewenstyltrekke, voortspruitend uit vorige navorsing, word getoets op 'n steekproef van wit en swart respondente in die Johannesburg/Soweto metropolitaanse gebied. Resultate toon dat die instrument gemiddelde betroubaarheid openbaar en toepasbaar is op 'n tweetalige grondslag. Die VALS-model soos getoets deur die instrument toon dat die meeste respondente behoefte-gedrewe en na buite gerigte waardes openbaar. Implikasies vir waarde- en lewenstylsegmentasie binne Suid-Afrikaanse verband word ook bespreek.

  6. Health Evaluation for Hypertensive Population Using Exercise Testing and Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to assess the impacts of hypertension on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as cardiovascular functional status (CVFS). Methods An instrument was presented based on WHOQOL-BREF and SP-16 questionnaire and exercise testing. 57 normotensive and 76 hypertensive subjects aged 35-65 year-old participated the health survey using this instrument.Based on the exercise testing results of the two groups, a discriminate function was established and used to investigate cardiovascular risk factors for hypertensive population. Results The results showed that persons with hypertension rated significantly lower scores on physical health (i.e. limitation in performing daily activities and problems with work or mobility) than did normotensives (P < 0.01). The discriminant score obtained from the exercise testing results was capable of reflecting the impacts of hypertension on CVFS. Conclusions The method presented in this paper provides a more powerful tool to estimate the effects of health interventions and medical therapy for hypertensive population than just self-rated HRQOL questionnaire.

  7. Development and validation of a partial life-cycle test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    endpoints. The present study aims to develop and validate the partial life-cycle test on the reproduction of P. antipodarum. Here, results from two pre-validation studies of the reproduction test with the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations of 10 - 400 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium...... with concentrations of 3.13 - 25 µg/L at eleven laboratories are presented. The mean embryo number in snails exposed to TBT decreased with increasing concentrations. First results show comparable NOEC (65 to 160 ng TBT-Sn/L) and LOEC (160 to 400 ng TBT-Sn/L) values for TBT. The EC10 was between 109 (95%-CI: 44.......6 - 268) and 132 ng TBT-Sn/L (95%-CI: 58.8 - 329) indicating a good inter-laboratory reproducibility with a coefficient of variation between 8.4% (EC10) and 35.3% (LOEC). The good reproducibility is also reflected in the reproduction test with cadmium. EC50-values varied between 5.55 (95%-CI: 3.14 - 8...

  8. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  9. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  10. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  11. Geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fode; Shi, Yimin; Wang, Ruibing

    2017-02-01

    In the information geometry suggested by Amari (1985) and Amari et al. (1987), a parametric statistical model can be regarded as a differentiable manifold with the parameter space as a coordinate system. Note that the q-exponential distribution plays an important role in Tsallis statistics (see Tsallis, 2009), this paper investigates the geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing (ALT). A copula function based on the q-exponential function, which can be considered as the generalized Gumbel copula, is discussed to illustrate the structure of the dependent random variable. Employing two iterative algorithms, simulation results are given to compare the performance of estimations and levels of association under different hybrid progressively censoring schemes (HPCSs).

  12. Shelf-life prediction of canned "nasi uduk" using accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT) - Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Salam, Nur; Kusumaningrum, Annisa; Nursiwi, Asri; Angwar, Mukhamad; Susanto, Agus; Nurhikmat, Asep; Triwiyono, Frediansyah, Andri

    2017-01-01

    "Nasi Uduk" is one of the Indonesian traditional food made from rice, steamed with coconut milk and seasoning. For optimizing shelf-life, canned "nasi uduk" for military and disaster-response ration, was packed using cylindrical cans of 72,63 × 53,04 mm (Ø × h) in size. One of the important aspects on quality assessment of preserved product was its rancidity. The aim of this research was to determine shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" using ASLT method of Arrhenius model. Storage temperatures set up at 35, 45 and 55°C for 35 days. Optimization of sterilization process was conducted to achieve the optimum conditions of sterilization. Target lethality value (Fo), microorganism total plate count (TPC) and rancidity levels (TBA) were used as parameters in this research. The results showed that the optimum sterilization conditions were 121 °C for 20 minutes, TPC value of 9.5 × 101 CFU/ml and Fo value 4.14 minutes. Predicted shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" was 9.6 months which was average TBA value still bellow of the critical point.

  13. Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-03-01

    Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

  14. Life-Cycle Assessments of Selected NASA Ground-Based Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George Honeycutt

    2012-01-01

    In the past two years, two separate facility-specific life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been performed as summer student projects. The first project focused on 13 facilities managed by NASA s Aeronautics Test Program (ATP), an organization responsible for large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. A facility inventory was created for each facility, and the operational-phase carbon footprint and environmental impact were calculated. The largest impacts stemmed from electricity and natural gas used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. However, in specialized facilities that use unique inputs like R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, these sometimes had a considerable effect on the facility s overall environmental impact. The second LCA project was conducted on the NASA Ames Arc Jet Complex and also involved creating a facility inventory and calculating the carbon footprint and environmental impact. In addition, operational alternatives were analyzed for their effectiveness at reducing impact. Overall, the Arc Jet Complex impact is dominated by the natural-gas fired boiler producing steam on-site, but alternatives were provided that could reduce the impact of the boiler operation, some of which are already being implemented. The data and results provided by these LCA projects are beneficial to both the individual facilities and NASA as a whole; the results have already been used in a proposal to reduce carbon footprint at Ames Research Center. To help future life cycle projects, several lessons learned have been recommended as simple and effective infrastructure improvements to NASA, including better utility metering and data recording and standardization of modeling choices and methods. These studies also increased sensitivity to and appreciation for quantifying the impact of NASA s activities.

  15. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results.

  16. Testing a 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach to understanding aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Rudman, Seth M; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McKown, Athena D; Sato, Takuya; MacDonald, Andrew M; Heavyside, Julian; Geraldes, Armando; Hart, Edmund M; LeRoy, Carri J; El-Sabaawi, Rana W

    2014-12-01

    A 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach has been proposed as a novel avenue for integrating the consequences of intraspecific genetic variation with the underlying genetic architecture of a species to shed light on the relationships among hierarchies of ecological organization (genes → individuals → communities → ecosystems). However, attempts to identify genes with major effect on the structure of communities and/or ecosystem processes have been limited and a comprehensive test of this approach has yet to emerge. Here, we present an interdisciplinary field study that integrated a common garden containing different genotypes of a dominant, riparian tree, Populus trichocarpa, and aquatic mesocosms to determine how intraspecific variation in leaf litter alters both terrestrial and aquatic communities and ecosystem functioning. Moreover, we incorporate data from extensive trait screening and genome-wide association studies estimating the heritability and genes associated with litter characteristics. We found that tree genotypes varied considerably in the quality and production of leaf litter, which contributed to variation in phytoplankton abundances, as well as nutrient dynamics and light availability in aquatic mesocosms. These 'after-life' effects of litter from different genotypes were comparable to the responses of terrestrial communities associated with the living foliage. We found that multiple litter traits corresponding with aquatic community and ecosystem responses differed in their heritability. Moreover, the underlying genetic architecture of these traits was complex, and many genes contributed only a small proportion to phenotypic variation. Our results provide further evidence that genetic variation is a key component of aquatic-terrestrial linkages, but challenge the ability to predict community or ecosystem responses based on the actions of one or a few genes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of a Novel Approach for Fatigue Life Prediction of Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    11] for Inconel 718 under a similar loading condition. A kink around a fatigue life of 3xl05 cycles was noticed in the shear strain-life curve from...observed on AISI 304 stainless steel [10], Inconel 718 [11], 1045 steel [12], and an aluminum alloy [13]. However, no kink in the strain-life curves

  18. REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SATISHKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.

  19. A structural equation modelling approach to explore the determinants of quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Marine; Lançon, Christophe; Fond, Guillaume; Faget-Agius, Catherine; Richieri, Raphaelle; Faugere, Melanie; Metairie, Emeline; Boucekine, Mohamed; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationships among psychotic symptoms, depression, neurocognition and functioning as determinants of quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated QoL with the Schizophrenia Quality of Life 18-item scale (S-QoL 18), neurocognition with multiple tests exploring memory, attention and executive functions, the severity of psychotic symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), depression with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and functioning using the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. We used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to describe the relationships among the severity of psychotic symptoms, depression, neurocognition, functioning and QoL. Two hundred and seventy-one outpatients with schizophrenia participated in our study. SEM showed good fit with χ(2)/df=1.97, root mean square error of approximation=0.06, comparative fit index=0.93 and standardized root mean square residuals=0.05. This model revealed that depression was the most important feature associated with QoL, mainly for the self-esteem, autonomy and resilience dimensions (direct path coefficient=-0.46). The direct path between functioning and QoL was also significant (path coefficient=0.26). The severity of psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairment were weakly and indirectly associated with QoL via functioning (path coefficients=-0.18 and 0.04, respectively). This study contributes to a better understanding of the determinants of QoL in schizophrenia. Our findings should be considered in developing effective strategies for improving QoL among this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The bubbles or the boiling pot? An ecosystemic approach to culture, environment and quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, André Francisco

    2009-03-01

    For the diagnosis and prognosis of the problems of quality of life, a multidisciplinary ecosystemic approach encompasses four dimensions of being-in-the-world, as donors and recipients: intimate, interactive, social and biophysical. Social, cultural and environmental vulnerabilities are understood and dealt with, in different circumstances of space and time, as the conjugated effect of all dimensions of being-in-the-world, as they induce the events (deficits and assets), cope with consequences (desired or undesired) and contribute for change. Instead of fragmented and reduced representations of reality, diagnosis and prognosis of cultural, educational, environmental and health problems considers the connections (assets) and ruptures (deficits) between the different dimensions, providing a planning model to develop and evaluate research, teaching programmes, public policies and field projects. The methodology is participatory, experiential and reflexive; heuristic-hermeneutic processes unveil cultural and epistemic paradigms that orient subject-object relationships; giving people the opportunity to reflect on their own realities, engage in new experiences and find new ways to live better in a better world. The proposal is a creative model for thought and practice, providing many opportunities for discussion, debate and development of holistic projects integrating different scientific domains (social sciences, psychology, education, philosophy, etc.).