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Sample records for life support training

  1. Advanced cardiac life support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despott, Edward J; Schreiber, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The OMED/ESGE consensus statements of the International Symposium on Sedation in Endoscopy, Athens, September 2009, in keeping with guidelines and position statements published by other societies, underline the need for sedation providers to be adequately trained in dealing with scenarios involving patients in respiratory and/or cardiovascular distress. This training should prepare the sedation provider with the necessary acumen to prevent, recognize and remedy sedation-related emergencies. Life support training that adheres to the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines should be a mandatory component of this instruction that should be governed by formal assessment and quality assurance reappraisal.

  2. [Life-support training to improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao

    2010-04-01

    Life-support (particularly, advanced life-support) training is not included in pharmacist education; however, the life-support should be mastered since a pharmacist is a medical professional. We consider it to be important to master other skills before the life-support practicing, because a pharmacist does not check a patient to assess their clinical condition and administer drugs (suppository, intravenous injection etc.) The pharmacist prepares medicines, but does not administer medicines to treat the patient. Furthermore, the pharmacist is not interested in the vital signs of the patient receiving the medicines (the pharmacist has not identified the patient has complaint from changes in vital signs), which is why pharmacists can not develop themselves as medical professionals. Based on this observation, life-support training should be considered. In other words, to foster pharmacists with high clinical competence, pharmacy students should receive life-support training after training in drug administration and vital sign checks in a bedside training room. Drug administration using a pharmacy system versatile-type training model and pharmacy training model, vital signs check and auscultation using a physical assessment model and a cardiac disease disorder simulator in our bedside practice are useful for advanced life-support using a high-performance care simulator (monitoring vital signs, adrenalin administration and oxygen inhalation for ventricular fibrillation (VF). These training skills can improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students.

  3. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

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    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  4. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improve medical students' skills in basic life support.

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    Li, Qi; Ma, Er-Li; Liu, Jin; Fang, Li-Qun; Xia, Tian

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation and feedback are two factors that could influence simulation-based medical education and the time when they were delivered contributes their different effects. To investigate the impact of pre-training evaluation and feedback on medical students' performance in basic life support (BLS). Forty 3rd-year undergraduate medical students were randomly divided into two groups, C group (the control) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (E&F group), each of 20. After BLS theoretical lecture, the C group received 45 min BLS training and the E&F group was individually evaluated (video-taped) in a mock cardiac arrest (pre-training evaluation). Fifteen minutes of group feedback related with the students' BLS performance in pre-training evaluation was given in the E&F group, followed by a 30-min BLS training. After BLS training, both groups were evaluated with one-rescuer BLS skills in a 3-min mock cardiac arrest scenario (post-training evaluation). The score from the post-training evaluation was converted to a percentage and was compared between the two groups. The score from the post-training evaluation was higher in the E&F group (82.9 ± 3.2% vs. 63.9 ± 13.4% in C group). In undergraduate medical students without previous BLS training, pre-training evaluation and feedback improve their performance in followed BLS training.

  5. [Development and Hosting of a Perioperative Advanced Life Support Training Course for Anesthesiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Haba, Masanori; Ueshima, Hironobu; Okada, Daisuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Participation in the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support provider course is a prerequisite for taking the anesthesiology specialist examination in Japan. The course teaches fundamental resuscitation methods for different types of cardiac arrest. However, crisis in the perioperative period can result from airway trouble, central venous catheter displacement, or massive hemorrhage. We report our experience of holding a problem- and learning-based perioperative advanced life support training course, Advanced Life Support for Operation (ALS-OP). Main contents of the course included circulation management, airway management central venous catheters, and pain clinic-related complications. ALS-OP simulation training may be beneficial for educating anesthesiologist and promoting perioperative patient safety.

  6. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

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    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  7. Long-term intended and unintended experiences after Advanced Life Support training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry

    2012-01-01

    Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intend...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....

  8. Knowledge of the Portuguese population on Basic Life Support and availability to attend training

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    Maria dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues Dixe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo evaluate the level of knowledge and the availability of the Portuguese population to attend training in Basic Life Support (BLS and identify factors related to their level of knowledge about BLS.METHODObservational study including 1,700 people who responded to a questionnaire containing data on demography, profession, training, interest in training and knowledge about BLS.RESULTSAmong 754 men and 943 women, only 17.8% (303 attended a course on BLS, but 95.6% expressed willingness to carry out the training. On average, they did not show good levels of knowledge on basic life support (correct answers in 25.9 ± 11.5 of the 64 indicators. Male, older respondents who had the training and those who performed BLS gave more correct answers, on average (p<0.01.CONCLUSIONThe skill levels of the Portuguese population are low, but people are available for training, hence it is important to develop training courses and practice to improve their knowledge.

  9. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-05-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge

  10. Improving the efficiency of advanced life support training: a randomized, controlled trial.

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    Perkins, Gavin D; Kimani, Peter K; Bullock, Ian; Clutton-Brock, Tom; Davies, Robin P; Gale, Mike; Lam, Jenny; Lockey, Andrew; Stallard, Nigel

    2012-07-03

    Each year, more than 1.5 million health care professionals receive advanced life support (ALS) training. To determine whether a blended approach to ALS training that includes electronic learning (e-learning) produces outcomes similar to those of conventional, instructor-led ALS training. Open-label, noninferiority, randomized trial. Randomization, stratified by site, was generated by Sealed Envelope (Sealed Envelope, London, United Kingdom). (International Standardized Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISCRTN86380392) 31 ALS centers in the United Kingdom and Australia. 3732 health care professionals recruited between December 2008 and October 2010. A 1-day course supplemented with e-learning versus a conventional 2-day course. The primary outcome was performance in a cardiac arrest simulation test at the end of the course. Secondary outcomes comprised knowledge- and skill-based assessments, repeated assessment after remediation training, and resource use. 440 of the 1843 participants randomly assigned to the blended course and 444 of the 1889 participants randomly assigned to conventional training did not attend the courses. Performance in the cardiac arrest simulation test after course attendance was lower in the electronic advanced life support (e-ALS) group compared with the conventional advanced life support (c-ALS) group; 1033 persons (74.5%) in the e-ALS group and 1146 persons (80.2%) in the c-ALS group passed (mean difference, -5.7% [95% CI, -8.8% to -2.7%]). Knowledge- and skill-based assessments were similar between groups, as was the final pass rate after remedial teaching, which was 94.2% in the e-ALS group and 96.7% in the c-ALS group (mean difference, -2.6% [CI, -4.1% to 1.2%]). Faculty, catering, and facility costs were $438 per participant for electronic ALS training and $935 for conventional ALS training. Many professionals (24%) did not attend the courses. The effect on patient outcomes was not evaluated. Compared with conventional ALS

  11. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training on the Knowledge and Skills

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    Afzalimoghaddam M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic Life Support (BLS as the first level of medical care in sudden cardiac arrest and life-threatening illnesses can improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and skills of BLS among medical students at the beginning and the end of the training course in the emergency department. Materials and Methods:This study was a descriptive analytic cross- sectional study among 90 medical students in their sixth academic year during emergency medicine training course. At first, a standard Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE was performed to obtain their basic knowledge and skills of BLS. Then a training course was provided in two theoretical and practical parts using the 2006 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. At the end of the study, the same standard OSCE was performed. Results: The mean score of the primary OSCE was 4.9 with 55 students (61.11% having a score between zero to five and 35 (35.89% between five to ten.  The mean scores increased significantly after training regarding checking the patient's response, head tilt and chin lift maneuvers, number of massages and correct breathing (p

  12. Collaborative virtual reality based advanced cardiac life support training simulator using virtual reality principles.

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    Khanal, Prabal; Vankipuram, Akshay; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Tinker, Linda; Smith, Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is a series of team-based, sequential and time constrained interventions, requiring effective communication and coordination of activities that are performed by the care provider team on a patient undergoing cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. The state-of-the-art ACLS training is conducted in a face-to-face environment under expert supervision and suffers from several drawbacks including conflicting care provider schedules and high cost of training equipment. The major objective of the study is to describe, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel approach of delivering ACLS training to care providers using the proposed virtual reality simulator that can overcome the challenges and drawbacks imposed by the traditional face-to-face training method. We compare the efficacy and performance outcomes associated with traditional ACLS training with the proposed novel approach of using a virtual reality (VR) based ACLS training simulator. One hundred and forty-eight (148) ACLS certified clinicians, translating into 26 care provider teams, were enrolled for this study. Each team was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: control (traditional ACLS training), persuasive (VR ACLS training with comprehensive feedback components), or minimally persuasive (VR ACLS training with limited feedback components). The teams were tested across two different ACLS procedures that vary in the degree of task complexity: ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VFib/VTach) and pulseless electric activity (PEA). The difference in performance between control and persuasive groups was not statistically significant (P=.37 for PEA and P=.1 for VFib/VTach). However, the difference in performance between control and minimally persuasive groups was significant (P=.05 for PEA and P=.02 for VFib/VTach). The pre-post comparison of performances of the groups showed that control (P=.017 for PEA, P=.01 for VFib/VTach) and

  13. Comparison of severe trauma care effect before and after advanced trauma life support training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; LI Neng-ping; GU Yong-feng; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; YANG Xin; LING Yun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients with the injury severity score (ISS)≥ 16 after medical staff received advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training.Methods: ATLS training was implemented by lectures,scenarios, field practices, and examinations. The clinical effect of in-hospital severe trauma care was compared 2 years before and after ATLS training.Results: During 2 years (from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005) before ATLS training, 438 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated emergently in our department. Among them, ISS score was 28.6±7.8 on average, and 87 cases died with the mortality of 19.9%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 69.5 min±l 1.5 min and 89.6 min±9.3 min respectively. Two years (from January 1,2007, to December 31, 2008) after ATLS training, 382 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated. The ISS was 25.3 ±6.1 on average and 62 cases died with the mortality of 15.1%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 47.8 min±10.7 min and 61.5 min±9.9 min respectively. The ISS score showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but the mortality, the duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were markedly decreased after ATLS training and showed significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion: ATLS course training can improve the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients,and should be put into practice as soon as possible in China.

  14. The impact of Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training in low-resource countries.

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    Dresang, Lee T; González, María Mercedes Ancheta; Beasley, John; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Damos, Jim; Deutchman, Mark; Evensen, Ann; de Ancheta, Norma González; Rojas-Suarez, José A; Schwartz, Jonathan; Sorensen, Bjarke L; Winslow, Diana; Leeman, Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of the Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) program on maternal outcomes in four low-income countries. Data were obtained from single-center, longitudinal cohort studies in Colombia, Guatemala, and Honduras, and from an uncontrolled prospective trial in Tanzania. In Colombia, maternal morbidity and the number of near misses increased after ALSO training, but maternal mortality decreased. In Guatemala, sustained reductions in overall maternal mortality and mortality from postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) were recorded after ALSO implementation. In Honduras, there was a significant decrease in episiotomy rates, and increases in active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL), vacuum-assisted delivery, and reported comfort managing obstetric emergencies. In Tanzania, the frequency of PPH and severe PPH decreased after training, while management improved. In low-income countries, ALSO training was associated with decreased in-hospital maternal mortality, episiotomy use, and PPH. AMTSL and vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery increased in frequency after ALSO training. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) training of ambulance caregivers and impact on survival of trauma victims.

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    Johansson, Jakob; Blomberg, Hans; Svennblad, Bodil; Wernroth, Lisa; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa; Michaëlsson, Karl; Karlsten, Rolf; Gedeborg, Rolf

    2012-10-01

    The Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) course has been widely implemented and approximately half a million prehospital caregivers in over 50 countries have taken this course. Still, the effect on injury outcome remains to be established. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between PHTLS training of ambulance crew members and the mortality in trauma patients. A population-based observational study of 2830 injured patients, who either died or were hospitalized for more than 24 h, was performed during gradual implementation of PHTLS in Uppsala County in Sweden between 1998 and 2004. Prehospital patient records were linked to hospital-discharge records, cause-of-death records, and information on PHTLS training and the educational level of ambulance crews. The main outcome measure was death, on scene or in hospital. Adjusting for multiple potential confounders, PHTLS training appeared to be associated with a reduction in mortality, but the precision of this estimate was poor (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.19). The mortality risk was 4.7% (36/763) without PHTLS training and 4.5% (94/2067) with PHTLS training. The predicted absolute risk reduction is estimated to correspond to 0.5 lives saved annually per 100,000 population with PHTLS fully implemented. PHTLS training of ambulance crew members may be associated with reduced mortality in trauma patients, but the precision in this estimate was low due to the overall low mortality. While there may be a relative risk reduction, the predicted absolute risk reduction in this population was low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L

    2015-01-01

    .5 in the self-training group vs. 10.0 in the instructor-led group, P=0.51) or in any of the 15 parameters. After the study, all participants felt that they had improved their skills and felt capable of performing PBLS. CONCLUSION: Self-training is not statistically different to instructor-led training......OBJECTIVE: Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective...... in teaching PBLS. Self-evaluated confidence improved, but showed no difference between groups. PBLS may be disseminated through self-training....

  17. Basic life support instructor training: comparison of instructor-led and self-guided training.

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    Einspruch, Eric L; Lembach, Jennifer; Lynch, Bonnie; Lee, William; Harper, Richard; Fleischman, Ross J

    2011-01-01

    In this randomized trial, the authors compared the instructional quality of instructor candidates trained in instructional methods through an Internet-based versus a traditional classroom-led version of the American Heart Association Core Instructor Course. The self-guided, Internet-based group had significantly higher posttest scores than did the traditional instructor-led group (although not when adjusted for pretest scores). The Internet-based group scores changed from 54% to 67%, exceeding the a priori definition of 8% as a minimally practically significant improvement (instructor-led group scores changed from 49% to 53%). The Internet-based course appeared to be a suitable alternative to the traditional course.

  18. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this.......As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  19. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

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    Naima Laharnar

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.

  20. Impact of advanced cardiac life support training program on the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care hospital

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    Kanwalpreet Sodhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines on performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR have been published from time to time, and formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Very few data are available in world literature highlighting the impact of these trainings on CPR outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the American Heart Association (AHA-certified basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS provider course on the outcomes of CPR in our hospital. Materials and Methods : An AHA-certified BLS and ACLS provider training programme was conducted in our hospital in the first week of October 2009, in which all doctors in the code blue team and intensive care units were given training. The retrospective study was performed over an 18-month period. All in-hospital adult cardiac arrest victims in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (January 2009 to September 2009 and the post-BLS/ACLS training period (October 2009 to June 2010 were included in the study. We compared the outcomes of CPR between these two study periods. Results: There were a total of 627 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 284 during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and 343 during the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 52 patients (18.3% had return of spontaneous circulation, compared with 97 patients (28.3% in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.005. Survival to hospital discharge was also significantly higher in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (67 patients, 69.1% than in the pre-BLS/ACLS training period (12 patients, 23.1% (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Formal certified BLS and ACLS training of healthcare professionals leads to definitive improvement in the outcome of CPR.

  1. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  2. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

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    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, pteachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  3. [The Moodle platform: A useful tool for training in life support. Analysis of satisfaction questionnaires from students and instructors of the semFYC advanced life support courses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero Torres, Juan Antonio; Caballero Oliver, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the validity and use of a mixed method of training in life support. The use of Moodle to implement an online pre-sessional phase prior to a "classic" classroom phase of teaching in this type of course is the main novelty. Analysis of satisfaction questionnaires of students and instructors of a mixed course in the advanced life support program of SemFYC (ESVAP). Moodle platform. semFYC Virtual Classroom. Students and instructors participating in the semFYC advanced life support program, ESVAP. Qualitative analysis. The majority of students rate as very useful (50%) or useful (45.37%) the existence of an online pre-sessional phase, and consider that it has helped them very much (42.20%) or quite a lot (48.62%) to make the most of the face-to-face sessions. For instructors, they considered that the existence of an online pre-sessional phase was very useful (89%) or useful (11%) for the development of the face-to-face sessions. The analysis of the results concluded that: 1) the students considered a prior non-face to face phase as very useful, and it helped them much/very much in the face to face phase, and 2) the instructors believe that the non-face to face phase had helped them a lot in the presentations and efficiency of the workshops in the face-to-face phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  5. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

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    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  6. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) Training Improves First Responder Confidence to Face Mass-Casualty Incidents in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Deborah A; Chestovich, Paul J; Coule, Phillip; Carrison, Dale M; Chua, Charleston M; Wora-Urai, Nopadol; Kanchanarin, Tavatchai

    2017-10-01

    Medical response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) requires specialized training and preparation. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) is a course designed to prepare health care workers for a MCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the confidence of health care professionals in Thailand to face a MCI after participating in a BDLS course. Basic Disaster Life Support was taught to health care professionals in Thailand in July 2008. Demographics and medical experience were recorded, and participants rated their confidence before and after the course using a five-point Likert scale in 11 pertinent MCI categories. Survey results were compiled and compared with Pfirst responder confidence to face mass-casualty incidents in Thailand. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):492-500 .

  7. Basic life support knowledge of secondary school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training using a song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Valle Alonso, Joaquin; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa

    2016-07-20

    To examine the effectiveness of a "cardiopulmonary resuscitation song" in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), F(1,120)=16.644, p=0.000). In addition, significant differences about students' basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest.

  8. Impact of a web based interactive simulation game (PULSE) on nursing students' experience and performance in life support training--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Neal F; McAloon, Toni; O'Neill, Philip; Beggs, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The delivery of effective life support measures is highly associated with the quality, design and implementation of the education that underpins it. Effectively responding to a critical event is a requirement for all nurses illustrating the need for effective educational approaches from pre-registration training through to enhancing and maintaining life support skills after qualification. This paper reports the findings of utilising a web-based multimedia simulation game PULSE (Platform for Undergraduate Life Support Education). The platform was developed to enhance the student experience of life support education, to motivate on-going learning and engagement and to improve psychomotor skills associated with the provision of Intermediate Life Support (ILS) training. Pre training participants played PULSE and during life support training data was collected from an intervention and a control group of final year undergraduate nursing students (N=34). Quantitative analysis of performance took place and qualitative data was generated from a questionnaire assessing the learning experience. A statistically significant difference was found between the competence the groups displayed in the three skills sets of checking equipment, airway assessment and the safe/effective use of defibrillator at ILS level, and PULSE was positively evaluated as an educational tool when used alongside traditional life support training.

  9. Collaborative virtual reality based advanced cardiac life support training simulator using virtual reality principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khanal, Prabal; Vankipuram, Akshay; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Tinker, Linda; Smith, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    ... of training equipment. The major objective of the study is to describe, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel approach of delivering ACLS training to care providers using the proposed virtual...

  10. Improved clinical status, quality of life, and walking capacity in Parkinson's disease after body weight-supported high-intensity locomotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training in Parkinson's disease (PD) on (1) clinical status; (2) quality of life; and (3) gait capacity. DESIGN: Open-label, fixed sequence crossover study. SETTING: University motor control laboratory......±93 to 637±90m. CONCLUSIONS: Body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training is feasible and well tolerated by patients with PD. The training improved clinical status, quality of life, and gait capacity significantly....

  11. Prehospital trauma life support training of ambulance caregivers and the outcomes of traffic-injury victims in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Hans; Svennblad, Bodil; Michaelsson, Karl; Byberg, Liisa; Johansson, Jakob; Gedeborg, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    There is limited evidence that the widely implemented Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) educational program improves patient outcomes. The primary aim of this national study in Sweden was to investigate the association between regional implementation of PHTLS training and mortality after traffic injuries. We extracted information from the Swedish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Registry on victims of motor-vehicle traffic injuries in Sweden from 2001 to 2004 (N = 28,041). During this time period, PHTLS training was implemented at a varying pace in different regions. To control for other influences on patient outcomes related to regional and hospital-level effects, such as variations in performance of trauma care systems, we used Bayesian hierarchical regression models to estimate odds ratios for prehospital mortality and 30-day mortality after hospital admission. We also controlled for the calendar year for each injury to account for period effects. We analyzed the time to death after hospital admission and time to return to work using Cox's proportional hazards frailty models. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio for prehospital mortality with PHTLS-trained prehospital staff was 1.54 (95% credibility interval, 1.07-2.13). For 30-day mortality among those surviving to hospital admission, the odds ratio was 0.85 (95% credibility interval, 0.45-1.48). There was no association between PHTLS training and time to death (hazard ratio = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.14) or time to return to work (hazard ratio = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92-1.05). In this observational study, the implementation of PHTLS training did not appear to be associated with reduced mortality or ability to return to work after motor-vehicle traffic injuries. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p  Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  13. [Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS): An interdisciplinary training in preclinical trauma care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, C G; Bouillon, B; Lackner, C K; Wentzensen, A; Gliwitzky, B; Gross, B; Brokmann, J; Hauer, T

    2008-09-01

    There is clinical evidence that standardized management of trauma patients in the emergency department improves outcome. Standardized prehospital management has been established for stroke patients and those suffering acute coronary syndrome. Prehospital treatment of trauma patients differs quite significantly from one system to another. The data from the German Trauma Registry show that the average time from accident until arrival in the emergency department is 72 min. This needs improvement. PHTLS is a training course that teaches a systematic approach to the trauma patient in the preclinical setting. The aim is to rapidly and accurately assess the patient's physiologic status, treat according to priorities, and decide whether the patient is critical and needs rapid rescue and transport. Above all, it is important for caregivers to prevent secondary injury, to realize the relevance of timing in the initial treatment, and to assure a high standard of care. PHTLS provides the participant with knowledge, skills, and necessary behaviors. The course is open to persons in all specialties involved in the initial management of severely injured patients. The German Board of Emergency Technicians e.V. inaugurated the course concept in cooperation with the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) and the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and is authorized to organize PHTLS courses in Germany. PHTLS teaches a standardized and established approach to the trauma patient in the emergency department. It has been established in 36 countries and the content is reviewed regularly to consider new scientific evidence. Healthcare personnel in Germany have the chance to participate in this international standard of care and to introduce their own experiences into the review process.

  14. Basic life support trained nurses ventilate more efficiently with laryngeal mask supreme than with facemask or laryngeal tube suction-disposable--a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Oberhammer, Rosmarie; Balkenhol, Karla; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Falk, Markus; Paal, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In some emergency situations resuscitation and ventilation may have to be performed by basic life support trained personnel, especially in rural areas where arrival of advanced life support teams can be delayed. The use of advanced airway devices such as endotracheal intubation has been deemphasized for basically-trained personnel, but it is unclear whether supraglottic airway devices are advisable over traditional mask-ventilation. In this prospective, randomized clinical single-centre trial we compared airway management and ventilation performed by nurses using facemask, laryngeal mask Supreme (LMA-S) and laryngeal tube suction-disposable (LTS-D). Basic life support trained nurses (n=20) received one-hour practical training with each device. ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for elective surgery were included (n=150). After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block nurses had two 90-second attempts to manage the airway and ventilate the patient with volume-controlled ventilation. Ventilation failed in 34% of patients with facemask, 2% with LMA-S and 22% with LTS-D (Ptraining, nurses were able to use LMA-S more effectively than facemask and LTS-D. High ventilation failure rates with facemask and LTS-D may indicate that additional training is required to perform airway management adequately with these devices. High-level trials are needed to confirm these results in cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Starship Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  16. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho

    2016-07-04

    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  17. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  18. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  19. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach – An observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and training basic life support (BLS)—especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm—are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton’s four-step approach for BLS training. Methods A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Students’ BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. Results The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. Conclusions The findings

  20. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach - An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Hanna; Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Learning and training basic life support (BLS)-especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training. A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. The findings of this work show that the four-step-approach for

  1. The impact of shift patterns on junior doctors' perceptions of fatigue, training, work/life balance and the role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Tucker, P; Rapport, F; Hutchings, H; Dahlgren, A; Davies, G; Ebden, P

    2010-12-01

    The organisation of junior doctors' work hours has been radically altered following the partial implementation of the European Working Time Directive. Poorly designed shift schedules cause excessive disruption to shift workers' circadian rhythms. Interviews and focus groups were used to explore perceptions among junior doctors and hospital managers regarding the impact of the European Working Time Directive on patient care and doctors' well-being. Four main themes were identified. Under "Doctors shift rotas", doctors deliberated the merits and demerits of working seven nights in row. They also discussed the impact on fatigue of long sequences of day shifts. "Education and training" focused on concerns about reduced on-the-job learning opportunities under the new working time arrangements and also about the difficulties of finding time and energy to study. "Work/life balance" reflected the conflict between the positive aspects of working on-call or at night and the impact on life outside work. "Social support structures" focused on the role of morale and team spirit. Good support structures in the work place counteracted and compensated for the effects of negative role stressors, and arduous and unsocial work schedules. The impact of junior doctors' work schedules is influenced by the nature of specific shift sequences, educational considerations, issues of work/life balance and by social support systems. Poorly designed shift rotas can have negative impacts on junior doctors' professional performance and educational training, with implications for clinical practice, patient care and the welfare of junior doctors.

  2. Effect of physical activity, social support, and skills training on late-life emotional health: a systematic literature review and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Mark B; Steinman, Lesley E; Carlson, Whitney L; Mochan, Kara N; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Duffy, Michael; Knight, Bob G; Jeste, Dilip V; Leith, Katherine H; Lenze, Eric J; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Satariano, William A; Zweiback, Damita J; Anderson, Lynda A

    2014-01-01

    Given that emotional health is a critical component of healthy aging, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess whether current interventions can positively affect older adults' emotional health. A national panel of health services and mental health researchers guided the review. Eligibility criteria included community-dwelling older adult (aged ≥ 50 years) samples, reproducible interventions, and emotional health outcomes, which included multiple domains and both positive (well-being) and illness-related (anxiety) dimensions. This review focused on three types of interventions - physical activity, social support, and skills training - given their public health significance and large number of studies identified. Panel members evaluated the strength of evidence (quality and effectiveness). In all, 292 articles met inclusion criteria. These included 83 exercise/physical activity, 25 social support, and 40 skills training interventions. For evidence rating, these 148 interventions were categorized into 64 pairings by intervention type and emotional health outcome, e.g., strength training targeting loneliness or social support to address mood. 83% of these pairings were rated at least fair quality. Expert panelists found sufficient evidence of effectiveness only for skills training interventions with health outcomes of decreasing anxiety and improving quality of life and self-efficacy. Due to limitations in reviewed studies, many intervention-outcome pairings yielded insufficient evidence. Skills training interventions improved several aspects of emotional health in community-dwelling older adults, while the effects for other outcomes and interventions lacked clear evidence. We discuss the implications and challenges in moving forward in this important area.

  3. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Teaching basic life support: a prospective randomized study on low-cost training strategies in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Veerle; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Aerenhouts, Dirk; De Martelaer, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training at school is recommended. Limited school resources prevent implementation. The learning efficacy of low-cost training strategies is unknown. To evaluate the efficacy of different CPR learning strategies using low-cost didactic tools. Children (n=593, 15-16 years) were randomized to four training conditions: (1) manikin+teacher instruction (control group), (2) manikin+video instruction, (3) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+teacher instruction, and (4) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+video instruction. After a 50 min training, a 3 min CPR test on a manikin was performed using SkillReporting Software (Laerdal, Norway), and repeated after 6 months. The data of children without previous CPR training were analysed. Analysis of variance and the χ-test assessed differences between groups. Complete data sets were available for 165 pupils. Initially, group 3 scored lower on the mean ventilation volume (Pstrategies was suboptimal. The basics of CPR can be taught with alternative equipment if manikins are not available.

  5. Effect of robot-assisted versus conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training on quality of life for people with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Wier, MPH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effect of body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT on quality of life (QoL for multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Thirteen individuals with MS and gait impairment randomly received two blocks of six biweekly training sessions: (1 robot-assisted BWSTT then BWSTT alone (R-T or (2 BWSTT alone then robot-assisted BWSTT (T-R. No statistically significant differences were found between robot-assisted BWSTT and unassisted BWSTT for improving QoL outcome measures. The change in Physical Component Summary scores from baseline to the end of the 12 training sessions improved significantly more in the R-T than the T-R group. Within-participant longitudinal changes in QoL for all participants from both groups combined showed significant improvements in 5 of the 13 QoL measures. The results of this pilot study suggest that both types of BWSTT may improve QoL for people with gait dysfunction secondary to MS.

  6. Randomized controlled trial assessing participation and quality of life in a supported speed treadmill training exercise program vs. a strengthening program for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, P E; Banks, D; Johnston, T E; Campbell, S R; Gaughan, J P; Ross, S A; Engsberg, J R; Tucker, C

    2012-01-01

    A multi-site Randomized-Controlled Trial compared a home-based Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program (SSTTEP) with a strengthening exercise program in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on the following categories; Participation, quality of life (QOL), self-concept, goal attainment, and satisfaction. Twenty-six children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned by site-based block randomization to the SSTTEP (n=14) or strengthening exercise (n=12) group. Both groups participated in a two week clinic-based induction period and continued the intervention at home for ten weeks. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks), and follow-up (16 weeks). Assessments included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Cerebral Palsy Module, and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Evaluators were blinded to group assignment at two sites. Satisfaction and performance on individual goals, participation, and parent-reported QOL improved in both groups with improvement maintained for four weeks post intervention. The hypothesis that the SSTTEP group would have better outcomes than the exercise group was not supported. However, both groups showed that children with CP can make gains in participation, individual goals, and satisfaction following a 12-week intensive exercise intervention, and these findings persisted for four weeks post intervention.

  7. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  8. HANARO user support and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2008-06-15

    This project is aimed to support external users for the effective use of HANARO. The total number of projects selected as the beneficiary of the supporting program by MEST was 21 including this project in this year. We supported 2,339 hr measurements for the 31 requests of the 14 projects selected on the field of neutron beam utilization. In the field of materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test the 3 projects were selected and supported for 80 samples. In the fields of neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production the number of selected and supported projects were 1 and 2 respectively. In order to broaden potential user base, maximize instrument utilization, and enhance cooperation with industries, universities and institutes, practice-oriented HANARO user training courses were held for neutron beam utilization and materials and nuclear fuel irradiation fields. In the fields of neutron activation analysis 3 times training courses were held for the university students. The online neutron beam time allocation system was developed and applied successfully for the HRPD in this year. We are planing to apply this system to other neutron beam instruments in the near future. This project is a kind of the user-based supporting program for the maximize of HANARO utilization. The development products and the ideas and suggestions of users obtained through this projects will be collected and applied to the development of next new facilities. Also, by using the 'HANARO utilization and research information management system(HANARO4U)' we construct the research network among users at industries, universities and institutes. This network is expected to increase HANARO utilization and enhance productivity of the facilities.

  9. Space Life Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

  10. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  11. Regenerative life support system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  12. Water Walls for Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Hammoudeh, Mona (Inventor); Richardson, Tra-My Justine (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method and associated system for processing waste gases, liquids and solids, produced by human activity, to separate (i) liquids suitable for processing to produce potable water, (ii) solids and liquids suitable for construction of walls suitable for enclosing a habitat volume and for radiation shielding, and (iii) other fluids and solids that are not suitable for processing. A forward osmosis process and a reverse osmosis process are sequentially combined to reduce fouling and to permit accumulation of different processable substances. The invention may be used for long term life support of human activity.

  13. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  14. Interactive Naval Gunfire Support Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    OVERCOMING INERTIA: WINNING THE TRAINING WAR "Nothing on earth consumes a man more quickly than the passion of resentment." This was written by Friedrich ... Nietzche in Ecce Homo over a hundred years ago, but very aptly describes the attitude about training. Many times deficiencies in training are perceived

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  16. MODEL OF TRAINING OF SUCCESS IN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Александровна Лежнева

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the development of motive to succeed in adolescence. It is determined the value of the motive to achieve success in the further development of the teenager: a motive to achieve effective internal forces mobilized for the implementation of successful operation ensures the active involvement of teenagers in social and interpersonal relationships. As the primary means of motive development success is considered training. The author provides a definition of "training for success in life," creates a model of training for success in life, and describes its units (targeted, informative, technological, productive, reveals the successful development of the technology life strategy used during the training (self-presentation, targets, incentives, subject-orientation. The author pays attention to the need for a future psychologist to develop teenagers’ motive to achieve success through the mastery of competence in constructing a model of training for success in life, and its implementation in the course of professional activities. The main means of training students of psychology to the use of training success in life identified the additional educational programs and psychological section.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-77

  17. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  18. [The basic life support guidance of American Heart Association (AHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen

    2011-04-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.

  19. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Zane BERGE; TAKIYA, Seema

    2005-01-01

    Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance Seema TAKIYAJennifer ARCHBOLDZane BERGEBaltimore, USA Learning interventions should be aligned with the human learning system. To be effective, they have to support human learning, not work against it. Thalheimer, 2004 ABSTRACT With more companies allowing flextime, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies sell to employees the flexibility of being ab...

  20. Cognitive model supported tactical training simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mate, adversaries, instructor). Due to the dynamic and complex nature of military tactics, it is hard to create agents that behave realistically and support the training lead

  1. New approach to training support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Faming; Chen Mianyun; Wang Zhongdong

    2006-01-01

    Support vector machine has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification, regression or novelty detection. Training a support vector machine requires the solution of a very large quadratic programming problem. Traditional optimization methods cannot be directly applied due to memory restrictions. Up to now, several approaches exist for circumventing the above shortcomings and work well. Another learning algorithm, particle swarm optimization, for training SVM is introduted. The method is tested on UCI datasets.

  2. Phases management for advanced life support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.

    2005-01-01

    For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions

  3. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  4. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  5. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  6. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single training session run by junior doctors. Methods Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow-up questionnaire one week later. The questionnaire consisted of an eight item multiple-choice test on BLS knowledge, a four-level evaluation of self-assessed BLS skills and evaluation of fear based on a qualitative description and visual analog scale from 0 to 10 for being first responder. Results Sixty-three percent of the students (413/651) had participated in prior BLS training. Only 28% (179/651) knew how to correctly recognize normal breathing. The majority was afraid of exacerbating the condition or causing death by intervening as first responder. The response rate at follow-up was 61% (399/651). There was a significant improvement in correct answers on the multiple-choice test (p first responder was decreased 6.8 ± 2.2 to 5.5 ± 2.4 (p < .001). Conclusion Knowledge of key areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA. PMID:24731392

  7. Scientific report training workshop interdisciplinary life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, E.G.; Merks, R.M.H.; Boas, S.E.M.; Rens, E.G.; Merks, R.M.H.; et al, not CWI

    2014-01-01

    This preprint is the outcome of the “Training Workshop Interdisciplinary Life Sciences”, held in October 2013 in the Lorentz Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. The motivation to organize this event stems from the following considerations: The enormous progress in laboratory techniques and facilities l

  8. IT for advanced Life Support in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerø Pedersen, Birgitte; Jeberg, Kirsten Ann; Koerner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how IT support can be established for the treatment and documentation of advanced life support (ALS) in a hospital. In close collaboration with clinical researchers, a running prototype of an IT solution to support the clinical decisions in ALS was developed and tried out...

  9. Lunar Outpost Life Support Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering trade-off studies of life support system architecture and technology options were conducted for potential lunar surface mission scenarios within NASA's Constellation Program. The scenarios investigated are based largely on results of the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Phase II study. In particular, the possibility of Hosted Sortie missions, the high cost of power during eclipse periods, and the potential to reduce life support consumables through scavenging, in-situ resources, and alternative EVA technologies were all examined. These trade studies were performed within the Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) element of NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology development project. The tools and methodology used in the study are described briefly, followed by a discussion of mission scenarios, life support technology options and results presented in terms of equivalent system mass for various regenerative life support technologies and architectures. Three classes of repeated or extended lunar surface missions were investigated in this study along with several life support resource scenarios for each mission class. Individual mission durations of 14 days, 90 days and 180 days were considered with 10 missions assumed for each at a rate of 2 missions per year. The 14-day missions represent a class of Hosted Sortie missions where a pre-deployed and potentially mobile habitat provides life support for multiple crews at one or more locations. The 90-day and 180-day missions represent lunar outpost expeditions with a larger fixed habitat. The 180-day missions assume continuous human presence and must provide life support through eclipse periods of up to 122 hours while the 90-day missions are planned for best-case periods of nearly continuous sunlight. This paper investigates system optimization within the assumptions of each scenario and addresses how the scenario selected drives the life support system to different designs

  10. Development of Reliable Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne

    2017-01-01

    The life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) are the culmination of an extensive effort encompassing development, design, and test to provide the highest possible confidence in their operation on ISS. Many years of development testing are initially performed to identify the optimum technology and the optimum operational approach. The success of this development program depends on the accuracy of the system interfaces. The critical interfaces include the specific operational environment, the composition of the waste stream to be processed and the quality of the product. Once the development program is complete, a detailed system schematic is built based on the specific design requirements, followed by component procurement, assembly, and acceptance testing. A successful acceptance test again depends on accurately simulating the anticipated environment on ISS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) provides an excellent example of where this process worked, as well as lessons learned that can be applied to the success of future missions. More importantly, ISS has provided a test bed to identify these design issues. Mechanical design issues have included an unreliable harmonic drive train in the Urine Processor's fluids pump, and seals in the Water Processor's Catalytic Reactor with insufficient life at the operational temperature. Systems issues have included elevated calcium in crew urine (due to microgravity effect) that resulted in precipitation at the desired water recovery rate, and the presence of an organosilicon compound (dimethylsilanediol) in the condensate that is not well removed by the water treatment process. Modifications to the WRS to address these issues are either complete (and now being evaluated on ISS) or are currently in work to insure the WRS has the required reliability before embarking on a mission to Mars.

  11. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  12. Practice and effect of interactive teaching in pediatric advanced life support training%互动式教学在儿科高级生命支持培训中的实践与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 钱素云; 杨军华; 樊寻梅

    2010-01-01

    互动式教学以学员为中心,通过教员与学员之间的积极互动,可以最大限度地激发学员主动进行学习和思考.首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院在儿科高级生命支持培训中开展互动式教学实践,并对教学效果进行了评价.结果 表明,在为不同临床背景的儿科医生或护士提供标准化的高级生命支持培训时,互动式教学取得了传统教学方式难以达到的效果,值得在医学理论教学和技能培训中推广.%As a student-centered method, interactive teaching maximally inspires active thinking and learning of the trainees by reinforcing the positive interaction between instructors and trainees. In Beijing Children's Hospital interactive teaching was practiced in pediatric advanced life support training and the effect was evaluated. Through interactive teaching, standardized advanced life support information and knowledge were delivered to the trainees regardless of the different clinical background among pediatricians and nurses, and good effect which conventional teaching method could hardly get was attained. It is believed that interactive teaching could be a valuable teaching method for medical theory teaching and skill training.

  13. PHTLS ® (Prehospital Trauma Life Support) provider courses in Germany - who takes part and what do participants think about prehospital trauma care training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christian B; Wölfl, Christoph G; Hogan, Aidan; Suda, Arnold J; Gühring, Thorsten; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Münzberg, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine PHTLS Provider courses in Germany and to proof the assumption that formation of physicians and paramedics in prehospital trauma care can be optimized. PHTLS participants were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires during their course preparation and directly after the course. There were some open questions regarding their professional background and closed questions concerning PHTLS itself. Further questions were to be answered on an analog scale in order to quantify subjective impressions of confidence, knowledge and also to describe individual levels of education and training. 247 questionnaires could be analyzed. Physicians noted significant (p PHTLS (p = 0.005), didn't benefit as much as the rest (p = 0.004) and stated more often, that the course was of less value for their daily work (p = 0.03). After the course confidence increased remarkably and reached higher rates than before the course (p PHTLS both groups showed similar ratings concerning the course concept indicating that PHTLS could equalize some training deficits and help to gain confidence and assurance in prehospital trauma situations. 90% of the paramedics and 100% of the physicians would recommend PHTLS. Physicians and especially anesthetists revised their opinions with regard to providing PHTLS at Medical School after having taken part in a PHTLS course. The evaluation of PHTLS courses in Germany indicates the necessity for special prehospital trauma care training. Paramedics and physicians criticize deficits in their professional training, which can be compensated by PHTLS. With respect to relevant items like confidence and knowledge PHTLS leads to a statistically significant increase in ratings on a visual analogue scale. PHTLS should be integrated into the curriculum at Medical School.

  14. PHTLS ® (Prehospital Trauma Life Support) provider courses in Germany – who takes part and what do participants think about prehospital trauma care training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine PHTLS Provider courses in Germany and to proof the assumption that formation of physicians and paramedics in prehospital trauma care can be optimized. Methods PHTLS participants were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires during their course preparation and directly after the course. There were some open questions regarding their professional background and closed questions concerning PHTLS itself. Further questions were to be answered on an analog scale in order to quantify subjective impressions of confidence, knowledge and also to describe individual levels of education and training. Results 247 questionnaires could be analyzed. Physicians noted significant (p PHTLS (p = 0.005), didn’t benefit as much as the rest (p = 0.004) and stated more often, that the course was of less value for their daily work (p = 0.03). After the course confidence increased remarkably and reached higher rates than before the course (p PHTLS both groups showed similar ratings concerning the course concept indicating that PHTLS could equalize some training deficits and help to gain confidence and assurance in prehospital trauma situations. 90% of the paramedics and 100% of the physicians would recommend PHTLS. Physicians and especially anesthetists revised their opinions with regard to providing PHTLS at Medical School after having taken part in a PHTLS course. Conclusion The evaluation of PHTLS courses in Germany indicates the necessity for special prehospital trauma care training. Paramedics and physicians criticize deficits in their professional training, which can be compensated by PHTLS. With respect to relevant items like confidence and knowledge PHTLS leads to a statistically significant increase in ratings on a visual analogue scale. PHTLS should be integrated into the curriculum at Medical School. PMID:25050135

  15. Multidirectional transparent support for overground gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallery, H; Lutz, P; von Zitzewitz, J; Rauter, G; Fritschi, M; Everarts, C; Ronsse, R; Curt, A; Bolliger, M

    2013-06-01

    Gait and balance training is an essential ingredient for locomotor rehabilitation of patients with neurological impairments. Robotic overhead support systems may help these patients train, for example by relieving them of part of their body weight. However, there are only very few systems that provide support during overground gait, and these suffer from limited degrees of freedom and/or undesired interaction forces due to uncompensated robot dynamics, namely inertia. Here, we suggest a novel mechanical concept that is based on cable robot technology and that allows three-dimensional gait training while reducing apparent robot dynamics to a minimum. The solution does not suffer from the conventional drawback of cable robots, which is a limited workspace. Instead, displaceable deflection units follow the human subject above a large walking area. These deflection units are not actuated, instead they are implicitly displaced by means of the forces in the cables they deflect. This leads to an underactuated design, because the deflection units cannot be moved arbitrarily. However, the design still allows accurate control of a three-dimensional force vector acting on a human subject during gait. We describe the mechanical concept, the control concept, and we show first experimental results obtained with the device, including the force control performance during robot-supported overground gait of five human subjects without motor impairments.

  16. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-05-02

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group

  17. Thai nursing students' experiences when attending real life situations involving cardiac life support: A Phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchim, Yaowarat; Kongsuwan, Waraporn

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, manikin simulations have been used for cardiac life support training procedures in medical and nursing education. However, some nursing students have experienced attending real events involving cardiac life support during their clinical practice. This study aims to describe the meaning of experience of Thai nursing students when attending real situations of cardiac life support. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was used. Third and fourth year bachelor of nursing students at a university in the southern region of Thailand who had the experience of attending real situation of cardiac life support were purposely selected as the informants. The data were generated from individual in-depth interviews with eighteen nursing students. Van Manen's approach was used to analyze the data. Trustworthiness was established using the criteria set out by Lincoln and Guba. Essential themes situated in the context of the four existential grounds of body, time, space, and relation emerged. These were: being worried and fearful while desiring to participate in cardiac life support procedures; enhancing self value; knowing each moment is meaningful for one's life; having time to understand the reality of life; being in a small corner; appreciating such opportunities and the encouragement given by nurses and the healthcare team; and feeling empathy. Besides learning in classrooms and practicing in labs, experiencing real situations is beneficial for nursing students in learning cardiac life support. This study provides information that can be used for clinical teaching management in the topics relating to cardiac life support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The training process of basic life support skills for primary medical staff%基层医务人员初级急救技术的培训流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文娟; 刘励军; 徐波

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was to carry on an universal training for the primary medical staff , assess training effectiveness , and optimize the training process .Methods In accordance with the pre-designed training process , an universal training was carried on for the primary medical staff in Suzhou.By means of analyzing the results of training , we tried to optimize the training process .Results ①There were a total of 2612 persons, who took part in the training , including 1442 doctors or nurses from township hospitals , and 1170 persons from the medical services of village .The male was accounted for 1425/2612 (54.6%), and the female accounted for 1187/2612 (45.4%) of the total number .The number of countryside doctors aged over 60 years old was 419 , accounting for 16%of this population of medical staff .②The percentage of medical staff from township hospitals and medical services of village mastering CPR were 62.0% and 59.3% respectively.However, 96.1% of medical staff from township hospitals had no knowledge about non -invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation , while 95.3%of them knew nothing about electrical defibrillation .Meanwhile, 96.2% of medical staff from medical service of village had no idea about automated external defibrillation ( AED) .③The results of training on non -invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation , electrical defibrillation and AED , showed no significant difference between before and after training (P>0.05), but the training of others skills made the significant improvement (P<0.05).Conclusion ①The training of basic life support skills can overall improve the first aid level of medical staff from primary medical establishments .②In this study, the training process could be optimized:AED should be handled for medical staff of primary level by the mean of special training , for present , electrical defibrillation , non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation are not included in universal training .%目的:

  19. Life Support with Failures and Variable Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The life support system for long duration missions will recycle oxygen and water to reduce the material resupply mass from Earth. The impact of life support failures was investigated by dynamic simulation of a lunar outpost habitat life support model. The model was modified to simulate resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and storage failures. Many failures impact the lunar outpost water supply directly or indirectly, depending on the water balance and water storage. Failure effects on the water supply are reduced if Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) water use is low and the water supply is ample. Additional oxygen can be supplied by scavenging unused propellant or by production from regolith, but the amounts obtained can vary significantly. The requirements for oxygen and water can also vary significantly, especially for EVA. Providing storage buffers can improve efficiency and reliability, and minimize the chance of supply failing to meet demand. Life support failures and supply variations can be survivable if effective solutions are provided by the system design

  20. [Real life simulations to train nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Felpete, Alberto Jesús; Abajas Bustillo, Rebeca; De la Horra Gutiérrez, Inmaculada; Hoz Cuerno, Verónica; Llata Agüero, Gema; López López, Luis Mariano; Sánchez Herrán, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Nurses must confront critical potential life threatening situations daily. These are very tense situations which must be solved in a rapid, adequate manner in coordination with the rest of the professional health team. How to deal with these crises, which usually follow an established protocol, must be learned and practiced in a safe environment which provides the greatest possible guarantee of success. The best way to acquire this knowledge and skill is through a real life simulation. Nurses from various disciplines carry out their work in the Training Center for Critical Crises at the Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital in Santander, the only center in Spain which runs this type of simulation. In 2003, this center initiated a specific training simulation for nurses whose purpose is to increase scientific-technical knowledge to the maximum and accelerate the learning of non-technical social and cognitive fundamentals within the working environment of a professional health team. The following article describes a simulation meeting these characteristics, its teaching methods, advantages, importance for professional health teams, and its repercussions on patients.

  1. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Study on Physical Training and Nutritional Support of Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concepts of nutritional support and methods of physical training in detail. Finally, it summarizes the relationship between physical training and nutritional support. Physical training is inseparable from energy supply and the source of sport energy is from nutritional support. Various nutrition supplies is closely related to physical recovery of athletes.

  3. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  4. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  5. Tools for Life Support Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K.; Ewert, M.

    An analysis of the optimum level of closure of a life support system is a complex task involving hundreds, if not thousands, of parameters. In the absence of complete data on candidate technologies and a complete definition of the mission architecture and requirements, many assumptions are necessary. Because of the large number of parameters, it is difficult to fully comprehend and compare studies performed by different analysts. The Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Project Element within NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project has taken measures to improve this situation by issuing documents that define ALS requirements, baseline assumptions, and reference missions. As a further step to capture and retain available knowledge and to facilitate system-level studies, various software tools are being developed. These include a database tool for storing, organizing, and updating technology parameters, modeling tools for evaluating time-average and dynamic system performance, and sizing tools for estimating overall system mass, volume, power, cooling, logistics, and crew time. This presentation describes ongoing work on the development and integration of these tools for life support systems analysis.

  6. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane BERGE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance Seema TAKIYAJennifer ARCHBOLDZane BERGEBaltimore, USA Learning interventions should be aligned with the human learning system. To be effective, they have to support human learning, not work against it. Thalheimer, 2004 ABSTRACT With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintentional consequences. This article explores questions such as does this flexibility create a 24-hour work day where the employee is continually accessible to work? Does it result in less family, personal and leisure time to the detriment of the worker?

  7. Advanced Cardiac Life Support: 2016 Singapore Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chi Keong; Leong, Siew Hon Benjamin; Chua, Siang Jin Terrance; Lim, Swee Han; Heng, Kenneth; Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2017-07-01

    The main areas of emphasis in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines are: early recognition of cardiac arrest and call for help; good-quality chest compressions; early defibrillation when applicable; early administration of drugs; appropriate airway management ensuring normoventilation; and delivery of appropriate post-resuscitation care to enhance survival. Of note, it is important to monitor the quality of the various care procedures. The resuscitation team needs to reduce unnecessary interruptions to chest compressions in order to maintain adequate coronary perfusion pressure during the ACLS drill. In addition, the team needs to continually look out for reversible causes of the cardiac arrest. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  9. Life-Cycle Costing for Training System Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Steve L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses annual cost and present worth methods as two basic ways of calculating life-cycle cost to make purchasing decisions when replacing training systems. A training cost analysis worksheet to aid in asking comprehensive questions about training costs as they currently exist is included. (MBR)

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  11. TAP 3: Training Program Support Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Training Accreditation Program (TAP) establishes objectives and criteria against which DOE nuclear facility training is evaluated to determine readiness for accreditation. TAP 3 has been developed to assist the contractor in preparing the initial Self-Evaluation Report, Training Program Accreditation Plan, and the CSER (contractor self-evaluation report).

  12. EuroTraining - Supporting University Programmes in Nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ivan Ring; Bruun, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the EuroTraining project supports a timely introduction of new nanoelectronics university programmes in Europe. The provisions include training courses, training material and training roadmaps describing the structure and content of nanoelectronics curricula. In order...... to facilitate the European integration of the new curricula courses based on the ECTS system are offered and training material free of copyright and IPR is emphasized....

  13. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  14. Perceived Social Support and Students' Life Satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Social Support and Students' Life Satisfaction among Selected ... about the university life or new environment where they find themselves. ... to build a formidable social network that can enhance their life satisfaction and academic ...

  15. Physical/chemical closed-loop life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Information on physical/chemical closed-loop life support systems are given in viewgraph form. Information is given on program objectives, the elements of a life support system, and Pathfinder program elements.

  16. Monitoring Grinding Wheel Redress-life Using Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Chen; Thitikorn Limchimchol

    2006-01-01

    Condition monitoring is a very important aspect in automated manufacturing processes. Any malfunction of a machining process will deteriorate production quality and efficiency. This paper presents an application of support vector machines in grinding process monitoring. The paper starts with an overview of grinding behaviour. Grinding force is analysed through a Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) to identify features for condition monitoring. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) methodology is introduced as a powerful tool for the classification of different wheel wear situations.After training with available signal data, the SVM is able to identify the state of a grinding process. The requirement and strategy for using SVM for grinding process monitoring is discussed, while the result of the example illustrates how effective SVMs can be in determining wheel redress-life.

  17. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  18. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  19. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Riviello, James J; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min are in status epilepticus (SE) and require immediate resuscitation. Although there are relatively few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first-line therapy, as well as accelerated second-line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring. This protocol will focus on the initial treatment of SE but also review subsequent steps in the protocol once the patient is hospitalized.

  20. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  1. Extracorporeal life support for refractory ventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nicholas; Hofmann, James P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored. Data base searches were done using key words such as ECLS, VT, cardiac arrest, VT ablation, venoarterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). The use of ECLS has been described in a few case reports to facilitate VT ablation for incessant VT refractory to medical therapy. For patients with, out-of- hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium has implemented emergent advanced perfusion and reperfusion strategy, followed by coronary angiography and primary coronary intervention to improve outcome. The major indications for ECLS are cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, post embolic acute cor pulmonale, drug intoxication and post cardiac arrest syndrome with the threat of multi-organ failure. ECLS permits the use of negative inotropic antiarrhythmic drug therapy, facilitates the weaning of catecholamine administration, thereby ending the vicious cycle of catecholamine driven electric storm. ECLS provides hemodynamic support during ablation procedure, while mapping and induction of VT is undertaken. ECLS provides early access to cardiac catheterization laboratory in patients with cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythm. The current evidence from literature, supports the use of ECLS to ensure adequate vital organ perfusion in patients with refractory VT. ECLS is a safe, feasible and effective therapeutic option when conventional therapies are insufficient to support

  2. Students′ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students′ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students′ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students′ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students′ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  3. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  4. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  5. Intelligent agent supported training in virtual simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van; Harbers, M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in military decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Usually humans are used to play these roles to ensure varied behavior required for the training of such tasks. However, there is growing conviction and evide

  6. ['Advanced trauma life support' in Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, A B

    2000-10-28

    Introduction of the principles of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the management of accident victims has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1995. The main ATLS principles are that the aid giver treats the most dangerous disorder first and does no further damage. After assessment and, if necessary, treatment of the airways, the respiration, the circulation and any craniocerebral injury, an exploratory examination is carried out. Physicians receive theoretical and practical instructions in this form of management during an intensive two-day course, counselled by a coordinating organization in the USA. Most of those attending are interns in general surgery, traumatology and orthopaedics, gatekeeper doctors of emergency rooms and army medical officers. The standardized way of thinking improves the communication and understanding between the various disciplines involved in trauma care, in part because there exist comparable programmes for ambulance care and emergency care. Other measures improving the quality of trauma care are regionalization of the trauma care, medical helicopter teams and evaluation of the effects of ATLS as an operating procedure.

  7. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    KAUST Repository

    Via, Allegra

    2013-06-25

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists.

  8. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-09-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists.

  9. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... quality poorly. Currently no studies have evaluated CPR assessment among certified BLS instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate certified BLS instructors’ assessment of chest compressions and rescue breathing.Methods: Data were collected at BLS courses for medical students at Aarhus...... University, Denmark. In pairs, BLS instructors, certified by the European Resuscitation Council, evaluated each learner in an end-of-course cardiac arrest test. Instructors’ assessments were compared with CPR quality data collected from the resuscitation manikin. Correct chest compressions were defined as ≥2...

  10. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians...... to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse....... In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course...

  11. Bioinformatics Training: A Review of Challenges, Actions and Support Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.V.; Watson, J.; Attwood, T.;

    2010-01-01

    As bioinformatics becomes increasingly central to research in the molecular life sciences, the need to train non-bioinformaticians to make the most of bioinformatics resources is growing. Here, we review the key challenges and pitfalls to providing effective training for users of bioinformatics...... services, and discuss successful training strategies shared by a diverse set of bioinformatics trainers. We also identify steps that trainers in bioinformatics could take together to advance the state of the art in current training practices. The ideas presented in this article derive from the first...

  12. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  13. Life Cycle Training Costs: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    oriented training model 6AMRRO Professional Paper-32-7 ). Alexandria, VA: Human Resourses Research Organization, December 1970. .(AD-722 273) *Weingarten, K...with its procedures. Basically, this development process model attempts to combine the best of earlier instructional development approaches into five...of school costing *" revealed by Kollin (1966) in a study of service school cost and recording practices by determining gross cost figures. Utilizing

  14. Business Simulations Applied in Support of ERP Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, George

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental study examined the application of a business simulation against training in support of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Defining more effective training strategies is a critical concern for organizational leaders and stakeholders concerned by today's economic challenges. The scope of this…

  15. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  16. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices a

  17. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    TAKIYA, Seema; ARCHBOLD, Jennifer; Zane BERGE

    2015-01-01

    With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintenti...

  18. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    TAKIYA, Seema; ARCHBOLD, Jennifer; Zane BERGE

    2005-01-01

    With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintentional ...

  19. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation and the c...

  20. Evaluation of the effects of the Advanced Paediatric Life-Support course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Doctors are generally unacceptably poor at resuscitation and this has been shown to lead to unnecessary mortality. This problem has led to the development of structured resuscitation training in the form of life-support courses, which have become very popular and are widely advocated, but which are

  1. Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) and postpartum hemorrhage: A prospective intervention study in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training on staff performance and the incidences of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at a regional hospital in Tanzania. Design. Prospective intervention study. Setting. A regional, referral hospital. Population. A total o...

  2. Employment Status, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Juan A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)

  3. Passengers, Crew, Life Support, and Insurance Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel A.; Young, Lawrence R.

    1999-01-01

    This section describes the key issues, barriers, opportunities, and potential trip packages related to the needs and expectations of initial space adventure travelers. A variety of ideas to overcome barriers is presented that address financial, psychological, and sociological problems expected to be encountered in establishing a general PST and tourism business. Tour package descriptions range from near-term surface training facilities to far-term lunar ones. Recommendations include requirements pertaining to human factors in design and needed technology.

  4. Professional Knowledge of Child Support Staff: Evidence from the New Jersey Child Support Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Blake, Allison; Edwards, Richard L.; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Nolan, Robert B.; Rusen, Barbara; Thompson, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Child support enforcement (CSE) has experienced dramatic changes in the last decade; however, it is not clear whether child support staff is fully aware of the development. Using data from the New Jersey child support training program (n = 530), this article aims to evaluate the professional knowledge of child support staff. The results show that…

  5. SLurtles: Supporting Constructionist Learning in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Carina; Tangney, Brendan; Savage, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Constructionism places an emphasis on the process of constructing shareable artefacts. Many virtual worlds, such as "Second Life", provide learners with tools for the construction of objects and hence may facilitate in-world constructionist learning experiences. However, the construction tools available present learners with a significant barrier…

  6. Marketing defibrillation training programs and bystander intervention support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneath, Julie Z; Lacey, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study identifies perceptions of and participation in resuscitation training programs, and bystanders' willingness to resuscitate cardiac arrest victims. While most of the study's participants greatly appreciate the importance of saving someone's life, many indicated that they did not feel comfortable assuming this role. The findings also demonstrate there is a relationship between type of victim and bystanders' willingness to intervene. Yet, bystander intervention discomfort can be overcome with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation training, particularly when the victim is a coworker or stranger. Further implications of these findings are discussed and modifications to public access defibrillation (PAD) training programs' strategy and communications are proposed.

  7. Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xibin; Zhou, Tianfeng; Xie, Lijing; Jiao, Li; Liu, Zhibing; Liang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Pei

    2017-03-01

    The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub, especially amidst a poor external wind environment. A three-point elastic support, which includes the main bearing and two torque arms, was considered in this study. Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing, a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train. Then, the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed. Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train. Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train. A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing, whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing. The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.

  8. Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaishuai; Zhu, Caichao; Song, Chaosheng; Han, Huali

    2017-09-01

    The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub, especially amidst a poor external wind environment. A three-point elastic support, which includes the main bearing and two torque arms, was considered in this study. Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing, a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train. Then, the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed. Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train. Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train. A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing, whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing. The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.

  9. Life Events, Social Support and Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-07

    Bowlby , J. Attachment and loss: (vol. 3) Loss: Sadness and depression. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1980. Cooley, E.J., & Keesey, J.C. Moderator variables in life...School ATTN: Professor John Senger Operations Research and Administrative Science Monterey, CA 93940 Superintendent Naval Postgraduate School Code 1424...University Columbus, O 43210 Dr. Joseph V. Brady The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Division of Behavioral Biology Baltimore, MD 21205

  10. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  11. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, Seema; Archbold, Jennifer; Berge, Zane

    2005-01-01

    With more companies allowing "flextime", more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies "sell" to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many…

  12. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Via, A.; Blicher, T.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; Brazas, M.D.; Brooksbank, C.; Budd, A.; Rivas, J. De Las; Dreyer, J.; Fernandes, P.L.; Gelder, C.W. van; Jacob, J.; Jimenez, R.C.; Loveland, J.; Moran, F.; Mulder, N.; Nyronen, T.; Rother, K.; Schneider, M.V.; Attwood, T.K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environ

  13. Medical Support for ISS Crewmember Training in Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Natacha; Pattarini, James; Cole, Richard; Patlach, Robert; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Medical support of spaceflight training operations across international lines is a unique circumstance with potential applications to other aerospace medicine support scenarios. KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) has fulfilled this role since the Mir-Shuttle era, with extensive experience and updates to share with the greater AsMA community. OVERVIEW: The current Soyuz training flow for assigned ISS crewmembers takes place in Star City, Russia. Soyuz training flow involves numerous activities that pose potential physical and occupational risks to crewmembers, including centrifuge runs and pressurized suit simulations at ambient and hypobaric pressures. In addition, Star City is a relatively remote location in a host nation with variable access to reliable, Western-standard medical care. For these reasons, NASA's Human Health & Performance contract allocates full-time physician support to assigned ISS crewmembers training in Star City. The Star City physician also treats minor injuries and illnesses as needed for both long- and short-term NASA support personnel traveling in the area, while working to develop and maintain relationships with local health care resources in the event of more serious medical issues that cannot be treated on-site. The specifics of this unique scope of practice will be discussed. SIGNIFICANCE: ISS crewmembers training in Star City are at potential physical and occupational risk of trauma or dysbarism during nominal Soyuz training flow, requiring medical support from an on-duty aerospace medicine specialist. This support maintains human health and performance by preserving crewmember safety and well-being for mission success; sharing information regarding this operational model may contribute to advances in other areas of international, military, and civilian operational aerospace medicine.

  14. Medical Support for ISS Crewmember Training in Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Natacha; Pattarini, James; Cole, Richard; Patlach, Robert; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Medical support of spaceflight training operations across international lines is a unique circumstance with potential applications to other aerospace medicine support scenarios. KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) has fulfilled this role since the Mir-Shuttle era, with extensive experience and updates to share with the greater AsMA community. OVERVIEW: The current Soyuz training flow for assigned ISS crewmembers takes place in Star City, Russia. Soyuz training flow involves numerous activities that pose potential physical and occupational risks to crewmembers, including centrifuge runs and pressurized suit simulations at ambient and hypobaric pressures. In addition, Star City is a relatively remote location in a host nation with variable access to reliable, Western-standard medical care. For these reasons, NASA's Human Health & Performance contract allocates full-time physician support to assigned ISS crewmembers training in Star City. The Star City physician also treats minor injuries and illnesses as needed for both long- and short-term NASA support personnel traveling in the area, while working to develop and maintain relationships with local health care resources in the event of more serious medical issues that cannot be treated on-site. The specifics of this unique scope of practice will be discussed. SIGNIFICANCE: ISS crewmembers training in Star City are at potential physical and occupational risk of trauma or dysbarism during nominal Soyuz training flow, requiring medical support from an on-duty aerospace medicine specialist. This support maintains human health and performance by preserving crewmember safety and well-being for mission success; sharing information regarding this operational model may contribute to advances in other areas of international, military, and civilian operational aerospace medicine.

  15. EXPLOITATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN POPULATED PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudchenko I. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects of control, regulation, functioning and degree of influence on the condition of life-support systems, on the safety of life support, on the safety vital functions of society. The impact of life-support systems on the ecological status of builtup areas. The article refers to an increase in emissions and the dangers of СО2 и SО2, about methods to reduce them. It presents the dangers of hydrogen compounds, nitrogen, chlorine, freon. We have also presented measures to protect the environment in urban areas

  16. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  17. Biomedical ethics and the withdrawal of advanced life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, N R; Faul, J L; Raffin, T A

    2001-01-01

    It is common for health care providers to deal with the complex and difficult issue of withdrawing advanced life support. The patient is always the key source of authority in these decisions. The most important ingredient in end-of-life decision making is effective communication. It is important to try to ascertain what the patient thought about quality-of-life values before surrogate decisions can be made on the patient's behalf. The concepts of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice are the foundation of ethical decision making. Numerous legal precedents have laid the groundwork for end-of-life decision making. Most state courts have supported withholding and withdrawing life support from patients who will not regain a reasonable quality of life. The recent Patient Self-Determination Act encourages patients to fill out advance directives that state their desires. When continued intensive care is futile, advanced life support should be withdrawn. However, a narrow definition of futility in this situation is the key, since the concept of futility could lead to inappropriate decisions. It is best to consider a situation futile when the patient is terminally ill, the condition is irreversible, and death is imminent. During the withdrawal of advanced life support, terminal or rapid weaning is preferable to extubation. Combinations of opiates, benzodiazepines, and other agents help provide comfort to patients who are suffering.

  18. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Configuration Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauber, V.; Scheffer, N.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of configuration management-related activities within a nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. This paper describes a new training course that shall support the standardization and improvement of configuration management activities. Recommendations will be given that should be considered when designing and developing comparable training programs to support change processes within engineering units. (Author)

  19. [Standardised primary care of multiple trauma patients. Prehospital Trauma Life Support und Advanced Trauma Life Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, C G; Gliwitzky, B; Wentzensen, A

    2009-10-01

    Standardised management improves treatment results in seriously injured patients. For conditions like stroke or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) there are set treatment pathways which have been established for prehospital and primary hospital care. The treatment of critical trauma patients, however, follows varying procedures in both the prehospital and primary hospital phases. From an analysis of the trauma register of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU), we know that a seriously injured patient remains on the road for 70 min on average before transferral to hospital. This requires improvement. With the 2003 introduction of the ATLS programme in Germany, the initial clinical phase could be improved upon simply by means of standardised training. PHTLS und ATLS complement one another. PHTLS und ATLS represent training concepts which teach standardised, priority-based prehospital and hospital trauma management. The aim is to make an initial rapid and accurate assessment of the patient's condition, thereby identifying the"critical" patient. The concepts also make priority-based treatment possible and facilitate decision-making as to whether patients can receive further on-the-spot treatment or whether immediate transport is necessary. The procedure is identical in the shock room. The primary consideration is to prevent secondary damage, not to lose track of time and to ensure consistent quality of care. The courses teach systematic knowledge, techniques, skills and conduct in diagnosis and therapy. The courses are oriented to all medical specialities associated with trauma care. With the support of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) and the German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine (DGAI), the German Professional Organisation of Rescue Services (DBRD) has adopted the PHTLS course system on licence from the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) and the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and has been offering it in

  20. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  1. Composting in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  2. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  3. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees,

  4. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  5. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  6. Collaborative learning: A next step in the training of peer support providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronise, Rita

    2016-09-01

    This column explores how peer support provider training is enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is an approach that draws upon the "real life" experiences of individual learners and encompasses opportunities to explore varying perspectives and collectively construct solutions that enrich the practice of all participants. This description draws upon published articles and examples of collaborative learning in training and communities of practice of peer support providers. Similar to person-centered practices that enhance the recovery experience of individuals receiving services, collaborative learning enhances the experience of peer support providers as they explore relevant "real world" issues, offer unique contributions, and work together toward improving practice. Three examples of collaborative learning approaches are provided that have resulted in successful collaborative learning opportunities for peer support providers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Planetary gear train ring gear and support structure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valco, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Most helicopter transmissions utilize a planetary gear train as the final speed reduction stage. Due to weight constraints these transmissions have high power-to-weight ratios and relatively flexible structures. This investigation addresses the analysis of planetary gear trains with the ring gear mounted on a flexible support structure. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. Rather than using a line of action spring to model gear pair mesh stiffness, finite element models of complete gears are developed, and the elastic gear members are engaged and rolled through mesh. The procedure includes detailed gear tooth geometry with profile modifications. A nonlinear approach is required due to large displacements associated with gear rotation and nonlinear boundary conditions associated with the gear tooth surface contact. The updated Lagrangian formulation and the MARC K-4.1 automated contact features are applied in the analysis. The ring gear support structure is modeled by an elastic foundation linking the ring gear to a rigid support. Calculation of gear pair deflections, stresses, transmission error, and mesh stiffness through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated for external and internal spur gear pairs and a planetary gear train. Issues relating to the accuracy of the nonlinear finite element contact method, gear mesh stiffness, transmission error, and the planetary gear train elastic support structure are discussed.

  8. Exploring differential effects of supervisor support on transfer of training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, D.J.J.M.; Nijhof, W.J.; Wognum, A.A.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to provide further insight into the relationship between supervisor support and transfer of training, by taking into account the effects of other transfer‐influencing factors in a systemic approach of the transfer process. Design/methodology/approach – A rev

  9. Training with inspiratory pressure support in patients with severe COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hul, A. van 't; Gosselink, R.; Hollander, P.; Postmus, P.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of training with noninvasive ventilatory support in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a randomised, controlled, observer-blinded trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with a ventilatory limited exercise

  10. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research.

  11. Retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy and chest compression performance in Thai undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partiprajak, Suphamas; Thongpo, Pichaya

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy, and chest compression performance among Thai nursing students at a university in Thailand. A one-group, pre-test and post-test design time series was used. Participants were 30 nursing students undertaking basic life support training as a care provider. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to test the retention of knowledge and self-efficacy between pre-test, immediate post-test, and re-test after 3 months. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the difference in chest compression performance two times. Basic life support knowledge was measured using the Basic Life Support Standard Test for Cognitive Knowledge. Self-efficacy was measured using the Basic Life Support Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Chest compression performance was evaluated using a data printout from Resusci Anne and Laerdal skillmeter within two cycles. The training had an immediate significant effect on the knowledge, self-efficacy, and skill of chest compression; however, the knowledge and self-efficacy significantly declined after post-training for 3 months. Chest compression performance after training for 3 months was positively retaining compared to the first post-test but was not significant. Therefore, a retraining program to maintain knowledge and self-efficacy for a longer period of time should be established after post-training for 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Staff Support: Evaluating Active Support Training Using a Conditional Probability Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, David; Bowley, Clare; Baxter, Helen; Jones, Edwin; Lowe, Kathy; Emerson, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Active Support, a package of procedures which includes activity planning, support planning, and training on providing effective assistance, was evaluated in five community residences serving 19 adults with severe mental retardation. Findings indicated that the likelihood of a resident engaging in activity significantly increased following staff…

  13. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  14. Space Life Support Technology Applications to Terrestrial Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.

  15. Potential of derived lunar volatiles for life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.

  16. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  17. Robust support vector machine-trained fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Yahya; Yazdi, Hadi Sadoghi

    2014-02-01

    Because the SVM (support vector machine) classifies data with the widest symmetric margin to decrease the probability of the test error, modern fuzzy systems use SVM to tune the parameters of fuzzy if-then rules. But, solving the SVM model is time-consuming. To overcome this disadvantage, we propose a rapid method to solve the robust SVM model and use it to tune the parameters of fuzzy if-then rules. The robust SVM is an extension of SVM for interval-valued data classification. We compare our proposed method with SVM, robust SVM, ISVM-FC (incremental support vector machine-trained fuzzy classifier), BSVM-FC (batch support vector machine-trained fuzzy classifier), SOTFN-SV (a self-organizing TS-type fuzzy network with support vector learning) and SCLSE (a TS-type fuzzy system with subtractive clustering for antecedent parameter tuning and LSE for consequent parameter tuning) by using some real datasets. According to experimental results, the use of proposed approach leads to very low training and testing time with good misclassification rate.

  18. Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1994-11-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  19. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  20. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  1. Efficacy of a training intervention on the quality of practitioners' decision support for patients deciding about place of care at the end of life: A randomized control trial: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Mary Ann

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people prefer home palliation but die in an institution. Some experience decisional conflict when weighing options regarding place of care. Clinicians can identify patients' decisional needs and provide decision support, yet generally lack skills and confidence in doing so. This study aims to determine whether the quality of clinicians' decision support can be improved with a brief, theory-based, skills-building intervention. Theory The Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF guides an evidence based, practical approach to assist clinicians in providing high-quality decision support. The ODSF proposes that decisional needs [personal uncertainty, knowledge, values clarity, support, personal characteristics] strongly influence the quality of decisions patients make. Clinicians can improve decision quality by providing decision support to address decisional needs [clarify decisional needs, provide facts and probabilities, clarify values, support/guide deliberation, monitor/facilitate progress]. Methods/Design The efficacy of a brief education intervention will be assessed in a two-phase study. In phase one a focused needs assessment will be conducted with key informants. Phase two is a randomized control trial where clinicians will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention, informed by the needs assessment, knowledge transfer best practices and the ODSF, comprises an online tutorial; an interactive skills building workshop; a decision support protocol; performance feedback, and educational outreach. Participants will be assessed: a at baseline (quality of decision support; b after the tutorial (knowledge; and c four weeks after the other interventions (quality of decision support, intention to incorporate decision support into practice and perceived usefulness of intervention components. Between group differences in the primary outcome (quality of decision support scores will be analyzed

  2. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  3. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  4. Internet-Supported Physical Exercise Training for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis-A Randomised, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallner, Alexander; Streber, René; Hentschke, Christian; Morgott, Marc; Geidl, Wolfgang; Mäurer, Mathias; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2016-09-30

    Physical exercise is effective in improving functional outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of internet-based exercise training (e-training) for pwMS on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, aerobic capacity, lung function, physical activity, and fatigue. This is a randomised, controlled trial with a wait-list control group. Data were collected at baseline, after three and six months, and analysed using a hybrid linear model. One-hundred twenty-six pwMS participated in the home-based aerobic (1×/week) and strength training (2×/week) intervention that was supervised and documented via an internet-platform. The intervention group received e-training for six months, and the control group received e-training after a three months waiting period. Significant differences between the groups were only observed for muscle strength (knee flexion (effect size ES = 0.3, p = 0.003), knee extension (ES = 0.24, p = 0.015)), peak expiratory flow (ES = 0.2, p = 0.039), and sports activity (ES = 0.33, p = 0.001) after three months. E-training had no effect on HrQoL but did on muscle strength, lung function, and physical activity. It is a promising and feasible approach to facilitate large-scale, yet individual, training support.

  5. Internet-Supported Physical Exercise Training for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis—A Randomised, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is effective in improving functional outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS. We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of internet-based exercise training (e-training for pwMS on health-related quality of life (HrQoL. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, aerobic capacity, lung function, physical activity, and fatigue. This is a randomised, controlled trial with a wait-list control group. Data were collected at baseline, after three and six months, and analysed using a hybrid linear model. One-hundred twenty-six pwMS participated in the home-based aerobic (1×/week and strength training (2×/week intervention that was supervised and documented via an internet-platform. The intervention group received e-training for six months, and the control group received e-training after a three months waiting period. Significant differences between the groups were only observed for muscle strength (knee flexion (effect size ES = 0.3, p = 0.003, knee extension (ES = 0.24, p = 0.015, peak expiratory flow (ES = 0.2, p = 0.039, and sports activity (ES = 0.33, p = 0.001 after three months. E-training had no effect on HrQoL but did on muscle strength, lung function, and physical activity. It is a promising and feasible approach to facilitate large-scale, yet individual, training support.

  6. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  7. Development of an existential support training program for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to describe the developmental process of a training program for nurses to communicate existential issues with severely ill patients. The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions was used to develop a training program for nurses to communicate about existential issues with their patients. The steps in the framework were employed to describe the development of the training intervention, and the development, feasibility and piloting, evaluation, and implementation phases. The development and feasibility phases are described in the Methods section. The evaluation and implementation phases are described in the Results section. In the evaluation phase, the effectiveness of the intervention was shown as nurses' confidence in communication increased after training. The understanding of the change process was considered to be that the nurses could describe their way of communicating in terms of prerequisites, process, and content. Some efforts have been made to implement the training intervention, but these require further elaboration. Existential and spiritual issues are very important to severely ill patients, and healthcare professionals need to be attentive to such questions. It is important that professionals be properly prepared when patients need this communication. An evidence-based training intervention could provide such preparation. Healthcare staff were able to identify situations where existential issues were apparent, and they reported that their confidence in communication about existential issues increased after attending a short-term training program that included reflection. In order to design a program that should be permanently implemented, more knowledge is needed of patients' perceptions of the quality of the healthcare staff's existential support.

  8. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  9. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  10. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION...

  11. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  12. Life Events, Social Support, and Immune Response in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…

  13. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  14. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The…

  15. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  16. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  17. School-Related Social Support and Students' Perceived Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun; Hetland, Jorn; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of school-related social support from teachers, classmates, and parents on students' life satisfaction that school satisfaction, scholastic competence, and general self-efficacy, respectively, mediated. The authors based the analyses on data from a nationally representative sample of 13- and 15-year-old students (N…

  18. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  19. The Effect of Counselling-Based Training on Online Peer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekka, Foteini; Efstathiou, Giorgos; Kalantzi-Azizi, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of counselling-based training on online peer support by comparing the interventions of trained peer supporters as opposed to non-trained peer supporters. Two independent raters analysed 746 support posts published during a period of one year at the "Student to Student" online peer…

  20. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...... be described as a variance simulation based on individual data points used in an LCA. This article develops and proposes a taxonomy for LCAs based on extensive research in the LCA, management, and economic literature. This taxonomy can be used ex ante to support planning and communication between an AN and DM...

  1. 'Real life' clinical learning on an interprofessional training ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, D; Reeves, S; Goreham, C; Parker, P; Haynes, S; Pearson, S

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the multi-method evaluation of an interprofessional training ward placement for medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students. Unique in the UK, and an extension of pioneering work in Sweden (Wahlström et al. 1997, Wahlstroöm & Sandén 1998), this interprofessional clinical placement allowed senior pre-qualifying students, under the supervision of practitioners, to plan and deliver interprofessional care for a group of orthopaedic and rheumatology patients. This responsibility enabled students to develop both their profession-specific skills in a real-world setting and the quality of their interprofessional teamwork. Student teams were supported by facilitators who led reflective sessions and acted as a resource for the students' problem-based learning. The training ward was evaluated by a multi-method approach, incorporating interviews, observations and questionnaires with students, patients and clinical staff. The evaluation findings have been grouped into a number of themes which offer an insight into the varying perspectives of training ward students, patients and staff. This paper pays particular attention to the nursing perspective of the interprofessional training ward pilot.

  2. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  3. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2014-01-01

    -up questionnaire one week later. The questionnaire consisted of an eight item multiple-choice test on BLS knowledge, a four-level evaluation of self-assessed BLS skills and evaluation of fear based on a qualitative description and visual analog scale from 0 to 10 for being first responder. RESULTS: Sixty......-three percent of the students (413/651) had participated in prior BLS training. Only 28% (179/651) knew how to correctly recognize normal breathing. The majority was afraid of exacerbating the condition or causing death by intervening as first responder. The response rate at follow-up was 61% (399....../651). There was a significant improvement in correct answers on the multiple-choice test (p first responder was decreased 6.8 ± 2.2 to 5.5 ± 2.4 (p

  4. Estimation model of training support system for Finite Element Analysis and implementation of training scenario as knowledge patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Murayama

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an arrangement method of FEA modeling knowledge by using a design pattern methodology, and deals with an estimation method of FEA training scenario. The prototype support system and its training knowledge can be arranged and classified in several patterns, while the mechanics of a beam structure has been picked up as an example of training subject. Essential evaluation problems were prepared for checking the synthetic achievement and the effectivity of training support system onto any beginners of the code called MARC/MENTAT has been investigated. Through the simulation with the prototype training support system, an evaluation model as the synthetic achievement test for any training scenario was shown with the degree vector. Observing the reusability of training programs, the compression rate of iterated common operations was estimated for the prototype training support system.

  5. International experiences of training and support of students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik Y.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on practices of higher inclusive education in universities of the USA, Canada and Russian Federation and provides their complex assessment. The authors explore modern effective practices of training and support of students with disabilities. The universities are evaluated according to the results of monitoring of accommodations for the disabled carried out in 2015-2016. This evaluation includes assessments made by experts during their visits to the universities as well as an overview of the development of inclusive education practices in each university and, in particular, of the measures aimed at making higher education more accessible to students with disabilities. The authors argue for the necessity of establishing new and developing already existing resource training centers in the Russian regions and discuss the issues concerning the possible use of a single base of educational, information, research and methodological resources to ensure equal access to education and effective learning for students with disabilities.

  6. Life Skills Training for Middle and High School Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Ni, Xinyu; Lee, Young-Sun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which life skills training was offered to middle and high school students with autism and life skills training needs after high school. A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Training Study-2 (NLTS-2) data was conducted in this study. This study found that the majority of the middle and high school…

  7. Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects.

  8. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  9. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  10. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Approach to the Patient with Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Cadena, Rhonda S; Pineda, Jose

    2015-12-01

    Coma is an acute failure of neuronal systems governing arousal and awareness and represents a medical emergency. When encountering a comatose patient, the clinician must have an organized approach to detect easily remediable causes, prevent ongoing neurologic injury, and determine a hierarchical plan for diagnostic tests, treatments, and neuromonitoring. Coma was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because timely medical and surgical interventions can be life-saving, and the initial work-up of such patients is critical to establishing a correct diagnosis.

  11. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  12. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of topics related to the extended support of humans in space are covered. Overviews of research conducted in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. are presented. The methods and technologies required to recycle materials, especially respiratory gases, within a closed system are examined. Also presented are issues related to plant and algal productivity, efficiency, and processing methods. Computer simulation of closed systems, discussions of radiation effects on systems stability, and modeling of a computer bioregenerative system are also covered.

  13. Benchmarks of support in internal medicine residency training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsthal, Susan D; Beasley, Brent W; Kopelman, Richard; Stickley, William; Gabryel, Timothy; Kahn, Marc J

    2002-01-01

    To identify benchmarks of financial and staff support in internal medicine residency training programs and their correlation with indicators of quality. A survey instrument to determine characteristics of support of residency training programs was mailed to each member program of the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine. Results were correlated with the three-year running average of the pass rates on the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying examination using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of 394 surveys, 287 (73%) were completed: 74% of respondents were program directors and 20% were both chair and program director. The mean duration as program director was 7.5 years (median = 5), but it was significantly lower for women than for men (4.9 versus 8.1; p =.001). Respondents spent 62% of their time in educational and administrative duties, 30% in clinical activities, 5% in research, and 2% in other activities. Most chief residents were PGY4s, with 72% receiving compensation additional to base salary. On average, there was one associate program director for every 33 residents, one chief resident for every 27 residents, and one staff person for every 21 residents. Most programs provided trainees with incremental educational stipends, meals while oncall, travel and meeting expenses, and parking. Support from pharmaceutical companies was used for meals, books, and meeting expenses. Almost all programs provided meals for applicants, with 15% providing travel allowances and 37% providing lodging. The programs' board pass rates significantly correlated with the numbers of faculty fulltime equivalents (FTEs), the numbers of resident FTEs per office staff FTEs, and the numbers of categorical and preliminary applications received and ranked by the programs in 1998 and 1999. Regression analyses demonstrated three independent predictors of the programs' board pass rates: number of faculty (a positive predictor), percentage of clinical work

  14. Constitutional and legal protection for life support limitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients.

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  16. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief report: designing life support systems for space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent human presence in space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is now technically feasible. To achieve this goal several requirements must be met, which can be summarized as: technologies, facilities, organization, vision, and will. This paper describes a recently published NASA Reference Publication, "Designing for Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems" that addresses how to achieve the goal of permanent human presence in space, specifically, how to design and develop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for space habitats. This includes the technologies that perform the required functions, the facilities where the systems will be developed, and the organization necessary to perform the numerous tasks efficiently.

  18. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  19. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robert D.; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are “brain codes,” signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with in...

  20. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation.

  1. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  2. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  3. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Paillé, C.; Lamaze, B.; Rebeyre, P.; Rodriguez, A.; Ordonez, L.; Marty, F.

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA It involves several independent organisations University of Ghent EPAS SCK VITO B University of Clermont Ferrand SHERPA F University Autonoma of Barcelona E University of Guelph CND It is co-funded by ESA the MELISSA partners the Belgian DWTC the Spanish CIRIT and CICYT and the Canadian CRESTech CSA authorities The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food water and oxygen from organic waste inedible biomass CO 2 faeces urea Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem MELISSA process comprises 5 compartments from the anoxygenic fermenter up to the photosynthetic one algae and higher plants The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy During the past 15 years of research and development a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop This approach starts from the selection of processes their characterisation and mathematical modelling the validation of the control strategy up to the

  4. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  5. Scaling Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.

  6. Aquatic training in MS: neurotherapeutic impact upon quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Ashley N; Okuda, Darin T; Beh, Shin; Treadaway, Katherine; Mooi, Caroline; Davis, Scott L; Shah, Anjali; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-08-01

    Three fundamental principals associated with aquatic therapy differentiate it with respect to exercise on land, and in air. These are buoyancy (reduction in weight of the body within the buoyant medium of water), viscosity (a "drag force" is generated when moving within water, when compared with the same movement in air), and the thermodynamic aspect of water exercise, during which the heat capacity of water is about 1000 times greater than that of an equivalent amount of air; equating to a heat transfer from the body into water at a rate 25 times faster than that of air. Aquatic conditioning, can improve neurologic functioning, with dividends favorably impacting activities of daily living, health maintenance, safety, and ultimately quality of life. Here, we review the application of aquatic exercise training in MS patients.

  7. Aquatic training in MS: neurotherapeutic impact upon quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Ashley N; Okuda, Darin T; Beh, Shin; Treadaway, Katherine; Mooi, Caroline; Davis, Scott L; Shah, Anjali; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Three fundamental principals associated with aquatic therapy differentiate it with respect to exercise on land, and in air. These are buoyancy (reduction in weight of the body within the buoyant medium of water), viscosity (a “drag force” is generated when moving within water, when compared with the same movement in air), and the thermodynamic aspect of water exercise, during which the heat capacity of water is about 1000 times greater than that of an equivalent amount of air; equating to a heat transfer from the body into water at a rate 25 times faster than that of air. Aquatic conditioning, can improve neurologic functioning, with dividends favorably impacting activities of daily living, health maintenance, safety, and ultimately quality of life. Here, we review the application of aquatic exercise training in MS patients. PMID:26339680

  8. Development of severe accident management and training support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Ko Ryo; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the overall severe accident management strategy is under development according to the logical flow of severe accident management guidelines in some foreign countries. In Korea, the basis of severe accident management strategy is established due to the development of Korean severe accident guideline. In the straining system, the professional information as well as the general information for severe accident should be provided to the related personnel and the function of prior simulation for plant behavior according to strategy execution should be required. Korean severe accident management guideline is chosen as the basis logic for development of support system for decision-support and training related with execution of severe accident strategy. The training simulator is developed for prior expectation of plant behavior and the severe accident computer code, MELCOR, is utilized as the engine, and it is possible to operate equipments necessary for execution of severe accident management guidelines. And also, the graphical interface is developed to provide the plant status and provide status change of major equipments dynamically.

  9. The effect of the Advanced Paediatric Life Support course on perceived self-efficacy and use of resuscitation skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.; Dierselhuis, M.P.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Cate, O.T. ten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a predictor of behaviour and therefore an important dimension of resuscitation training which may have consequences for patient care. The Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) course makes use of techniques which would be expected to increase self-efficacy. W

  10. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  11. End-of-Life Conversation Game Increases Confidence for Having End-of-Life Conversations for Chaplains-in-Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Watson-Martin, Elizabeth; Bohr, Tiffany A; Levi, Benjamin H; Green, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Discussing end-of-life issues with patients is an essential role for chaplains. Few tools are available to help chaplains-in-training develop end-of-life communication skills. This study aimed to determine whether playing an end-of-life conversation game increases the confidence for chaplain-in-trainings to discuss end-of-life issues with patients. We used a convergent mixed methods design. Chaplains-in-training played the end-of-life conversation game twice over 2 weeks. For each game, pre- and postgame questionnaires measured confidence discussing end-of-life issues with patients and emotional affect. Between games, chaplains-in-training discussed end-of-life issues with an inpatient. One week after game 2, chaplains-in-training were individually interviewed. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon rank-sum t tests. Content analysis identified interview themes. Quantitative and qualitative data sets were then integrated using a joint display. Twenty-three chaplains-in-training (52% female; 87% Caucasian; 70% were in year 1 of training) completed the study. Confidence scores (scale: 15-75; 75 = very confident) increased significantly after each game, increasing by 10.0 points from pregame 1 to postgame 2 ( P game, and shyness subscale scores decreased significantly after each game. Content analysis found that chaplains-in-training found the game to be a positive, useful experience and reported that playing twice was beneficial (not redundant). Mixed methods analysis suggest that an end-of-life conversation game is a useful tool that can increase chaplain-in-trainings' confidence for initiating end-of-life discussions with patients. A larger sample size is needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Understanding the Initial Impact of Early Support and Key Working Training through the Voices of Trainers, Training Participants, and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana Teresa; Lindsay, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study is reported of the delivery of the Early Support and Key Working (ES&KW) training program in England for multiagency professionals and parents. This qualitative study examined how ES&KW training principles and content relate to contemporary pillars in early childhood intervention; how this training is structured to…

  13. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Mental Health of Iranian Middle School Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Jamali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research aimed to study the effect of life skill training on mental health of Iranian middle school students.Method: This experimental study was conducted In 2015 on 100 students of city of Ghaemshahr (North of Iran, who were randomly selected and divided into two equal groups of intervention (n = 50 and control (n = 50. Qualified trainers provided eight sessions (two sessions a week for 2 hours of life skills training to the intervention group for one month. The control group did not participate in any training sessions during the same period. Mental health in both groups was assessed by a questionnaire pre- and post-training. Data were analyzed using descriptive and infernal (ANCOVA and paired t-test statistic tests.Results: The average age of the participants in both groups was 13.5±1.01. ANCOVA test results revealed that the average score of violence, addiction, stress and sensation-seeking before and after the training was statistically significant in the intervention group and control groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: Life skills training had positive effects on mental health of the participants. Given the importance of mental health in modern societies, it is necessary for schools to incorporate life skills in their curriculum to support the mental health of adolescents.

  14. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  15. Enhancing Job-Site Training of Supported Workers With Autism: A Reemphasis on Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Lattimore, L; Parsons, Marsha B.; Reid, Dennis H; Ahearn, William

    2006-01-01

    Currently recommended practice in supported work emphasizes training job skills to workers with severe disabilities while on the job. Early behavioral research indicated that skills needed in natural environments could also be trained in simulated settings. We compared job-site plus simulation training for teaching job skills to supported workers with autism to provision of training exclusively on the job. Job-site training occurred in a small publishing company during the regular work routin...

  16. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  17. Profiling the Psychological Training and Support Needs of Oncology Staff, and Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Level 2 Psychological Support Training Program Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffan, Amanda J; Daniels, Jo; Osborn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The importance of training non-psychology healthcare professionals to offer psychological support to people with cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. This small-scale pilot project sought to identify the training and support needs of oncology staff and to evaluate the effectiveness of a Level 2 Psychological Support Training Program workshop. Semi-structured interviews with five members of multidisciplinary oncology staff identified that training needs were primarily around communication skills, recognizing and dealing with emotions, offering support and empathy, and self-care. Pre and post-training questionnaires developed with these themes in mind revealed that the Level 2 Training Program workshops run in this network of hospitals are effective in increasing participants' levels of perceived knowledge and confidence across each of these domains. Recommendations are made for further enhancing this effectiveness.

  18. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  19. Application of NASA's advanced life support technologies in polar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D L; Lewis, C

    1997-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.

  20. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  1. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  2. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  3. Distributing personal resuscitation manikins in an untrained population: how well are basic life support skills acquired?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-instruction with a DVD and a simple personal manikin is an effective alternative to traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. Objective To evaluate the effect of distributing DVD training kits to untrained laypersons. BLS skills were compared according to 2005 guidelines...... There was no statistically significant difference in the total score after 3.5 months. The 'DVD-self-instructor' group obtained 33 (29-37) points and the 'DVD-with instructor' group obtained 34 (32-37) points, p=0.16. The 'DVD-with instructor' group performed significantly better in checking responsiveness and had...

  4. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-08-01

    The present study draws on Scott's (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency.

  5. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  6. Crop growth and associated life support for a lunar farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice

    1992-01-01

    Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.

  7. Sensitivity of Support Vector Machine Classification to Various Training Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuling Bian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing image classification is one of the most important techniques in image interpretation, which can be used for environmental monitoring, evaluation and prediction. Many algorithms have been developed for image classification in the literature. Support vector machine (SVM is a kind of supervised classification that has been widely used recently. The classification accuracy produced by SVM may show variation depending on the choice of training features. In this paper, SVM was used for land cover classification using Quickbird images. Spectral and textural features were extracted for the classification and the results were analyzed thoroughly. Results showed that the number of features employed in SVM was not the more the better. Different features are suitable for different type of land cover extraction. This study verifies the effectiveness and robustness of SVM in the classification of high spatial resolution remote sensing images.    

  8. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  9. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  10. Practicing End-of-Life Conversations: Physician Communication Training Program in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Bronwyn; Browning, David M

    2015-01-01

    A Physician Communication Training Program (PCTP) utilizing scripts based on actual family conferences with patients, families, and the health care team was developed at one medical center in the Northeast. The program was designed, adapted, and directed by a palliative care social worker. The primary goal of the program is to help residents and attending physicians build better communication skills in establishing goals of care and in end-of-life planning. The scripts focus on improving physicians' basic skills in conducting family meetings, discussing advance directives, prognosis, brain death, and withdrawal of life support. Excerpts from the scripts utilized in the program are included. Feedback from participants has been positive, with all respondents indicating improvement in their capacity to take part in these challenging conversations.

  11. Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.

    2009-04-01

    A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

  12. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  13. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  14. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  15. The case for OBLS: a simulation-based obstetric life support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Steven Seth; Daniels, Kay I; Arafeh, Julie; Halamek, Louis P

    2011-04-01

    Errors by health care professionals result in significant patient morbidity and mortality, and the labor and delivery ward is one of the highest risk areas in the hospital. Parturients today are of higher acuity than anytime previously, and maternal mortality is increasing. Obstetrical staff must therefore be familiar with emergency protocols geared to the maternal-fetal dyad. However, the medical literature suggests that obstetrical providers are not optimally trained to render care during maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. We describe the evolution of immersive learning and simulation in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program, and suggest the development of a multidisciplinary team, simulation-enhanced obstetric crisis training program (OBLS) may likewise benefit obstetrical health care professionals. OBLS would emphasize high quality basic life support, uterine displacement, use of an automatic external defibrillator, and delivery of the fetus within 5 minutes of maternal arrest should resuscitative efforts prove ineffective.

  16. Intelligent automated control of life support systems using proportional representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Annie S; Garibay, Ivan I

    2004-06-01

    Effective automatic control of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) is a crucial component of space exploration. An ALSS is a coupled dynamical system which can be extremely sensitive and difficult to predict. As a result, such systems can be difficult to control using deliberative and deterministic methods. We investigate the performance of two machine learning algorithms, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a stochastic hill-climber (SH), on the problem of learning how to control an ALSS, and compare the impact of two different types of problem representations on the performance of both algorithms. We perform experiments on three ALSS optimization problems using five strategies with multiple variations of a proportional representation for a total of 120 experiments. Results indicate that although a proportional representation can effectively boost GA performance, it does not necessarily have the same effect on other algorithms such as SH. Results also support previous conclusions that multivector control strategies are an effective method for control of coupled dynamical systems.

  17. Living at Sea: Learning from Communal Life Aboard Sail Training Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers features of domestic and social life aboard sail training vessels, exploring the particular character of life at sea, and how these features contribute to the distinctive character of sail training experience as a context for learning. Methodologically, the study lies in the sociological tradition of ethnography, focusing on…

  18. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  19. Training telescope operators and support astronomers at Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J; Anderson, Joe; Pino, Andres; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Girard, Julien H V

    2016-01-01

    The operations model of the Paranal Observatory relies on the work of efficient staff to carry out all the daytime and nighttime tasks. This is highly dependent on adequate training. The Paranal Science Operations department (PSO) has a training group that devises a well-defined and continuously evolving training plan for new staff, in addition to broadening and reinforcing courses for the whole department. This paper presents the training activities for and by PSO, including recent astronomical and quality control training for operators, as well as adaptive optics and interferometry training of all staff. We also present some future plans.

  20. Training telescope operators and support astronomers at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Anderson, Joe; Pino, Andres; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Girard, Julien H. V.

    2016-07-01

    The operations model of the Paranal Observatory relies on the work of efficient staff to carry out all the daytime and nighttime tasks. This is highly dependent on adequate training. The Paranal Science Operations department (PSO) has a training group that devises a well-defined and continuously evolving training plan for new staff, in addition to broadening and reinforcing courses for the whole department. This paper presents the training activities for and by PSO, including recent astronomical and quality control training for operators, as well as adaptive optics and interferometry training of all staff. We also present some future plans.

  1. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  2. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  3. Trauma patient outcome after the Prehospital Trauma Life Support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; Williams, J I

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in trauma patient outcome after the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program in Trinidad and Tobago. In January of 1992, a Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) program was also instituted. This study assessed trauma patient outcome after the PHTLS program. Morbidity (length of stay and degree of disability), mortality, injury severity score, mechanism of injury, age, and sex among all adult trauma patients transported by ambulance to the major trauma hospital were assessed between July of 1990 to December of 1991 (pre-PHTLS, n = 332) and January of 1994 to June of 1995 (post-PHTLS, n = 350). Age, sex distribution, percentage blunt injury, and injury severity score were similar for both groups. Mortality pre-PHTLS (15.7%) was greater than post-PHTLS (10.6%). Length of stay and disability were statistically significantly decreased post-PHTLS. Age, injury severity score, and mechanism of injury were positively correlated with mortality in both periods. The previously reported post-ATLS mortality was similar to the pre-PHTLS mortality. Post-PHTLS mortality and morbidity were significantly decreased, suggesting a positive impact of the PHTLS program on trauma patient outcome.

  4. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  5. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  6. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  7. Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; George, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. Aims: The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading t...

  8. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Mohammad Sedaghat; Mahdi Safdarian; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Zahra Nezamdoust; Mohammad Vaseie; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and timetable methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients' outcome,we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns'performance in simulated trauma patient management.Methods:A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad,Iran.On the first day,we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients.After 2 days of ATLS training,we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day.The two findings,preand post-ATLS periods,were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software.P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:Our findings showed that interns' ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course.On the fourth day after training,there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures,the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001,P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively).Conclusion:ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  10. Fast Training of Support Vector Machines Using Error-Center-Based Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Meng; Q. H. Wu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for Support Vector Machine (SVM) training, which trains a machine based on the cluster centers of errors caused by the current machine. Experiments withvarious training sets show that the computation time of this new algorithm scales almost linear with training set size and thus may be applied to much larger training sets, in comparison to standard quadratic programming (QP) techniques.

  11. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  12. Staff attitudes towards continuation of life-support in newborns with major congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazebroek, FWJ; Bos, AP; Ouwens, C; Tibboel, D; Molenaar, JC

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain insight into the attitudes of medical staff towards life-support of newborns with life-threatening problems, seen against the background of these children's expected morbidity and quality of life. The opinions about the mode of life-support were determined by questio

  13. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  14. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  15. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Persad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blocker (CCB toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient′s blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS.

  16. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  17. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Elizabeth A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T.; Sheeran, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS. PMID:23559727

  18. Support for life-cycle product reuse in NASA's SSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.

  19. Animal life support transporters for Shuttle/Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Hunt, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Two transporter devices have been developed by the NASA Ames Research Center, primarily for the purpose of stowing small vertebrates and primates in the mid-deck avionics bay of the Shuttle during launch and re-entry. These animals will be used in Life Science Spacelab experiments. Stowage in the mid-deck area will reduce animal exposure to the high noise levels existing in Spacelab during launch; further, the possible exposure of the animals to high temperatures in Spacelab during re-entry and post-landing will be eliminated. The transporters will provide experimenters more timely access to their animals during experiment-critical, pre-launch, and post-landing periods. Rechargeable batteries in the transporters will provide life support system functions for the animals during periods of transfer and during mission phases in which power is temporarily unavailable. The transporters have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Integrated testing of the transporters was performed in the Space Mission Development III (SMD III) Simulation at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  20. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  1. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  2. Don't Trust a Management Metric, Especially in Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.

  3. Training Paraprofessionals to Support Students with Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Virginia L.; Smith, Carol G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe intervention research studies in which paraprofessionals received training applicable to student with disabilities. Thirty studies were systematically reviewed to identify (a) characteristics of study participants and settings, (b) characteristics of paraprofessional training and…

  4. Supporting transfer of training : effects of the supervisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Derk-Jan Jacob Matthias

    2004-01-01

    One of the best-known and most widely used ways to improve employee performance in organisations is the use of corporate training. As a consequence, the effects of training are of major interest to both scholars and scientists in the field of human resource development. The results of research indic

  5. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  6. [Test to measure basic life support and defibrillation skills in primary care doctors and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabella Abril, Bartomeu; Lacasta Tintorer, David; Clusa Gironella, Thais; Perelló Bratescu, Aina; García Ortega, M A Dolores; Albiach Pla, Antoni; Larrea Tárrega, Salomé

    2010-01-01

    To prepare and validate a tool to measure Basic Life Support (BLS) and semi-automatic defibrillator (SAD) skills adapted for use by health professionals in Primary Care Teams (PCT). To propose an updated version and demonstrate self-sufficiency of the team to use it in a training evaluation. Validation of measurement tools. Study of reliability with repeated measurements after a training course. Drassanes Primary Care Centre. Raval Sud Basic Health Area. Barcelona. Spain. A total of 37 voluntary resuscitators (all doctors/nurses), professional camera, medical controller, computerised mannequin, 6 evaluators. Test preparation methodology. Cardiff Model 3.1. 2 filmed series (professional+domestic), of 26-25 "station type" simulations, separated by 1 month. A training workshop between series. Retrospective evaluation of DVD recordings (5 evaluators). 2nd series scored again at 3 weeks with a blind and random order filmed version. performances classified from worse to best execution. Psychometric analysis: Validity (content/apparent). Test-retest reliability, between-observer and sensitivity to change. Compared to the Cardiff test (46 items) our 83 item test contained 38(46%) new, 34(41%) modified and 11(13%) similar. Between-evaluator reliability, excellent/good in 51/62 items analysed; Within-evaluator and between-filming reliability, excellent/good in all except 1 item; the test score doubled after the training course. A version of the test according to BLS-SAD recommendations is proposed. On there not being useful tools available for Primary Care doctors and nurses, one has been prepared with adequate psychometric guarantees and proven self-sufficient evaluation. We propose the immediate application of the updated version for training evaluation purposes. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Adapting the Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course for emergency care education in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cayley Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.

  8. Adapting the Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP) course for emergency care education in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Cayley Jr, William E

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP) course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.

  9. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  10. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  11. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  12. The Virtual Habitat - a tool for Life Support Systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, Markus; Dirlich, Thomas; Harder, Jan; Pfeiffer, Matthias

    In the course of designing Life Support Systems (LSS) a great multitude of concepts for and various combinations of subsystems and components are developed. In order to find an optimal LSS solution, thus the right combination of subsystems, the parameters for the definition of the optimization itself have to be determined. The often times used Equivalent Systems Mass (ESM) based trade study approach for life support systems is well suited for phase A conceptual design evaluations. The ESM approach allows an efficient evaluation of LSS on a component or subsystem level. The necessary next step in the process is the design, evaluation and optimization of the LSS on a system level. For the system level LSS design a classic ESM-based trade study seems not to be able to provide the information that is necessary to evaluate the concept correctly. Important decisive criteria such as system stability, controllability and effectiveness are not represented in the ESM approach. These parameters directly and decisively impact the scientific efficiency of the crew, thereby the mission in total. Thus, for system level optimization these criteria must be included alongside the ESM in a new integral optimization method. In order to be able to apply such an integral criterion dynamic modeling of most involved LSS subsystems, especially of the human crew, is necessary. Only then the required information about the efficiency of the LSS, over time, e.g. the systems stability, becomes available. In an effort to establish a dynamic simulation environment for habitats in extreme environmental conditions, the "Virtual Habitat" tool is being developed by the Human Spaceflight Group of the Technische Universit¨t M¨nchen (TUM). The paper discussed here presents the concept of a u the virtual habitat simulation. It discusses in what way the simulation tool enables a prediction of system characteristics and required information demanded by an integral optimization criterion. In general the

  13. STUDENT ACADEMIC SUPPORT AS A PREDICTOR OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Akýn; Serhat Arslan; Eyüp Çelik; Çýnar Kaya; Nihan Arslan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support and life satisfaction were examined using correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. Life satisfaction was predicted positively by info...

  14. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  15. In search of work/life balance: trainee perspectives on part-time obstetrics and gynaecology specialist training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Part-time training (PTT is accessed by approximately 10% of Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees, a small but increasing minority which reflects the growing demand for improved work/life balance amongst the Australian medical workforce. This survey reports the attitudes and experiences of both full-time and part-time trainees to PTT. Methods An email-based anonymous survey was sent to all Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in April 2009, collecting demographic and training status data, data on personal experiences of PTT and/or trainees, and attitudes towards PTT. Results 105 responses were received (20% response rate. These indicated strong support (90% from both full-time (FT and part-time (PT trainees for the availability of PTT. PT trainees were significantly more likely than FT trainees to be female with children. Improved morale was seen as a particular advantage of PTT; decreased continuity of care as a disadvantage. Conclusions Although limited by poor response rate, both PT and FT Australian obstetric trainees were supportive of part-time training. Both groups recognised important advantages and disadvantages of this mode of training. Currently, part-time training is accessed primarily by female trainees with family responsibilities, with many more trainees considering part-time training than the number that access it.

  16. The effect of life skills training on emotional intelligence of the medical sciences students in iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lolaty, Hamideh A; Ghahari, Sharbanoo; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  17. Person Focused Training: A Model for Delivering Positive Behavioural Supports to People with Challenging Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, B.; Dench, C.; Grey, I.; Shanahan, S.; Fitzsimons, E.; Hendler, J.; Corrigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Person Focused Training is introduced as a model of service delivery for people with severe challenging behaviours. It is defined as training and supporting staff to conduct functional assessments and to design and implement positive behavioural support for specific individuals with challenging behaviours. Longitudinal outcome data are presented…

  18. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  19. Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presen...

  20. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  1. Extracorporeal life support systems: alternative vs. conventional circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameer; Vasavada, Rahul; Qiu, Feng; Kunselman, Allan; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    Emerging technologies and practices for pediatric and neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are promising. This experiment sought to compare the Medtronic 0800 silicon rubber membrane oxygenator to the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in the conventional roller pump circuit, as well as comparing the conventional circuit to an alternative circuit. Three circuits were set up in the experiment. Two conventional roller pump circuits were used to compare the two oxygenators and an alternative circuit consisting of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator and Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system was used to identify differences between circuits. All three circuits were primed with Lactated Ringers' solution and human blood, with an hematocrit of 40%. Testing occurred at flow rates of 250, 500, and 750 ml/ min at 37°C for mean arterial line pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg. The results of the experiment showed lower pressure drops and greater retention of total hemodynamic energy (THE) across the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator compared to the Medtronic 0800 oxygenator. Furthermore, the centrifugal pump used in the alternative circuit showed no back flow at flow rates as low as 250 ml/min while, on the other hand, rpm levels were kept below 2200 for flow rates as high as 750 ml/min. Findings support the usage of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in a circuit utilizing the Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system due to lower pressure drops and greater percentage of THE retained across the circuit. Additional advantages of the alternative circuit include rapid set-up time, easy transport, lower priming volumes, and no gravity-dependent venous drainage system so that it can be situated in close proximity to and at the level of the patient.

  2. The relationship between time management behaviour, flow, happiness and life satisfaction in the hospitality training environment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Comm. (Industrial Psychology) There is ample evidence to suggest that optimal experience (flow), happiness and life satisfaction are related to one another in the creative culinary training environment. In this study, the effect of time management behaviour on these relationships was investigated within the hospitality training environment. Furthermore, the mediating role of perceived control of time on flow was explored, as well as the direct effect of happiness and life satisfaction on...

  3. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  4. Lunar Portable Life Support System Heat Rejection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Sompayrac,Robert G.; Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Performing extravehicular activity (EVA) at various locations of the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the space suit and reject heat loads generated by the crewmember and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling required varies based on the lunar location and terrain due to the heat transferred between the suit and its surroundings. A study has been completed which investigated the resources required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions, assuming three different thermal technology categories: 1. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) 2. Subcooled Phase Change Material (SPCM) 3. Radiators with and without heat pumps Results from the study are presented that show mass and power impacts on the cooling system as a function of the location and terrain on the lunar surface. Resources (cooling equipment mass and consumables) are greater at the equator and inside sunlit craters due to the additional heat loads on the cooling system. While radiator and SPCM technologies require minimal consumables, they come with carry-weight penalties and have limitations. A wider investigation is recommended to determine if these penalties and limitations are offset by the savings in consumables.

  5. Recommendations on ambulance cardiopulmonary resuscitation in basic life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Shin, Sang Do; Sung, Soon Swee; Tanaka, Hideharu; Huei-Ming, Matthew; Song, Kyoung Jun; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Leong, Benjamin Sieu-Hon; Karim, Sarah Abdul; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Iwami, Taku; Kajino, Kentaro; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Lee, Kyung Won; Sumetchotimaytha, Nathida; Swor, Robert; Myers, Brent; Mackey, Kevin; McNally, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during ambulance transport can be a safety risk for providers and can affect CPR quality. In many Asian countries with basic life support (BLS) systems, patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are routinely transported in ambulances in which CPR is performed. This paper aims to make recommendations on best practices for CPR during ambulance transport in BLS systems. A panel consisting of 20 experts (including 4 North Americans) in emergency medical services (EMS) and resuscitation science was selected, and met over two days. We performed a literature review and selected 33 candidate issues in five core areas. Using Delphi methodology, the issues were classified into dichotomous (yes/no), multiple choice, and ranking questions. Primary consensus between experts was reached when there was more than 70% agreement. Questions with 60-69% agreement were made more specific and were submitted for a second round of voting. The panel agreed upon 24 consensus statements with more than 70% agreement (2 rounds of voting). The recommendations cover the following: length of time on the scene; advanced airway at the scene; CPR prior to transport; rhythm analysis and defibrillation during transport; prehospital interventions; field termination of resuscitation (TOR); consent for TOR; destination hospital; transport protocol; number of staff members; restraint systems; mechanical CPR; turning off of the engine for rhythm analysis; alternative CPR; and feedback for CPR quality. Recommendations for CPR during ambulance transport were developed using the Delphi method. These recommendations should be validated in clinical settings.

  6. Supporting Students' Pedagogical Working Life Horizon in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Skaniakos, Terhi; Lairio, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a model of a pedagogical working life horizon. It encompasses questions posed by individual students concerning their future and incorporates the idea of a working life orientation to the pedagogical possibilities within education. Working life orientation consists of three elements: individual relationship, knowledge…

  7. Transfer between training of part-tasks in complex skill training : Model development and supporting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, J.J.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most common instruction-strategies for training complex skills is part-training. A complex task can often be divided into part-tasks. Part-training requires that certain part-tasks or combinations of part-tasks be practised in isolation in order to promote the transfer of skills that are

  8. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  9. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  10. A Study of United States Army Product Support Manager (PSM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    relevant policy and data associated with Product Support Manager (PSM) responsibilities, measure the current status of PSM training and selection, and...conduct an analysis of the effectiveness of that PSM training in relation to weapon system acquisition support. PRODUCT SUPPORT MANAGER (PSM...review, a written survey to measure the effectiveness was sent to current PMs, Deputy PMs (DPMs), and PSMs within the Redstone Arsenal community. The

  11. Concept of didactic support of training students with somatic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kislaja N.J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article, first based on the theoretical analysis of the sources, defines the essence and characteristics of the didactic support's concept in the educational process of students with physical disabilities as well as determinations of philosophical, psychological and social basis of didactic support's concept. The difference between concepts of pedagogical and didactic support is also observed in it.

  12. Teaching Basic Life Support to Students of Public and Private High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gonçalves Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries.Objectives:To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training.Methods:Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED. They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later.Results:The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p < 0.001; and 65% ± 12.4% vs. 45.6% ± 16%, p < 0.001, respectively. The total odds ratio of the questions showed that the private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18, p < 0.001; 3.56 (CI95% 2.57-4.93, p < 0.001; and 2.21 (CI95% 1.69-2.89, p < 0.001.Conclusions:Before training, most students had insufficient knowledge about CPR and AED; after BLS training a significant immediate and delayed improvement in learning was observed in students, especially in private school students.

  13. Impact of the prehospital trauma life support programme in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; George, B; Taylor, A; Patino, T; West, U; Ali, E; Bedaysie, H

    1998-09-01

    The impact of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) programme, introduced in Trinidad and Tobago in 1992, was assessed by questionnaires completed by 26 medical personnel (MP); 71 ambulance personnel (AP); and 50 non ambulance paramedical personnel (NAP). Of the 23 MP, 45 AP and 38 NAP who were aware of the programme, 19 (82.6%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 25 (65.8%) NAP were able to differentiate personnel that had taken the PHTLS programme based on their performance. 32 (71.1%) of the AP were PHTLS trained. 24 (53.3%) and 4 (9%) of the AP identified poor equipment and poor supervision, respectively, as reasons for difficulty in applying PHTLS principles. Improvements observed among those completing the PHTLS programme were: improved resuscitation techniques by 20 (86.9%) MP, 38 (84.4%) AP and 27 (71.1%) NAP; better vital signs recording by 8 (34.8%) MP, 27 (60%) AP and 8 (21.1%) NAP; improved immobilization by 23 (100%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 33 (86.8%) NAP; better haemorrhage control by 22 (95.6%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 24 (63.2%) NAP; appropriate splinting of fractures by 23 (100%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 32 (84.2%) NAP; and increased utilization of oxygen by 15 (65.2%) MP, 31 (68.9%) AP and 21 (55.3%) NAP. 32 (71.1%) AP with PHTLS training indicated improvement in their ability to resuscitate and transport trauma victims, with 42 (93.3%) reporting improvement in overall prehospital care. Medical, paramedical and ambulance personnel all perceive a significant positive impact of PHTLS training on prehospital trauma care. Although improvements in supervision, documentation and equipment are still required, improved trauma resuscitative techniques after PHTLS training should improve trauma patient outcome in Trinidad and Tobago.

  14. Information Support of Highly-Qualified Archers’ Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Власов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to ground the ways of improving the level of technical preparedness of highly-qualified archers by means of video and multimedia technologies. Materials and methods: The research studied motor actions of 25 athletes of the national team of Ukraine in archery when they were performing training exercises indoors (exercising area and outdoors (archery range. Each athlete’s technique of executing shooting exercises was video recorded in sequence from different angles (from above, from behind, from the front, from the left and the right sides depending on the shooting line with a digital video camera Sony DCR-XR150E. The processing of the video materials was done with the Dartfish Connekt software package. Results: The research grounds the need to use video and multimedia technologies in the process of training of highly-qualified archers. Such methods aim at improving the skills of both coaches and athletes by helping them better understand all aspects of the training exercises execution. Multimedia means offer a delayed-in-time opportunity to watch the video recording of the training after its preliminary computer processing. It enables the coach and the athlete to focus on the analysis of the execution of the entire exercise and its elements. The paper provides examples of the use of video technologies in archers’ training practice. Conclusions: Prospects of the use of the state-of-the-art computer technologies in sports training are infinite. Computer software and hardware systems should be available for most coaches. The task of the latter is to learn to use and implement them for the benefit of themselves and athletes. The task of the scientific groups and experts is to find a most convenient way for the coach to use the innovative technologies. The task of the software developer is to model intellectual programs to help the coach effectively analyze and evaluate his archers or team when preparing them for the most

  15. Estratégias tecnológicas de ensino associadas ao treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida Estrategias tecnológicas de enseñanza asociadas al entrenamiento en Soporte Básico de Vida Technological strategies associated with training in Basic Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Mori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se analisar a eficácia e as vantagens do uso dos recursos tecnológicos para o ensino em Suporte Básico de Vida (SBV por meio de revisão narrativa. Foram analisados 29 artigos publicados e indexados nas bases de dados MedLine, PubMed e LILACS que utilizaram vídeo, CD-ROM, DVD, websites e programas computacionais para o ensino em SBV. Observou-se que a utilização desses recursos pode favorecer a aquisição de conhecimento em níveis similares ou superiores aos métodos tardicionais de ensino. Dentre as vantagens observadas citam-se a redução dos custos de treinamento, a facilidade de acesso e padronização das informações.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar la eficacia y las ventajas del uso de los recursos tecnológicos para la enseñanza del Soporte Básico de Vida (SBV por medio de revisión narrativa. Se analizaron 29 artículos publicados e indexados en las bases de datos MedLine, PubMed y LILACS que utilizaron video, CD-ROM, DVD, websites y programas de informática para la enseñanza en SBV. Se observó que la utilización de esos recursos puede favorecer en la adquisición de conocimientos en niveles similares o superiores a los métodos tradicionales de enseñanza. Entre las ventajas observadas se citan la reducción de los costos de entrenamiento, la facilidad de acceso y patronización de las informaciones.This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness and advantages of the use of technological resources for teaching Basic Life Support (SBV through a narrative review. We analyzed 29 articles published and indexed in these sources: Medline, PubMed and LILACS that used video, CD-ROM, DVD, websites and computer programs for teaching SBV. It was observed that the use of these resources may favor the acquisition of knowledge at levels similar or superior to methods of traditional teaching. Among the observed advantages cited were the reduction in training costs, ease of access and standardization

  16. The Effect of Parental Supportive Behaviors on Life Satisfaction of Adolescent Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Margaret H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explored effects of parental support on adolescents' life satisfaction in sample of 640 adolescents ages 12 to 16. Three facets of parental support were identified and their effects on child satisfaction were examined. Intrinsic support was strongest predictor of life satisfaction. No differences based on gender of child or parent were found. (JBJ)

  17. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  18. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  19. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  20. Development of rehabilitation training support system for occupational therapy of upper limb motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Akinori; Uno, Takashi; Uchid, Masaki; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new rehabilitation training support system for upper limbs. The proposed system enables therapists to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training, to easily change the load of resistance of training and to easily develop a new training program suitable for the subjects. For this purpose we develop control algorithms of training programs in the 3D force display robot. The 3D force display robot has parallel link mechanism with three motors. The control algorithm simulating sanding training is developed for the 3D force display robot. Moreover the teaching/training function algorithm is developed. It enables the therapists to easily make training trajectory suitable for subject's condition. The effectiveness of the developed control algorithms is verified by experiments.

  1. Precursor life science experiments and closed life support systems on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Paille, C.; Rebeyre, P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, C.

    Nowadays the Moon is not only a scientific exploration target but also potentially also a launch pad for deeper space exploration. Establishing an extended human presence on the Moon could reduce the cost of further space exploration, and gather the technical and scientific experience that would make possible the next steps of space exploration, namely manned-missions to Mars. To enable the establishment of such a Moon base, a reliable and regenerative life support system (LSS) is required: without any recycling of metabolic consumables (oxygen, water and food), a 6-person crew during the course of one year would require a supply of 12t from Earth (not including water for hygiene purposes), with a prohibitive associated cost! The recycling of consumables is therefore mandatory for a combination of economic, logistical and also safety reasons. Currently the main regenerative technologies used, namely water recycling in the ISS, are physical-chemical but they do not solve the issue of food production. In the European Space Agency, for the last 15 years, studies are being performed on several life support topics, namely in air revitalisation, food, water and waste management, contaminants, monitoring and control. Ground demonstration, namely the MELiSSA Pilot Plant and Concordia Station, and simulation studies demonstrated the studies feasibility and the recycling levels are promising. To be able to build LSS in a Moon base, the temperature amplitude, the dust and its 14-day night, which limits solar power supply, should be regarded. To reduce these technical difficulties, a landing site should be carefully chosen. Considering the requirements of a mission to the Moon and within the Aurora programme phase I, a preliminary configuration for a regenerative LSS can be proposed as an experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. An overview of the necessary LSS to a Moon base will be presented, identifying Moon?s specific requirements and showing preliminary

  2. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  3. Essentials for Data Support: Training the Front Office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, M.; Verbakel, E.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of 2011 a Data Intelligence 4 Librarians course was developed to provide online resources and training for digital preservation practitioners, specifically library staff. Lessons learned during the first rounds of the course and developments in the Research Data Management landscape have

  4. Breastfeeding Support in the Workplace: The Relationships Among Breastfeeding Support, Work-Life Balance, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzer, Amanda M; Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A

    2017-06-01

    Women are increasingly faced with decisions about how to combine breastfeeding with work, but few researchers have directly measured how breastfeeding relates to the work-life interface. Research aim: The authors examined how perceptions of work enhancement of personal life and work interference with personal life were influenced by workplace breastfeeding support, including organizational, manager, and coworker support, as well as adequate time to express human milk. Then, we examined how workplace breastfeeding support predicted work-life variables and job satisfaction. Using a self-report, survey design, the authors analyzed online surveys from 87 women in a rural, community sample who indicated that they had pumped at work or anticipated needing to pump in the future. According to regression results, provision of workplace breastfeeding support, particularly providing adequate time for human milk expression, predicted work enhancement of personal life. Conversely, we found that as workplace support diminished, employees perceived greater work interference with personal life. Results of path analysis further suggested that providing time for expressing milk improved job satisfaction via a partially mediated relationship where work enhancement of personal life acted as a mediator. These results suggest that employers can enhance the lives of their breastfeeding employees both at work and at home by providing workplace breastfeeding support, especially through providing time for expressing human milk in the workplace.

  5. EXPERIENCES OF OPERATING AND STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE: Conclusions for Training Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta LISKI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Association Citizens´ Forum SKAF ry is an educational institution for non-formal education. The Citizens’ Forum has been an active Second Life participant since 2007, researching its potential and challenges in educational use and non-governmental organisation activities. The first training sessions were organised in 2008 on a block of land rented from EduFinland I island. Later, ownership was acquired of the Suomi ry (Finland ry island, which was customised to serve Finnish organisations and non-governmental organisations (further NGO. The citizens’ Forum’s training courses have covered training in Second Life and the organisation of cooperative meetings and various other events in Second Life. The overall length of training sessions has been one month. Each course has consisted of 3-5. 1.5 hour meetings in Second Life and interim tasks completed either individually or in small groups. In addition to Second Life, Moodle, an online learning environment, has been employed in which tasks, experiences and feedback have been gathered and which has also contained written summaries of what was learned during the Second Life meetings. The Second Life environment has also been regularly utilised in Citizens’ Forum staff and various other work group work related meetings.Funding and ventures 2008: Ministry of Education special funding, Initiation of Second Life courses and construction of environment 2009-2010: ESF programme Open Learning Environments-AVO venture, development and implementation of Second Life educational programmes.This article is based on practical experiences gained from Ø suitability of cooperative educational processes for Second LifeØ constructing a Second Life environment for educational useØ suitability of Second Life technology and tools for education and team workØ practical methods related to educational situations .

  6. Influence of residency training on personal stress and impairment in family life: analysis of related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Sánchez Gascón, F; Martínez Lage, J F; Guerrero, M

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the level of stress among residents and stress-related impairment of family life. A 41-item anonymous questionnaire was designed to determine the level of stress and its effects on the residents' family as well as factors associated with stress during residency training in a tertiary-care hospital accredited with official resident training 'Medicos Internos Residentes' in Murcia, Spain. Questionnaires were distributed in sealed nominal envelopes during February and March 2002 to 227 eligible residents. Of the 227 residents, 175 (77%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Forty-two percent of residents recognized that residency training caused an important level of stress and 21% felt that stress interfered with family relationships. Both factors were significantly associated. Feelings of being unsatisfied with supervision of care and achievement of training objectives as well as low satisfaction with residency training and poor assessment of the hospital were significant stressors. Impairment in family life was significantly dependent on degree of satisfaction with residency training and evaluation of the hospital. The data showed that residency training generated stress and impaired family life. These were closely associated with perception of being unsatisfied with the residency training and evaluation. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Body weight supported treadmill training versus traditional training in patients dependent on walking assistance after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Ellen; Jahnsen, Reidun; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Strand, Liv Inger

    2012-01-01

    Treadmill training with body weight support (TTBWS) for relearning walking ability after brain damage is an approach under current investigation. Efficiency of this method beyond traditional training is lacking evidence, especially in patients needing walking assistance after stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate change in walking and transfer abilities, comparing TTBWS with traditional walking training. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients referred for multi-disciplinary primary rehabilitation were assigned into one of two intervention groups, one received 30 sessions of TTBWS plus traditional training, the other traditional training alone. Daily training was 1 hr. Outcome measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), Walking, Functional Independence Measure (FIM); shorter transfer and stairs, 10 m and 6-min walk tests. Substantial improvements in walking and transfer were shown within both groups after 5 and 11 weeks of intervention. Overall no statistical significant differences were found between the groups, but 12 of 17 physical measures tended to show improvements in favour of the treadmill approach. Both training strategies provided significant improvements in the tested activities, suggesting that similar outcomes can be obtained in the two modalities by systematic, intensive and goal directed training.

  8. Development of training support system based on three-dimensional computer graphics technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kude, Akizumi; Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Shirute, Ikuo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan); Ogura, Kazuhide

    1998-09-01

    Recently, Virtual Reality (VR) technology has developed quickly, together with research conducted on various elemental and related technologies and research in various fields of its application. In particular, the development of computer graphics (CG) technology at the same pace as the progress in computer performance is remarkable. We have developed a new type of training support system using three-dimensional (3D) CG technology. It is the training support system for disassembling and assembling a motor-operated gate valve. The training support system proposed is based on a personal computer and can be used easily by anyone. The system configuration is outlined herein. (author)

  9. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  10. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance…

  11. Evaluation of lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Corr, Brad; Stuberg, Wayne; Volkman, Kathleen G; Smith, Nina

    2011-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using lower body positive pressure supported (LBPPS) treadmill training to improve the walking abilities, balance and lower extremity strength of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Nine children with CP (GMFCS II-IV) participated in LBPPS treadmill training 2 days per week for 6 weeks. Pre and post training measures of preferred walking speed, spatiotemporal kinematics, lower extremity strength, and the BESTest were used to assess potential improvements from LBPPS treadmill training. LBPPS treadmill training resulted in significantly faster walking speed, less time in double support, improved overall balance, and strength of the lower extremity antigravity musculature. It is feasible to use LBPPS treadmill training to improve the walking performance, balance, and strength of children with CP.

  12. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  13. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  14. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  15. Teaching basic life support to students of public and private high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, José Maria Gonçalves; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; Auto, Bruna de Sá Duarte; Lima, José Elson Gama de; Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde

    2014-06-01

    Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS) has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries. To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training. Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED). They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later. The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18), p private school students.

  16. Exercise, pain, perceived family support, and quality of life in Korean patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2005-02-01

    Relations of habitual exercise and pain, perceived family support, and the quality of life in patients with functional class II for ankylosing spondylitis were explored. In a cross-sectional study perceived pain, family support, and quality of life were compared for 30 patients (23 women and 7 men whose mean age was 28.3 yr.+/-8.6 yr.) practicing exercise regularly and for 38 sedentary patients (31 women and 7 men whose mean age was 27.2+/-6.7 yr.). Exercising patients reported significantly lower pain, greater perceived family support, and increased quality of life than their sedentary peers. Pain ratings were significantly negatively correlated with the quality of life in both groups (r = -.26 in exercisers and r = -.50 in sedentary patients) and control group's perceived family support was significantly correlated .44 with quality of life. These results encourage further study of the associations of habitual exercise with perceived pain, family support, and quality of life.

  17. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  18. The relationship between family social support and quality of life in diabetic female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life quality of diabetic patients is always affected by psychosocial problems, physical disorders, and life style changes. It seems that the perceived social support could intervene in improving the life quality of these patients. The present study was carried out aiming to examine the relation between family social support and life quality of female patients with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included 173 diabetic females who were randomly selected from patients referred to Kermanshah diabetes research center. Data were collected using life quality questionnaire (Short Form-36 as well as perceived social support scale. The data analysis indicated that there is a significant correlation between family support and life quality of patients. Furthermore, concerning the components of life quality, there is a significant correlation between family social support and physical performance, physical limitation, tiredness, emotional health, social performance, pain, and general health of patients. However, no significant relation was found between family support and limitation of patients. Results showed that there is a direct relation between family support and the life quality in females with diabetes. Hence, it can be concluded that giving the family support to the female diabetic patients can increase their quality of life.

  19. The Mediating Role of Social Support in the Evaluation of Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelos, Rita; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bates, Reid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived content validity, transfer design, the motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer, contribute to the effectiveness of training.…

  20. Training Teachers to Support Pupils' Listening in Class: An Evaluation Using Pupil Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosskey, Liz; Vance, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    Many children with speech, language and communication needs are educated in mainstream schools. Current policy and practice includes training for school staff in facilitating the development of speaking and listening skills. This study evaluates one such training package that focuses on supporting pupils' listening skills, delivered in a…

  1. Practical Recommendations to Improve the Quality of Training and Methodical Support of Professional Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Valery V.; Grudtsina, Ludmila Yu.; Marchuk, Nikolay N.; Sangadgiev, Badma V.; Kudyashev, Nail K.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the transition to the knowledge society and new demands for training and methodical provision of professional pedagogical education. The purpose of this paper is to develop practical recommendations to improve the quality of training and methodical support of professional pedagogical education. The leading…

  2. Video Feedback in Key Word Signing Training for Preservice Direct Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research has demonstrated that formal training is essential for professionals to learn key word signing. Yet, the particular didactic strategies have not been studied. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of verbal and video feedback in a key word signing training for future direct support staff. Method: Forty-nine future…

  3. Development of medical engagement training toolkits to support special operations military assistance programs in austere environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Ben H; Boedeker, David; Tate, Charmaine

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Seminar (MEDSEM) is a medical operation that shares culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population based upon a "train the trainer" concept. This work describes the development of a hand washing training toolkit designed to support a MEDSEM action in Afghanistan.

  4. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.

  5. Supporting sustainability initiatives through biometeorology education and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.; Vanos, Jennifer; Hondula, David M.; Vecellio, Daniel J.; Knight, David; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Lucas, Rebekah; Fuhrmann, Chris; Lokys, Hanna; Lees, Angela; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Leung, Andrew C. W.; Perkins, David R.

    2017-09-01

    The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has covered significant breadth and depth addressing fundamental and applied societal and environmental challenges in the last 60 years. Biometeorology is an interdisciplinary science connecting living organisms to their environment, but there is very little understanding of the existence and placement of this discipline within formal educational systems and institutions. It is thus difficult to project the ability of members of the biometeorological community—especially the biometeorologists of the future—to help solve global challenges. In this paper, we ask: At present, how we are training people to understand and think about biometeorology? We also ask: What are the current tools and opportunities in which biometeorologists might address future challenges? Finally, we connect these two questions by asking: What type of new training and skill development is needed to better educate "biometeorologists of the future" to more effectively address the future challenges? To answer these questions, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence from an educationally focused workshop attended by new professionals in biometeorology. We identify four common themes (thermal comfort and exposures, agricultural productivity, air quality, and urbanization) that biometeorologists are currently studying and that we expect to be important in the future based on their alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Review of recent literature within each of these thematic areas highlights a wide array of skill sets and perspectives that biometeorologists are already using. Current and new professionals within the ISB have noted highly varying and largely improvised educational pathways into the field. While variability and improvisation may be assets in promoting flexibility, adaptation, and interdisciplinarity, the lack of formal training in biometeorology raises concerns about the extent to which

  6. Supporting sustainability initiatives through biometeorology education and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.; Vanos, Jennifer; Hondula, David M.; Vecellio, Daniel J.; Knight, David; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Lucas, Rebekah; Fuhrmann, Chris; Lokys, Hanna; Lees, Angela; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Leung, Andrew C. W.; Perkins, David R.

    2017-07-01

    The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has covered significant breadth and depth addressing fundamental and applied societal and environmental challenges in the last 60 years. Biometeorology is an interdisciplinary science connecting living organisms to their environment, but there is very little understanding of the existence and placement of this discipline within formal educational systems and institutions. It is thus difficult to project the ability of members of the biometeorological community—especially the biometeorologists of the future—to help solve global challenges. In this paper, we ask: At present, how we are training people to understand and think about biometeorology? We also ask: What are the current tools and opportunities in which biometeorologists might address future challenges? Finally, we connect these two questions by asking: What type of new training and skill development is needed to better educate "biometeorologists of the future" to more effectively address the future challenges? To answer these questions, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence from an educationally focused workshop attended by new professionals in biometeorology. We identify four common themes (thermal comfort and exposures, agricultural productivity, air quality, and urbanization) that biometeorologists are currently studying and that we expect to be important in the future based on their alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Review of recent literature within each of these thematic areas highlights a wide array of skill sets and perspectives that biometeorologists are already using. Current and new professionals within the ISB have noted highly varying and largely improvised educational pathways into the field. While variability and improvisation may be assets in promoting flexibility, adaptation, and interdisciplinarity, the lack of formal training in biometeorology raises concerns about the extent to which

  7. [Training and information for freelance nurses, all life long].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laot-Cabon, Sylvie; Flahault, Antoine; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique

    2011-12-01

    Nursing practice demands ever greater levels of skill, including from those providing home nursing care. A study was carried out, in 2008, within the French national institute for health and medical research (INSERM), in the context of a research master, to assess the differences in freelance nurses' approach to training and information research according to the type of practice (up to 2 nurses versus more than 2 nurses). The study shows that the method of practice influences the amount of work. The dynamics of formation is, in turn, lower for all nurses, mainly due to lack of time.

  8. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2015-01-15

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  9. A Study on the Efficacy of the Structuring of Support on Professional Training for Young People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías VIVED CONTE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an innovative teaching project approved by the Government of Aragon and the University of Zaragoza a study on professional training for young people with intellectual disabilities (ID was developed. The objective was to investigate the support system and to check the effectiveness of a design based on sources of natural and professional support. 9 young people with DI took part together with diverse support staff –parents, volunteers, university students through a service learning experience, professionals, adults with ID–. The theoretical bases of the project were linked to independent life projects, the supported employment and the supports model. The methodological references were the mediational teaching approach and cooperative learning. As evaluation tools, the Adaptive Skills Inventory (CALS, the questionnaire of social interaction skills (CHIS and the questionnaires of satisfaction were used. The results indicate a high achievement regarding the acquisition of skills by the participants,as well as a high degree of satisfaction from the experience. Despite several limitations present in our study, our results support the desirability of establishing new designs that enhance the effectiveness of the professional training of young people with DI and promote social and labor availability in inclusive environments.

  10. Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the Army’s foundation. Specifically, the Army’s strong organizational context provides the rules, task definitions , information, and resources needed...Research Report 1997 Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training...Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  12. The Impact of Support at the Workplace on Transfer of Training: A Study of an Indian Manufacturing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ragini; Ghosh, Piyali; Rai, Alka; Shukla, Divya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the individual impacts of two components of support at the workplace, namely, support from peers and supervisor, on transfer of training in a post-training environment. Mediation by motivation to transfer in the relationship of supervisor and peer support with transfer of training has also been examined. Data on 149…

  13. The Impact of Support at the Workplace on Transfer of Training: A Study of an Indian Manufacturing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ragini; Ghosh, Piyali; Rai, Alka; Shukla, Divya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the individual impacts of two components of support at the workplace, namely, support from peers and supervisor, on transfer of training in a post-training environment. Mediation by motivation to transfer in the relationship of supervisor and peer support with transfer of training has also been examined. Data on 149…

  14. How FOSTER supports training Open Science in the GeoSciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    FOSTER (1) is about promoting and facilitating the adoption of Open Science by the European research community, and fostering compliance with the open access policies set out in Horizon 2020 (H2020). FOSTER aims to reach out and provide training to the wide range of disciplines and countries involved in the European Research Area (ERA) by offering and supporting face-to-face as well as distance training. Different stakeholders, mainly young researchers, are trained to integrate Open Science in their daily workflow, supporting researchers to optimise their research visibility and impact. Strengthening the institutional training capacity is achieved through a train-the-trainers approach. The two-and-half-year project started in February 2014 with identifying, enriching and providing training content on all relevant topics in the area of Open Science. One of the main elements was to support two rounds of trainings, which were conducted during 2014 and 2015, organizing more than 100 training events with around 3000 participants. The presentation will explain the project objectives and results and will look into best practice training examples, among them successful training series in the GeoSciences. The FOSTER portal that now holds a collection of training resources (e.g. slides and PDFs, schedules and design of training events dedicated to different audiences, video captures of complete events) is presented. It provides easy ways to identify learning materials and to create own e-learning courses based on the materials and examples. (1) FOSTER is funded through the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 612425. http://fosteropenscience.eu

  15. The effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among mothers with mentally retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among the mothers with mentally retarded children. The method is semi experimental using pretest posttest with control group. Statistical population of research includes elementary mentally retarded student who were enrolled in Najafabad Sareban exceptional school over the period 2012-2013 educational year. Sample group includes 50 subjects who randomly replaced in control and experimental groups. Experimental group members participated in a 10-session resilience training. Finally, both groups completed post-tests where research scales were Diener life satisfaction questionnaire. The data are analyzed by co-variance analysis test. Results are significant and indicates that resilience training is effective on life satisfaction (p<0.05.

  16. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  17. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  18. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  19. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...... development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...

  20. Liver failure, life support, family support, and palliation: an inside story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Victoria

    2006-09-01

    My sister was admitted to the intensive-care-unit (ICU) five months before she died. At the time of admission her life-support wishes were not discussed with her. During her time in the ICU, we, the family, were given hope that she may survive. As with most families, we wanted my sister to live. During her progression from ICU to step-down unit to ward unit, the plan of care was not discussed, and goals were not set. Many medical teams were involved in my sister's care, and many looked at individual body parts instead of the whole person. I am a Registered Nurse at the same hospital where my sister was being cared for. Through many family meetings I was regarded as a medical professional, not as a sister. Knowing the medical system yet going through this as a family member has given me the opportunity to gain insight into what should have happened. If code status had been discussed we would have known my sisters wishes. If relevant literature pertaining to her disease and her slim chance of recovery had been brought to our attention, my sister could have died at home as she wished, and perhaps could have lived her final days in comfort.

  1. Enhancing quality of life in older adults: A comparison of muscular strength and power training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Anthony P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although progressive resistance strength training (ST has been found to improve various measures of physical functioning in older adults, the benefit to quality of life is unclear. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that high velocity power training (PT may be more beneficial for physical functioning than ST, but it is not known whether this type of training impacts quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in multiple measures of quality of life resulting from ST vs. PT in older adults. A no exercise group was also included as control comparison condition. Methods Forty-five older adults (M age = 74.8 years; SD = 5.7 were randomly assigned to either a PT, b ST, or c control group (no exercise. Measures of self-efficacy (SE, satisfaction with physical function (SPF, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL were assessed at baseline and following training. The resistance training conditions met 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% 1 repetition maximum. Results A series of ANCOVA's comparing between group differences in change and controlling for baseline values revealed significant group differences in all three measures: SE (F(2,31 = 9.77; p (2,32 = 3.36; p = .047; SWL (F(2,31 = 4.76; p = .016. Follow up analyses indicated that the PT group reported significantly more change in SE, SPF, and SWL than the control group whereas the ST group reported greater change than the control group only in SE. Conclusion These pilot data indicate that high velocity power training may influence multiple levels of quality of life over and above the benefits gained through traditional strength training.

  2. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Crew § 460.11 Environmental control and life support systems. (a) An operator must provide atmospheric...

  3. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  5. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  7. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  8. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  9. Student Academic Support as a Predictor of Life Satisfaction in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Arslan, Serhat; Çelik, Eyüp; Kaya, Çinar; Arslan, Nihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support…

  10. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  11. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  12. Theoretically-Driven Infrastructure for Supporting Healthcare Teams Training at a Military Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert T.; Parodi, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    The Team Resource Center (TRC) at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (NMCP) currently hosts a tri-service healthcare teams training course three times annually . The course consists of didactic learning coupled with simulation exercises to provide an interactive educational experience for healthcare professionals. The course is also the foundation of a research program designed to explore the use of simulation technologies for enhancing team training and evaluation. The TRC has adopted theoretical frameworks for evaluating training readiness and efficacy, and is using these frameworks to guide a systematic reconfiguration of the infrastructure supporting healthcare teams training and research initiatives at NMCP.

  13. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Emotional Intelligence of the Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh A Lolaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health. Aim: The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the subjects were selected by random sampling and allocated into two groups: Case group (n=20 and control group (n=19; they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15. Results and Conclusion: In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001, while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503. By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students.

  14. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Shirer, W.R.; Konrad, B.N.; Muller, N.C.J.; Wagner, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Czisch, M.; Greicius, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI

  15. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  16. The reflective dancer: ICT support for practical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, Ä.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation was started with the premise that web-based ICT applications could be useful for supporting teaching and learning in practical dance education. The central research question of this thesis was, How can web-based ICT applications be used to facilitate teachi

  17. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and me

  18. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Effects of phototherapy plus physical training on metabolic profile and quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2017-10-01

    A cluster of metabolic abnormalities are markedly higher among postmenopausal women. The present study evaluated the effects of infrared light emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on multiple metabolic markers, body fat, dietary habits and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Forty-five postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and of these, 30 women successfully completed the full study. The three groups were as follows: (i) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (ii) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (iii) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of six months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), which was obtained during a progressive exercise testing. The average HR and velocity during treadmill training were 144 ± 9 bpm and 5.8 ± 1.3 km/h for both trained groups. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Anthropometric data, skinfolds thickness, biochemical exams (lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels), dietary habits and quality of life were evaluated. The sum of skinfolds significantly improved in the exercise and sedentary groups (p Physical training with or without phototherapy may improve the metabolic profile. In addition, phototherapy together with treadmill training prevented an increase in subcutaneous fat and facilitated an improved quality of life in postmenopausal women.

  20. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagan Abigail A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers, ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence. Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage. Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness. Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that

  1. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

    2008-01-18

    Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as

  2. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  3. The Feasibility of Advanced Concepts in Submarine Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    nitrogen, found to be directly related to depth, and subject to a wide variation in individual susceptibility. Subsequent work quantified the effect...support pump. The ventilation support. b 0’ DIVER S RESPRIPATORY SYSTEM FLOWP REMOVAL V ENT I LAR ICON ES I STANCE HXYOENATL I. HEATER OXIGENATiON THE:RMOR...such an interface will experience variations in solubility due pressure variation associated with changing depth. similarly, removal of absorbed carbon

  4. The Effect of Social Support on Quality of Life in Older Adults Receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Michael A; Scogin, Forrest R

    2015-03-01

    The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al. (2007) by exploring the role of social support in changes in quality of life resulting from home-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred thirty-seven participants, characterized primarily as rural, low resource, and frail, were randomly assigned to either CBT or a minimal support control condition. Hierarchical regression revealed that positive change in satisfaction with social support was associated with improvement in quality of life beyond the effects of the CBT treatment. In addition, pretreatment satisfaction with social support, and change in satisfaction with social support moderated the effect of CBT on quality of life. These results suggest that bolstering social support concomitant to CBT may increase quality of life.

  5. Parent decision making for life support for extremely premature infants: from the prenatal through end-of-life period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Teresa T; Kavanaugh, Karen; Savage, Teresa A; Reyes, Maria R; Kimura, Robert E; Bhat, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Most deaths of extremely premature infants occur in the perinatal period. Yet, little is known about how parents make life support decisions in such a short period of time. In the paper, how parents make life support decisions for extremely premature infants from the prenatal period through death from the perspectives of parents, nurses, and physicians is described. Five cases, comprised of five mothers, four neonatologists, three nurses, and one neonatal nurse practitioner, are drawn from a larger collective case study. Prenatal, postnatal and end-of-life interviews were conducted, and medical record data were obtained. In an analysis by two research team members, mothers were found to exhibit these characteristics: desire for and actual involvement in life support decisions, weighing pain, suffering and hope in decision making, and wanting everything done for their infants. All mothers received decision making help and support from partners and family, but relationships with providers were also important. Finally, external resources impacted parental decision making in several of the cases. By understanding what factors contribute to parents' decision making, providers may be better equipped to prepare and assist parents when making life support decisions for their extremely premature infants.

  6. [Social support and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1 413 train drivers in a railway bureau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the social support status of train drivers. Methods: Using cluster sampling, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 85 guest scheduling train drivers, 265 cargo adjustable drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a railway bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, social support, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, and coping strategy using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. We compared the difference in social support scores between different drivers, who were divided according to job type and age. Additionally, the correlation between social support score and job strain-related factors was analyzed. The influence of depressive symptoms and job satisfaction were analyzed using a non-conditional logistic multivariate model. Results: The overall average age P(50) (P(25),P(75)) of 1 413 train drivers was 33.92 (27.83,43.58) years. The overall average length of service 12.25 (5.25,22.75) years. A significant difference in social support scores was observed according to job type (H=23.23, Ptrain driver (26 (22,30)), guest scheduling driver (27 (24,30)), cargo adjustable driver (26 (22,31)), and high-speed train driver (30 (26,36)) (P(50)(P(25),P(75))). Additionally, social support scores among different age groups were significantly different (H=6.64, P=0.036). The specific scores were ≤30 years (26 (22,31)), 30-40 years (27 (23,33)), and >40 years (27 (22,31)). Correlation analysis revealed that the social support score was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r=-0.43), reward (r=-0.22), working stability (r=-0.23), promotion opportunities (r=-0.12), positive affectivity (r=-0.31), esteem (r=-0.21), and self-esteem (r=-0.20) scores (PTrain drivers obtained various levels of social support. Social support greatly affected occupational stress. High social support was

  7. A new chapter in doctoral candidate training: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn

  8. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses' Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Fereidouni, Zhila; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2017-01-01

    Job stress is a part of nurses' professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses' job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses' quality of work life. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson's questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups (p work life quality, home life (p work design (p work context (p work world (p = 0.003). This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses' quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  9. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses’ Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Job stress is a part of nurses’ professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses’ job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses’ quality of work life. Methods. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional (n=50 and control (n=50 groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson’s questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. Results. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups (p<0.001 and in dimensions of work life quality, home life (p<0.001, work design (p<0.001, work context (p<0.001, and work world (p=0.003. Conclusion. This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses’ quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  10. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  12. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population.A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112 and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102. Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups.Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. The objective support, subjective support, utilization of support, and total scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P < 0.01.Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes.

  13. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  14. Bioinformatics projects supporting life-sciences learning in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabel; Almeida, Paulo; Alves, Renato; Dias, Maria João; Godinho, Ana; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics makes it an ideal framework to develop activities enabling enquiry-based learning. We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot project to use bioinformatics-based research activities in high schools, called "Bioinformatics@school." It includes web-based research projects that students can pursue alone or under teacher supervision and a teacher training program. The project is organized so as to enable discussion of key results between students and teachers. After successful trials in two high schools, as measured by questionnaires, interviews, and assessment of knowledge acquisition, the project is expanding by the action of the teachers involved, who are helping us develop more content and are recruiting more teachers and schools.

  15. Bioinformatics projects supporting life-sciences learning in high schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics makes it an ideal framework to develop activities enabling enquiry-based learning. We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot project to use bioinformatics-based research activities in high schools, called "Bioinformatics@school." It includes web-based research projects that students can pursue alone or under teacher supervision and a teacher training program. The project is organized so as to enable discussion of key results between students and teachers. After successful trials in two high schools, as measured by questionnaires, interviews, and assessment of knowledge acquisition, the project is expanding by the action of the teachers involved, who are helping us develop more content and are recruiting more teachers and schools.

  16. 有效教师培训外部支持系统的建立%Establishment of the Effective External Supporting System for Teacher's Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄玉昆

    2012-01-01

    有效教师培训外部支持系统是教师培训中支持、促进教师有效参与培训的外部保障机制,也是促进教师实现终身教育的重要因素。它包括教师培训机构、教师培训者队伍、培训评估机制和培训制度等方面内容。%The effective external supporting system for teacherls training is an external security mechanism to support and promote teacher's effective training and also an important factor to motivate teacher's life-long education. The system includes teacher's training organizations, trainers, evaluation mechanism and training system.

  17. STS-46 MS Chang-Diaz floats in life raft during water egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), relies on a one-person life raft to get him to 'safety' during a launch emergency egress (bailout) simulation conducted in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  18. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  20. The effects of nutrition rehabilitation at three Family Life Training Centres in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1982-01-01

    During the course of 1978, the three Family Life Training Centres studied admitted 273 women accompanied by 674 children. Women with malnourished children (and their siblings) are admitted to these centres for a 3-week course consisting primarily of nutrition and health education, but also covering

  1. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  2. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  3. INTERACTION: training and monitoring of daily-life physical interaction with the environment after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Baten, Christian T.M.; Reenalda, J.; Reenalda, Jasper; Nikamp-Simons, Corien Diana Maria; Luft, A.R.; De Rossi, Danilo; Luinge, Hendrik J.; Paradiso, R.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons who suffered a stroke are trained to improve adequate control over their movements with the objective to optimize their daily-life functional performance. Critical is how good they are able to interact physically with the dailylife environment, including handling objects, controlling body

  4. STS-46 MS Chang-Diaz floats in life raft during water egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), relies on a one-person life raft to get him to 'safety' during a launch emergency egress (bailout) simulation conducted in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  5. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  6. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  7. Perceived social support and quality of life in Iranian hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambod, Maasoumeh; Rafii, Forough

    2010-09-01

    To describe the relationship between perceived social support and the quality of life in hemodialysis patients from an Islamic cultural background in Iran. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Data were collected in hemodialysis units affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Two hundred and two Muslim hemodialysis patients were selected by census during 2007. The Persian versions of the Personal Resources Questionnaire 85 (PRQ-85) Part II and the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index-dialysis version were used. The data were analyzed using chi-square test and Spearman's rho correlation coefficients. There were a statistically significant relationship between perceived social support and health-functioning (r = .65, p social support (r = 0.72, p= .00). Perceived social support is associated with quality of life in Iranian hemodialysis patients. It is important to reflect on the impact of culture and religion of Iran on quality of life of hemodialysis patients and their perceived social support.

  8. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  9. Ground-based walking training improves quality of life and exercise capacity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; McKeough, Zoe J; Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Cecins, Nola; Spencer, Lissa M; Jenkins, Christine; Alison, Jennifer A

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ground-based walking training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with COPD were randomised to either a walking group that received supervised, ground-based walking training two to three times a week for 8-10 weeks, or a control group that received usual medical care and did not participate in exercise training. 130 out of 143 participants (mean±sd age 69±8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 43±15% predicted) completed the study. Compared to the control group, the walking group demonstrated greater improvements in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (mean difference -6 points (95% CI -10- -2), pimproves quality of life and endurance exercise capacity in people with COPD.

  10. Training for my Life: Lived Experiences of Dislocated Workers in an Advanced Manufacturing Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquita R. Walker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative paper explores the lived experiences of one group of workers dislocated because of globalized trade policies who completed a hybrid Advanced Manufacturing Training Program (AMTP by taking advantage of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA, a federally-funded program for retraining workers dislocated because of trade policies. The research questions focus on how satisfied these workers are with the services and programs provided by TAA. Focus groups and survey instrument results indicate these workers found TAA services and processes cumbersome and time- consuming and actually had the effect of discouraging their education, training, and self- employment. The consequences of their dislocation as it relates to TAA experiences are increased frustration and dissatisfaction with the TAA program. Serious consideration for TAA policy changes should be deemed of utmost importance.

  11. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  12. Training for Success: Intelligence Training in Support of Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    not have accomplished this thesis or even advanced far enough in my career to be afforded the opportunity to attend the esteemed Army Command and...in FHA operations by participation in Operation United Assistance. Scope and Delimitations The scope and delimitations are self -imposed boundaries...importance, and ability to be addressed through training. The weightings as depicted in table 11 are not definite fixed results. Rather, table 10 is the

  13. Effectiveness of Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) vs. Training-as-Usual (TAU): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Karazsia, Bryan T.; Chan, Jeffrey; Winton, Alan S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD. The comparative effects of the two training conditions were assessed in terms of caregiver variables care recipient variable (number of aggressive events), and agency variables Results showed that MBPBS was significantly more effective than TAU in enabling the caregivers to manage their perceived psychological stress, and to reduce the use of physical restraints and stat medications for aggressive behavior of the individuals in their care. In addition, there were significant reductions in aggressive events by the individuals in their care, 1:1 staffing of individuals with aggressive behavior, and staff turnover. Furthermore, the MBPBS training was significantly more cost-effective than the TAU training. If replicated in future RCT studies, MBPBS may provide an effective means of enhancing socially acceptable bidirectional engagement of caregivers and care recipients within a person-centered context. PMID:27766088

  14. Effectiveness of Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Supports (MBPBS vs. Training-as-Usual (TAU: A Randomized Controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirbhay N. Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS and Training-as-Usual (TAU for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD. The comparative effects of the two training conditions were assessed in terms of caregiver variables care recipient variable (number of aggressive events, and agency variables Results showed that MBPBS was significantly more effective than TAU in enabling the caregivers to manage their perceived psychological stress, and to reduce the use of physical restraints and stat medications for aggressive behavior of the individuals in their care. In addition, there were significant reductions in aggressive events by the individuals in their care, 1:1 staffing of individuals with aggressive behavior, and staff turnover. Furthermore, the MBPBS training was significantly more cost-effective than the TAU training. If replicated in future RCT studies, MBPBS may provide an effective means of enhancing socially acceptable bidirectional engagement of caregivers and care recipients within a person-centered context.

  15. Training for life science experiments in space at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Annette T.; Maese, A. Christopher

    1993-01-01

    As this country prepares for exploration to other planets, the need to understand the affects of long duration exposure to microgravity is evident. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Space Life Sciences Payloads Office is responsible for a number of non-human life sciences payloads on NASA's Space Shuttle's Spacelab. Included in this responsibility is the training of those individuals who will be conducting the experiments during flight, the astronauts. Preparing a crew to conduct such experiments requires training protocols that build on simple tasks. Once a defined degree of performance proficiency is met for each task, these tasks are combined to increase the complexity of the activities. As tasks are combined into in-flight operations, they are subjected to time constraints and the crew enhances their skills through repetition. The science objectives must be completely understood by the crew and are critical to the overall training program. Completion of the in-flight activities is proof of success. Because the crew is exposed to the background of early research and plans for post-flight analyses, they have a vested interest in the flight activities. The salient features of this training approach is that it allows for flexibility in implementation, consideration of individual differences, and a greater ability to retain experiment information. This training approach offers another effective alternative training tool to existing methodologies.

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  18. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  19. Supporting requirements model evolution throughout the system life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Neil; Mylopoulos, John; Yu, Yijun; Ngyuen, Tien T.

    2008-01-01

    Requirements models are essential not just during system implementation, but also to manage system changes post-implementation. Such models should be supported by a requirements model management framework that allows users to create, manage and evolve models of domains, requirements, code and other design-time artifacts along with traceability links between their elements. We propose a comprehensive framework which delineates the operations and elements necessary, and then describe a tool imp...

  20. Improving support for parents of children with hearing loss: provider training on use of targeted communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Karen; Nelson, Lauri; Blaiser, Kristina; Price, Tanner; Twohig, Michael

    2015-02-01

    When proper protocols are followed, children who are identified with a permanent hearing loss early in life have opportunities to develop language on par with their typical hearing peers. Young children with hearing loss are dependent on their parents to manage intervention during early years critical to their development, and parents' ability to effectively integrate recommendations in daily life is foundational for intervention success. Audiologists and early intervention professionals not only need to provide current evidence-based services, but also must address parents' emotional and learning needs related to their child's hearing loss. This study explored practice patterns related to education and support provided to parents of children with hearing loss and the influence of an in-service training on provider attitudes. This study used a prepost design with a self-report questionnaire to identify practice patterns related to communication skills and support used by providers when working with parents of children with hearing loss. A total of 45 participants (21 professionals and 24 graduate students) currently working with children completed the pretraining questionnaire, and 29 participants (13 professionals and 16 graduate students) completed the postquestionnaire. Data were collected using an online questionnaire before the training and 1 mo after training. Descriptive analyses were done to identify trends, and paired-samples t-tests were used to determine changes pretraining to posttraining. Findings revealed that professionals most frequently teach skills to mothers (91%) and infrequently teach skills to fathers (19%) and other caregivers (10%). Professionals reported frequently collaborating with other intervention providers (76%) and infrequently collaborating with primary care physicians (19%). One-third of the professionals reported addressing symptoms of depression and anxiety as an interfering factor with the ability to implement management

  1. Training and Support of Sessional Staff to Improve Quality of Teaching and Learning at Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Gillian; Crane, Linda; Heslop, Ian; Glass, Beverley D

    2015-06-25

    Sessional staff is increasingly involved in teaching at universities, playing a pivotal role in bridging the gap between theory and practice for students, especially in the health professions, including pharmacy. Although sessional staff numbers have increased substantially in recent years, limited attention has been paid to the quality of teaching and learning provided by this group. This review will discuss the training and support of sessional staff, with a focus on Australian universities, including the reasons for and potential benefits of training, and structure and content of training programs. Although sessional staff views these programs as valuable, there is a lack of in-depth evaluations of the outcomes of the programs for sessional staff, students and the university. Quality assurance of such programs is only guaranteed, however, if these evaluations extend to the impact of this training and support on student learning.

  2. Neither Basic Life Support knowledge nor self-efficacy are predictive of skills among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, C; Ho, J D; Guerin, S; Yeoh, Y L; Mohamed Medhat, M; Doody, K; Hwang, S; Hania, M; Boggs, S; Nolan, A; Nunn, J

    2017-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is considered a core competence for the graduating dentist. This study aimed to measure BLS knowledge, self-efficacy and skills of undergraduate dental students in Dublin. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey measuring BLS knowledge and self-efficacy, accompanied by a directly observed BLS skills assessment in a subsample of respondents. Data were collected in January 2014. Bivariate correlations between descriptive and outcome variables (knowledge, self-efficacy and skills) were tested using Pearson's chi-square. We included knowledge and self-efficacy as predictor variables, along with other variables showing association, into a binary logistic regression model with BLS skills as the outcome measure. One hundred and thirty-five students participated. Almost all (n = 133, 98.5%) participants had BLS training within the last 2 years. One hundred and four (77%) felt that they were capable of providing effective BLS (self-efficacy), whilst only 46 (34.1%) scored >80% of knowledge items correct. Amongst the skills (n = 85) subsample, 38.8% (n = 33) were found to pass the BLS skills assessment. Controlling for gender, age and skills assessor, the regression model did not identify a predictive relationship between knowledge or self-efficacy and BLS skills. Neither knowledge nor self-efficacy was predictive of BLS skills. Dental students had low levels of knowledge and skills in BLS. Despite this, their confidence in their ability to perform BLS was high and did not predict actual competence. There is a need for additional hands-on training, focusing on self-efficacy and BLS skills, particularly the use of AED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  4. Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vachla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS. Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001. Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001. Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.

  5. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  6. Coordinated control strategy for robotic-assisted gait training with partial body weight support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦涛; 张立勋

    2015-01-01

    Walking is the most basic and essential part of the activities of daily living. To enable the elderly and non-ambulatory gait-impaired patients, the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait training robot (GTR) was designed followed the end-effector principle, and an active partial body weight support (PBWS) system was introduced to facilitate successful gait training. For successful establishment of a walking gait on the GTR with PBWS, the motion laws of the GTR were planned to enable the phase distribution relationships of the cycle step, and the center of gravity (COG) trajectory of the human body during gait training on the GTR was measured. A coordinated control strategy was proposed based on the impedance control principle. A robotic prototype was developed as a platform for evaluating the design concepts and control strategies. Preliminary gait training with a healthy subject was implemented by the robotic-assisted gait training system and the experimental results are encouraging.

  7. Simulator-Based Air Medical Training Program Christoph Life: From Concept to Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Marcel; Friedrich, Lars; Schröter, Christian; Flemming, Andreas; Eismann, Hendrik; Sieg, Lion; Mommsen, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Zeckey, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Christoph Life is a simulator-based air medical training program and a new and innovative educational concept. Participants pass different scenarios with a fully equipped and movable helicopter simulator. Main focuses of the program are crew resource management (CRM) elements and team training. Information about expectations end effectiveness of the training is sparse. During a 2-day training, participants learn CRM basics and complete various emergency medical scenarios. For evaluation, we used an anonymous questionnaire either with polar questions or a 6-coded psychometric Likert scale. The Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at P CRM basics (3.5 ± 1.2 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7, P benefit for the participants' nontechnical skills. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  9. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  10. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cryogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine...

  11. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max

    2007-06-01

    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  12. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...

  13. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  14. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  15. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  16. Astronaut Russell Schweickart suits up for test of life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart suits up to participate in an altitude verification test of the Apollo Portable Life Support System flight unit in Crew Systems Division's 8-ft. altitude chamber in Building 7, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC).

  17. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  18. Regenerable Trace-Contaminant Sorbent for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  19. Gaps in Social Support Resources in Later Life: An Adaptational Challenge in Need of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in social support resources in later life may arise when older adults lose social network members due to illness, death, or residential relocation. Gaps also may arise when social networks remain intact but are not well suited to meet older adults’ intensifying support needs, such as needs for extended or highly personal instrumental support. Significant gaps in support resources are likely to require adaptive responses by older adults. This discussion highlights theoretical perspectives...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF LIFE AND LEVEL OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Berivan Bakan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: When people face health problems, their life satisfaction levels and social relations could be ruined. When it comes to an eerie, deadly and chronic disease like cancer, the individual is much more likely to be affected by it. Objective: This descriptive study aims to identify quality of life and level of social support and the affecting factors in cancer patients. Methods: The sample included 170 patients who applied to Internal Diseases, Radiation Oncology, Thorax diseases clinics and Chemotherapy polyclinic in a university hospital in Turkey between March and August, 2005, who met the research criteria, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample represented 20 % of the target population. Data were collected through SF-36 Quality of Life Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: The patients’ Global Quality of Life mean score was found 38.67 ± 13.64, and mean score for the Perceived Social Support was found 59.19 ± 17.5. Global Quality of Life score was higher in those who underwent an operation and who received ambulatory health care. Although Global Quality of Life was not influenced by the gender variable, male patients’ level of well-being was found to be higher. Perceived Social Support total score was found to be higher in those who knew about their disease. Family support was found to be higher in those who were married and who lived in town; it was found to be low in those who had low socio-economic level and who received inpatient treatment. Friend support was found to be high in those who knew about their disease. Conclusion: There was a linear relationship between Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life. It is recommended that more studies with wider groups of participants would shed more light to the issue of identifying quality of life, social support level and the relationships between them in cancer patients.

  1. Involvement of supportive care professionals in patient care in the last month of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinkman-Stoppelenburg (Arianne); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last month of life, many patients suffer from multiple symptoms and problems. Professional supportive care involvement may help to alleviate patients’ suffering and provide them with an optimal last phase of life. Purpose: We investigated how often palliative care cons

  2. Relation between Emotion Adjustment and Perceived Social Support with Quality of Life of Athletes with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Astaraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotional cognitive adjustment and perceived social support and determining the share of each one of these variable in quality of life for disabled athletes is an important factor to know. We selected 100 people among disabled athletes through convenience sampling and were asked to fill emotional cognitive adjustment strategies scale questionnaire, perceived social support questionnaire and quality of life scale. Results revealed that social support parameters have significant relation with parameters required for quality of life. Similarly, all the parameters regarding emotional cognitive adjustments (except perspective taking revealed positive and significant relation with all parameters of quality of life (including physical, psychological, interpersonal relation and environment. However, the perspective taking parameter has only positive and significant relation with psychological dimension of quality of life, and it has no significant relation with other dimensions. Meanwhile, negative parameters of emotional cognitive adjustment, self-blaming and catastrophic thinking has no significant relation with any parameters of quality of life. Rumination has only negative significant relation with interpersonal relation dimension of quality of life and blaming others parameter had negative and significant relation with the environment. Results of stepwise regression table show that among studies parameters, positive refocusing and important people are in the regression equation. In nutshell, positive refocusing and social support of influenced people impart to raise their quality of life.

  3. Assessing basic life support skills without an instructor: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpotos Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods to assess Basic Life Support skills (BLS; chest compressions and ventilations require the presence of an instructor. This is time-consuming and comports instructor bias. Since BLS skills testing is a routine activity, it is potentially suitable for automation. We developed a fully automated BLS testing station without instructor by using innovative software linked to a training manikin. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of adequate testing (effectiveness within the shortest period of time (efficiency. Methods As part of a randomised controlled trial investigating different compression depth training strategies, 184 medicine students received an individual appointment for a retention test six months after training. An interactive FlashTM (Adobe Systems Inc., USA user interface was developed, to guide the students through the testing procedure after login, while Skills StationTM software (Laerdal Medical, Norway automatically recorded compressions and ventilations and their duration (“time on task”. In a subgroup of 29 students the room entrance and exit time was registered to assess efficiency. To obtain a qualitative insight of the effectiveness, student’s perceptions about the instructional organisation and about the usability of the fully automated testing station were surveyed. Results During testing there was incomplete data registration in two students and one student performed compressions only. The average time on task for the remaining 181 students was three minutes (SD 0.5. In the subgroup, the average overall time spent in the testing station was 7.5 minutes (SD 1.4. Mean scores were 5.3/6 (SD 0.5, range 4.0-6.0 for instructional organisation and 5.0/6 (SD 0.61, range 3.1-6.0 for usability. Students highly appreciated the automated testing procedure. Conclusions Our automated testing station was an effective and efficient method to assess BLS skills in medicine students

  4. Support as a promoting factor of quality of life of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Maria Bernardo Gonçalves Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in the aging population poses real challenges to society, making it necessary to get a better understanding of this reality, namely the study of the quality of life and the support given to the elderly. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of life of the elderly and to determine whether it depends on the support received or not. This is an exploratory, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. Methods. For data collection, a questionnaire of characterization sociodemographic was used, the Health StatusQuestionnaire (SF-36 to assess the perception of quality of life, the Smilkstein Family Apgar and the Duke Functional Social SupportQuestionaire.All instrumentswere applied by interview,workingwith a sample btained at a random and probabilistic way, from lists of seniors enrolled in a Health Center in the district of the Guarda, consisting of 247 elderly people, of whom 101 men and 146 women. Results and Discussion. As main results, we point out that the elderly studied reveal a reasonable quality of life and that this depends on the support given. For most of them, the support is received from the formal support network. The elderly who said they did not need support, those who perceive greater social and functional support and greater family apgar tend to perceive better quality of life and reduced degradation of their health status during the last year. Conclusion. This study allowed us to recognize the important role that support (formal and informal has on the quality of life of the elderly, thereby concluding that it is assumed as a promoting factor of the quality of life of this age group.

  5. [Perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès-Fructuoso, O; Ruiz-de Pablo, B; Fernández-Plaza, M; Fuentes-Milà, V; Vallès-Fructuoso, O; Martínez-Estalella, G

    To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data. Data collection through semi-structured interview recorded prior to informed consent. Rigor and quality criteria (reliability, credibility, transferability), and authenticity criteria: reflexivity. Demographic data was analysed using Excel. A total of 28 interviews were conducted. The mean age of the nurses was 35.6 years, with a mean seniority of 11.46 years of working in ICU. A minority of nurses (21.46%) had received basic training in bioethics. The large majority (85.7%) believe that LLST is not a common practice due to therapeutic cruelty and poor management with it. There is a correlation with the technical concepts; but among the main ethical problems is the decision to apply LLST. Nurses recognise that the decision on applying LLST depends on medical consensus with relatives, and they believe that their opinion is not considered. Their objective is trying to avoid suffering, and assist in providing a dignified death and support to relatives. There is still a paternalistic pattern between the doctor and patient relationship, where the doctor makes the decision and then agrees with the relatives to apply LLST. Organ failure and poor prognosis are the most important criteria for applying LLST. It is necessary to develop a guide for applying LLST, emphasising the involvement of nurses, patients, and their relatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  7. Controlled environment life support system: Growth studies with potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted to maximize the productivity of potatoes grown under controlled environmental conditions are discussed. A variety of parameters is examined which affect potato growth, specifically, photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, nitrogen nutrition, carbon dioxide concentration and culture techniques. These experiments were conducted using five different cultivars, Russet Burbank, Norchip, Superior, Kennebec and Norland. To achieve high productivity, three specific objectives were explored: (1) to develop effective cultural procedures, (2) to determine the most effective photoperiod and (3) to develop a mist culture system. It is felt that the productivity obtained in this study is below the maximum that can be obtained. High irradiance levels coupled with tuber-promoting conditions such as cooler temperatures, increased CO2 levels and lowered nitrogen concentrations should allow increases in tuber production. Tuberization appears to be accelerated by short daylengths although final yields are not increased. Mist culture techniques have not yet produced fully developed tubers. The use of supporting media and alteration of the nitrogen content of the mist solution are being explored as a way to allow tubers to develop to maturity.

  8. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup

    2016-01-01

    . Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  9. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne

    2017-01-01

    . Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  10. Improving Pediatric Basic Life Support Performance Through Blended Learning With Web-Based Virtual Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ronny; Thiessen, Christiane; Frick, Barbara; Bosse, Hans Martin; Nikendei, Christoph; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören

    2015-07-02

    E-learning and blended learning approaches gain more and more popularity in emergency medicine curricula. So far, little data is available on the impact of such approaches on procedural learning and skill acquisition and their comparison with traditional approaches. This study investigated the impact of a blended learning approach, including Web-based virtual patients (VPs) and standard pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training, on procedural knowledge, objective performance, and self-assessment. A total of 57 medical students were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=27). Both groups received paper handouts in preparation of simulation-based PBLS training. The intervention group additionally completed two Web-based VPs with embedded video clips. Measurements were taken at randomization (t0), after the preparation period (t1), and after hands-on training (t2). Clinical decision-making skills and procedural knowledge were assessed at t0 and t1. PBLS performance was scored regarding adherence to the correct algorithm, conformance to temporal demands, and the quality of procedural steps at t1 and t2. Participants' self-assessments were recorded in all three measurements. Procedural knowledge of the intervention group was significantly superior to that of the control group at t1. At t2, the intervention group showed significantly better adherence to the algorithm and temporal demands, and better procedural quality of PBLS in objective measures than did the control group. These aspects differed between the groups even at t1 (after VPs, prior to practical training). Self-assessments differed significantly only at t1 in favor of the intervention group. Training with VPs combined with hands-on training improves PBLS performance as judged by objective measures.

  11. Evaluation of Web-Based Training Courses by Means of Criteria on Learning Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisser, R.; Keefer, F.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, due to the widespread use of digital media and the internet, more and more traditional education and training measures have been replaced or enhanced by elearning. In the context of the nuclear industry, however, with its stringent demand for well qualified and motivated human resources, it is very important to know to what extent these new learning formats will contribute to effective education and training. In cooperation with AREVA and within the scope of a master thesis, it was first investigated as to which factors greatly support the effectiveness of learning by using digital media, from a learner’s point of view in particular. Then, several criteria were developed that could be used to evaluate web based training courses. Next, these criteria were applied to three courses that have already been implemented at AREVA for different target groups and training objectives. The investigation has shown that factors which support the effectiveness of learning are not well known and not systematically applied in the training development process. Consequently, the success of training implementation depends to a great extent on the competence of external suppliers for e-learning programming. (Author)

  12. Status of Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life among Hearing-Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.

  13. Concerns about end-of-life care and support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mitchell, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Popular support for euthanasia is known to vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. However, little is known about whether support is associated with concerns regarding the emotional, physical, and economic burdens of end-of-life care. This study used data from the 1998 General Social Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling adults. The outcome variable assessed the respondents' support for a doctor's right to end life in the setting of terminal illness. Independent variables assessed the following concerns: 1) concern about the emotional burden of end-of-life decision making for family members; 2) worry about the economic burden of terminal illness; 3) concern about pain at the end of life; 4) worry that lack of money or insurance will result in second-class end-of-life care; and 5) belief that their religious community will be helpful at the end of life. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the independent effect of these concerns on support for euthanasia, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 786 respondents, 70.6% approved of euthanasia in the setting of terminal illness. In adjusted analyses, respondents with concerns about the emotional toll of decision making on family members, economic burden, and poor health care because of lack of insurance were significantly more likely to support euthanasia. Respondents with faith in the helpfulness of their religious community were less likely to support euthanasia. In conclusion, emotional and economic concerns about end-of-life care were associated with support for the right to euthanasia. Future work can evaluate whether alleviating these concerns may reduce the perceived desire for euthanasia by patients near the end of life.

  14. Life Support Goals Including High Closure and Low Mass Should Be Reconsidered Using Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.

  15. Training for Direct Support Staff at Group Homes for People with Chronic Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsadri, Alireza; Pizzuti, Albert; Smith, Daicia; Duckett, Danielle; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-07-28

    For people with chronic mental illness, their support system (including direct support staff at group homes) play a key role in ameliorating exacerbations leading to crisis care. However, little information exists on curriculum or training programs focused on reducing exacerbations while promoting compassionate care. We developed, implemented and evaluated such a program that featured role-playing and animated videos supplemented with limited didactics. During development phase, direct support staff reviewed videos and rated them as depicting realistic situations with high acceptability. During implementation, the 6-week course (at least one staff from six different group homes not involved in the development phase) using a 3-month pre-post design found reductions in total number of incident reports and pre-specified outcomes of recipient right complaints, emergency calls, and psychiatric hospitalizations. The program demonstrated acceptability, improved care and better outcomes on some but not all outcomes. Improved training of direct support staff is possible and has positive outcomes.

  16. Organizational Support for Sexual Minority Adolescents: Effects of Level of Youth Involvement and Diversity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Regan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase, cross-section and case study design examined the level of youth involvement in the decision-making processes of youth-serving organizations and the effects of diversity training on organizational support for LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered adolescents. Results indicate the organizations studied differed with respect to levels of youth involvement, but did not significantly differ with respect to the outcome variable. In-depth analysis to open-response questions indicated organizational support is extremely varied and organizations do support diversity, but not necessarily in regard to LGBT adolescents. The LGBT content within diversity training programs is also discussed. Finally, some religious ideas or beliefs seem to negatively affect the environment in youth-serving organizations in regard to support for LGBT adolescents. Implications for further research, youth practitioners and organizations are discussed.

  17. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...

  18. Life satisfaction and social support received by women in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebuza, Grażyna; Kaźmierczak, Marzena; Mieczkowska, Estera; Gierszewska, Małgorzata; Kotzbach, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Birth of a baby has a big impact on women's lives. The presence and help of loved ones favours wellbeing, health, coping with difficult situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether women's satisfaction with life changes during pregnancy and after delivery, and to identify correlates of life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was measured using The Satisfaction with Life Scale - SWLS and received social support was assessed using the Berlin Social Support Scales - BSSS. The study was conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy and during the postpartum period, before discharge from the hospital. The research sample included a total of 199 women in the third trimester of pregnancy and 188 of initially participating women, who had physiological births or caesarean sections. The results clearly show a significant increase in life satisfaction in the postpartum period (p life satisfaction in the third trimester of pregnancy is social support received (p life satisfaction and received social support seem to be needed to gain a full picture of women's situation during birth, which will allow for planning and implementing maternity care appropriate to the needs of women.

  19. Wireless just-in-time training of mobile skilled support personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar; Marsico, Michael; Rosen, Mitchel; Schlegel, Barry

    2006-05-01

    Skilled Support Personnel (SSP) serve emergency response organizations during an emergency incident, and include laborers, operating engineers, carpenters, ironworkers, sanitation workers and utility workers. SSP called to an emergency incident rarely have recent detailed training on the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and/or explosives (CBRNE) agents or the personal protection equipment (PPE) relevant to the incident. This increases personal risk to the SSP and mission risk at the incident site. Training for SSP has been identified as a critical need by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Worker Education and Training Program. We present a system being developed to address this SSP training shortfall by exploiting a new training paradigm called just-in-time training (JITT) made possible by advances in distance learning and cellular telephony. In addition to the current conventional training at regularly scheduled instructional events, SSP called to an emergency incident will have secure access to short (graphics, animation, and assessment designed for the user interface of most current cell phones. Engineering challenges include compatibility with current cell phone technologies and wireless service providers, integration with the incident management system, and SCORM compliance.

  20. The Model of Quality of Life Improvement for Chronic Patients in Community by Using Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorn Suwannimitr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Caring for a chronically ill-patients is a complex process which require the cooperation and social support to manage a chronic disease. It need an interaction of a large number of actors or collaborations from health care personnel of different organizations. Questions were raised to develop an appropriate intervention and the model of QOL improvement for chronic-patients in the community. Approach: To (1 develop the Quality Of Life (QOL improvement for chronic illness patients in community by using social support program (2 evaluate the effects of the program on perception of illness, severity of illness, benefits and barriers of health promotion, health behaviors, Quality Of Life (QOL and stress level. Participatory Action Research (PAR was used. It was consisted of two phrases. The participants in first phase including with nurses, nutritionist, patients, caregivers, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs and research team. The second phrase was to implement the interventions and evaluation. A total of 10 VHVs and 50 participants who met the inclusion criteria. The intervention composed of 2 main programs; (1The VHVs were trained for 1 month as a comprehensive program to be a healthcare team collaboration. (2The chronically ill-patients received main interventions including self-care education, apply Thai traditional medicine and home visits. Descriptive statistics and t-test were use to evaluate the pre-post intervention. Results: The majority of the participants were female (n = 38,76%, with the mean age of 66.68 years (SD = 17.20, 85% caring by their children and 42.5% by their relatives. Most participants came from low income family (40%. The post test score on each item showed that after intervention, changed scores on all five items (before-after, how ever the changes were statistically significantly (0.05. Conclusion: The findings suggested the set of interventions were effective to improve QOL of chronic patients and it

  1. Relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Niknam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Old age is a sensitive period of human life. Attention to the needs and issues is of utmost importance.The present study was performed to investigate the relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly. The research is descriptive-analytical based on correlation.105 of the elderly lived at nursing home of Ramsar and they were selected in sampling method. Research data were collected through a questionnaire of multidimensional perceived social support, the world health organization quality of life scale and the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Analysis of data using Pearson correlation statistical and multivariate regression methods and using the software SPSS16 was performed. The results showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between emotional support and loneliness of the elderly. There is a significant and negative relationship between quality of life and loneliness of the elderly and they are good predictor emotional support and quality of life for loneliness of the elderly. Therefore, the attention to social factors of health in the elderly, such as social support and quality of life is of paramount importance.

  2. The Relationship between Maternal Life Stress and Social Support and Quality of Mother-Infant Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, Marian; Sapp, Joan

    This study examined the relationship between maternal stress, changes in stress, specific stressors, and social support and quality of mother-infant attachment. Life stress of 132 mothers was assessed prenatally and when the child was 13 months old. The mothers' social support and the quality of infant-mother attachment were also measured at the…

  3. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  4. Supported and Sheltered Employment: Quality of Life Issues among Workers with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott-Oswald, Mary; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Perceived quality of life was compared among 10 individuals with disabilities in supported community employment, 10 individuals in sheltered workshops, and 9 individuals without disabilities. Supported community employment was positively related to number of leisure activities, self-esteem, use of leisure time, involvement in activities, mobility,…

  5. Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…

  6. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  7. A one year study of coping, social support and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, K.M.G.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The role of coping and social support in the quality of life for Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients is not well understood. Most studies are cross-sectional and concentrate on depression as an outcome measure. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of coping and social support in qualit

  8. Education and training in LCA and life-cycle thinking experience and needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Bey, Niki; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    was gathered by means of a survey among providers and users of education and training in this field, while the qualitative data was established in the course of a dialogue meeting to which particular interested individuals, selected among those who had returned the questionnaire, were invited....... The questionnaire for providers was returned by 20 institutions, describing 47 educational offers and the questionnaire for users of education was filled by 41 companies and 16 consultancies. Most of the companies and consultancies that participated in the survey have experience with LCA and/or life cycle thinking......This paper discusses experience and needs for education and training in LCA and life-cycle thinking based on project carried out for the Environmental Protection Agency in Denmark. An approach was chosen where both quantitative and qualitative facts and records were collected. The quantitative data...

  9. Education and training in LCA and life-cycle thinking experience and needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Bey, Niki; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    was gathered by means of a survey among providers and users of education and training in this field, while the qualitative data was established in the course of a dialogue meeting to which particular interested individuals, selected among those who had returned the questionnaire, were invited......This paper discusses experience and needs for education and training in LCA and life-cycle thinking based on project carried out for the Environmental Protection Agency in Denmark. An approach was chosen where both quantitative and qualitative facts and records were collected. The quantitative data....... The questionnaire for providers was returned by 20 institutions, describing 47 educational offers and the questionnaire for users of education was filled by 41 companies and 16 consultancies. Most of the companies and consultancies that participated in the survey have experience with LCA and/or life cycle thinking...

  10. Practitioner Expectations and Experiences with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104): Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Meyers, Dave; Bateman, Andrea; Bluer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This document supports the report "Practitioner Expectations and Experiences with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104)". The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, data collection processes and the strategy for data analysis and…

  11. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the persp

  12. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  13. Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: Impact on Attitudes and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; Allen, David; Davies, Dee; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Kaye, Neil; Jones, Sian; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positive behavioural support is increasingly viewed as the preferred service approach for people who challenge, but skills are insufficiently widespread. The need for effective staff training has been highlighted as a key factor in high quality service provision, with investigators recommending a multidimensional approach to increase…

  14. Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: Impact on Attitudes and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; Allen, David; Davies, Dee; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Kaye, Neil; Jones, Sian; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positive behavioural support is increasingly viewed as the preferred service approach for people who challenge, but skills are insufficiently widespread. The need for effective staff training has been highlighted as a key factor in high quality service provision, with investigators recommending a multidimensional approach to increase…

  15. A Training and Support Group for Elderly Diabetics: Description and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Floyd F.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted 12-week diabetes support-training group for older adults having difficulty managing their diabetes because of poor dietary compliance. Results revealed that group participants (n=12 women) successfully improved their compliance to diet plans and lowered their peak blood glucose levels. (Author/NB)

  16. Factors influencing the preparation, support and training of South African expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if the independent variables; location of an international assignment, the age of an expatriate, the duration of an assignment and the management level of an expatriate, influence the preparation, support and training that they require for an international assignment. Design/Methodology/Approach: This formal, empirical study was undertaken using an electronic questionnaire that was distributed to expatriates who were on an international assignment. Expatriates who were on an international assignment were thought to be in the best position to respond to their preparation, support and training needs. Findings: The research found that the preparation, support and training required by South African expatriates are not influenced by the location of an international assignment, the age of the expatriate, the duration of an international assignment or the management level of the expatriate. Implications: The findings highlight the fact that human resource managers of South African multinational enterprises should provide all their expatriates with the same preparation, support and training, as well as identifies five requirements that should be included in all South African expatriate policies.

  17. School Counselors' Education and Training, Competency, and Supportive Behaviors Concerning Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…

  18. Cybermentoring: Evolving High-End Video Conferencing Practices to Support Preservice Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd E.; Maring, Gerald H.; Doty, John H.; Fickle, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    This article is a descriptive study of an evolving cybermentoring videoconferencing practice and tool developed to support preservice teacher training. Cybermentoring projects are synchronous distance learning collaborations using high-end video conferencing to foster interactive learning and tutoring among preservice teachers and K-12 students,…

  19. Contingency Mapping: Use of a Novel Visual Support Strategy as an Adjunct to Functional Equivalence Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth E.; Mirenda, Pat

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of contingency mapping, a new visual support strategy designed to enhance clients' understanding of the contingencies associated with functional equivalence training (FET). The study was conducted in a general education classroom with an adolescent boy with autism who engaged in prompt dependent behavior. A…

  20. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  1. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  2. Open and Distance Learning for Health: Supporting Health Workers through Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This case study surveys the growing use of open and distance learning approaches to the provision of support, education and training to health workers over the past few decades. It classifies such uses under four headings, providing brief descriptions from the literature of a few examples of each group. In conclusion, it identifies key lessons…

  3. Identifying battlefield information collection strategies to support 'every soldier is a sensor' training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupenia; Cuizinaud; Muller, T.J.; Hulst, A.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards network-centric warfare has been accompanied by a shift towards the ‘Every Soldier is a Sensor’ (ES2) concept where battlefield information collection is completed by regular soldiers within a company/platoon (U.S. Army, 2008). To support the development of ES2 training we investig

  4. Autonomy support and motivational responses across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (Nn=n348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between auto

  5. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the

  6. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  7. Behaviour Support Training for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaad, Eman; Thabet, Rawy A.

    2016-01-01

    Al Jalila Foundation (AJF) is a philanthropic organization based in Dubai. The organization sponsored a training programme in 2013 to support parents of children with various disabilities to cope with the behavioural and emotional challenges that are related to the child's disability. The course lasts for 6 weeks and is delivered across the United…

  8. Returning the Favor: Positive Employee Responses to Supervisor and Peer Support for Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Tian, Amy; Cordery, John; Gamble, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail…

  9. Streaming Videos in Peer Assessment to Support Training Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chih; Kao, Hue-Ching

    2008-01-01

    A web-based peer assessment system using video streaming technology was implemented to support the training of pre-service teachers. The peer assessment process was synchronized with viewing of peer teaching videos so that comments could be linked to the relevant position on the video. When one viewed a comment, the associated video segment could…

  10. Training in Support of Leadership Development at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dunstan; Newman, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on training in support of leadership development at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, main and branch libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an interview with a campus librarian and desk research. Findings: Like any other institution in the world, the Mona Library…

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  12. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eig...

  13. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan Abigail A; Mihalic Sharon F; Argamaso Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug preventio...

  14. Self-directed Mindfulness Training and Improvement in Blood Pressure, Migraine Frequency, and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Erica B.; Rempe, Margaret; Bradley, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interest in case studies has undergone a resurgence concurrent with increasing prioritization of illustrations of patient-centered care. However, substantial inclusion of the patient in these reports remains limited. Here, a doctor and patient collaborate to present her case report of self-directed mindfulness training and the subsequent changes in blood pressure, migraine frequency, and quality of life. Methods: After receiving encouragement from her naturopathic doctor, the pati...

  15. Interrelationships between romance, life quality, and medical training of female residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Chang, Chin-Sung; Wu, Chih-Hsing

    2012-08-01

    For the past 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the number of female physicians, but the relationship between their romantic lives and their pattern of training has been inadequately reported. This study was designed to investigate the interrelationships between medical training, quality of life, and the attitudes that female residents have toward romance. Of the 106 female medical residents at our medical center in 2009, a total of 78 residents (73.6%) were enrolled for the study. Structured questionnaires (Cronbach α = 0.878), which included questions about female resident quality of life, attitude toward spousal choice, and the impact of programmed professional medical training, were self-administered through an anonymous process. Female residents, especially ward-care specialists, were determined to have excessively long working hours (84.6% > 88 work hours/week), insufficient and irregular sleep (44.9%), and inadequate personal time (73.1% romances, 87.5% (n = 40) of romantic partners were physicians and 58.3% (n = 28) initiated their relationships when they were medical students, but exhibited no preferential dating of senior medical students or physicians. Factors affecting the choice of spouses included time limitations, a limited circle of friends, differences in values, and work-related stress. Those presumptive factors influencing romance between the assumed partner being a doctor or a "nondoctor" were significantly different with regard to lack of time (p = 0.002), values (p Romance and quality of life were significantly influenced by the pattern of medical training in female residents. Setting duty-hour limits and initiating a new hobby were determined to be potentially beneficial to their quality of life and attitudes toward romance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Extroversion, social support and life satisfaction in old age: a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was twofold: on the one hand to analyze whether extroversion predicts social support in older people, and on the other hand to determine if different types of social support mediate the effect that extroversion has on older people's life satisfaction. The sample comprised 406 community-dwelling older adults (M = 74.88, SD = 6.75) from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. Extroversion was positively correlated with emotional (r = .23) and with affectionate support (r = .30). Extroversion and all types of social support also positively correlated with life satisfaction. The multiple mediation analysis revealed that when age, gender, marital status and loneliness were controlled, extroversion predicted emotional (B = .008, p fact supportive social relations are crucial for older people's life satisfaction. Also emotional and affectionate support constitutes important explanatory mechanisms of the indirect effect of extroversion on life satisfaction. Personality traits should be considered when interventions aimed at promoting life satisfaction in old age and successful aging are designed.

  17. Project management of life-science research projects: project characteristics, challenges and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers, Margot W

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-four project managers of life-science research projects were interviewed to investigate the characteristics of their projects, the challenges they faced and their training requirements. A set of ten discriminating parameters were identified based on four project categories: contract research, development, discovery and call-based projects--projects set up to address research questions defined in a call for proposals. The major challenges these project managers are faced with relate to project members, leadership without authority and a lack of commitment from the respective organization. Two-thirds of the project managers indicated that they would be interested in receiving additional training, mostly on people-oriented, soft skills. The training programs that are currently on offer, however, do not meet their needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Second Life for Just-in-Time Training: Building Teaching Frameworks in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Kopp

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for using virtual worlds in the construction of teaching platforms for just-in-time training. In the critical economic situation that many companies are currently living, the need to update skills without leaving the workplace has become urgent. Employees are demanding training for higher performances, knowledge and skills, without requesting time to attend university, or leaving their work behind. In this context, the use of virtual worlds has become the way knowledge is shared and accessed, as virtual groups become learning communities. The potential of Second Life as a space to learn and be trained are explored. The characteristics and capabilities of virtual worlds for teaching and learning are examined, the role of the virtual tutor is analyzed, and further areas of research and development are presented.

  19. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  20. Communication skills training for dialysis decision-making and end-of-life care in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Jane O; Green, Jamie A; Tulsky, James A; Arnold, Robert M

    2013-04-01

    Nephrology fellows often face difficult conversations about dialysis initiation or withdrawal but are frequently unprepared for these discussions. Despite evidence that communication skills are teachable, few fellowship programs include such training. A communication skills workshop for nephrology fellows (NephroTalk) focused on delivering bad news and helping patients define care goals, including end-of-life preferences. This 4-hour workshop, held in October and November 2011, included didactics and practice sessions with standardized patients. Participants were nephrology fellows at Duke University and the University of Pittsburgh (n=22). Pre- and post-workshop surveys evaluated efficacy of the curriculum and measured changes in perceived preparedness on the basis on workshop training. Overall, 14% of fellows were white and 50% were male. Less than one-third (6 of 22) reported prior palliative care training. Survey response rate varied between 86% and 100%. Only 36% (8 of 22) and 38% (8 of 21) of respondents had received structured training in discussions for dialysis initiation or withdrawal. Respondents (19 of 19) felt that communication skills were important to being a "great nephrologist." Mean level of preparedness as measured with a five-point Likert scale significantly increased for all skills (range, 0.5-1.14; Pnephrology fellows for having difficult conversations about dialysis decision-making and end-of-life care.

  1. BALANCED VS IMBALANCED TRAINING DATA: CLASSIFYING RAPIDEYE DATA WITH SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustuner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of supervised image classification is highly dependent upon several factors such as the design of training set (sample selection, composition, purity and size, resolution of input imagery and landscape heterogeneity. The design of training set is still a challenging issue since the sensitivity of classifier algorithm at learning stage is different for the same dataset. In this paper, the classification of RapidEye imagery with balanced and imbalanced training data for mapping the crop types was addressed. Classification with imbalanced training data may result in low accuracy in some scenarios. Support Vector Machines (SVM, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifications were implemented here to classify the data. For evaluating the influence of the balanced and imbalanced training data on image classification algorithms, three different training datasets were created. Two different balanced datasets which have 70 and 100 pixels for each class of interest and one imbalanced dataset in which each class has different number of pixels were used in classification stage. Results demonstrate that ML and NN classifications are affected by imbalanced training data in resulting a reduction in accuracy (from 90.94% to 85.94% for ML and from 91.56% to 88.44% for NN while SVM is not affected significantly (from 94.38% to 94.69% and slightly improved. Our results highlighted that SVM is proven to be a very robust, consistent and effective classifier as it can perform very well under balanced and imbalanced training data situations. Furthermore, the training stage should be precisely and carefully designed for the need of adopted classifier.

  2. A web-based training program to support chronic kidney disease screening by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheewala, Pankti A; Peterson, Gregory M; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R; Bereznicki, Luke; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L

    2016-10-01

    Background Community pharmacists' role in screening of several chronic diseases has been widely explored. The global health burden of chronic kidney disease is high; however, the progression and adverse outcomes can be prevented or delayed by detecting and treating the disease in its initial stages 1-3. Therefore, a web-based training program was developed to enhance pharmacists' knowledge and skills required to perform a chronic kidney disease screening service in a community setting. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a web-based training program on community pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. As secondary aim, pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program was assessed. Setting Community pharmacy practice. Method A web-based training program was developed by four pharmacists and a nephrologist. Quantitative data was collected by employing a self-administered, web-based questionnaire, which comprised a set of five multiple-choice knowledge questions and one clinical vignette to assess skills. A nine-item Likert scale was used to determine pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' knowledge and skills scores at pre and post-training, reliability of the Likert scale, and the proportion of responses to the individual nine items of the satisfaction survey. Results Fifty pharmacists participated in the pre-questionnaire and 38 pharmacists completed the web-based training and post-questionnaire. Significant differences were observed in the knowledge scores (p web-based training program positively enhanced pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. These findings support further development and widespread implementation of the training program to facilitate health promotion and early identification of chronic kidney disease in a community setting.

  3. Balanced VS Imbalanced Training Data: Classifying Rapideye Data with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, M.; Sanli, F. B.; Abdikan, S.

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of supervised image classification is highly dependent upon several factors such as the design of training set (sample selection, composition, purity and size), resolution of input imagery and landscape heterogeneity. The design of training set is still a challenging issue since the sensitivity of classifier algorithm at learning stage is different for the same dataset. In this paper, the classification of RapidEye imagery with balanced and imbalanced training data for mapping the crop types was addressed. Classification with imbalanced training data may result in low accuracy in some scenarios. Support Vector Machines (SVM), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifications were implemented here to classify the data. For evaluating the influence of the balanced and imbalanced training data on image classification algorithms, three different training datasets were created. Two different balanced datasets which have 70 and 100 pixels for each class of interest and one imbalanced dataset in which each class has different number of pixels were used in classification stage. Results demonstrate that ML and NN classifications are affected by imbalanced training data in resulting a reduction in accuracy (from 90.94% to 85.94% for ML and from 91.56% to 88.44% for NN) while SVM is not affected significantly (from 94.38% to 94.69%) and slightly improved. Our results highlighted that SVM is proven to be a very robust, consistent and effective classifier as it can perform very well under balanced and imbalanced training data situations. Furthermore, the training stage should be precisely and carefully designed for the need of adopted classifier.

  4. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  5. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  6. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3(rd)-year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our participants were aware of BLS, showed positive attitude toward it, whereas the knowledge about BLS was lacking, with the statistically significant P value. By introducing BLS regularly in the academic curriculum and by routine hands on workshops, all the health-care providers should be well versed with the BLS skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

  7. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  8. [Influence of social support on the life quality of burn survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the influence of social support on the life quality of burn survivors. Three hundred and sixty patients admitted to our hospital from July of 1995 to July of 2002 were investigated by social support questionnaire (PRQ-85 Part2) and life quality self-evaluation questionnaire (GQOLL) 1 to 2 years after burns. The patients were divided into 3 groups (high, middle and low level of social support groups) according to the scores in the survey. The influence of different levels of social support on the degree of satisfaction of life and living quality were analyzed with SPSS11.0 software. The living satisfaction score and living quality score of patients with high and middle levels of social support were 54.6 +/- 7.1, 57.4 +/- 8.1 and 46.8 +/- 5.2, 51.3 +/- 5.7, respectively. On the other hand, those with low level of social support, the scores were 51.2 +/- 8.1 and 43.6 +/- 5.0, respectively. The life quality of burn patients can be improved through reinforcement of the social support.

  9. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarcik, P; Geckova, A Madarasova; Reijneveld, S A; van Dijk, J P

    2012-12-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these differences. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; mean age = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; mean age = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness was analysed using linear regression, adjusted for gender, parental education and social desirability. Roma adolescents reported higher social support from parents, higher life satisfaction and higher hopelessness rates. Parental education explained part of the ethnic differences, as did social desirability. After adjustment for the aforementioned factors, differences by ethnicity remained statistically significant. Roma adolescents experience higher levels of social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness than non-Roma adolescents. Reduction of hopelessness feelings while maintaining levels of social support and life satisfaction among Roma adolescents should be a topic for both intervention and further research.

  10. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented.

  11. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  12. Training Corporate Managers to Adopt a More Autonomy-Supportive Motivating Style toward Employees: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2009-01-01

    Management style is treated in a variety of ways across the training and development literature. Yet few studies have tested the training-based malleability of management style in a for-profit, authentic work context. The present research tested whether or not training intervention would help managers adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating…

  13. Supporting command and control training functions in the emergency management domain using cognitive systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A; Balogun, Obafemi; Boyle, Edward; Turner, Amy

    The design and implementation of MERMAIDS, a computer-based training system in the domain of emergency command and control, is described. The research investigates the use of cognitive systems engineering and information management tools for modelling and representing training knowledge of emergency system operators. We propose a decision-centric human-computer interface as a new method of supporting computer-based modelling in the domain of emergency systems. Several interacting themes in information management relevant to emergency response planning are discussed.

  14. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdin Nowrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses’ quality of work life (QWL. Material and Methods: A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111 selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4% of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1 demographic factors, and 2 stress, employment status and educational attainment. Results: In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–14.5 times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. Conclusions: This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses’ QWL.

  15. The effects of an online basic life support course on undergraduate nursing students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa H C; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Smith, Nicole; Polastri, Thatiane F; Timerman, Sergio

    2017-08-25

    To describe learning outcomes of undergraduate nursing students following an online basic life support course (BLS). An online BLS course was developed and administered to 94 nursing students. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess theoretical learning. Checklist simulations and feedback devices were used to assess the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills of the 62 students who completed the course. A paired t-test revealed a significant increase in learning [pre-test (6.4 ± 1.61), post-test (9.3 ± 0.82), p < 0.001]. The increase in the average grade after taking the online course was significant (p<0.001). No learning differences (p=0.475) had been observed between 1st and 2nd year (9.20 ± 1.60), and between 3rd and 4th year (9.67 ± 0.61) students. A CPR simulation was performed after completing the course: students checked for a response (90%), exposed the chest (98%), checked for breathing (97%), called emergency services (76%), requested for a defibrillator (92%), checked for a pulse (77%), positioned their hands properly (87%), performed 30 compressions/cycle (95%), performed compressions of at least 5 cm depth (89%), released the chest (90%), applied two breaths (97%), used the automated external defibrillator (97%), and positioned the pads (100%). The online course was an effective method for teaching and learning key BLS skills wherein students were able to accurately apply BLS procedures during the CPR simulation. This short-term online training, which likely improves learning and self-efficacy in BLS providers, can be used for the continuing education of health professionals.

  16. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003 and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007. Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given. Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64, practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57, and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68 outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  17. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, F D; Romano, M M D; Schmidt, A; Pazin-Filho, A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003) and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007). Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given). Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR) indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64), practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57), and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68) outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  18. Success Rate of Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service Personnel in Implementing Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support Guidelines on Traffic Accident Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Changiz; Vahdati, Samad Shams; NOTASH, Mehdi; MIRI, Seyed Hassan; Ghafouri, Rouzbeh Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Road traffic injuries are responsible for a vast number of trauma-related deaths in middle- and low-income countries. Pre-hospital emergency medical service (PHEMS) provides care and transports the injured patients from the scene of accident to the destined hospital. The PHEMS providers and paramedics were recently trained in the Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) guidelines to improve the outcome of trauma patients in developing countries. We decided to carry out a s...

  19. Success Rate of Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service Personnel in Implementing Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support Guidelines on Traffic Accident Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Changiz; Vahdati, Samad Shams; NOTASH, Mehdi; MIRI, Seyed Hassan; Ghafouri, Rouzbeh Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Road traffic injuries are responsible for a vast number of trauma-related deaths in middle- and low-income countries. Pre-hospital emergency medical service (PHEMS) provides care and transports the injured patients from the scene of accident to the destined hospital. The PHEMS providers and paramedics were recently trained in the Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) guidelines to improve the outcome of trauma patients in developing countries. We decided to carry out a s...

  20. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.