WorldWideScience

Sample records for life including microrna

  1. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Liang; Li, Qibin; Zhao, Ping; Duan, Jun; Cheng, Daojun; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent s...

  2. Micro-RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmäki, H.; Hokland, L. B.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology...... including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of microRNA biology and their role in bone formation...

  3. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene–environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  4. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  5. Isolation of microRNA targets using biotinylated synthetic microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs found in multicellular organisms where they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In animals, microRNAs bind mRNAs via incomplete base pairings making the identification of microRNA targets inherently difficult. Here, we present a detailed method...... for experimental identification of microRNA targets based on affinity purification of tagged microRNAs associated with their targets. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  6. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  7. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  8. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  9. The Role of microRNAs in the Biology of Rare Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Taruscio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases (RD are characterized by low prevalence and affect not more than five individuals per 10,000 in the European population; they are a large and heterogeneous group of disorders including more than 7,000 conditions and often involve all organs and tissues, with several clinical subtypes within the same disease. Very often information concerning either diagnosis and/or prognosis on many RD is insufficient. microRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by either degrading or blocking translation of messenger RNA targets. Recently, microRNA expression patterns of body fluids underscored their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for various diseases. The role of microRNAs as potential biomarkers has become particularly attractive. The identification of disease-related microRNAs is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases at the molecular level, and is critical for designing specific molecular tools for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Computational analysis of microRNA-disease associations is an important complementary means for prioritizing microRNAs for further experimental examination. In this article, we explored the added value of miRs as biomarkers in a selected panel of RD hitting different tissues/systems at different life stages, but sharing the need of better biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

  10. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Daojun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm. Results Our results show that miRNAs display a wide variety of expression profiles over the whole life of the silkworm, including continuous expression from embryo to adult (miR-184, up-regulation over the entire life cycle (let-7 and miR-100, down-regulation over the entire life cycle (miR-124, expression associated with embryogenesis (miR-29 and miR-92, up-regulation from early 3rd instar to pupa (miR-275, and complementary pulses in expression between miR-34b and miR-275. Stage-by-stage examinations revealed further expression patterns, such as emergence at specific time-points during embryogenesis and up-regulation of miRNA groups in late embryos (miR-1 and bantam, expression associated with stage transition between instar and molt larval stages (miR-34b, expression associated with silk gland growth and spinning activity (miR-274, continuous high expression from the spinning larval to pupal and adult stages (miR-252 and miR-31a, a coordinate expression trough in day 3 pupae of both sexes (miR-10b and miR-281, up-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-29b, and down-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-275. Conclusion We present the full-scale expression profiles of miRNAs throughout the life cycle of Bombyx mori. The whole-life expression profile was further investigated via stage-by-stage analysis. Our data provide an important resource for more detailed

  11. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Liang; Li, Qibin; Zhao, Ping; Duan, Jun; Cheng, Daojun; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-09-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm. Our results show that miRNAs display a wide variety of expression profiles over the whole life of the silkworm, including continuous expression from embryo to adult (miR-184), up-regulation over the entire life cycle (let-7 and miR-100), down-regulation over the entire life cycle (miR-124), expression associated with embryogenesis (miR-29 and miR-92), up-regulation from early 3rd instar to pupa (miR-275), and complementary pulses in expression between miR-34b and miR-275. Stage-by-stage examinations revealed further expression patterns, such as emergence at specific time-points during embryogenesis and up-regulation of miRNA groups in late embryos (miR-1 and bantam), expression associated with stage transition between instar and molt larval stages (miR-34b), expression associated with silk gland growth and spinning activity (miR-274), continuous high expression from the spinning larval to pupal and adult stages (miR-252 and miR-31a), a coordinate expression trough in day 3 pupae of both sexes (miR-10b and miR-281), up-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-29b), and down-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-275). We present the full-scale expression profiles of miRNAs throughout the life cycle of Bombyx mori. The whole-life expression profile was further investigated via stage-by-stage analysis. Our data provide an important resource for more detailed functional analysis of miRNAs in this animal.

  12. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Xing, H Rosie; Salama, Joseph K; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Qingbei; Khan, Sajid A; Yang, Xinan; Hasselle, Michael D; Darga, Thomas E; Malik, Renuka; Fan, Hanli; Perakis, Samantha; Filippo, Matthew; Corbin, Kimberly; Lee, Younghee; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es), termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy. Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy. Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression. These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  13. MicroRNAs associated with exercise and diet: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Elena; Won, Gloria Y; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. MicroRNAs reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures in the environment. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs presents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with behavioral interventions (i.e., exercise, diet) for weight loss. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to summarize what is known about circulating microRNAs associated with exercise, diet, and weight loss. We performed a systematic review of three scientific databases. We included studies reporting on circulating microRNAs associated with exercise, diet, and weight loss in humans. Of 1,219 studies identified in our comprehensive database search, 14 were selected for inclusion. Twelve reported on microRNAs associated with exercise, and two reported on microRNAs associated with diet and weight loss. The majority of studies used a quasiexperimental, cross-sectional design. There were numerous differences in the type and intensity of exercise and dietary interventions, the biologic source of microRNAs, and the methodological approaches used quantitate microRNAs. Data from several studies support an association between circulating microRNAs and exercise. The evidence for an association between circulating microRNAs and diet is weaker because of a small number of studies. Additional research is needed to validate previous observations using methodologically rigorous approaches to microRNA quantitation to determine the specific circulating microRNA signatures associated with behavioral approaches to weight loss. Future directions include longitudinal studies to determine if circulating microRNAs are predictive of response to behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es, termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy.Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy.Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression.These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  15. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  16. MicroRNA and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin D; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    biological phenomena and pathologies. The best characterized non-coding RNA family consists in humans of about 1400 microRNAs for which abundant evidence have demonstrated fundamental importance in normal development, differentiation, growth control and in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we...... summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, which have emerged from the study of cell culture and animal model systems, including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and the DNA damage response. Importantly, micro...

  17. The Emerging Role of MicroRNA-155 in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Richard Y. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidences suggest that microRNA-155, a typical multifunctional microRNA, plays a crucial role in hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, and vascular remodeling, which is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, heart failure, and diabetic heart disease. The effects of microRNA-155 in different cell types through different target genes result in different mechanisms in diseases. MicroRNA-155 has been intensively studied in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Contradictory results of microRNA-155 either promoting or preventing the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis illustrate the complexity of this pleiotropic molecule. Therefore, more comprehensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of microRNA-155 involvement in cardiovascular diseases are required. Furthermore, a recent clinical trial of Miravirsen targeting microRNA-122 sheds light on exploiting microRNA-155 as a novel target to develop effective therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases in the near future.

  18. Regulation of Corticosteroidogenic Genes by MicroRNAs

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    Stacy Robertson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of normal regulation of corticosteroid secretion is important in the development of cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that microRNAs regulate the terminal stages of corticosteroid biosynthesis. Here, we assess microRNA regulation across the whole corticosteroid pathway. Knockdown of microRNA using Dicer1 siRNA in H295R adrenocortical cells increased levels of CYP11A1, CYP21A1, and CYP17A1 mRNA and the secretion of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone. Bioinformatic analysis of genes involved in corticosteroid biosynthesis or metabolism identified many putative microRNA-binding sites, and some were selected for further study. Manipulation of individual microRNA levels demonstrated a direct effect of miR-125a-5p and miR-125b-5p on CYP11B2 and of miR-320a-3p levels on CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 mRNA. Finally, comparison of microRNA expression profiles from human aldosterone-producing adenoma and normal adrenal tissue showed levels of various microRNAs, including miR-125a-5p to be significantly different. This study demonstrates that corticosteroidogenesis is regulated at multiple points by several microRNAs and that certain of these microRNAs are differentially expressed in tumorous adrenal tissue, which may contribute to dysregulation of corticosteroid secretion. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of corticosteroid production and have implications for understanding the pathology of disease states where abnormal hormone secretion is a feature.

  19. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  1. Friend or Foe: MicroRNAs in the p53 network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenghua; Cui, Ri; Tili, Esmerina; Croce, Carlo

    2018-04-10

    The critical tumor suppressor gene TP53 is either lost or mutated in more than half of human cancers. As an important transcriptional regulator, p53 modulates the expression of many microRNAs. While wild-type p53 uses microRNAs to suppress cancer development, microRNAs that are activated by gain-of-function mutant p53 confer oncogenic properties. On the other hand, the expression of p53 is tightly controlled by a fine-tune machinery including microRNAs. MicroRNAs can target the TP53 gene directly or other factors in the p53 network so that expression and function of either the wild-type or the mutant forms of p53 is downregulated. Therefore, depending on the wild-type or mutant p53 context, microRNAs contribute substantially to suppress or exacerbate tumor development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Profile of cerebrospinal microRNAs in fibromyalgia.

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    Jan L Bjersing

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic pain and reduced pain threshold. The pathophysiology involves disturbed neuroendocrine function, including impaired function of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be important regulatory factors in a number of diseases. The aim of this study was to try to identify cerebrospinal microRNAs with expression specific for FM and to determine their correlation to pain and fatigue.The genome-wide profile of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid was assessed in ten women with FM and eight healthy controls using real-time quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Levels of pain (FIQ pain were rated on a 0-100 mm scale (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ. Levels of fatigue (FIQ fatigue were rated on a 0-100 mm scale using FIQ and by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20 general fatigue (MFIGF.Expression levels of nine microRNAs were significantly lower in patients with FM patients compared to healthy controls. The microRNAs identified were miR-21-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-99b-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-23a-3p, 23b-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-223-3p. The identified microRNAs with significantly lower expression in FM were assessed with regard to pain and fatigue. miR-145-5p correlated positively with FIQ pain (r=0.709, p=0.022, n=10 and with FIQ fatigue (r=0.687, p=0.028, n=10.To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a disease-specific pattern of cerebrospinal microRNAs in FM. We have identified nine microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid that differed between FM patients and healthy controls. One of the identified microRNAs, miR-145 was associated with the cardinal symptoms of FM, pain and fatigue.

  3. Profile of cerebrospinal microRNAs in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjersing, Jan L; Lundborg, Christopher; Bokarewa, Maria I; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic pain and reduced pain threshold. The pathophysiology involves disturbed neuroendocrine function, including impaired function of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be important regulatory factors in a number of diseases. The aim of this study was to try to identify cerebrospinal microRNAs with expression specific for FM and to determine their correlation to pain and fatigue. The genome-wide profile of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid was assessed in ten women with FM and eight healthy controls using real-time quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Levels of pain (FIQ pain) were rated on a 0-100 mm scale (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ). Levels of fatigue (FIQ fatigue) were rated on a 0-100 mm scale using FIQ and by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) general fatigue (MFIGF). Expression levels of nine microRNAs were significantly lower in patients with FM patients compared to healthy controls. The microRNAs identified were miR-21-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-99b-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-23a-3p, 23b-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-223-3p. The identified microRNAs with significantly lower expression in FM were assessed with regard to pain and fatigue. miR-145-5p correlated positively with FIQ pain (r=0.709, p=0.022, n=10) and with FIQ fatigue (r=0.687, p=0.028, n=10). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a disease-specific pattern of cerebrospinal microRNAs in FM. We have identified nine microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid that differed between FM patients and healthy controls. One of the identified microRNAs, miR-145 was associated with the cardinal symptoms of FM, pain and fatigue.

  4. MicroRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To build a microRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: MicroRNA expression profiles were downloaded from miRNA expression profile of patients' skin suffering from TEN using an ...

  5. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  6. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David A; Nymon, Amanda B; Ringelberg, Carol S; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may contribute in the development of lung disease. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology and emerging evidence indicates altered microRNA expression modulates respiratory disease processes. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the epigenetic and cellular mechanisms influencing regional differences in lung disease by investigating effect of hypoxia on regional microRNA expression in the lung. All studies were performed using primary alveolar macrophages ( n  = 10) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( n  = 16) isolated from human subjects. MicroRNA was assayed via the NanoString nCounter microRNA assay. Divergent molecular patterns of microRNA expression were observed in alternate lung lobes, specifically noted was disparate expression of miR-93 and miR-4454 in alveolar macrophages along with altered expression of miR-451a and miR-663a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gene ontology was used to identify potential downstream targets of divergent microRNAs. Targets include cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, molecules that could have a significant impact on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our findings show variant regional microRNA expression associated with hypoxia in alveolar macrophages and BAL fluid in the lung-upper vs lower lobe. Future studies should address whether these specific microRNAs may act intracellularly, in a paracrine/endocrine manner to direct the innate immune response or may ultimately be involved in pulmonary host-to-pathogen trans

  7. MicroRNA-122 is involved in oxidative stress in isoniazid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Zhang, Z R; Zhang, J L; Zhu, X B; He, L; Shi, Z; Gao, L; Li, Y; Hu, B; Feng, F M

    2015-10-27

    Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of liver injury includes oxidative stress. MicroRNA-122 may be a marker for the early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between microRNA-122 and oxidative stress in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. We measured changes in tissue microRNA-122 levels and indices of oxidative stress during liver injury in mice after administration of isoniazid, a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. We quantified microRNA-122 expression and indices of oxidative stress at 7 time points, including 1, 3, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The tissue microRNA-122 levels and oxidative stress significantly changed at 3 and 5 days, suggesting that isoniazid-induced liver injury reduces oxidative stress and microRNA-122 expression compared to in the control group (P microRNA-122, began to change at 5 days (P microRNA-122 profile may affect oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene during isoniazid-induced liver injury, which may contribute to the response mechanisms of microRNA-122 and oxidative stress.

  8. NAViGaTing the micronome--using multiple microRNA prediction databases to identify signalling pathway-associated microRNAs.

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    Elize A Shirdel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs known to regulate gene expression at the transcript level, the protein level, or both. Since microRNA binding is sequence-based but possibly structure-specific, work in this area has resulted in multiple databases storing predicted microRNA:target relationships computed using diverse algorithms. We integrate prediction databases, compare predictions to in vitro data, and use cross-database predictions to model the microRNA:transcript interactome--referred to as the micronome--to study microRNA involvement in well-known signalling pathways as well as associations with disease. We make this data freely available with a flexible user interface as our microRNA Data Integration Portal--mirDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/mirDIP.mirDIP integrates prediction databases to elucidate accurate microRNA:target relationships. Using NAViGaTOR to produce interaction networks implicating microRNAs in literature-based, KEGG-based and Reactome-based pathways, we find these signalling pathway networks have significantly more microRNA involvement compared to chance (p<0.05, suggesting microRNAs co-target many genes in a given pathway. Further examination of the micronome shows two distinct classes of microRNAs; universe microRNAs, which are involved in many signalling pathways; and intra-pathway microRNAs, which target multiple genes within one signalling pathway. We find universe microRNAs to have more targets (p<0.0001, to be more studied (p<0.0002, and to have higher degree in the KEGG cancer pathway (p<0.0001, compared to intra-pathway microRNAs.Our pathway-based analysis of mirDIP data suggests microRNAs are involved in intra-pathway signalling. We identify two distinct classes of microRNAs, suggesting a hierarchical organization of microRNAs co-targeting genes both within and between pathways, and implying differential involvement of universe and intra-pathway microRNAs at the disease level.

  9. MicroRNA expression profile in head and neck cancer: HOX-cluster embedded microRNA-196a and microRNA-10b dysregulation implicated in cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Brüggemann, Holger; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Camps, Carme; Klingbeil, Maria de Fatima Garrido; Pereira, Welbert Oliveira de; Soares, Renata Machado; Moyses, Raquel; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence implicates aberrant microRNA expression patterns in human malignancies; measurement of microRNA expression may have diagnostic and prognostic applications. Roles for microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are largely unknown. HNSCC, a smoking-related cancer, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide but reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers have not been discovered so far. Some studies have evaluated the potential use of microRNA as biomarkers with clinical application in HNSCC. MicroRNA expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma samples was determined by means of DNA microarrays. We also performed gain-of-function assays for two differentially expressed microRNA using two squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and normal oral keratinocytes. The effect of the over-expression of these molecules was evaluated by means of global gene expression profiling and cell proliferation assessment. Altered microRNA expression was detected for a total of 72 microRNAs. Among these we found well studied molecules, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, comprising potent oncogenic microRNA, and miR-34, recently found to interact with p53. HOX-cluster embedded miR-196a/b and miR-10b were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumor samples. Since validated HOX gene targets for these microRNAs are not consistently deregulated in HNSCC, we performed gain-of-function experiments, in an attempt to outline their possible role. Our results suggest that both molecules interfere in cell proliferation through distinct processes, possibly targeting a small set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Functional data on miRNAs in HNSCC is still scarce. Our data corroborate current literature and brings new insights into the role of microRNAs in HNSCC. We also show that miR-196a and miR-10b, not previously associated with HNSCC, may play an oncogenic role in this disease through the deregulation of cell proliferation. The study of microRNA

  10. MicroRNAs as regulatory elements in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex genetic disorder that affects 23% of the European population. The symptoms of Psoriatic skin are inflammation, raised and scaly lesions. microRNA, which is short, nonprotein-coding, regulatory RNAs, plays critical roles in psoriasis. microRNA participates in nearly all biological processes, such as cell differentiation, development and metabolism. Recent researches reveal that multitudinous novel microRNAs have been identified in skin. Some of these substantial novel microRNAs play as a class of posttranscriptional gene regulator in skin disease, such as psoriasis. In order to insight into microRNAs biological functions and verify microRNAs biomarker, we review diverse references about characterization, profiling and subtype of microRNAs. Here we will share our opinions about how and which microRNAs are as regulatory in psoriasis.

  11. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

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    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  12. Lost in translation. New unexplored avenues for neuropsychopharmacology: epigenetics and microRNAs.

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    Tardito, Daniela; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are among the major causes of disability worldwide. Despite clear need for better therapies, efforts to develop novel drugs have been relatively unsuccessful. One major reason is lack of translation into neuropsychopharmacology of the impressive recent array of knowledge accrued by clinical and preclinical researches on the brain. Here focus is on epigenetics mechanisms, including microRNAs, which seem particularly promising for the identification of new targets for alternative pharmacological approaches. First, the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, posttranslational modification of histone proteins, focusing on histone methylation and acetylation, and posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression by microRNAs is described. Then evidence showing involvement of epigenetics and microRNAs in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as evidence showing that some of the currently employed antidepressants and mood stabilizers also affect epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms are reviewed. Finally current evidence and novel approaches in favor of drugs regulating epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms as potential therapeutics for these disorders are discussed. Although still in its infancy, research investigating the effects of pharmacological modulation of epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms in neuropsychiatric disorders continues to provide encouraging findings, suggesting new avenues for treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  13. BioVLAB-MMIA: a cloud environment for microRNA and mRNA integrated analysis (MMIA) on Amazon EC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungro; Yang, Youngik; Chae, Heejoon; Nam, Seungyoon; Choi, Donghoon; Tangchaisin, Patanachai; Herath, Chathura; Marru, Suresh; Nephew, Kenneth P; Kim, Sun

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs, by regulating the expression of hundreds of target genes, play critical roles in developmental biology and the etiology of numerous diseases, including cancer. As a vast amount of microRNA expression profile data are now publicly available, the integration of microRNA expression data sets with gene expression profiles is a key research problem in life science research. However, the ability to conduct genome-wide microRNA-mRNA (gene) integration currently requires sophisticated, high-end informatics tools, significant expertise in bioinformatics and computer science to carry out the complex integration analysis. In addition, increased computing infrastructure capabilities are essential in order to accommodate large data sets. In this study, we have extended the BioVLAB cloud workbench to develop an environment for the integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression data, named BioVLAB-MMIA. The workbench facilitates computations on the Amazon EC2 and S3 resources orchestrated by the XBaya Workflow Suite. The advantages of BioVLAB-MMIA over the web-based MMIA system include: 1) readily expanded as new computational tools become available; 2) easily modifiable by re-configuring graphic icons in the workflow; 3) on-demand cloud computing resources can be used on an "as needed" basis; 4) distributed orchestration supports complex and long running workflows asynchronously. We believe that BioVLAB-MMIA will be an easy-to-use computing environment for researchers who plan to perform genome-wide microRNA-mRNA (gene) integrated analysis tasks.

  14. Expression of MicroRNA-146a and MicroRNA-155 in Placental Villi in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kulikova, G V; Nagovitsyna, M N; Kan, N E; Prozorovskaya, K N; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 in placental villi from 18 women (26-39 weeks of gestation) of reproductive age with early- or late-onset preeclampsia. The reference group consisted of women with physiological pregnancy and full-term gestation and with preterm birth after caesarian section on gestation week 26-31. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-155 were detected by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin on paraffin sections. It was found that the expression of microRNA-146a in both syncytiotrophoblast of the intermediate villi and syncytial knots was lower at late-onset preeclampsia than at physiologic pregnancy of full-term period (p=0.037 and p=0.001 respectively). The expression of microRNA-155 in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate placental villi in early-onset preeclampsia was higher than in group with preterm delivery (p=0.003). However, in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate villi and in syncytial knots, the expression of microRNA-155 was lower at late-onset preeclampsia in comparison with full-term physiological pregnancy (p=0.005). In addition, the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 did not increase in the later terms in preeclampsia, while in the reference groups demonstrating gradual increase in the expression of these markers with increasing gestational age. Expression microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 little differed in early- and late-onset preeclampsia. These findings suggest that different variants of preeclampsia are probably characterized by common pathogenetic pathways. Damaged trophoblast cannot maintain of microRNAs synthesis at the required level, which determines the formation of a vicious circle in preeclampsia and further progression of the disease.

  15. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

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    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  16. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiang; Chiang, Kevin; Zempleni, Janos; Cui, Juan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details. PMID:26528912

  17. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

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    Irma Virant-Klun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a family of naturally occurring small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. They are suggested to regulate a large proportion of protein encoding genes by mediating the translational suppression and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Recent findings show that microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation, and are deeply involved in developmental processes including human preimplantation development. They keep a balance between pluripotency and differentiation in the embryo and embryonic stem cells. Moreover, it became evident that dysregulation of microRNA expression may play a fundamental role in progression and dissemination of different cancers including ovarian cancer. The interest is still increased by the discovery of exosomes, that is, cell-derived vesicles, which can carry different proteins but also microRNAs between different cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. MicroRNAs, together with exosomes, have a great potential to be used for prognosis, therapy, and biomarkers of different diseases including infertility. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the existent knowledge on microRNAs related to female fertility and cancer: from primordial germ cells and ovarian function, germinal stem cells, oocytes, and embryos to embryonic stem cells.

  18. microRNA Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Epithelial Cells

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    Izar, Benjamin; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hain, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs represent a family of very small non-coding RNAs that control several physiologic and pathologic processes, including host immune response and cancer by antagonizing a number of target mRNAs. There is limited knowledge about cell expression and the regulatory role of microRNAs following bacterial infections. We investigated whether infection with a Gram-positive bacterium leads to altered expression of microRNAs involved in the host cell response in epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were infected with Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, a mutant strain (ΔinlAB or Δhly) or incubated with purified listeriolysin (LLO). Total RNA was isolated and microRNA and target gene expression was compared to the expression in non-infected cells using microRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. We identified and validated five microRNAs (miR- 146b, miR-16, let-7a1, miR-145 and miR-155) that were significantly deregulated following listerial infection. We show that expression patterns of particular microRNAs strongly depend on pathogen localization and the presence of bacterial effector proteins. Strikingly, miR-155 which was shown to have an important role in inflammatory responses during infection was induced by wild-type bacteria, by LLO-deficient bacteria and following incubation with purified LLO. It was downregulated following ΔinlAB infection indicating a new potent role for internalins in listerial pathogenicity and miRNA regulation. Concurrently, we observed differences in target transcript expression of the investigated miRNAs. We provide first evidence that L. monocytogenes infection leads to deregulation of a set of microRNAs with important roles in host response. Distinct microRNA expression depends on both LLO and pathogen localization. PMID:22312311

  19. MicroRNA involvement in glioblastoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, Jana; Slaby, Ondrej; Vyzula, Rostislav; Michalek, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed regulatory noncoding RNAs. Altered expression levels of several microRNAs have been observed in glioblastomas. Functions and direct mRNA targets for these microRNAs have been relatively well studied over the last years. According to these data, it is now evident, that impairment of microRNA regulatory network is one of the key mechanisms in glioblastoma pathogenesis. MicroRNA deregulation is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, invasion, glioma stem cell behavior, and angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of miRNA functions in glioblastoma with an emphasis on its significance in glioblastoma oncogenic signaling and its potential to serve as a disease biomarker and a novel therapeutic target in oncology.

  20. Identification of serum microRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis using RNA-seq.

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    Hongtai Zhang

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant human health issue. More effective biomarkers for use in tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, including markers that can discriminate between healthy individuals and those with latent infection, are urgently needed. To identify a set of such markers, we used Solexa sequencing to examine microRNA expression in the serum of patients with active disease, healthy individuals with latent TB, and those with or without prior BCG inoculation. We identified 24 microRNAs that are up-regulated (2.85-1285.93 fold and 6 microRNAs that are down-regulated (0.003-0.11 fold (P<0.05 in patients with active TB relative to the three groups of healthy controls. In addition, 75 microRNAs were up-regulated (2.05-2454.58 fold and 11 were down-regulated (0.001-0.42 fold (P<0.05 in latent-TB infected individuals relative to BCG- inoculated individuals. Of interest, 134 microRNAs were differentially-expressed in BCG-inoculated relative to un-inoculated individuals (18 up-regulated 2.9-499.29 fold, 116 down-regulated 0.0002-0.5 fold, providing insights into the effects of BCG inoculation at the microRNA level. Target prediction of differentially-expressed microRNAs by microRNA-Gene Network analysis and analysis of pathways affected suggest that regulation of the host immune system by microRNAs is likely to be one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. qRT-PCR validation indicated that hsa-miR-196b and hsa-miR-376c have potential as markers for active TB disease. The microRNA differential-expression profiles generated in this study provide a good foundation for the development of markers for TB diagnosis, and for investigations on the role of microRNAs in BCG-inoculated and latent-infected individuals.

  1. A microRNA feedback loop regulates global microRNA abundance during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Sachi; Pincus, Zachary; de Lencastre, Alexandre; Slack, Frank J

    2018-02-01

    Expression levels of many microRNAs (miRNAs) change during aging, notably declining globally in a number of organisms and tissues across taxa. However, little is known about the mechanisms or the biological relevance for this change. We investigated the network of genes that controls miRNA transcription and processing during C. elegans aging. We found that miRNA biogenesis genes are highly networked with transcription factors and aging-associated miRNAs. In particular, miR-71, known to influence life span and itself up-regulated during aging, represses alg-1 /Argonaute expression post-transcriptionally during aging. Increased ALG-1 abundance in mir-71 loss-of-function mutants led to globally increased miRNA expression. Interestingly, these mutants demonstrated widespread mRNA expression dysregulation and diminished levels of variability both in gene expression and in overall life span. Thus, the progressive molecular decline often thought to be the result of accumulated damage over an organism's life may be partially explained by a miRNA-directed mechanism of age-associated decline. © 2018 Inukai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Identification and pathway analysis of microRNAs with no previous involvement in breast cancer.

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    Sandra Romero-Cordoba

    Full Text Available microRNA expression signatures can differentiate normal and breast cancer tissues and can define specific clinico-pathological phenotypes in breast tumors. In order to further evaluate the microRNA expression profile in breast cancer, we analyzed the expression of 667 microRNAs in 29 tumors and 21 adjacent normal tissues using TaqMan Low-density arrays. 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression (adjusted P value = 0.05, Fold Change = 2 in breast tumors compared to the normal adjacent tissue. Importantly, the role of 43 of these microRNAs has not been previously reported in breast cancer, including several evolutionary conserved microRNA*, showing similar expression rates to that of their corresponding leading strand. The expression of 14 microRNAs was replicated in an independent set of 55 tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of mRNA targets of the altered miRNAs, identified oncogenes like ERBB2, YY1, several MAP kinases, and known tumor-suppressors like FOXA1 and SMAD4. Pathway analysis identified that some biological process which are important in breast carcinogenesis are affected by the altered microRNA expression, including signaling through MAP kinases and TP53 pathways, as well as biological processes like cell death and communication, focal adhesion and ERBB2-ERBB3 signaling. Our data identified the altered expression of several microRNAs whose aberrant expression might have an important impact on cancer-related cellular pathways and whose role in breast cancer has not been previously described.

  3. MicroRNAs expression profile in solid and unicystic ameloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setién-Olarra, A.; Bediaga, N. G.; Aguirre-Echebarria, P.; Aguirre-Urizar, J. M.; Mosqueda-Taylor, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Odontogenic tumors (OT) represent a specific pathological category that includes some lesions with unpredictable biological behavior. Although most of these lesions are benign, some, such as the ameloblastoma, exhibit local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. The most common types of ameloblastoma are the solid/multicystic (SA) and the unicystic ameloblastoma (UA); the latter considered a much less aggressive entity as compared to the SA. The microRNA system regulates the expression of many human genes while its deregulation has been associated with neoplastic development. The aim of the current study was to determine the expression profiles of microRNAs present in the two most common types of ameloblastomas. Material & methods MicroRNA expression profiles were assessed using TaqMan® Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) in 24 samples (8 SA, 8 UA and 8 control samples). The findings were validated using quantitative RTqPCR in an independent cohort of 19 SA, 8 UA and 19 dentigerous cysts as controls. Results We identified 40 microRNAs differentially regulated in ameloblastomas, which are related to neoplastic development and differentiation, and with the osteogenic process. Further validation of the top ranked microRNAs revealed significant differences in the expression of 6 of them in relation to UA, 7 in relation to SA and 1 (miR-489) that was related to both types. Conclusion We identified a new microRNA signature for the ameloblastoma and for its main types, which may be useful to better understand the etiopathogenesis of this neoplasm. In addition, we identified a microRNA (miR-489) that is suggestive of differentiating among solid from unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:29053755

  4. OP17MICRORNA PROFILING USING SMALL RNA-SEQ IN PAEDIATRIC LOW GRADE GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Jones, Tania A.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Ellison, David W.; Sheer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation at the post-transcriptional level. In paediatric low-grade gliomas a few key genetic mutations have been identified, including BRAF fusions, FGFR1 duplications and MYB rearrangements. Our aim in the current study is to profile aberrant microRNA expression in paediatric low-grade gliomas and determine the role of epigenetic changes in the aetiology and behaviour of these tumours. METHOD: MicroRNA profiling of tumour samples (6 pilocytic, 2 diffuse, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas) and normal brain controls (4 adult normal brain samples and a primary glial progenitor cell-line) was performed using small RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis included sequence alignment, analysis of the number of reads (CPM, counts per million) and differential expression. RESULTS: Sequence alignment identified 695 microRNAs, whose expression was compared in tumours v. normal brain. PCA and hierarchical clustering showed separate groups for tumours and normal brain. Computational analysis identified approximately 400 differentially expressed microRNAs in the tumours compared to matched location controls. Our findings will then be validated and integrated with extensive genetic and epigenetic information we have previously obtained for the full tumour cohort. CONCLUSION: We have identified microRNAs that are differentially expressed in paediatric low-grade gliomas. As microRNAs are known to target genes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, they provide critical information on tumour pathogenesis and are an important class of biomarkers.

  5. MicroRNAs in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard

    2015-07-01

    35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNAs in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    lymphoma. Genes Chromosom. Cancer 39:167–69 131. O’Connell RM, Taganov KD, Boldin MP, Cheng G, Baltimore D. 2007. MicroRNA-155 is induced during the...carcinoma. J. Virol. 81:1033–36 155. Xi Y, Nakajima G, Gavin E, Morris CG, Kudo K, et al. 2007. Systematic analysis of microRNA expression of RNA extracted ...diversity. miRNAs were extracted from the unique sequences by searching against miRNA database (miRbase release 10.0; http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk

  7. Role of microRNAs in the immune system, inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Jennifer; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2013-05-28

    MicroRNAs, a key class of gene expression regulators, have emerged as crucial players in various biological processes such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, development and apoptosis. In addition, microRNAs are coming to light as crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and their abnormal expression and/or function in the immune system have been linked to multiple human diseases including inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and cancers. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of microRNAs with a focus on their role and mode of action in regulating the immune system during inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  8. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China); Liu, Xinguang, E-mail: xgliu64@126.com [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China)

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  9. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  10. MicroRNAs in right ventricular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkai, Sandor; Bär, Christian; Thum, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) remodelling is a lesser understood process of the chronic, progressive transformation of the RV structure leading to reduced functional capacity and subsequent failure. Besides conditions concerning whole hearts, some pathology selectively affects the RV, leading to a distinct RV-specific clinical phenotype. MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of biological processes that drive the progression of chronic diseases. The role of microRNAs in diseases affecting the left ventricle has been studied for many years, however there is still limited information on microRNAs specific to diseases in the right ventricle. Here, we review recently described details on the expression, regulation, and function of microRNAs in the pathological remodelling of the right heart. Recently identified strategies using microRNAs as pharmacological targets or biomarkers will be highlighted. Increasing knowledge of pathogenic microRNAs will finally help improve our understanding of underlying distinct mechanisms and help utilize novel targets or biomarkers to develop treatments for patients suffering from right heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 14q32-encoded microRNAs mediate an oligometastatic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Abhineet; Wightman, Sean C; Mallon, Stephen; Oshima, Go; Pitroda, Sean P; Zhang, Qingbei; Huang, Xiaona; Darga, Thomas E; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Liu, Huiping; Ferguson, Mark K; Greene, Geoffrey L; Posner, Mitchell C; Hellman, Samuel; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2015-02-28

    Oligometastasis is a clinically distinct subset of metastasis characterized by a limited number of metastases potentially curable with localized therapies. We analyzed pathways targeted by microRNAs over-expressed in clinical oligometastasis samples and identified suppression of cellular adhesion, invasion, and motility pathways in association with the oligometastatic phenotype. We identified miR-127-5p, miR-544a, and miR-655-3p encoded in the 14q32 microRNA cluster as co-regulators of multiple metastatic pathways through repression of shared target genes. These microRNAs suppressed cellular adhesion and invasion and inhibited metastasis development in an animal model of breast cancer lung colonization. Target genes, including TGFBR2 and ROCK2, were key mediators of these effects. Understanding the role of microRNAs expressed in oligometastases may lead to improved identification of and interventions for patients with curable metastatic disease, as well as an improved understanding of the molecular basis of this unique clinical entity.

  12. MicroRNA function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthew, Richard W; Agbu, Pamela; Giri, Ritika

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of animal genomes. This review article discusses the relationship between microRNA-mediated regulation and the biology of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the roles that microRNAs play in tissue growth, germ cell development, hormone action, and the development and activity of the central nervous system. We also discuss the ways in which microRNAs affect robustness. Many gene regulatory networks are robust; they are relatively insensitive to the precise values of reaction constants and concentrations of molecules acting within the networks. MicroRNAs involved in robustness appear to be nonessential under uniform conditions used in conventional laboratory experiments. However, the robust functions of microRNAs can be revealed when environmental or genetic variation otherwise has an impact on developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. No miR quirk: dysregulation of microRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Philip Y; Szafranska-Schwarzbach, Anna E; Schlageter, Annette M; Andruss, Bernard F; Weiss, Glen J

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression with tissue-specific expression profiles. Dysregulation of microRNAs has been shown to play a role in carcinogenesis. Although progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers, pancreatic cancer remains an intractable public health problem, causing 6.58% of cancer deaths despite making up less than 3% of cancer diagnoses in the United States. No screening, diagnostic or imaging techniques exist with the sensitivity to detect pancreatic cancer in its early, operable stages. Risk factors include numerous inherited syndromes, diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis C virus infection. Here we review the literature regarding dysregulation of microRNA expression in native pancreas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (the dominant form of pancreatic cancer), and its risk factors to illuminate the biology and progression of this disease. We explore promising evidence for the use of microRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic tools, and discuss emerging reports on microRNA therapeutics.

  14. microRNAs in mycobacterial disease: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali D Mehta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the role of microRNA in all aspects of biology continues to be unraveled, the interplay between microRNAs and human disease is becoming clearer. It should come of no surprise that microRNAs play a major part in the outcome of infectious diseases, since early work has implicated microRNAs as regulators of the immune response. Here, we provide a review on how microRNAs influence the course of mycobacterial infections, which cause two of humanity’s most ancient infectious diseases: tuberculosis and leprosy. Evidence derived from profiling and functional experiments suggests that regulation of specific microRNAs during infection can either enhance the immune response or facilitate pathogen immune evasion. Now, it remains to be seen if the manipulation of host cell microRNA profiles can be an opportunity for therapeutic intervention for these difficult-to-treat diseases.

  15. MicroRNA modulation combined with sunitinib as a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passadouro M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marta Passadouro,1,2 Maria C Pedroso de Lima,1,2 Henrique Faneca11Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 2Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalAbstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is a highly aggressive and mortal cancer, characterized by a set of known mutations, invasive features, and aberrant microRNA expression that have been associated with hallmark malignant properties of PDAC. The lack of effective PDAC treatment options prompted us to investigate whether microRNAs would constitute promising therapeutic targets toward the generation of a gene therapy approach with clinical significance for this disease. In this work, we show that the developed human serum albumin–1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine:cholesterol/anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (+/– (4/1 nanosystem exhibits the ability to efficiently deliver anti-microRNA oligonucleotides targeting the overexpressed microRNAs miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-10 in PDCA cells, promoting an almost complete abolishment of microRNA expression. Silencing of these microRNAs resulted in a significant increase in the levels of their targets. Moreover, the combination of microRNA silencing, namely miR-21, with low amounts of the chemotherapeutic drug sunitinib resulted in a strong and synergistic antitumor effect, showing that this combined strategy could be of great importance for therapeutic application in PDAC. Keywords: pancreatic cancer gene therapy, anti-microRNAs oligonucleotides, delivery nanosystems, albumin-associated lipoplexes

  16. Identification of serum microRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtai; Sun, Zhaogang; Wei, Wenjing; Liu, Zhonghui; Fleming, Joy; Zhang, Shuai; Lin, Nan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Maoshan; Xu, Yuhui; Zhou, Jie; Li, Chuanyou; Bi, Lijun; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant human health issue. More effective biomarkers for use in tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, including markers that can discriminate between healthy individuals and those with latent infection, are urgently needed. To identify a set of such markers, we used Solexa sequencing to examine microRNA expression in the serum of patients with active disease, healthy individuals with latent TB, and those with or without prior BCG inoculation. We identified 24 microRNAs that are up-regulated (2.85-1285.93 fold) and 6 microRNAs that are down-regulated (0.003-0.11 fold) (PmicroRNAs were up-regulated (2.05-2454.58 fold) and 11 were down-regulated (0.001-0.42 fold) (PmicroRNAs were differentially-expressed in BCG-inoculated relative to un-inoculated individuals (18 up-regulated 2.9-499.29 fold, 116 down-regulated 0.0002-0.5 fold), providing insights into the effects of BCG inoculation at the microRNA level. Target prediction of differentially-expressed microRNAs by microRNA-Gene Network analysis and analysis of pathways affected suggest that regulation of the host immune system by microRNAs is likely to be one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. qRT-PCR validation indicated that hsa-miR-196b and hsa-miR-376c have potential as markers for active TB disease. The microRNA differential-expression profiles generated in this study provide a good foundation for the development of markers for TB diagnosis, and for investigations on the role of microRNAs in BCG-inoculated and latent-infected individuals.

  17. Identification of novel and conserved microRNAs in Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Loss-Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As microRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of many biological processes, a series of small RNAomes from plants have been produced in the last decade. However, miRNA data from several groups of plants are still lacking, including some economically important crops. Here microRNAs from Coffea canephora leaves were profiled and 58 unique sequences belonging to 33 families were found, including two novel microRNAs that have never been described before in plants. Some of the microRNA sequences were also identified in Coffea arabica that, together with C. canephora, correspond to the two major sources of coffee production in the world. The targets of almost all miRNAs were also predicted on coffee expressed sequences. This is the first report of novel miRNAs in the genus Coffea, and also the first in the plant order Gentianales. The data obtained establishes the basis for the understanding of the complex miRNA-target network on those two important crops.

  18. Exosomes Derived From Pancreatic Stellate Cells: MicroRNA Signature and Effects on Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Tetsuya; Masamune, Atsushi; Yoshida, Naoki; Hamada, Shin; Kogure, Takayuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) interact with pancreatic cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cell constituents including microRNAs may be exported from cells within membranous nanovesicles termed exosomes. Exosomes might play a pivotal role in intercellular communication. This study aimed to clarify the microRNA signature of PSC-derived exosomes and their effects on pancreatic cancer cells. Exosomes were prepared from the conditioned medium of immortalized human PSCs. MicroRNAs were prepared from the exosomes and their source PSCs, and the microRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. The effects of PSC-derived exosomes on proliferation, migration, and the mRNA expression profiles were examined in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes contained a variety of microRNAs including miR-21-5p. Several microRNAs such as miR-451a were enriched in exosomes compared to their source PSCs. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes stimulated the proliferation, migration and expression of mRNAs for chemokine (C - X - C motif) ligands 1 and 2 in pancreatic cancer cells. The stimulation of proliferation, migration, and chemokine gene expression by the conditioned medium of PSCs was suppressed by GW4869, an exosome inhibitor. We clarified the microRNA expression profile in PSC-derived exosomes. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes might play a role in the interactions between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. MicroRNAs, the DNA damage response and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Maikel D.; Gent, Dik C. van; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Pothof, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Many carcinogenic agents such as ultra-violet light from the sun and various natural and man-made chemicals act by damaging the DNA. To deal with these potentially detrimental effects of DNA damage, cells induce a complex DNA damage response (DDR) that includes DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, damage tolerance systems and apoptosis. This DDR is a potent barrier against carcinogenesis and defects within this response are observed in many, if not all, human tumors. DDR defects fuel the evolution of precancerous cells to malignant tumors, but can also induce sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in cancer cells, which can be therapeutically exploited by the use of DNA damaging treatment modalities. Regulation of and coordination between sub-pathways within the DDR is important for maintaining genome stability. Although regulation of the DDR has been extensively studied at the transcriptional and post-translational level, less is known about post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs, the topic of this review. More specifically, we highlight current knowledge about DNA damage responsive microRNAs and microRNAs that regulate DNA damage response genes. We end by discussing the role of DNA damage response microRNAs in cancer etiology and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and other DNA damaging therapeutic agents.

  20. miRBase: integrating microRNA annotation and deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2011-01-01

    miRBase is the primary online repository for all microRNA sequences and annotation. The current release (miRBase 16) contains over 15,000 microRNA gene loci in over 140 species, and over 17,000 distinct mature microRNA sequences. Deep-sequencing technologies have delivered a sharp rise in the rate of novel microRNA discovery. We have mapped reads from short RNA deep-sequencing experiments to microRNAs in miRBase and developed web interfaces to view these mappings. The user can view all read data associated with a given microRNA annotation, filter reads by experiment and count, and search for microRNAs by tissue- and stage-specific expression. These data can be used as a proxy for relative expression levels of microRNA sequences, provide detailed evidence for microRNA annotations and alternative isoforms of mature microRNAs, and allow us to revisit previous annotations. miRBase is available online at: http://www.mirbase.org/.

  1. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  2. TAPIR, a web server for the prediction of plant microRNA targets, including target mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Eric; He, Ying; Billiau, Kenny; Van de Peer, Yves

    2010-06-15

    We present a new web server called TAPIR, designed for the prediction of plant microRNA targets. The server offers the possibility to search for plant miRNA targets using a fast and a precise algorithm. The precise option is much slower but guarantees to find less perfectly paired miRNA-target duplexes. Furthermore, the precise option allows the prediction of target mimics, which are characterized by a miRNA-target duplex having a large loop, making them undetectable by traditional tools. The TAPIR web server can be accessed at: http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/tapir. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation...... diseases. In the present chapter we will mainly focus on microRNAs and methylation and their implications in human disease, mainly in cancer....

  4. MicroRNA expression in multiple myeloma is associated with genetic subtype, isotype and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzella Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small RNA species that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are aberrantly expressed in many cancers including hematological malignancies. However, the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM is only poorly understood. We therefore used microarray analysis to elucidate the complete miRNome (miRBase version 13.0 of purified tumor (CD138+ cells from 33 patients with MM, 5 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS and 9 controls. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed that MM and MGUS samples have a distinct microRNA expression profile from control CD138+ cells. The majority of microRNAs aberrantly expressed in MM (109/129 were up-regulated. A comparison of these microRNAs with those aberrantly expressed in other B-cell and T-cell malignancies revealed a surprising degree of similarity (~40% suggesting the existence of a common lymphoma microRNA signature. We identified 39 microRNAs associated with the pre-malignant condition MGUS. Twenty-three (59% of these were also aberrantly expressed in MM suggesting common microRNA expression events in MM progression. MM is characterized by multiple chromosomal abnormalities of varying prognostic significance. We identified specific microRNA signatures associated with the most common IgH translocations (t(4;14 and t(11;14 and del(13q. Expression levels of these microRNAs were distinct between the genetic subtypes (by cluster analysis and correctly predicted these abnormalities in > 85% of cases using the support vector machine algorithm. Additionally, we identified microRNAs associated with light chain only myeloma, as well as IgG and IgA-type MM. Finally, we identified 32 microRNAs associated with event-free survival (EFS in MM, ten of which were significant by univariate (logrank survival analysis. Conclusions In summary, this work has identified aberrantly expressed microRNAs associated with the

  5. DNA methylation, microRNAs, and their crosstalk as potential biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. Advances in the field of epigenetics have contributed significantly in refining our knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation. DNA methylation and microRNA expression are epigenetic mechanisms that are widely altered in human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Both DNA methylation and microRNA expression patterns are regulated in developmental stage specific-, cell type specific- and tissue-specific manner. The aberrations are inferred in the maintenance of cancer stem cells and in clonal cell evolution during carcinogenesis. The availability of genome-wide technologies for DNA methylation and microRNA profiling has revolutionized the field of epigenetics and led to the discovery of a number of epigenetically silenced microRNAs in cancerous cells and primary tissues. Dysregulation of these microRNAs affects several key signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting that modulation of DNA methylation and/or microRNA expression can serve as new therapeutic targets for HCC. Accumulative evidence shows that aberrant DNA methylation of certain microRNA genes is an event specifically found in HCC which correlates with unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, it can potentially serve as a biomarker for detection as well as for prognosis, monitoring and predicting therapeutic responses in HCC. PMID:24976726

  6. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult...... life as obese....

  7. Micro-masters of glioblastoma biology and therapy: increasingly recognized roles for microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Desiree; Purow, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs encoded in eukaryotic genomes that have been found to play critical roles in most biological processes, including cancer. This is true for glioblastoma, the most common and lethal primary brain tumor, for which microRNAs have been shown to strongly influence cell viability, stem cell characteristics, invasiveness, angiogenesis, metabolism, and immune evasion. Developing microRNAs as prognostic markers or as therapeutic agents is showing increasing promise and has potential to reach the clinic in the next several years. This succinct review summarizes current progress and future directions in this exciting and steadily expanding field.

  8. MicroRNA from tuberculosis RNA: A bioinformatics study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The role of microRNA in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis is the interesting topic in chest medicine at present. Recently, it was proposed that the microRNA can be a useful biomarker for monitoring of pulmonary tuberculosis and might be the important part in pathogenesis of disease. Here, the authors perform a bioinformatics study to assess the microRNA within known tuberculosis RNA. The microRNA part can be detected and this can be important key information in further study of the p...

  9. Altered spinal microRNA-146a and the microRNA-183 cluster contribute to osteoarthritic pain in knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Kc, Ranjan; Gibson, Gary; Chen, Di; Corbett, Grant T; Pahan, Kalipada; Fayyaz, Sana; Kim, Jae-Sung; van Wijnen, Andre J; Suh, Joon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether altered expression of microRNAs in central nervous system components is pathologically linked to chronic knee joint pain in osteoarthritis. A surgical animal model for knee joint OA was generated by medial meniscus transection in rats followed by behavioral pain tests. Relationships between pathological changes in knee joint and development of chronic joint pain were examined by histology and imaging analyses. Alterations in microRNAs associated with OA-evoked pain sensation were determined in bilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn by microRNA array followed by individual microRNA analyses. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of selected microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-183 cluster) were conducted to identify target pain mediators regulated by these selective microRNAs in glial cells. The ipsilateral hind leg displayed significantly increased hyperalgesia after 4 weeks of surgery, and sensitivity was sustained for the remainder of the 8-week experimental period (F = 341, p pain was correlated with pathological changes in the knee joints as assessed by histological and imaging analyses. MicroRNA analyses showed that miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster were markedly reduced in the sensory neurons in DRG (L4/L5) and spinal cord from animals experiencing knee joint OA pain. The downregulation of miR-146a and/or the miR-183 cluster in the central compartments (DRG and spinal cord) are closely associated with the upregulation of inflammatory pain mediators. The corroboration between decreases in these signature microRNAs and their specific target pain mediators were further confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function analyses in glia, the major cellular component of the central nervous system (CNS). MicroRNA therapy using miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster could be powerful therapeutic intervention for OA in alleviating joint pain and concomitantly regenerating peripheral knee joint cartilage. © 2013

  10. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.

  11. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  12. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Finethy, Ryan; Saka, Hector A; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Sisk, Dana M; Smith, Kristen L Jurcic; Lee, Sunhee; Coers, Jörn; Valdivia, Raphael H; Tobin, David M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  13. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Furuse

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  14. mESAdb: microRNA expression and sequence analysis database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Koray D; Karakülah, Gökhan; Yakicier, Cengiz M; Acar, Aybar C; Konu, Ozlen

    2011-01-01

    microRNA expression and sequence analysis database (http://konulab.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/mirna/) (mESAdb) is a regularly updated database for the multivariate analysis of sequences and expression of microRNAs from multiple taxa. mESAdb is modular and has a user interface implemented in PHP and JavaScript and coupled with statistical analysis and visualization packages written for the R language. The database primarily comprises mature microRNA sequences and their target data, along with selected human, mouse and zebrafish expression data sets. mESAdb analysis modules allow (i) mining of microRNA expression data sets for subsets of microRNAs selected manually or by motif; (ii) pair-wise multivariate analysis of expression data sets within and between taxa; and (iii) association of microRNA subsets with annotation databases, HUGE Navigator, KEGG and GO. The use of existing and customized R packages facilitates future addition of data sets and analysis tools. Furthermore, the ability to upload and analyze user-specified data sets makes mESAdb an interactive and expandable analysis tool for microRNA sequence and expression data.

  15. Role of microRNAs in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs have been found to be of high significance in the regulation of various genes and processes in the body. Sepsis is a serious clinical problem which arises due to the excessive host inflammatory response to infection. The non-specific clinical features and delayed diagnosis of sepsis has been a matter of concern for long time. MicroRNAs could enable better diagnosis of sepsis and help in the identification of the various stages of sepsis. Improved diagnosis may enable quicker and more effective treatment measures. The initial acute and transient phase of sepsis involves excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which causes severe damage. MicroRNAs negatively regulate the toll-like receptor signaling pathway and regulate the production of inflammatory cytokines during sepsis. Likewise, microRNAs have shown to regulate the vascular barrier and endothelial function in sepsis. They are also involved in the regulation of the apoptosis, immunosuppression, and organ dysfunction in later stages of sepsis. Their importance at various levels of the pathophysiology of sepsis has been discussed along with the challenges and future perspectives. MicroRNAs could be key players in the diagnosis and staging of sepsis. Their regulation at various stages of sepsis suggests that they may have an important role in altering the outcome associated with sepsis.

  16. Small Molecule, Big Prospects: MicroRNA in Pregnancy and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression in the posttranscriptional level. Unlike siRNA, microRNAs are “fine-tuners” rather than “switches” in the regulation of gene expression; thus they play key roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The aberrant microRNA expression is implicated in the disease process. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the regulatory roles of microRNAs in various pathophysiological conditions. In contrast, the study of microRNA in pregnancy and its associated complications, such as preeclampsia (PE, fetal growth restriction (FGR, and preterm labor, is a young field. Over the last decade, the knowledge of pregnancy-related microRNAs has increased and the molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate pregnancy or its associated complications are emerging. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the research of pregnancy-related microRNAs, especially their function in pregnancy-associated complications and the potential clinical applications. Here microRNAs that associate with pregnancy are classified as placenta-specific, placenta-associated, placenta-derived circulating, and uterine microRNA according to their localization and origin. MicroRNAs offer a great potential for developing diagnostic and therapeutic targets in pregnancy-related disorders.

  17. Identification of Novel and Conserved microRNAs in Homalodisca vitripennis, the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter by Expression Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Nandety

    Full Text Available The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and an important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that play an important role in the functional development of various organisms including insects. In H. vitripennis, we identified microRNAs using high-throughput deep sequencing of adults followed by computational and manual annotation. A total of 14 novel microRNAs that are not found in the miRBase were identified from adult H. vitripennis. Conserved microRNAs were also found in our datasets. By comparison to our previously determined transcriptome sequence of H. vitripennis, we identified the potential targets of the microRNAs in the transcriptome. This microRNA profile information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms that govern gene expression in H. vitripennis, but may also lead to the identification of novel mechanisms for biorationally designed management strategies through the use of microRNAs.

  18. Differential expression analysis of balding and nonbalding dermal papilla microRNAs in male pattern baldness with a microRNA amplification profiling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, H R; Abbasi, A; Saffari, M; Fazelzadeh Haghighi, M; Tabei, M B; Noori Daloii, M R

    2012-05-01

      Male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a common disorder affecting almost 50% of men throughout their lifetime, with androgens and genetics having significant contributing aetiologies. In contrast to the positive regulatory effect of androgens on body hair growth, they are thought to alter scalp hair follicle behaviour pathophysiologically, leading to male pattern baldness. However, the exact mechanisms of this paradoxical action have not yet been elucidated. The role of microRNAs, a novel group of noncoding RNAs impacting almost every aspect of biology, health and human diseases, has been documented in hair follicle formation. In addition, their deregulation in cancer of the prostate, a target organ of androgens, has also been well established. To investigate the possible contribution of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of male pattern baldness. We initially screened microRNA expression profiles of balding and nonbalding hair follicle papillae with a sensitive microRNA cloning method, microRNA amplification profiling, and statistically analysed significant differentially expressed microRNAs in balding relative to nonbalding dermal papillae, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as a confirmatory method to quantify expression in eight individuals affected with the disorder.   We detected the significant upregulation of miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106a and miR-410 in balding papilla cells.   We found four microRNAs that could participate in the pathogenesis of male pattern baldness. Regarding the strong therapeutic potential of microRNAs and the easy accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, microRNAs are possible candidates for a new generation of revolutionary treatments. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Tamarix microRNA Profiling Reveals New Insight into Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The halophyte tamarisk (Tamarix is extremely salt tolerant, making it an ideal material for salt tolerance-related studies. Although many salt-responsive genes of Tamarix were identified in previous studies, there are no reports on the role of post-transcriptional regulation in its salt tolerance. We constructed six small RNA libraries of Tamarix chinensis roots with NaCl treatments. High-throughput sequencing of the six libraries was performed and microRNA expression profiles were constructed. We investigated salt-responsive microRNAs to uncover the microRNA-mediated genes regulation. From these analyses, 251 conserved and 18 novel microRNA were identified from all small RNAs. From 191 differentially expressed microRNAs, 74 co-expressed microRNAs were identified as salt-responsive candidate microRNAs. The most enriched GO (gene ontology terms for the 157 genes targeted by differentially expressed microRNAs suggested that transcriptions factors were highly active. Two hub microRNAs (miR414, miR5658, which connected by several target genes into an organic microRNA regulatory network, appeared to be the key regulators of post-transcriptional salt-stress responses. As the first survey on the tamarisk small RNAome, this study improves the understanding of tamarisk salt-tolerance mechanisms and will contribute to the molecular-assisted resistance breeding.

  20. Dose-responsiveness and persistence of microRNA expression alterations induced by cigarette smoke in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Larghero, Patrizia; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Camoirano, Anna; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream or environmental, results in a remarkable downregulation of microRNA expression in the lung of both mice and rats. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the dose responsiveness to CS and the persistence of microRNA alterations after smoking cessation. ICR (CD-1) neonatal mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream CS, at the doses of 119, 292, 438, and 631 mg/m 3 of total particulate matter. Exposure started within 12 h after birth and continued daily for 4 weeks. The levels of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were measured by 32 P postlabeling procedures, and the expression of 697 mouse microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. The highest CS dose was lethal. Exposure to CS caused a dose-dependent increase of DNA alterations. DNA adducts and, even more sharply, 8-oxodGuo were reverted 1 and 4 weeks after smoking cessation. Exposure to CS resulted in an evident dysregulation of microRNA expression profiles, mainly in the sense of downregulation. The two lowest doses were not particularly effective, while the highest nonlethal dose produced extensive microRNA alterations. The expression of most downregulated microRNAs, including among others 7 members of the let-7 family, was restored one week after smoking cessation. However, the recovery was incomplete for a limited array of microRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mir-421, mir-450b, mir-466, and mir-469. Thus, it appears that microRNAs mainly behave as biomarkers of effect and that exposure to high-dose, lasting for an adequate period of time, is needed to trigger the CS-related carcinogenesis process in the experimental animal model used.

  1. Common features of microRNA target prediction tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Peterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes for over 1800 microRNAs, which are short noncoding RNA molecules that function to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Due to the potential for one microRNA to target multiple gene transcripts, microRNAs are recognized as a major mechanism to regulate gene expression and mRNA translation. Computational prediction of microRNA targets is a critical initial step in identifying microRNA:mRNA target interactions for experimental validation. The available tools for microRNA target prediction encompass a range of different computational approaches, from the modeling of physical interactions to the incorporation of machine learning. This review provides an overview of the major computational approaches to microRNA target prediction. Our discussion highlights three tools for their ease of use, reliance on relatively updated versions of miRBase, and range of capabilities, and these are DIANA-microT-CDS, miRanda-mirSVR, and TargetScan. In comparison across all microRNA target prediction tools, four main aspects of the microRNA:mRNA target interaction emerge as common features on which most target prediction is based: seed match, conservation, free energy, and site accessibility. This review explains these features and identifies how they are incorporated into currently available target prediction tools. MicroRNA target prediction is a dynamic field with increasing attention on development of new analysis tools. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive assessment of these tools in a manner that is accessible across disciplines. Understanding the basis of these prediction methodologies will aid in user selection of the appropriate tools and interpretation of the tool output.

  2. A novel serum microRNA panel to discriminate benign from malignant ovarian disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Langhe, Ream

    2015-01-28

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the most frequent cause of gynaecological malignancy-related mortality in women. Currently, no standardized reliable screening test exists. MicroRNA profiling has allowed the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment of human tumours. The aim of this study was to determine if a microRNA signature could distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian disease. A training set of 5 serous ovarian carcinomas and 5 benign serous cystadenomas were selected for the initial experiments. The validation set included 20 serous ovarian carcinomas and 20 benign serous cystadenomas. The serum\\/plasma focus microRNA Exiqon panel was used for the training set. For the validation set a pick and mix Exiqon panel, which focuses on microRNAs of interest was used. A panel of 4 microRNAs (let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p) was significantly down regulated in cancer patients. These microRNAs target WNT signalling, AKT\\/mTOR and TLR-4\\/MyD88, which have previously been found to play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p could act as diagnostic biomarkers in ovarian cancer.

  3. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  4. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan (Sofia); D. Greco (Dario); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); R.L. Milne (Roger); T.A. Muranen (Taru); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); K. Aaltonen (Kirsimari); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Liu (Jianjun); P. Hall (Per); A. Irwanto (Astrid); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Li (Jingmei); K. Czene (Kamila); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); R. Hein (Rebecca); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); A. Aitken; J.L. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); M. Bui (Minh); E. Makalic (Enes); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Stone (Jennifer); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.A. Adank (Muriel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); P. Lichtner (Peter); C. Turnbull (Clare); N. Rahman (Nazneen); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D. Hunter (David); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.A. Fasching (Peter); A. Schrauder (André); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); P.M. Zamora (Pilar M.); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L.L. March (Loic Le); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (X.); C. Vachon (Celine); J.E. Olson (Janet); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. Moisse (Matthieu); R. Paridaens (Robert); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); C. Mulot (Claire); F. Marme (Frederick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); S. Tchatchou (Srine); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Tol (Ama E.); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M. Barile (Monica); P. Mariani (Paolo); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.M. Collée (Margriet); A. Jager (Agnes); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); U. Hamann (Ute); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); D.F. Easton (Douglas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility

  5. Dehydration triggers differential microRNA expression in Xenopus laevis brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-11-15

    African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, although primarily aquatic, have a high tolerance for dehydration, being capable of withstanding the loss of up to 32-35% of total water body water. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs play a role in the response to dehydration by the liver, kidney and ventral skin of X. laevis. MicroRNAs act by modulating the expression of mRNA transcripts, thereby affecting diverse biochemical pathways. In this study, 43 microRNAs were assessed in frog brains comparing control and dehydrated (31.2±0.83% of total body water lost) conditions. MicroRNAs of interest were measured using a modified protocol which employs polyadenylation of microRNAs prior to reverse transcription and qPCR. Twelve microRNAs that showed a significant decrease in expression (to 41-77% of control levels) in brains from dehydrated frogs (xla-miR-15a, -150, -181a, -191, -211, -218, -219b, -30c, -30e, -31, -34a, and -34b) were identified. Genomic analysis showed that the sequences of these dehydration-responsive microRNAs were highly conserved as compared with the comparable microRNAs of mice (91-100%). Suppression of these microRNAs implies that translation of the mRNA transcripts under their control could be enhanced in response to dehydration. Bioinformatic analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted the top two KEGG pathways that these microRNAs collectively regulate: 1. Axon guidance, and 2. Long-term potentiation. Previous studies indicated that suppression of these microRNAs promotes neuroprotective pathways by increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating anti-apoptotic pathways. This suggests that similar actions may be triggered in X. laevis brains as a protective response to dehydration. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of neutrophil senescence by microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon R Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection, where they protect against invading pathogens. Neutrophil functions are limited by a process of neutrophil senescence, which renders the cells unable to respond to chemoattractants, carry out respiratory burst, or degranulate. In parallel, aged neutrophils also undergo spontaneous apoptosis, which can be delayed by factors such as GMCSF. This is then followed by their subsequent removal by phagocytic cells such as macrophages, thereby preventing unwanted inflammation and tissue damage. Neutrophils translate mRNA to make new proteins that are important in maintaining functional longevity. We therefore hypothesised that neutrophil functions and lifespan might be regulated by microRNAs expressed within human neutrophils. Total RNA from highly purified neutrophils was prepared and subjected to microarray analysis using the Agilent human miRNA microarray V3. We found human neutrophils expressed a selected repertoire of 148 microRNAs and that 6 of these were significantly upregulated after a period of 4 hours in culture, at a time when the contribution of apoptosis is negligible. A list of predicted targets for these 6 microRNAs was generated from http://mirecords.biolead.org and compared to mRNA species downregulated over time, revealing 83 genes targeted by at least 2 out of the 6 regulated microRNAs. Pathway analysis of genes containing binding sites for these microRNAs identified the following pathways: chemokine and cytokine signalling, Ras pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest that microRNAs may play a role in the regulation of neutrophil senescence and further suggest that manipulation of microRNAs might represent an area of future therapeutic interest for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  7. Detection of plant microRNAs in honey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gismondi

    Full Text Available For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA. Surprisingly, nine plant microRNAs (miR482b, miR156a, miR396c, miR171a, miR858, miR162a, miR159c, miR395a and miR2118a were also detected and quantified by qPCR. In this context, a comparison between microRNA content in plant samples (i.e. flowers, nectars and their derivative honeys was carried out. In addition, peculiar microRNA profiles were also identified in six different monofloral honeys. Finally, the same plant microRNAs were investigated in other plant food products: tea, cocoa and coffee. Since plant microRNAs introduced by diet have been recently recognized as being able to modulate the consumer's gene expression, our research suggests that honey's benefits for human health may be strongly correlated to the bioactivity of plant microRNAs contained in this matrix.

  8. MicroRNAs: role and therapeutic targets in viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike H.; de Bruijne, Joep; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Jansen, Peter Lm; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The importance of microRNAs has been shown for several liver diseases, for example, viral hepatitis. MicroRNA-122 is highly abundant in the liver and is involved in the regulation of

  9. MicroRNA-195 induced apoptosis in hypoxic chondrocytes by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, R; Zhao, A-Q; Zhao, Z-Q; Liu, W-L; Jian, D-M

    2015-02-01

    The chondrocytes, the resident cells of cartilage, are maintained and take effects in the whole life upon chronic hypoxic exposure, which hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) play pivotal roles in response to. Dysregulation of some microRNA (miRNAs) have also been identified to be involved in hypoxia-related physiologic and pathophysiologic responses in some tissues or cell lines. However, the mechanism of miRNAs reponse to hypoxia remain largely unknown in chondrocytes, including the microRNA-195 (miR-195). AIM To investigate the effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) on chondrocytes in physiologic environment. We compared the expression of miR-195 and HIF-1α mRNA on hypoxia with that on normoxia in ATDC 5 cells by qRT-PCR. Further experiments was performed to confirmed the relationships of miR-195 and HIF-1α by bioinformatics analysis and dual reporter gene assay. we also assessed the effect of miR-195 on apoptosis in hypoxic ATDC 5 cells by transfect with miR-195 mimics. It was found the downregulated miR-195 and upregulated HIF-1α were present in hypoxic ATDC 5 cells. miR-195 negatively regulated HIF-1α by targeting its 3'-untranslated region. Moreover, the founding indicated miR-195 greatly increased apoptosis and downregulated HIF-1α mRNA occurred simultaneously in hypoxic chondrocytes. We concluded that miR-195 induced apoptosis in hypoxic chondrocytes by directly targeting HIF-1α.

  10. Urinary and Blood MicroRNA-126 and -770 are Potential Noninvasive Biomarker Candidates for Diabetic Nephropathy: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Moon, SeongRyeol; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ie Byung; Lee, Dae Ho; Nam, Seungyoon

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a major diabetic microvascular complication, has a long and growing list of biomarkers, including microRNA biomarkers, which have not been consistent across preclinical and clinical studies. This meta-analysis aims to identify significant blood- and urine-incident microRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarker candidates for DN. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest records through 12th Dec 2016. Relevant publications for the meta-analysis included (1) human participants; (2) microRNAs in blood and urine; (3) DN studies; and (4) English language. Four reviewers, including two physicians, independently and blindly extracted published data regarding microRNA profiles in blood and/or urine from subjects with diabetic nephropathy. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Statistical associations between diabetic nephropathy and urinary or blood microRNA expression levels were assessed. Fourteen out of 327 studies (n=2,747 patients) were selected. Blood or urinary microRNA expression data of diabetic nephropathy were pooled for this analysis. The hsa-miR-126 family was significantly (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.74; p-value diabetic kidney disease, while its urinary level was upregulated (OR: 2931.12; 95% CI: 9.96-862623.21; p-value = 0.0059). The hsa-miR-770 family microRNA were significantly (OR: 10.24; 95% CI: 2.37-44.25; p-value = 0.0018) upregulated in both blood and urine from patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our meta-analysis suggests that hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-770 family microRNA may have important diagnostic and pathogenetic implications for DN, which warrants further systematic clinical studies. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. MicroRNAs in Breastmilk and the Lactating Breast: Potential Immunoprotectors and Developmental Regulators for the Infant and the Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsaweed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM is the optimal source of nutrition, protection and developmental programming for infants. It is species-specific and consists of various bioactive components, including microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. microRNAs are both intra- and extra-cellular and are present in body fluids of humans and animals. Of these body fluids, HM appears to be one of the richest sources of microRNA, which are highly conserved in its different fractions, with milk cells containing more microRNAs than milk lipids, followed by skim milk. Potential effects of exogenous food-derived microRNAs on gene expression have been demonstrated, together with the stability of milk-derived microRNAs in the gastrointestinal tract. Taken together, these strongly support the notion that milk microRNAs enter the systemic circulation of the HM fed infant and exert tissue-specific immunoprotective and developmental functions. This has initiated intensive research on the origin, fate and functional significance of milk microRNAs. Importantly, recent studies have provided evidence of endogenous synthesis of HM microRNA within the human lactating mammary epithelium. These findings will now form the basis for investigations of the role of microRNA in the epigenetic control of normal and aberrant mammary development, and particularly lactation performance.

  12. MicroRNA-21 Increases Proliferation and Cisplatin Sensitivity of Osteosarcoma-Derived Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Vanas

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor and poor prognosis for osteosarcoma patients is mainly due to chemotherapy resistance. MicroRNAs are important to maintain pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer and influence cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we tested the functions of microRNA-21 for malignant features as well as for drug resistance of osteosarcoma. We used Northern blot to measure microRNA-21 levels in osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. MicroRNA-21 activity was modulated by either expressing a sponge to decrease its activity in an osteosarcoma-derived cell line expressing high levels of microRNA-21 or by introducing pri-microRNA-21 in a cell line with low endogenous levels. Cell migration was determined in a scratch assay and cell proliferation was measured by performing growth curve analysis. Sensitivity of the cells towards chemotherapeutics was investigated by performing cell viability assays and calculating the IC50 values. While cell migration was unaffected by modulated microRNA-21 levels, microRNA-21 inhibition slowed proliferation and exogenously expressed microRNA-21 promoted this process. Modulated microRNA-21 activity failed to effect sensitivity of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines to doxorubicin or methotrexate. Contrarily, reduction of microRNA-21 activity resulted in enhanced resistance towards cisplatin while ectopic expression of microRNA-21 showed the opposite effect. Increased microRNA-21 levels repressed the expression of Sprouty2 and ectopic expression of Sprouty2 was able to largely rescue the observed effects of microRNA-21 in osteosarcoma. In summary, our data indicate that in osteosarcoma microRNA-21 expression is an important component for regulation of cell proliferation and for determining sensitivity to cisplatin.

  13. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We describe an update of the miRBase database (http://www.mirbase.org/), the primary microRNA sequence repository. The latest miRBase release (v20, June 2013) contains 24 521 microRNA loci from 206 species, processed to produce 30 424 mature microRNA products. The rate of deposition of novel microRNAs and the number of researchers involved in their discovery continue to increase, driven largely by small RNA deep sequencing experiments. In the face of these increases, and a range of microRNA annotation methods and criteria, maintaining the quality of the microRNA sequence data set is a significant challenge. Here, we describe recent developments of the miRBase database to address this issue. In particular, we describe the collation and use of deep sequencing data sets to assign levels of confidence to miRBase entries. We now provide a high confidence subset of miRBase entries, based on the pattern of mapped reads. The high confidence microRNA data set is available alongside the complete microRNA collection at http://www.mirbase.org/. We also describe embedding microRNA-specific Wikipedia pages on the miRBase website to encourage the microRNA community to contribute and share textual and functional information.

  14. Role of MicroRNAs in Islet Beta-Cell Compensation and Failure during Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Plaisance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell function and mass are markedly adaptive to compensate for the changes in insulin requirement observed during several situations such as pregnancy, obesity, glucocorticoids excess, or administration. This requires a beta-cell compensation which is achieved through a gain of beta-cell mass and function. Elucidating the physiological mechanisms that promote functional beta-cell mass expansion and that protect cells against death, is a key therapeutic target for diabetes. In this respect, several recent studies have emphasized the instrumental role of microRNAs in the control of beta-cell function. MicroRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression, and are pivotal for the control of beta-cell proliferation, function, and survival. On the one hand, changes in specific microRNA levels have been associated with beta-cell compensation and are triggered by hormones or bioactive peptides that promote beta-cell survival and function. Conversely, modifications in the expression of other specific microRNAs contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and death elicited by diabetogenic factors including, cytokines, chronic hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidized LDL. This review underlines the importance of targeting the microRNA network for future innovative therapies aiming at preventing the beta-cell decline in diabetes.

  15. MicroRNA expression profiles in human cancer cells after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M; Niyazi, Maximilian; Corradini, Stefanie; Zehentmayr, Franz; Li, Minglun; Lauber, Kirsten; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are regulators of central cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of human cancers. MicroRNAs also modulate responses to anti-cancer therapy. In the context of radiation oncology microRNAs were found to modulate cell death and proliferation after irradiation. However, changes in microRNA expression profiles in response to irradiation have not been comprehensively analyzed so far. The present study's intend is to present a broad screen of changes in microRNA expression following irradiation of different malignant cell lines. 1100 microRNAs (Sanger miRBase release version 14.0) were analyzed in six malignant cell lines following irradiation with clinically relevant doses of 2.0 Gy. MicroRNA levels 6 hours after irradiation were compared to microRNA levels in non-irradiated cells using the 'Geniom Biochip MPEA homo sapiens'. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern, which significantly (p = 0.014) discerned irradiated from non-irradiated cells. The expression levels of a number of microRNAs known to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, local immune response and radioresistance (e. g. miR-1285, miR-24-1, miR-151-5p, let-7i) displayed 2 - 3-fold changes after irradiation. Moreover, several microRNAs previously not known to be radiation-responsive were discovered. Ionizing radiation induced significant changes in microRNA expression profiles in 3 glioma and 3 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The functional relevance of these changes is not addressed but should by analyzed by future work especially focusing on clinically relevant endpoints like radiation induced cell death, proliferation, migration and metastasis

  16. Specific and Novel microRNAs Are Regulated as Response to Fungal Infection in Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Andreas; Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Schäferhoff, Karin; Bonin, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Löffler, Jürgen; Linde, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Within the last two decades, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been significantly increased. They are characterized by high mortality rates and are often caused by Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The increasing number of infections underlines the necessity for additional anti-fungal therapies, which require extended knowledge of gene regulations during fungal infection. MicroRNAs are regulators of important cellular processes, including the immune response. By analyzing their regulation and impact on target genes, novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches may be developed. Here, we examine the role of microRNAs in human dendritic cells during fungal infection. Dendritic cells represent the bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Therefore, analysis of gene regulation of dendritic cells is of particular significance. By applying next-generation sequencing of small RNAs, we quantify microRNA expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells after 6 and 12 h of infection with C. albicans and A. fumigatus as well as treatment with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We identified 26 microRNAs that are differentially regulated after infection by the fungi or LPS. Three and five of them are specific for fungal infections after 6 and 12 h, respectively. We further validated interactions of miR-132-5p and miR-212-5p with immunological relevant target genes, such as FKBP1B, KLF4, and SPN, on both RNA and protein level. Our results indicate that these microRNAs fine-tune the expression of immune-related target genes during fungal infection. Beyond that, we identified previously undiscovered microRNAs. We validated three novel microRNAs via qRT-PCR. A comparison with known microRNAs revealed possible relations with the miR-378 family and miR-1260a/b for two of them, while the third one features a unique sequence with no resemblance to known microRNAs. In summary, this study analyzes the effect of known microRNAs in dendritic cells during

  17. Systematic Prediction of the Impacts of Mutations in MicroRNA Seed Sequences

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    Bhattacharya Anindya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many important biological processes and the dysfunction of microRNA has been associated with many diseases. The seed region of a microRNA is of crucial importance to its target recognition. Mutations in microRNA seed regions may disrupt the binding of microRNAs to their original target genes and make them bind to new target genes. Here we use a knowledge-based computational method to systematically predict the functional effects of all the possible single nucleotide mutations in human microRNA seed regions. The result provides a comprehensive reference for the functional assessment of the impacts of possible natural and artificial single nucleotide mutations in microRNA seed regions.

  18. Characterization and identification of microRNA core promoters in four model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although many functions of microRNAs in plants and animals have been revealed in recent years, the transcriptional mechanism of microRNA genes is not well-understood. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of microRNA genes, we study and characterize, in a genome scale, the promoters of intergenic microRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. We show that most known microRNA genes in these four species have the same type of promoters as protein-coding genes have. To further characterize the promoters of microRNA genes, we developed a novel promoter prediction method, called common query voting (CoVote, which is more effective than available promoter prediction methods. Using this new method, we identify putative core promoters of most known microRNA genes in the four model species. Moreover, we characterize the promoters of microRNA genes in these four species. We discover many significant, characteristic sequence motifs in these core promoters, several of which match or resemble the known cis-acting elements for transcription initiation. Among these motifs, some are conserved across different species while some are specific to microRNA genes of individual species.

  19. Tissue-specific regulation of mouse MicroRNA genes in endoderm-derived tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yan; Schug, Jonathan; McKenna, Lindsay B.; Le Lay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs fine-tune the activity of hundreds of protein-coding genes. The identification of tissue-specific microRNAs and their promoters has been constrained by the limited sensitivity of prior microRNA quantification methods. Here, we determine the entire microRNAome of three endoderm-derived tissues, liver, jejunum and pancreas, using ultra-high throughput sequencing. Although many microRNA genes are expressed at comparable levels, 162 microRNAs exhibited striking tissue-specificity. After...

  20. Pharmacogenomics genes show varying perceptibility to microRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Vinther, Jeppe; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of pharmacogenomics is to identify individual differences in genome and transcriptome composition and their effect on drug efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of the majority of animal genes, including many genes involved in drug...

  1. Roles of microRNA-15 family in normal and pathological late lung development

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Elpidoforos

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of organogenesis and during the last years many studies focused on microRNA expression during embryonic development. To date, there is no study to report possible roles of microRNAs in late lung development and especially during the alveolarization process. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs that are deregulated under hyperoxic conditions and to assess whether microRNA expression can be modulated in vivo. Lung microRNA expression screening wa...

  2. Towards a molecular basis of oligometastatic disease: potential role of micro-RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Abhineet; Ferguson, Mark K; Posner, Mitchell C; Hellman, Samuel; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-08-01

    Oligometastasis is a cancer disease state characterized by a limited number of metastatic tumors involving single or few organs and with biological properties that make them potentially amenable to locoregional antitumor therapy. Current clinical data show that they are potentially curable with surgical resection or/and radiotherapy. Yet, mechanisms of progression from primary tumor to oligometastasis, rather than to polymetastases, is lacking in detail. In the current review we focus on the role of micro-RNAs in the regulation of metastases development and the role they may play in the differentiation of oligometastatic from polymetastatic progression. We also discuss the analyses of metastatic samples from oligo-and polymetastatic patients, which suggest that oligometastasis is a distinct biologic entity regulated in part by micro-RNAs. In addition, a review of the known functions of oligometastatic-specific micro-RNAs suggest that they regulate multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor invasion, intravasation, distant vascular extravasation and proliferation in a distant organ. Understanding the role of micro-RNAs and their target genes in oligometastatic disease may allow for the development of targeted therapies to effectively conrol the spread of metastases.

  3. New research progress of microRNAs in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma(RBis the most common intraocular malignancy of children with extremely poor prognosis. MicroRNAs are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs in eukaryotic cells, which regulate the expression of gene by mRNA degradation or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs, acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, are associated with the occurrence and development of RB directly, which is vital for the early diagnosis and clinical targeted therapy of RB. This review summarized the expression of microRNAs in RB and the related mechanism.

  4. MicroRNAs are suitable for assessment as biomarkers from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and miR-24 represents an appropriate reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, Rachel Emily; Sieniawski, Michal; Proctor, Stephen John; Menon, Geetha; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia

    2013-03-01

    Tissue biopsy specimens in the form of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) represent a valuable resource for biomarker identification and validation. However, to date, they remain an underused asset due to uncertainty regarding RNA extraction and the reliability of downstream techniques, including quantitative RT-PCR. Recently, much interest has emerged in the study of microRNAs; small single-stranded RNAs with a role in transcriptional regulation, that are thought to be well preserved in FFPET. In this study, we show that microRNA expression is comparable between FFPET and matched fresh-frozen samples (miR-17-5p: p=0.01, miR-92: p=0.003), and demonstrate that no significant deterioration in expression occurs over prolonged FFPET storage (p=0.06). Furthermore, microRNA expression is equivalent dependant on RNA extraction method (p<0.001) or DNAse treatment of total RNA (p<0.001). Finally, we validate miR-24 as a suitable reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) FFPET studies.

  5. MicroRNA profiling of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas.

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    Lianne Koens

    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of microRNAs is widely accepted to be pathogenetically involved in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs. However, the microRNAs profiles of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs are not yet described. Its two main subtypes, i.e., primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT and primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL are characterized by an activated B-cell (ABC-genotype and a germinal center B-cell (GCB-genotype, respectively. We performed high-throughput sequencing analysis on frozen tumor biopsies from 19 cases of PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT to establish microRNA profiles. Cluster analysis of the complete microRNome could not distinguish between the two subtypes, but 16 single microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Single microRNA RT-qPCR was conducted on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies of 20 additional cases, confirming higher expression of miR-9-5p, miR-31-5p, miR-129-2-3p and miR-214-3p in PCFCL as compared to PCLBCL-LT. MicroRNAs previously described to be higher expressed in ABC-type as compared to GCB-type nodal DLBCL were not differentially expressed between PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT. In conclusion, PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT differ in their microRNA profiles. In contrast to their gene expression profile, they only show slight resemblance with the microRNA profiles found in GCB- and ABC-type nodal DLBCL.

  6. RNAi therapeutics and applications of microRNAs in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Keita; Ochiya, Takahiro; Takeshita, Fumitaka

    2013-06-01

    RNA interference-based therapies are proving to be powerful tools for combating various diseases, including cancer. Scientists are researching the development of safe and efficient systems for the delivery of small RNA molecules, which are extremely fragile in serum, to target organs and cells in the human body. A dozen pre-clinical and clinical trials have been under way over the past few years involving biodegradable nanoparticles, lipids, chemical modification and conjugation. On the other hand, microRNAs, which control the balance of cellular biological processes, have been studied as attractive therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. In this review, we provide an overview of RNA interference-based therapeutics in clinical trials and discuss the latest technology for the systemic delivery of nucleic acid drugs. Furthermore, we focus on dysregulated microRNAs in human cancer, which have progressed in pre-clinical trials as therapeutic targets, and describe a wide range of strategies to control the expression levels of endogenous microRNAs. Further development of RNA interference technologies and progression of clinical trials will contribute to the achievement of practical applications of nucleic acid drugs.

  7. Wet-lab tested microRNA assays for qPCR studies with SYBR®Green and DNA primers in pig tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Córdoba, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in several biological processes including those that mediate disease pathophysiology. Hence, quantifying microRNA expression levels can provide important and novel insights into disease biology. In recent years...

  8. MicroRNA-99 family targets AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in dermal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Tymen, Stéphanie D; Chen, Dan; Fang, Zong Juan; Zhao, Yan; Dragas, Dragan; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that microRNAs play important roles in dermal wound healing and microRNA deregulation has been linked with impaired wound repair. Here, using a mouse experimental wound healing model, we identified a panel of 63 differentially expressed microRNAs during dermal wound healing, including members of miR-99 family (miR-99a, miR-99b, miR-100). We further demonstrated that miR-99 family members regulate cell proliferation, cell migration, and AKT/mTOR signaling. Combined experimental and bioinformatics analyses revealed that miR-99 family members regulate AKT/mTOR signaling by targeting multiple genes, including known target genes (e.g., IGF1R, mTOR) and a new target (AKT1). The effects of miR-99 family members on the expression of IGF1R, mTOR and AKT1 were validated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Two adjacent miR-99 family targeting sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of the AKT1 mRNA. The direct interaction of miR-100 with these targeting sites was confirmed using luciferase reporter assays. The microRNA-100-directed recruitment of AKT1 mRNA to the RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC) was confirmed by a ribonucleoprotein-IP assay. In summary, we identified a panel of differentially expressed microRNAs which may play important roles in wound healing. We provide evidence that miR-99 family members contribute to wound healing by regulating the AKT/mTOR signaling.

  9. microRNAs and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Binod; Singh, Abhishek K.; Rotllan, Noemi; Price, Nathan; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Work over the last decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Recent findings A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33. Work over the last two years has identified additional functions of miR-33 including the regulation of macrophage activation and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, it has recently been shown that miR-33 regulates vascular homeostasis and cardiac adaptation in response to pressure overload. In addition to miR-33 and miR-122, recent GWAS have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the proximity of miRNAs genes associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. Several of these miRNA, such as miR-148a and miR-128-1, target important proteins that regulate cellular cholesterol metabolism, including the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1). Summary microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cholesterol metabolism and promising therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic disorders including atherosclerosis. Here, we discuss the recent findings in the field highlighting the novel mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism and atherogenesis and the identification of novel miRNAs that regulate LDL metabolism. Finally, we summarize the recent findings that identified miR-33 as an important non-coding RNA that controls cardiovascular homeostasis independent of its role in regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:28333713

  10. Pathophysiological understanding of HFpEF: microRNAs as part of the puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Monika; Barandiarán Aizpurua, Arantxa; van Empel, Vanessa; van Bilsen, Marc; Schroen, Blanche

    2018-05-01

    Half of all heart failure patients have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Comorbidities associated with and contributing to HFpEF include obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Still, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of HFpEF are unknown. A preliminary consensus proposes that the multi-morbidity triggers a state of systemic, chronic low-grade inflammation, and microvascular dysfunction, causing reduced nitric oxide bioavailability to adjacent cardiomyocytes. As a result, the cardiomyocyte remodels its contractile elements and fails to relax properly, causing diastolic dysfunction, and eventually HFpEF. HFpEF is a complex syndrome for which currently no efficient therapies exist. This is notably due to the current one-size-fits-all therapy approach that ignores individual patient differences. MicroRNAs have been studied in relation to pathophysiological mechanisms and comorbidities underlying and contributing to HFpEF. As regulators of gene expression, microRNAs may contribute to the pathophysiology of HFpEF. In addition, secreted circulating microRNAs are potential biomarkers and as such, they could help stratify the HFpEF population and open new ways for individualized therapies. In this review, we provide an overview of the ever-expanding world of non-coding RNAs and their contribution to the molecular mechanisms underlying HFpEF. We propose prospects for microRNAs in stratifying the HFpEF population. MicroRNAs add a new level of complexity to the regulatory network controlling cardiac function and hence the understanding of gene regulation becomes a fundamental piece in solving the HFpEF puzzle.

  11. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese.

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    Esther Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult life as obese. METHODS: Among 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (defined as BMI≥31.0 kg/m(2, and, as controls, a random 1% sample of the others was identified. In the age range of 18-25 years, there were 1,862 obese, which encompass the men above the 99.5 percentile, and 3,476 controls. Information on morbidity was obtained via national registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative morbidity assessed as first incidence of disease, occurrence of disease in the year preceding death and prevalent disease at time of death. RESULTS: From age 18 through 80 years the obese had an increased risk of becoming diseased by or die from a broad range of diseases. Generally, the incidence of first event, occurrence in the year prior to death, and prevalence at time of death showed the same pattern. As an example, the relative hazard of type 2 diabetes was constant throughout life at 4.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.1-5.9, 5.2 (95% CI: 3.6-7.5, and 6.8 (95% CI: 4.6-10.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support the continued need to avoid beginning adult life as obese, as obese young men experience an increased morbidity, including fatal morbidity, from many diseases throughout life.

  12. Modulation of microRNA activity by semi-microRNAs (smiRNAs

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    Isabelle ePlante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by catalyzing the formation of 19 to 24-nucleotide (nt long microRNAs. Subsequently incorporated into Ago2 effector complexes, microRNAs are known to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA translation. Whether shorter RNA species derived from microRNAs exist and play a role in mRNA regulation remains unknown. Here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a 12-nt long RNA species corresponding to the 5’ region of the microRNA let-7, and tentatively termed semi-microRNA, or smiRNA. Using a smiRNA derived from the precursor of miR-223 as a model, we show that 12-nt long smiRNA species are devoid of any direct mRNA regulatory activity, as assessed in a reporter gene activity assay in transfected cultured human cells. However, smiR-223 was found to modulate the ability of the microRNA from which it derives to mediate translational repression or cleavage of reporter mRNAs. Our findings suggest that smiRNAs may be generated along the microRNA pathway and participate to the control of gene expression by regulating the activity of the related full-length mature microRNA in vivo.

  13. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  14. The functional role of exosome microRNAs in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes the highest incidence and mortality rates of cancer disease worldwide. Despite obvious advances in lung cancer research, a better understanding of the disease is urgently needed to improve early detection and correct diagnoses. Exosomes are released from cancer cells and modulate cell-cell communication. Exosomes transfer a wide variety of molecules including microRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are single-stranded, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent the status of physiology and disease. The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of miRNAs of cancer-derived exosome as potential biomarkers for lung cancer.

  15. Diet-responsive microRNAs are likely exogenous

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent report Title "et al". fostered miRNA-375 and miR-200c knock-out pups to wild-type dams and arrived at the conclusion that milk microRNAs are bioavailable in trace amounts at best and that postprandial concentrations of microRNAs are too low to elicit biological effects. Their take home m...

  16. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs in human male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schipper Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of small non-coding RNAs and the subsequent analysis of microRNA expression patterns in human cancer specimens have provided completely new insights into cancer biology. Genetic and epigenetic data indicate oncogenic or tumor suppressor function of these pleiotropic regulators. Therefore, many studies analyzed the expression and function of microRNA in human breast cancer, the most frequent malignancy in females. However, nothing is known so far about microRNA expression in male breast cancer, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Methods The expression of 319 microRNAs was analyzed in 9 primary human male breast tumors and in epithelial cells from 15 male gynecomastia specimens using fluorescence-labeled bead technology. For identification of differentially expressed microRNAs data were analyzed by cluster analysis and selected statistical methods. Expression levels were validated for the most up- or down-regulated microRNAs in this training cohort using real-time PCR methodology as well as in an independent test cohort comprising 12 cases of human male breast cancer. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis separated very well male breast cancer samples and control specimens according to their microRNA expression pattern indicating cancer-specific alterations of microRNA expression in human male breast cancer. miR-21, miR519d, miR-183, miR-197, and miR-493-5p were identified as most prominently up-regulated, miR-145 and miR-497 as most prominently down-regulated in male breast cancer. Conclusions Male breast cancer displays several differentially expressed microRNAs. Not all of them are shared with breast cancer biopsies from female patients indicating male breast cancer specific alterations of microRNA expression.

  17. The Role of microRNAs in the Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Diogo; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel

    2016-06-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.

  18. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  19. Differentially expressed microRNA in multiple sclerosis: A window into pathogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Illés, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery, and sile......MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery......RNA related to multiple sclerosis has increased significantly in recent years. Differentially expressed microRNA have been identified in the whole blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, blood-derived cell subsets and brain lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis....... Most studies applied a non-candidate approach of screening by microarray and validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction or next generation sequencing; others used a candidate-driven approach. Despite a relatively high number of multiple sclerosis-associated microRNA, just a few could...

  20. Gender and obesity specific MicroRNA expression in adipose tissue from lean and obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette Juul

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention...... and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially...... expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six mi...

  1. The role of microRNA in diseases of the biliary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This literature review provides current information about role of microRNA in diseases of the biliary system. For writing the article, we used such databases, as Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, CyberLeninka, RSCI. The mechanisms of formation and action of microRNA are demonstrated. The data of scientific researches on the association of various microRNAs in the development and progression of diseases of the biliary system are presented. The influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on the expression of microRNA is considered. Attention is focused on the therapeutic efficacy and benefits of using ursodeoxycholic acid in diseases of the biliary system due to the effect on the activity of the generation of some microRNAs.

  2. Circulating microRNA-200 Family as Diagnostic Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Dhayat

    Full Text Available In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating microRNA-200 family as a non-invasive tool to identify patients with cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Prognosis of HCC remains poor with increasing incidence worldwide, mainly related to liver cirrhosis. So far, no reliable molecular targets exist for early detection of HCC at surgically manageable stages. Recently, we identified members of the microRNA-200 family as potential diagnostic markers of cirrhosis-associated HCC in patient tissue samples. Their value as circulating biomarkers for HCC remained undefined.Blood samples and clinicopathological data of consecutive patients with liver diseases were collected prospectively. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was investigated by qRT-PCR in blood serum samples of 22 HCC patients with and without cirrhosis. Serum samples of patients with non-cancerous chronic liver cirrhosis (n = 22 and of healthy volunteers (n = 15 served as controls.MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a were significantly downregulated in blood serum of patients with HCC compared to liver cirrhosis (p<0.007 and healthy controls (p<0.002. MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a could well discriminate patients with cirrhosis-associated HCC from healthy volunteers with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. Additionally, both microRNAs could differentiate between HCC and non-cancerous liver cirrhosis with a fair accuracy.Circulating microRNA-200 family members are significantly deregulated in patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis. Further studies are necessary to confirm the diagnostic value of the microRNA-200 family as accurate serum marker for cirrhosis-associated HCC.

  3. Functional characterization of members of the microRNA-17-92 cluster in the vascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Döbele, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Almost two decades ago, microRNAs were discovered as novel posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Since then, research efforts have uncovered their involvement in the control of various cellular processes including migration, proliferation and cell survival. Even more complex events, such as the formation of new blood vessels or organ development, have been shown to be tightly regulated and orchestrated by microRNAs. Due to their crucial regulatory role in tissue homeostasis in ve...

  4. Systematic validation of predicted microRNAs for cyclin D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qiong; Feng, Ming-Guang; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are the endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules capable of silencing protein coding genes at the posttranscriptional level. Based on computer-aided predictions, a single microRNA could have over a hundred of targets. On the other hand, a single protein-coding gene could be targeted by many potential microRNAs. However, only a relatively small number of these predicted microRNA/mRNA interactions are experimentally validated, and no systematic validation has been carried out using a reporter system. In this study, we used luciferease reporter assays to validate microRNAs that can silence cyclin D1 (CCND1) because CCND1 is a well known proto-oncogene implicated in a variety of types of cancers. We chose miRanda (http://www.microRNA.org) as a primary prediction method. We then cloned 51 of 58 predicted microRNA precursors into pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-copGFP and tested for their effect on the luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CCND1 gene. Real-time PCR revealed the 45 of 51 cloned microRNA precursors expressed a relatively high level of the exogenous microRNAs which were used in our validation experiments. By an arbitrary cutoff of 35% reduction, we identified 7 microRNAs that were able to suppress Luc-CCND1-UTR activity. Among them, 4 of them were previously validated targets and the rest 3 microRNAs were validated to be positive in this study. Of interest, we found that miR-503 not only suppressed the luciferase activity, but also suppressed the endogenous CCND1 both at protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we showed that miR-503 was able to reduce S phase cell populations and caused cell growth inhibition, suggesting that miR-503 may be a putative tumor suppressor. This study provides a more comprehensive picture of microRNA/CCND1 interactions and it further demonstrates the importance of experimental target validation

  5. MicroRNA pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    polymorphisms, copy number variations or differences in gene expression levels of drug metabolizing or transporting genes and drug targets. In this review paper, we focus instead on microRNAs (miRNAs): small noncoding RNAs, prevalent in metazoans, that negatively regulate gene expression in many cellular...

  6. Performance comparison of digital microRNA profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knutsen

    Full Text Available MicroRNA profiling represents an important first-step in deducting individual RNA-based regulatory function in a cell, tissue, or at a specific developmental stage. Currently there are several different platforms to choose from in order to make the initial miRNA profiles. In this study we investigate recently developed digital microRNA high-throughput technologies. Four different platforms were compared including next generation SOLiD ligation sequencing and Illumina HiSeq sequencing, hybridization-based NanoString nCounter, and miRCURY locked nucleic acid RT-qPCR. For all four technologies, full microRNA profiles were generated from human cell lines that represent noninvasive and invasive tumorigenic breast cancer. This study reports the correlation between platforms, as well as a more extensive analysis of the accuracy and sensitivity of data generated when using different platforms and important consideration when verifying results by the use of additional technologies. We found all the platforms to be highly capable for microRNA analysis. Furthermore, the two NGS platforms and RT-qPCR all have equally high sensitivity, and the fold change accuracy is independent of individual miRNA concentration for NGS and RT-qPCR. Based on these findings we propose new guidelines and considerations when performing microRNA profiling.

  7. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M.; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and mana......Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification...... and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples...... of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal...

  8. MicroRNAs and Target Genes As Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Early Onset of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R. Arshad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD ranks as the second most common disorder with a higher prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years old. Younger individuals may also be affected with PD which is known as early onset PD (EOPD. Despite similarities between the characteristics of EOPD and late onset PD (LODP, EOPD patients experience much longer disease manifestations and poorer quality of life. Although some individuals are more prone to have EOPD due to certain genetic alterations, the molecular mechanisms that differentiate between EOPD and LOPD remains unclear. Recent findings in PD patients revealed that there were differences in the genetic profiles of PD patients compared to healthy controls, as well as between EOPD and LOPD patients. There were variants identified that correlated with the decline of cognitive and motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms in PD. There were also specific microRNAs that correlated with PD progression, and since microRNAs have been shown to be involved in the maintenance of neuronal development, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, there is a strong possibility that these microRNAs can be potentially used to differentiate between subsets of PD patients. PD is mainly diagnosed at the late stage, when almost majority of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers for early detection of PD is important. Given that miRNAs are crucial in controlling the gene expression, these regulatory microRNAs and their target genes could be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. In this article, we discussed the genes involved and their regulatory miRNAs, regarding their roles in PD progression, based on the findings of significantly altered microRNAs in EOPD studies. We also discussed the potential of these miRNAs as molecular biomarkers for early diagnosis.

  9. Intra-tumor heterogeneity of microRNA-92a, microRNA-375 and microRNA-424 in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Rikke Karlin; Novotny, Guy Wayne; Klarskov, Louise Laurberg

    2016-01-01

    Various microRNAs (miRNAs) have been investigated in order to improve diagnostics and risk assessment in colorectal cancer (CRC). To clarify the potential of miRNA profiling in CRC, knowledge of intra-tumor heterogeneity in expression levels is crucial. The study aim was to estimate the intra...

  10. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers in adrenocortical cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eCHERRADI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the last decade, pan-genomic analyses of genetic and epigenetic alterations and genome-wide expression profile studies allowed major advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Besides the well-known dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors such as the IGF2 pathway, the Wnt pathway and TP53, high-throughput technologies enabled a more comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical cancer. Integration of expression profile data with exome sequencing, SNP array analysis, methylation and microRNA profiling led to the identification of subgroups of malignant tumors with distinct molecular alterations and clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally silence their target gene expression either by degrading mRNA or by inhibiting translation. Although our knowledge of the contribution of deregulated microRNAs to the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma is still in its infancy, recent studies support their relevance in gene expression alterations in these tumors. Some microRNAs have been shown to carry potential diagnostic and prognostic values while others may be good candidates for therapeutic interventions. With the emergence of disease-specific blood-borne microRNAs signatures, analyses of small cohorts of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma suggest that circulating microRNAs represent promising non-invasive biomarkers of malignancy or recurrence. However, some technical challenges still remain, and most of the microRNAs reported in the literature have not yet been validated in sufficiently powered and longitudinal studies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the deregulation of tumor-associated and circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical carcinoma patients, while emphasizing their potential significance in adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenic

  11. Immunomodulating microRNAs of mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Pires, David; Anes, Elsa

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease. Upon infection, host cells rapidly change their transcriptional programs, including miRNA expression, as a response against the invading microorganism. Not surprisingly, pathogens can also alter the host miRNA profile to their own benefit, which is of major importance to scientists addressing high morbidity and mortality infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the miRNAs regulation of the host response against mycobacterial infections, providing new insights into host-pathogen interactions. Understanding these findings and its implications could reveal new opportunities for designing better diagnostic tools, therapies and more effective vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  13. Rapid Generation of MicroRNA Sponges for MicroRNA Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Gibcus, Johan H.; Hettinga, Chris; Adema, Annelies; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Halsema, Nancy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ding, Ye; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and

  14. Effects of short-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on microRNA expression in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenny, Matthew J.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Hahn, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Although many drugs and environmental chemicals are teratogenic, the mechanisms by which most toxicants disrupt embryonic development are not well understood. MicroRNAs, single-stranded RNA molecules of ∼ 22 nt that regulate protein expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA sequestration or degradation, are important regulators of a variety of cellular processes including embryonic development and cellular differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to xenobiotics can alter microRNA expression and contribute to the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals disrupt embryonic development. In this study we tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a well-known teratogen, alters microRNA expression during zebrafish development. We exposed zebrafish embryos to DMSO (0.1%) or TCDD (5 nM) for 1 h at 30 hours post fertilization (hpf) and measured microRNA expression using several methods at 36 and 60 hpf. TCDD caused strong induction of CYP1A at 36 hpf (62-fold) and 60 hpf (135-fold) as determined by real-time RT-PCR, verifying the effectiveness of the exposure. MicroRNA expression profiles were determined using microarrays (Agilent and Exiqon), next-generation sequencing (SOLiD), and real-time RT-PCR. The two microarray platforms yielded results that were similar but not identical; both showed significant changes in expression of miR-451, 23a, 23b, 24 and 27e at 60 hpf. Multiple analyses were performed on the SOLiD sequences yielding a total of 16 microRNAs as differentially expressed by TCDD in zebrafish embryos. However, miR-27e was the only microRNA to be identified as differentially expressed by all three methods (both microarrays, SOLiD sequencing, and real-time RT-PCR). These results suggest that TCDD exposure causes modest changes in expression of microRNAs, including some (miR-451, 23a, 23b, 24 and 27e) that are critical for hematopoiesis and cardiovascular

  15. MicroRNA 10a marks regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeker, Lukas T; Zhou, Xuyu; Gershberg, Kseniya

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. We report that microRNA-10a (miR-10a) is expressed in Tregs but not in other T cells including individual thymocyte subsets. Expression profiling in inbred mouse strains demonstrated that non-obese diabetic (NOD......) mice with a genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diabetes have lower Treg-specific miR-10a expression than C57BL/6J autoimmune resistant mice. Inhibition of miR-10a expression in vitro leads to reduced FoxP3 expression levels and miR-10a expression is lower in unstable "exFoxP3" T cells. Unstable...... and phenotype of natural Treg nor the capacity of conventional T cells to induce FoxP3 in response to TGFβ, RA, or a combination of the two. Thus, miR-10a is selectively expressed in Treg but inhibition by antagomiRs or genetic ablation resulted in discordant effects on FoxP3....

  16. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Alyson A; Heier, Christopher R; Novak, James S; Tully, Christopher B; Brown, Kristy J; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Vila, Maria C; Ngheim, Peter P; Bello, Luca; Kornegay, Joe N; Angelini, Corrado; Partridge, Terence A; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-09-08

    The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45-47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31). microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson A. Fiorillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45–47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31. microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression.

  18. A conformation-induced fluorescence method for microRNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aw, Sherry S; Tang, Melissa Xm; Teo, Yin Nah

    2016-01-01

    and quantify microRNAs may aid research into novel aspects of microRNA biology and contribute to the development of diagnostics. By introducing an additional stem loop into the fluorescent RNA Spinach and altering its 3' and 5' ends, we have generated a new RNA, Pandan, that functions as the basis for a micro......MicroRNAs play important roles in a large variety of biological systems and processes through their regulation of target mRNA expression, and show promise as clinical biomarkers. However, their small size presents challenges for tagging or direct detection. Innovation in techniques to sense......RNA sensor. Pandan contains two sequence-variable stem loops that encode complementary sequence for a target microRNA of interest. In its sensor form, it requires the binding of a target microRNA in order to reconstitute the RNA scaffold for fluorophore binding and fluorescence. Binding of the target micro...

  19. A functional microRNA library screen reveals miR-410 as a novel anti-apoptotic regulator of cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, Tiziana; Poultsides, George A.; Kouraklis, Grigorios; Liakakos, Theodore; Drakaki, Alexandra; Peros, George; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is characterized by late diagnosis and a poor survival rate. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different cancer types, including cholangiocarcinoma. Our aim was to identify novel microRNAs regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. A functional microRNA library screen was performed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells to identify microRNAs that regulate cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Real-time PCR analysis evaluated miR-9 and XIAP mRNA levels in cholangiocarcinoma cells and tumors. The screen identified 21 microRNAs that regulated >50 % cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. MiR-410 was identified as the top suppressor of growth, while its overexpression significantly inhibited the invasion and colony formation ability of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that microRNA-410 exerts its effects through the direct regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Furthermore, overexpression of miR-410 significantly reduced cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model through induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified an inverse relationship between miR-410 and XIAP mRNA levels in human cholangiocarcinomas. Taken together, our study revealed a novel microRNA signaling pathway involved in cholangiocarcinoma and suggests that manipulation of the miR-410/XIAP pathway could have a therapeutic potential for cholangiocarcinoma. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2384-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. The Role of MicroRNAs in Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0469 TITLE: The Role of microRNAs in Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Li, Yong RECIPIENT...The Role of MicroRNAs in Pancreatitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Li, Yong 5e...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pancreatitis (inflammation of the

  1. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Phytohormones and microRNAs as sensors and regulators of leaf senescence: assigning macro roles to small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Naqvi, Afsar Raza; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-12-01

    Ageing or senescence is an intricate and highly synchronized developmental phase in the life of plant parts including leaf. Senescence not only means death of a plant part, but during this process, different macromolecules undergo degradation and the resulting components are transported to other parts of the plant. During the period from when a leaf is young and green to the stage when it senesces, a multitude of factors such as hormones, environmental factors and senescence associated genes (SAGs) are involved. Plant hormones including salicylic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene advance leaf senescence, whereas others like cytokinins, gibberellins, and auxins delay this process. The environmental factors which generally affect plant development and growth, can hasten senescence, the examples being nutrient dearth, water stress, pathogen attack, radiations, high temperature and light intensity, waterlogging, and air, water or soil contamination. Other important influences include carbohydrate accumulation and high carbon/nitrogen level. To date, although several genes involved in this complex process have been identified, still not much information exists in the literature on the signalling mechanism of leaf senescence. Now, the Arabidopsis mutants have paved our way and opened new vistas to elucidate the signalling mechanism of leaf senescence for which various mutants are being utilized. Recent studies demonstrating the role of microRNAs in leaf senescence have reinforced our knowledge of this intricate process. This review provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of the information gained particularly on the roles of several plant growth regulators and microRNAs in regulation of leaf senescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging role of microRNAs in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisa Callegari,1 Marco Domenicali,2 Laura Gramantieri,3 Massimo Negrini,1 Silvia Sabbioni4 1Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 3Center for Applied Biomedical Research, S Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, 4Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Currently available curative options, such as surgery and transplantation, are not available to patients with advanced stages of disease. Among the potential new treatments being investigated are microRNA (miRNA-based therapies. A number of preclinical studies have reported antitumor activities of miRNA mimics or anti-miRNA molecules. Optimal in vivo delivery of miRNA molecules is crucial to their action. To this end, significant progress has been made in the development of nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of miRNA molecules. Delivery of these molecules, alone or in combination with other drugs, promises to open new possibilities for therapeutic approaches to hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, microRNA, nanocarriers, therapy 

  4. Global microRNA analysis of the NCI-60 cancer cell panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søkilde, Rolf; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a group of short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Because miRNAs may play a role in the initiation and progres...

  5. Utility of MicroRNAs and siRNAs in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacnite del Mar Díaz-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3′-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer.

  6. MicroRNAs in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Geisler, Christian; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. New treatment modalities, including intensive induction regimens with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, have improved survival. However, many patients still relapse, and there is a need...... for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCL. Comparisons of tumor samples from patients with MCL with their normal counterparts (naive B-cells) have identified differentially expressed miRNAs with roles in cellular growth...

  7. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line-the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response-revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show...... validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods...... of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies....

  8. Identification of reference genes for relative quantification of circulating microRNAs in bovine serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seon Bae

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle.

  9. A Cancer-Indicative microRNA Pattern in Normal Prostate Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schlomm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the levels of selected micro-RNAs in normal prostate tissue to assess their potential to indicate tumor foci elsewhere in the prostate. Histologically normal prostate tissue samples from 31 prostate cancer patients and two cancer negative control groups with either unsuspicious or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA levels (14 and 17 individuals, respectively were analyzed. Based on the expression analysis of 157 microRNAs in a pool of prostate tissue samples and information from data bases/literature, we selected eight microRNAs for quantification by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in histologically tumor-free biopsy samples from patients and healthy controls. We identified seven microRNAs (miR-124a, miR-146a & b, miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a & b, which displayed significant differential expression in normal prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer compared to both cancer negative control groups. Four microRNAs (miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a and let-7b remained to significantly discriminate normal tissues from prostate cancer patients from those of the cancer negative control group with elevated PSA levels. The transcript levels of these microRNAs were highly indicative for the presence of cancer in the prostates, independently of the PSA level. Our results suggest a microRNA-pattern in histologically normal prostate tissue, indicating prostate cancer elsewhere in the organ.

  10. Evaluation of microRNA alignment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Genomic alignment of small RNA (smRNA) sequences such as microRNAs poses considerable challenges due to their short length (∼21 nucleotides [nt]) as well as the large size and complexity of plant and animal genomes. While several tools have been developed for high-throughput mapping of longer mRNA-seq reads (>30 nt), there are few that are specifically designed for mapping of smRNA reads including microRNAs. The accuracy of these mappers has not been systematically determined in the case of smRNA-seq. In addition, it is unknown whether these aligners accurately map smRNA reads containing sequence errors and polymorphisms. By using simulated read sets, we determine the alignment sensitivity and accuracy of 16 short-read mappers and quantify their robustness to mismatches, indels, and nontemplated nucleotide additions. These were explored in the context of a plant genome (Oryza sativa, ∼500 Mbp) and a mammalian genome (Homo sapiens, ∼3.1 Gbp). Analysis of simulated and real smRNA-seq data demonstrates that mapper selection impacts differential expression results and interpretation. These results will inform on best practice for smRNA mapping and enable more accurate smRNA detection and quantification of expression and RNA editing. PMID:27284164

  11. Customization of Artificial MicroRNA Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vu, Tien; Do, Vinh Nang

    2017-01-01

    RNAi approaches, including microRNA (miRNA) regulatory pathway, offer great tools for functional characterization of unknown genes. Moreover, the applications of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) in the field of plant transgenesis have also been advanced to engineer pathogen-resistant or trait-improved transgenic plants. Until now, despite the high potency of amiRNA approach, no commercial plant cultivar expressing amiRNAs with improved traits has been released yet. Beside the issues of biosafety policies, the specificity and efficacy of amiRNAs are of major concerns. Sufficient cares should be taken for the specificity and efficacy of amiRNAs due to their potential off-target effects and other issues relating to in vivo expression of pre-amiRNAs. For these reasons, the proper design of amiRNAs with the lowest off-target possibility is very important for successful applications of the approach in plant. Therefore, there are many studies with the aim to improve the amiRNA design and amiRNA expressing backbones for obtaining better specificity and efficacy. However, the requirement for an efficient reference for the design is still needed. In the present chapter, we attempt to summarize and discuss all the major concerns relating to amiRNA design with the hope to provide a significant guideline for this approach.

  12. Role of microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Marwa; Louka, Manal Louis; Khairy, Eman; Ali-Labib, Randa; Zakaria Zaky, Doaa; Montasser, Iman F

    2017-05-01

    There is an obvious need to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma using novel non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate both relative quantification of microRNA-7 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and quantitative analysis of selenoprotein P using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients, chronic liver disease patients, as well as normal healthy subjects in order to establish a new diagnostic biomarker with a valid non-invasive technique. In addition, this study aimed to investigate whether changes in selenium supply affect microRNA-7 expression and selenoprotein P levels in human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed a highly significant decrease in serum microRNA-7 relative quantification values and selenoprotein P levels in malignant group in comparison with benign and control groups. The best cutoff for serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P to discriminate hepatocellular carcinoma group from benign and control groups was 0.06 and 4.30 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study showed that changes in selenium supply to HepG2 cell line can alter the microRNA-7 profile and are paralleled by changes in the concentration of its target protein (selenoprotein P). Hence, serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P appear to be potential non-invasive diagnostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the results suggest that selenium could be used as an anticancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by affecting both microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P.

  13. MicroRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greater than 30 % of the same patients [5]. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of SJS and TEN are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs or miRs are single stranded RNAs that are capable of posttranscriptional gene regulation via targeting their Mrna [6]. MicroRNAs are very important regulators in many human diseases, for instance,.

  14. The role of microRNA-200 in progression of human colorectal and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bojmar

    Full Text Available The role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer has been studied extensively in vitro, but involvement of the EMT in tumorigenesis in vivo is largely unknown. We investigated the potential of microRNAs as clinical markers and analyzed participation of the EMT-associated microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin pathway in cancer progression. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen and microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary colorectal tumors, normal colon mucosa, and matched liver metastases. MicroRNA expression was validated by in situ hybridization and after in vitro culture of the malignant cells. To assess EMT as a predictive marker, factors considered relevant in colorectal cancer were investigated in 98 primary breast tumors from a treatment-randomized study. Associations between the studied EMT-markers were found in primary breast tumors and in colorectal liver metastases. MicroRNA-200 expression in epithelial cells was lower in malignant mucosa than in normal mucosa, and was also decreased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Low microRNA-200 expression in colorectal liver metastases was associated with bad prognosis. In breast cancer, low levels of microRNA-200 were related to reduced survival and high expression of microRNA-200 was predictive of benefit from radiotheraphy. MicroRNA-200 was associated with ER positive status, and inversely correlated to HER2 and overactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, that was associated with high ZEB1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that the stability of microRNAs makes them suitable as clinical markers and that the EMT-related microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin signaling pathway is connected to established clinical characteristics and can give useful prognostic and treatment-predictive information in progressive breast and colorectal cancers.

  15. Circulating microRNA expression profiles associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Anting Liu; Schetter, Aaron J; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specificity of expression patterns of cell-free, circulating microRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different specific mature microRNAs were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain...

  16. Expression of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma in patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Grebennikova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund. MiсroRNA are small regulatory factors that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA, playing an important role in numerous cellular processes including organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Acromegaly causes bone fragility, but the pathogenetic mechanism is generally unknown. Aim. To evaluate levels of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma samples from patients with acromegaly Materials and methods. Fasting plasma samples were taken and stored in aliquot at ≤ -80°C from consecutive subjects with clinically evident and biochemically confirmed active acromegaly and healthy volunteers matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI. miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA cDNA Synthesis Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA Assays were used to assay plasma miRNA expression. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was measured by immunochemiluminescence assay (Liaison. Results. We enrolled 40 subjects 22 patients suffered from acromegaly and 18 matched healthy controls matched by sex, age and BMI. The median age of patients with acromegaly was 42 years (Q25;Q75 – 37;43 with no difference among the groups, p=0.205; BMI – 28 (24;32 kg/m2, p=0.253. The median IGF1 in subjects with acromegaly – 622 (514;1000 ng/ml was significantly higher as compared to the control group (p<0.001. Patients with acromegaly had significantly higher expression of microRNA-100-5р (p=0.051, microRNA-550а-5р (p=0.048, microRNA-7b-5р (p=0.005 and microRNA-96-5р (p=0.042 among 27 bone-specific microRNA tested in plasma Conclusions. This study reveals that several microRNAs, known to regulate bone remodeling can be detected in plasma samples of patients with acromegaly and may be suggested as biomarkers for skeletal involvement in patients with acromegaly.

  17. miRanalyzer: an update on the detection and analysis of microRNAs in high-throughput sequencing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Michael; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Aransay, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new version of miRanalyzer, a web server and stand-alone tool for the detection of known and prediction of new microRNAs in high-throughput sequencing experiments. The new version has been notably improved regarding speed, scope and available features. Alignments are now based on the ultrafast short-read aligner Bowtie (granting also colour space support, allowing mismatches and improving speed) and 31 genomes, including 6 plant genomes, can now be analysed (previous version contained only 7). Differences between plant and animal microRNAs have been taken into account for the prediction models and differential expression of both, known and predicted microRNAs, between two conditions can be calculated. Additionally, consensus sequences of predicted mature and precursor microRNAs can be obtained from multiple samples, which increases the reliability of the predicted microRNAs. Finally, a stand-alone version of the miRanalyzer that is based on a local and easily customized database is also available; this allows the user to have more control on certain parameters as well as to use specific data such as unpublished assemblies or other libraries that are not available in the web server. miRanalyzer is available at http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/miRanalyzer/miRanalyzer.php. PMID:21515631

  18. Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Molecular Biomarkers in Pathophysiological Evolution of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Cretoiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent nonprotein coding small RNA molecules that are very stable to degradation and responsible for gene silencing in most eukaryotic cells. Increased evidence has been accumulating over the years about their potential value as biomarkers for several diseases. MicroRNAs were predicted to be involved in nearly all biological processes from development to oncogenesis. In this review, we address the importance of circulating microRNAs in different conditions associated with pregnancy starting with the implantation period to preeclampsia and we shortly describe the correlation between placental circulating miRNAs and pregnancy status. We also discuss the importance of microRNAs in recurrent abortion and ectopic pregnancy.

  19. MicroRNA-29 facilitates transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to alleviate pelvic floor dysfunction by repressing elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minfei; Wu, Yuelin; Wang, Jun; Ye, Weiping; Wang, Lei; Yin, Peipei; Liu, Wei; Pan, Chenhao; Hua, Xiaolin

    2016-11-17

    Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is a condition affecting many women worldwide, with symptoms including stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We have previously demonstrated stable elastin-expressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) attenuated PFD in rats, and aim to further study the effect of microRNA-29a-3p regulation on elastin expression and efficacy of BMSC transplantation therapy. We inhibited endogenous microRNA-29a-3p in BMSCs and investigated its effect on elastin expression by RT-PCR and Western blot. MicroRNA-29-inhibited BMSCs were then transplanted into PFD rats, accompanied by sustained release of bFGF using formulated bFGF in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP), followed by evaluation of urodynamic tests. MicroRNA-29a-3p inhibition resulted in upregulated expression and secretion of elastin in in vitro culture of BMSCs. After co-injection with PLGA-loaded bFGF NP into the PFD rats in vivo, microRNA-29a-3p-inhibited BMSCs significantly improved the urodynamic test results. Our multidisciplinary study, combining microRNA biology, genetically engineered BMSCs, and nanoparticle technology, provides an excellent stem cell-based therapy for repairing connective tissues and treating PFD.

  20. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es) patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Regan, Kelly; Corbin, Kimberly; Li, Haiquan; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A; Gnerlich, Jennifer L; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  1. Application of TALE-Based Approach for Dissecting Functional MicroRNA-302/367 in Cellular Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small 18-24 nt single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules involved in many biological processes, including stemness maintenance and cellular reprogramming. Current methods used in loss-of-function studies of microRNAs have several limitations. Here, we describe a new approach for dissecting miR-302/367 functions by transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), which are natural effector proteins secreted by Xanthomonas and Ralstonia bacteria. Knockdown of the miR-302/367 cluster uses the Kruppel-associated box repressor domain fused with specific TALEs designed to bind the miR-302/367 cluster promoter. Knockout of the miR-302/367 cluster uses two pairs of TALE nucleases (TALENs) to delete the miR-302/367 cluster in human primary cells. Together, both TALE-based transcriptional repressor and TALENs are two promising approaches for loss-of-function studies of microRNA cluster in human primary cells.

  2. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated...... with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  3. Understanding alcoholism through microRNA signatures in brains of human alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dayne eMayfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting towards the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic

  4. Blood microRNAs in Low or No Risk Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Rong Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients who presented with minimal or absence of risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Blood microRNA profiles from these patients varied with stroke subtypes as well as different functional outcomes (based on modified Rankin Score. These microRNAs have been shown to target genes that are involved in stroke pathogenesis. The findings from our study suggest that molecular mechanisms in stroke pathogenesis involving low or no risk ischemic stroke patients could differ substantially from those with pre-existing risk factors.

  5. Current status of research on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dongxu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is a complicated process with multiple steps, and liver metastasis is the most common metastatic mode of colorectal cancer. Deep understanding and study of metastatic mechanism helps to find solutions for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA are involved in tumor metastasis and recurrence, and studies on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis can provide new thoughts for the development and progression, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of the disease. This article summarizes the research advances in microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and reviews the biological function and molecular mechanism of microRNA, which suggests that microRNA have a vital significance in the field of tumor metastasis, especially colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  6. Large-scale identification of microRNA targets in murine Dgcr8-deficient embryonic stem cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P A Davis

    Full Text Available Small RNAs such as microRNAs play important roles in embryonic stem cell maintenance and differentiation. A broad range of microRNAs is expressed in embryonic stem cells while only a fraction of their targets have been identified. We have performed large-scale identification of embryonic stem cell microRNA targets using a murine embryonic stem cell line deficient in the expression of Dgcr8. These cells are heavily depleted for microRNAs, allowing us to reintroduce specific microRNA duplexes and identify refined target sets. We used deep sequencing of small RNAs, mRNA expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of microRNA seed matches in 3' UTRs to identify target transcripts. Consequently, we have identified a network of microRNAs that converge on the regulation of several important cellular pathways. Additionally, our experiments have revealed a novel candidate for Dgcr8-independent microRNA genesis and highlighted the challenges currently facing miRNA annotation.

  7. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review showed that patients with diabetes mellitus had signi cantly low ... of life (physical health, psychological health, social relations, and environment). ... of quality of life regarding gender, age, or the level of education of the patients. ... neuropathy, impaired vision, elevated blood lipids and amputation of toes or feet.

  8. Let-7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Christopher

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are ~22nt-long small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression in eukaryotic cells. Based upon their importance in regulating development and terminal differentiation in model systems, erythrocyte microRNA profiles were examined at birth and in adults to determine if changes in their abundance coincide with the developmental phenomenon of hemoglobin switching. Methods Expression profiling of microRNA was performed using total RNA from four adult peripheral blood samples compared to four cord blood samples after depletion of plasma, platelets, and nucleated cells. Labeled RNAs were hybridized to custom spotted arrays containing 474 human microRNA species (miRBase release 9.1. Total RNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines provided a hybridization reference for all samples to generate microRNA abundance profile for each sample. Results Among 206 detected miRNAs, 79% of the microRNAs were present at equivalent levels in both cord and adult cells. By comparison, 37 microRNAs were up-regulated and 4 microRNAs were down-regulated in adult erythroid cells (fold change > 2; p let-7 miRNA family consistently demonstrated increased abundance in the adult samples by array-based analyses that were confirmed by quantitative PCR (4.5 to 18.4 fold increases in 6 of 8 let-7 miRNA. Profiling studies of messenger RNA (mRNA in these cells additionally demonstrated down-regulation of ten let-7 target genes in the adult cells. Conclusion These data suggest that a consistent pattern of up-regulation among let-7 miRNA in circulating erythroid cells occurs in association with hemoglobin switching during the fetal-to-adult developmental transition in humans.

  9. RNA sequencing reveals a depletion of collagen targeting microRNAs in Dupuytren's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riester, Scott M.; Arsoy, Diren; Camilleri, Emily T.; Dudakovic, Amel; Paradise, Christopher R.; Evans, Jared M.; Torres-Mora, Jorge; Rizzo, Marco; Kloen, Peter; Julio, Marianna Kruithof-de; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is an inherited disorder in which patients develop fibrotic contractures of the hand. Current treatment strategies include surgical excision or enzymatic digestion of fibrotic tissue. MicroRNAs, which are key posttranscriptional regulators of genes expression, have been shown to

  10. Network-based ranking methods for prediction of novel disease associated microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have shown roles of microRNAs on human disease and a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict such associations by ranking candidate microRNAs according to their relevance to a disease. Among them, machine learning-based methods usually have a limitation in specifying non-disease microRNAs as negative training samples. Meanwhile, network-based methods are becoming dominant since they well exploit a "disease module" principle in microRNA functional similarity networks. Of which, random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm-based method is currently state-of-the-art. The use of this algorithm was inspired from its success in predicting disease gene because the "disease module" principle also exists in protein interaction networks. Besides, many algorithms designed for webpage ranking have been successfully applied in ranking disease candidate genes because web networks share topological properties with protein interaction networks. However, these algorithms have not yet been utilized for disease microRNA prediction. We constructed microRNA functional similarity networks based on shared targets of microRNAs, and then we integrated them with a microRNA functional synergistic network, which was recently identified. After analyzing topological properties of these networks, in addition to RWR, we assessed the performance of (i) PRINCE (PRIoritizatioN and Complex Elucidation), which was proposed for disease gene prediction; (ii) PageRank with Priors (PRP) and K-Step Markov (KSM), which were used for studying web networks; and (iii) a neighborhood-based algorithm. Analyses on topological properties showed that all microRNA functional similarity networks are small-worldness and scale-free. The performance of each algorithm was assessed based on average AUC values on 35 disease phenotypes and average rankings of newly discovered disease microRNAs. As a result, the performance on the integrated network was better than that on individual ones. In

  11. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood...... and recovery of small RNA species that are otherwise lost. The procedure presented here is suitable for large-scale experiments and is amenable to further automation. Procured total RNA and DNA was tested using Affymetrix Expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism GeneChips, respectively, and isolated micro......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  12. MicroRNA expression in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas; Ye, Kenny; Wang, Yihong; Glass, Andrew G; Ginsberg, Mindy; Loudig, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by directing their target mRNAs for degradation and/or posttranscriptional repression. Abnormal expression of microRNAs is thought to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, no large-scale study has examined the association between microRNA expression in BBD tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC). We conducted discovery and validation case-control studies nested in a cohort of 15,395 women diagnosed with BBD in a large health plan between 1971 and 2006 and followed to mid-2015. Cases were women with BBD who developed subsequent IBC; controls were matched 1:1 to cases on age, age at diagnosis of BBD, and duration of plan membership. The discovery stage (316 case-control pairs) entailed use of the Illumina MicroRNA Expression Profiling Assay (in duplicate) to identify breast cancer-associated microRNAs. MicroRNAs identified at this stage were ranked by the strength of the correlation between Illumina array and quantitative PCR results for 15 case-control pairs. The top ranked 14 microRNAs entered the validation stage (165 case-control pairs) which was conducted using quantitative PCR (in triplicate). In both stages, linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the mean expression level of each microRNA (response variable) and case-control status (independent variable); paired t-tests were also used in the validation stage. None of the 14 validation stage microRNAs was associated with breast cancer risk. The results of this study suggest that microRNA expression in benign breast tissue does not influence the risk of subsequent IBC.

  13. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ming-Wei; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chang; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Po-Hua; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-01-01

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  14. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ming-Wei [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Sung-Liang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Chang [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Hui [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Hua [School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yungling Leo, E-mail: leolee@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  15. MicroRNAs 33, 122, and 208: a potential novel targets in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and heart-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrob, Osama Abo; Khatib, Said; Naser, Saleh A

    2017-05-01

    Despite decades of research, obesity and diabetes remain major health problems in the USA and worldwide. Among the many complications associated with diabetes is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and heart failure. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as important players in heart disease and energy regulation. However, little work has investigated the role of microRNAs in cardiac energy regulation. Both human and animal studies have reported a significant increase in circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerol, increased cardiac reliance on fatty acid oxidation, and subsequent decrease in glucose oxidation which all contributes to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity seen in obesity and diabetes. Importantly, MED13 was initially identified as a negative regulator of lipid accumulation in Drosophilia. Various metabolic genes were downregulated in MED13 transgenic heart, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein. Moreover, miR-33 and miR-122 have recently revealed as key regulators of lipid metabolism. In this review, we will focus on the role of microRNAs in regulation of cardiac and total body energy metabolism. We will also discuss the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that target microRNAs for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  16. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

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    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  17. Computational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes

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    Pasquinelli Amy E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reports the first collection of validated microRNA genes in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and inhibit expression. As a member of the subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata whose larval form has a notochord, the sea squirt is situated at the emergence of vertebrates, and therefore may provide information about the evolution of molecular regulators of early development. Results In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis. The microRNA prediction algorithm utilizes configurable microRNA sequence conservation and stem-loop specificity parameters, grouping by miRNA family, and phylogenetic conservation to the related species, Ciona savignyi. The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis was validated by Northern blot analyses. Additionally, a target prediction algorithm was implemented, which identified a high confidence list of 240 potential target genes. Over half of the predicted targets can be grouped into the gene ontology categories of metabolism, transport, regulation of transcription, and cell signaling. Conclusion The computational techniques implemented in this study can be applied to other organisms and serve to increase the understanding of the origins of non-coding RNAs, embryological and cellular developmental pathways, and the mechanisms for microRNA-controlled gene regulatory networks.

  18. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...... gene developmental regulators. Here, we review the current knowledge of the evolution, physiological function and involvement in cancer of this family of microRNAs....

  19. MicroRNAs take part in pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Male Pattern Baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Hamed R; Abbasi, Ali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Tabei, Mohammad B; Noori Daloii, Mohammad R

    2010-07-01

    Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss with androgens and genetics having etiological significance. Androgens are thought to pathophysiologically power on cascades of chronically dramatic alterations in genetically susceptible scalp dermal papillas, specialized cells in hair follicles in which androgens react, and finally resulting in a patterned alopecia. However, the exact mechanisms through which androgens, positive regulators of growth and anabolism in most body sites, paradoxically exert their effects on balding hair follicles, are not yet known. The role of microRNAs, a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs, with a wide range of regulatory functions, has been documented in hair follicle formation and their deregulation in cancer of prostate, a target organ of androgens has also been delineated. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge in agreement with microRNAs' contribution in pathophysiology of MPB. To investigate the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of MPB, we selected seven microRNAs, predicted bioinformatically on a reverse engineering basis, from previously published microarray gene expression data and analyzed their expression in balding relative to non-balding dermal papillas. We found for the first time upregulation of four microRNAs (miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106b and miR-410) that could participate in pathogenesis of MPB. Regarding microRNAs' therapeutic potential and accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, these microRNAs can be considered as good candidates for a new revolutionized generation of treatments.

  20. Oligo- and Polymetastatic Progression in Lung Metastasis(es) Patients Is Associated with Specific MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A.; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A.; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E.; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B.; Posner, Mitchell C.; Chmura, Steven J.; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. Methods We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Results Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Conclusion Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level. PMID:23251360

  1. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

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    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. METHODS: We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. RESULTS: Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP and low rate of progression (LRP; the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. CONCLUSION: Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  2. MicroRNAs in Heart Failure, Cardiac Transplantation, and Myocardial Recovery: Biomarkers with Therapeutic Potential.

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    Shah, Palak; Bristow, Michael R; Port, J David

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure is increasing in prevalence with a lack of recently developed therapies that produce major beneficial effects on its associated mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, are differentially regulated in heart failure, and are found in the circulation serving as a biomarker of heart failure. Data suggests that microRNAs may be used to detect allograft rejection in cardiac transplantation and may predict the degree of myocardial recovery in patients with a left ventricular assist device or treated with beta-blocker therapy. Given their role in regulating cellular function, microRNAs are an intriguing target for oligonucleotide therapeutics, designed to mimic or antagonize (antagomir) their biological effects. We review the current state of microRNAs as biomarkers of heart failure and associated conditions, the mechanisms by which microRNAs control cellular function, and how specific microRNAs may be targeted with novel therapeutics designed to treat heart failure.

  3. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    C. Nelson Hayes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which is often not detected until an advanced stage, more sensitive biomarkers may help to achieve earlier detection. Serum also contains microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression. miR-122 is specific to the liver and correlates strongly with liver enzyme levels and necroinflammatory activity, and other microRNAs are correlated with the degree of fibrosis. miR-122 has also been found to be required for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, whereas other microRNAs have been shown to play antiviral roles. miR-125a-5p and miR-1231 have been shown to directly target hepatitis B virus (HBV transcripts, and others are up- or down-regulated in infected individuals. MicroRNA profiles also differ in the case of HBV and HCV infection as well as between HBeAg-positive and negative patients, and in patients with occult versus active HBV infection. In such patients, monitoring of changes in microRNA profiles might provide earlier warning of neoplastic changes preceding HCC.

  4. The analysis of novel microRNA mimic sequences in cancer cells reveals lack of specificity in stem-loop RT-qPCR-based microRNA detection.

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    Winata, Patrick; Williams, Marissa; McGowan, Eileen; Nassif, Najah; van Zandwijk, Nico; Reid, Glen

    2017-11-17

    MicroRNAs are frequently downregulated in cancer, and restoring expression has tumour suppressive activity in tumour cells. Our recent phase I clinical trial investigated microRNA-based therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Treatment with TargomiRs, microRNA mimics with novel sequence packaged in EGFR antibody-targeted bacterial minicells, revealed clear signs of clinical activity. In order to detect delivery of microRNA mimics to tumour cells in future clinical trials, we tested hydrolysis probe-based assays specific for the sequence of the novel mimics in transfected mesothelioma cell lines using RT-qPCR. The custom assays efficiently and specifically amplified the consensus mimics. However, we found that these assays gave a signal when total RNA from untransfected and control mimic-transfected cells were used as templates. Further investigation revealed that the reverse transcription step using stem-loop primers appeared to introduce substantial non-specific amplification with either total RNA or synthetic RNA templates. This suggests that reverse transcription using stem-loop primers suffers from an intrinsic lack of specificity for the detection of highly similar microRNAs in the same family, especially when analysing total RNA. These results suggest that RT-qPCR is unlikely to be an effective means to detect delivery of microRNA mimic-based drugs to tumour cells in patients.

  5. MicroRNA-target binding structures mimic microRNA duplex structures in humans.

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    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Traditionally, researchers match a microRNA guide strand to mRNA sequences using sequence comparisons to predict its potential target genes. However, many of the predictions can be false positives due to limitations in sequence comparison alone. In this work, we consider the association of two related RNA structures that share a common guide strand: the microRNA duplex and the microRNA-target binding structure. We have analyzed thousands of such structure pairs and found many of them share high structural similarity. Therefore, we conclude that when predicting microRNA target genes, considering just the microRNA guide strand matches to gene sequences may not be sufficient--the microRNA duplex structure formed by the guide strand and its companion passenger strand must also be considered. We have developed software to translate RNA binding structure into encoded representations, and we have also created novel automatic comparison methods utilizing such encoded representations to determine RNA structure similarity. Our software and methods can be utilized in the other RNA secondary structure comparisons as well.

  6. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro-di...

  7. In Situ Detection of MicroRNA Expression with RNAscope Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Viravuth P

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the spatial resolution of gene transcripts provides important insight into potential gene function. MicroRNAs are short, singled-stranded noncoding RNAs that control gene expression through base-pair complementarity with target mRNAs in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and inhibiting protein expression. However, given their small size of ~22- to 24-nt and low expression levels, standard in situ hybridization detection methods are not amendable for microRNA spatial resolution. Here, I describe a technique that employs RNAscope probe design and propriety amplification technology that provides simultaneous single molecule detection of individual microRNA and its target gene. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of noncoding RNA transcripts in frozen tissue sections.

  8. High Throughput qPCR Expression Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs Reveals Minimal Sex- and Sample Timing-Related Variation in Plasma of Healthy Volunteers.

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    Catherine Mooney

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been identified in various body fluids under normal conditions and their stability as well as their dysregulation in disease opens up a new field for biomarker study. However, diurnal and day-to-day variation in plasma microRNA levels, and differential regulation between males and females, may affect biomarker stability. A QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System was used to profile plasma microRNA levels using OpenArray in male and female healthy volunteers, in the morning and afternoon, and at four time points over a one month period. Using this system we were able to run four OpenArray plates in a single run, the equivalent of 32 traditional 384-well qPCR plates or 12,000 data points. Up to 754 microRNAs can be identified in a single plasma sample in under two hours. 108 individual microRNAs were identified in at least 80% of all our samples which compares favourably with other reports of microRNA profiles in serum or plasma in healthy adults. Many of these microRNAs, including miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-451a are highly expressed and consistent with previous studies using other platforms. Overall, microRNA levels were very consistent between individuals, males and females, and time points and we did not detect significant differences in levels of microRNAs. These results suggest the suitability of this platform for microRNA profiling and biomarker discovery and suggest minimal confounding influence of sex or sample timing. However, the platform has not been subjected to rigorous validation which must be demonstrated in future biomarker studies where large differences may exist between disease and control samples.

  9. Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0328 TITLE: Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH 16-1-0328 5c. PROGRAM...devise a non-invasive airway based exhaled microRNA metric for lung cancer risk, initial work to be tested in a case control study. We expanded the

  10. A plasma microRNA signature as a biomarker for acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Kohei; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Desierto, Marie J; Fernandez Ibanez, Maria Del Pilar; Rios, Olga; Weinstein, Barbara; Scheinberg, Phillip; Townsley, Danielle M; Young, Neal S

    2017-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is an acquired bone marrow failure characterized by marrow hypoplasia, a paucity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and pancytopenia of the peripheral blood, due to immune attack on the bone marrow. In aplastic anemia, a major challenge is to develop immune biomarkers to monitor the disease. We measured circulating microRNAs in plasma samples of aplastic anemia patients in order to identify disease-specific microRNAs. A total of 179 microRNAs were analyzed in 35 plasma samples from 13 aplastic anemia patients, 11 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 11 healthy controls using the Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel. Subsequently, 19 microRNAs from the discovery set were investigated in the 108 plasma samples from 41 aplastic anemia patients, 24 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 43 healthy controls for validation, confirming that 3 microRNAs could be validated as dysregulated (>1.5-fold change) in aplastic anemia, compared to healthy controls. MiR-150-5p (induction of T-cell differentiation) and miR-146b-5p (involvement in the feedback regulation of innate immune response) were elevated in aplastic anemia plasma, whereas miR-1 was decreased in aplastic anemia. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we developed a logistic model with these 3 microRNAs that enabled us to predict the probability of a diagnosis of aplastic anemia with an area under the curve of 0.86. Dysregulated expression levels of the microRNAs became normal after immunosuppressive therapy at 6 months. Specifically, miR-150-5p expression was significantly reduced after successful immunosuppressive therapy, but did not change in non-responders. We propose 3 novel plasma biomarkers in aplastic anemia, in which miR-150-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-1 can serve for diagnosis and miR-150-5p for disease monitoring. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers:00260689, 00217594, 00961064. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Clinical applications of microRNAs [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/218

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    Per Hydbring

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs derived from polymerase II controlled transcriptional regions. The primary transcript forms one or several bulging double stranded hairpins which are processed by Drosha and Dicer into hetero-duplexes. The targeting microRNA strand of the duplex is incorporated into the RNA Induced Silencing Complex from where it silences up to hundreds of mRNA transcript by inducing mRNA degradation or blocking protein translation. Apart from involvement in a variety of biological processes, microRNAs were early recognized for their potential in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their stability, microRNAs could be used as biomarkers. Currently, there are microRNA panels helping physicians determining the origins of cancer in disseminated tumors. The development of microRNA therapeutics has proved more challenging mainly due to delivery issues. However, one drug is already in clinical trials and several more await entering clinical phases. This review summarizes what has been recognized pre-clinically and clinically on diagnostic microRNAs. In addition, it highlights individual microRNA drugs in running platforms driven by four leading microRNA-therapeutic companies.

  12. Centrifugation: an important pre-analytic procedure that influences plasma microRNA quantification during blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Cui; Zhou, Xin-Xi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs are robustly present in plasma or serum and have become a research focus as biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. Centrifugation is a necessary procedure for obtaining high-quality blood supernatant. Herein, we investigated one-step and two-step centrifugations, two centrifugal methods routinely used in microRNA study, to explore their effects on plasma microRNA quantification. The microRNAs obtained from one-step and two-step centrifugations were quantified by microarray and TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Dynamic light scattering was performed to explore the difference underlying the two centrifugal methods. The results from the microarray containing 1,347 microRNAs showed that the signal detection rate was greatly decreased in the plasma sample prepared by two-step centrifugation. More importantly, the microRNAs missing in this plasma sample could be recovered and detected in the precipitate generated from the second centrifugation. Consistent with the results from microarray, a marked decrease of three representative microRNAs in two-step centrifugal plasma was validated by Q-PCR. According to the size distribution of all nanoparticles in plasma, there were fewer nanoparticles with size >1,000 nm in two-step centrifugal plasma. Our experiments directly demonstrated that different centrifugation methods produced distinct quantities of plasma microRNAs. Thus, exosomes or protein complexes containing microRNAs may be involved in large nanoparticle formation and may be precipitated after two-step centrifugation. Our results remind us that sample processing methods should be first considered in conducting research.

  13. Evidence for X-chromosomal schizophrenia associated with microRNA alterations.

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    Jinong Feng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe disabling brain disease affecting about 1% of the population. Individual microRNAs (miRNAs affect moderate downregulation of gene expression. In addition, components required for miRNA processing and/or function have also been implicated in X-linked mental retardation, neurological and neoplastic diseases, pointing to the wide ranging involvement of miRNAs in disease.To explore the role of miRNAs in schizophrenia, 59 microRNA genes on the X-chromosome were amplified and sequenced in males with (193 and without (191 schizophrenia spectrum disorders to test the hypothesis that ultra-rare mutations in microRNA collectively contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. Here we provide the first association of microRNA gene dysfunction with schizophrenia. Eight ultra-rare variants in the precursor or mature miRNA were identified in eight distinct miRNA genes in 4% of analyzed males with schizophrenia. One ultra-rare variant was identified in a control sample (with a history of depression (8/193 versus 1/191, p = 0.02 by one-sided Fisher's exact test, odds ratio = 8.2. These variants were not found in an additional 7,197 control X-chromosomes.Functional analyses of ectopically expressed copies of the variant miRNA precursors demonstrate loss of function, gain of function or altered expression levels. While confirmation is required, this study suggests that microRNA mutations can contribute to schizophrenia.

  14. TGF-β1 targets a microRNA network that regulates cellular adhesion and migration in renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusławska, Joanna; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Popławski, Piotr; Kędzierska, Hanna; Rybicka, Beata; Sokół, Elżbieta; Tański, Zbigniew; Piekiełko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    In our previous study we found altered expression of 19 adhesion-related genes in renal tumors. In this study we hypothesized that disturbed expression of adhesion-related genes could be caused by microRNAs: short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Here, we found that expression of 24 microRNAs predicted to target adhesion-related genes was disturbed in renal tumors and correlated with expression of their predicted targets. miR-25-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-328 and miR-363-3p directly targeted adhesion-related genes, including COL5A1, COL11A1, ITGA5, MMP16 and THBS2. miR-363-3p and miR-328 inhibited proliferation of renal cancer cells, while miR-25-3p inhibited adhesion, promoted proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. TGF-β1 influenced the expression of miR-25-3p, miR-30a-5p, and miR-328. The analyzed microRNAs, their target genes and TGF-β1 formed a network of strong correlations in tissue samples from renal cancer patients. The expression signature of microRNAs linked with TGF-β1 levels correlated with poor survival of renal cancer patients. The results of our study suggest that TGF-β1 coordinates the expression of microRNA network that regulates cellular adhesion in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Regulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in Bone Remodeling and Perspectives as Biomarkers in Osteoporosis

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    Mengge Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are involved in many cellular and molecular activities and played important roles in many biological and pathological processes, such as tissue formation, cancer development, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will present the updated research on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the expression profiles of microRNAs in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture patients. The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed.

  16. MicroRNA-449a deficiency promotes colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Masanori; Nakajima, Kohei; Ishikawa, Daichi; Nishida, Jun; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nagahiro, Shinji; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Yasutomo, Koji

    2017-09-06

    MicroRNAs have broad roles in tumorigenesis and cell differentiation through regulation of target genes. Notch signaling also controls cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which Notch mediates microRNA expression are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify microRNAs regulated by Notch signaling. Our analysis found that microRNA-449a (miR-449a) was indirectly regulated by Notch signaling. Although miR-449a-deficient mice did not show any Notch-dependent defects in immune cell development, treatment of miR-449a-deficient mice with azoxymethane (AOM) or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) increased the numbers and sizes of colon tumors. These effects were associated with an increase in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation following AOM/DSS treatment. In patients with colon cancer, miR-449a expression was inversely correlated with disease-free survival and histological scores and was positively correlated with the expression of MLH1 for which loss-of function mutations have been shown to be involved in colon cancer. Colon tissues of miR-449a-deficient mice showed reduced Mlh1 expression compared with those of wild-type mice. Thus, these data suggested that miR-449a acted as a key regulator of colon tumorigenesis by controlling the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, activation of miR-449a may represent an effective therapeutic strategy and prognostic marker in colon cancer.

  17. Circulating, Cell-Free Micro-RNA Profiles Reflect Discordant Development of Dementia in Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Rønne, Mette E; Carlsen, Anting L

    2018-01-01

    We aim to examine if circulating micro-RNA and cytokine levels associate with dementia diagnosis and cognitive scores. To test our hypothesis, we use plasma donated from 48 monozygotic twin pairs in 1997 and 46 micro-RNAs and 10 cytokines were quantified using microfluidic RT-qPCR and multiplex...... solid-phase immunoassays, respectively. Micro-RNA and cytokine profiling were examined for associations with dementia diagnoses in a longitudinal registry study or with cognitive scores at baseline. Thirty-six micro-RNAs and all cytokines were detected consistently. Micro-RNA profiles associate...... with diagnoses and cognitive scores at statistically significant levels while cytokine only showed trends pointing at chronic inflammation in twins having or developing dementia. The most notable findings were decreased miR-106a and miR-210, and increased miR-106b expression in twins with a dementia diagnosis...

  18. MicroRNA-608 and microRNA-34a regulate chordoma malignancy by targeting EGFR, Bcl-xL and MET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare malignant tumors that originate from the notochord remnants and occur in the skull base, spine and sacrum. Due to a very limited understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of chordoma, there are no adjuvant and molecular therapies besides surgical resection and radiation therapy. microRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding regulatory RNA molecules with critical roles in cancer. The role of miRNAs in chordomas is mostly unknown. We uncover microRNA-608 (miR-608 and microRNA-34a (miR-34a as novel tumor suppressive microRNAs that regulate malignancy in chordoma. We find that miR-608 and miR-34a expressions are downregulated in human chordoma cell lines and primary cells at least partially via alteration of their genes' copy numbers. We identify the commonly deregulated oncogenes EGFR and Bcl-xL as direct targets of miR-608 and the receptor tyrosine kinase MET as direct target of miR-34a. We show that EGFR and MET activations promote chordoma cell proliferation and invasion and that pharmacological inhibition of EGFR and MET inhibits chordoma cell proliferation and survival. We demonstrate that restoration of miR-608 and miR-34a inhibits cell proliferation and invasion and induces apoptosis in chordoma cells. We find that miR-34a inversely correlates with MET expression and miR-608 inversely correlates with EGFR expression in chordoma cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that miR-608 and miR-34a regulate chordoma malignancy by regulating EGFR, MET and Bcl-xL.

  19. MicroRNAs and potential target interactions in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Løvendorf, Marianne B.; Litman, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease often seen in patients with a genetic susceptibility. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenous, short RNA molecules that can bind to parts of mRNA target genes, thus inhibiting their translation and causing accelerated turnover or transcript...... degradation. MicroRNAs are important in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as immunological disorders, as they regulate a broad range of biological processes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated miRNA-mRNA interactions in involved (PP) and non-involved (PN) psoriatic skin compared with healthy skin (NN). METHODS...

  20. MicroRNA in oral cancer research: future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Patil, Shankargouda

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and related therapeutic approaches hold great promise in the field of cancer managements. Various studies on epithelial malignancies have shown encouraging results on various fronts. Its association with invasion, tumor growth, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, cancer stem cells (CSCs), metastasis and refects the diversified role of miRNA. Moreover, miRNA plays an important role in determining the prognosis of the patients. MicroRNAs interactions with each other and with external factors [human papilloma virus (HPV) (like oncoproteins)] intrigue us to explore more deep into this fascinating world.(1.)

  1. Expression of Hormonal Carcinogenesis Genes and Related Regulatory microRNAs in Uterus and Ovaries of DDT-Treated Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, T S; Kononchuk, V V; Gulyaeva, L F

    2017-10-01

    The insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a nonmutagenic xenobiotic compound able to exert estrogen-like effects resulting in activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) followed by changed expression of its downstream target genes. In addition, studies performed over recent years suggest that DDT may also influence expression of microRNAs. However, an impact of DDT on expression of ER, microRNAs, and related target genes has not been fully elucidated. Here, using real-time PCR, we assessed changes in expression of key genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis as well as potentially related regulatory oncogenic/tumor suppressor microRNAs and their target genes in the uterus and ovaries of female Wistar rats during single and chronic multiple-dose DDT exposure. We found that applying DDT results in altered expression of microRNAs-221, -222, -205, -126a, and -429, their target genes (Pten, Dicer1), as well as genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis (Esr1, Pgr, Ccnd1, Cyp19a1). Notably, Cyp19a1 expression seems to be also regulated by microRNAs-221, -222, and -205. The data suggest that epigenetic effects induced by DDT as a potential carcinogen may be based on at least two mechanisms: (i) activation of ERα followed by altered expression of the target genes encoding receptor Pgr and Ccnd1 as well as impaired expression of Cyp19a1, affecting, thereby, cell hormone balance; and (ii) changed expression of microRNAs resulting in impaired expression of related target genes including reduced level of Cyp19a1 mRNA.

  2. MicroRNAs play big roles in modulating macrophages response toward mycobacteria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Abualgasim Elgaili; Duan, Xiangke; Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Macrophages are crucial player in the defense against multiple intracellular pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis which inflicted around one third of global population, can replicate and persist within macrophages. MicroRNAs, endogenous, small noncoding RNA, can regulate the expression of macrophages genes required for appropriate signaling. Mycobacteria can manipulate the expression of macrophages microRNAs to subvert cell response for its survival and persistence. This review summarized the progress of microRNAs in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  4. Clinical applications of microRNAs [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/14d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Hydbring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs derived from polymerase II controlled transcriptional regions. The primary transcript forms one or several bulging double stranded hairpins which are processed by Drosha and Dicer into hetero-duplexes. The targeting microRNA strand of the duplex is incorporated into the RNA Induced Silencing Complex from where it silences up to hundreds of mRNA transcript by inducing mRNA degradation or blocking protein translation. Apart from involvement in a variety of biological processes, microRNAs were early recognized for their potential in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their stability, microRNAs could be used as biomarkers. Currently, there are microRNA panels helping physicians determining the origins of cancer in disseminated tumors. The development of microRNA therapeutics has proved more challenging mainly due to delivery issues. However, one drug is already in clinical trials and several more await entering clinical phases. This review summarizes what has been recognized pre-clinically and clinically on diagnostic microRNAs. In addition, it highlights individual microRNA drugs in running platforms driven by four leading microRNA-therapeutic companies.

  5. Quality of Life of siblings of children included in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.

  6. PACCMIT/PACCMIT-CDS: identifying microRNA targets in 3' UTRs and coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Marín, Ray M; Robins, Harlan S; Vaníček, Jiří

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the proposed web server, publicly available at http://paccmit.epfl.ch, is to provide a user-friendly interface to two algorithms for predicting messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules regulated by microRNAs: (i) PACCMIT (Prediction of ACcessible and/or Conserved MIcroRNA Targets), which identifies primarily mRNA transcripts targeted in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs), and (ii) PACCMIT-CDS, designed to find mRNAs targeted within their coding sequences (CDSs). While PACCMIT belongs among the accurate algorithms for predicting conserved microRNA targets in the 3' UTRs, the main contribution of the web server is 2-fold: PACCMIT provides an accurate tool for predicting targets also of weakly conserved or non-conserved microRNAs, whereas PACCMIT-CDS addresses the lack of similar portals adapted specifically for targets in CDS. The web server asks the user for microRNAs and mRNAs to be analyzed, accesses the precomputed P-values for all microRNA-mRNA pairs from a database for all mRNAs and microRNAs in a given species, ranks the predicted microRNA-mRNA pairs, evaluates their significance according to the false discovery rate and finally displays the predictions in a tabular form. The results are also available for download in several standard formats. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The Role of MicroRNAs in Environmental Risk Factors, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Verónica; Cui, Julia Yue; Daimiel, Lidia; Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-03-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and define part of the epigenetic signature. Their influence on every realm of biomedicine is established and progressively increasing. The impact of environment on human health is enormous. Among environmental risk factors impinging on quality of life are those of chemical nature (toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pollutants, and pesticides) as well as those related to everyday life such as exposure to noise or mental and psychosocial stress. Recent Advances: This review elaborates on the relationship between miRNAs and these environmental risk factors. The most relevant facts underlying the role of miRNAs in the response to these environmental stressors, including redox regulatory changes and oxidative stress, are highlighted and discussed. In the cases wherein miRNA mutations are relevant for this response, the pertinent literature is also reviewed. We conclude that, even though in some cases important advances have been made regarding close correlations between specific miRNAs and biological responses to environmental risk factors, a need for prospective large-cohort studies is likely necessary to establish causative roles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 773-796.

  8. miRiaD: A Text Mining Tool for Detecting Associations of microRNAs with Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Ross, Karen E; Tudor, Catalina O; Wu, Cathy H; Schmidt, Carl J; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-04-29

    include sentences with a wide range of microRNA-disease information that may be of interest to biomedical researchers, miRiaD also performed very well with a F-score of 89.4. The informativeness ranking of sentences was evaluated in terms of nDCG (0.977) and correlation metrics (0.678-0.727) when compared to an annotator's ranked list. miRiaD, a high performance system that can capture a wide variety of microRNA-disease related information, extends beyond the scope of existing microRNA-disease resources. It can be incorporated into manual curation pipelines and serve as a resource for biomedical researchers interested in the role of microRNAs in disease. In our ongoing work we are developing an improved miRiaD web interface that will facilitate complex queries about microRNA-disease relationships, such as "In what diseases does microRNA regulation of apoptosis play a role?" or "Is there overlap in the sets of genes targeted by microRNAs in different types of dementia?"."

  9. Dysregulation of serum microRNA-574-3p and its clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianjuan; Xue, Yajing; Cong, Hui; Wang, Xudong; Ju, Shaoqing

    2018-07-01

    Objectives To explore microRNA-574-3p expression in serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and investigate correlations between serum microRNA-574-3p expression and the development and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Design and methods Serum samples were collected from 70 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 40 patients with cirrhosis and 45 healthy controls. Serum microRNA-574-3p expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The linearity, specificity and reproducibility were evaluated. In addition, the diagnostic value of microRNA-574-3p and its correlations with clinicopathologic features were assessed. Results The relative expression of microRNA-574-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, cirrhosis patients and healthy controls was 2.306 (1.801-3.130), 1.362 (0.994-1.665) and 1.263 (0.765-1.723), respectively, indicating that it was significantly higher in hepatocellular carcinoma patients than that in the other two groups ( U = 439.5, 514.5, both P hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the relative expression of microRNA-574-3p was significantly correlated with hepatitis B virus DNA concentration ( r = 0.348, P = 0.022). Compared with healthy control group, AUC ROC of serum microRNA-574-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma group was 0.837 with 95% CI: 0.763-0.910. Combining microRNA-574-3p, AFU and alpha-fetoprotein together, the sensitivity was highest compared with other markers alone or combined. Conclusions The relative expression of serum microRNA-574-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma patients was significantly higher than that in cirrhosis patients and healthy controls, and it may be an important biomarker in the auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  11. Genome-wide identification of microRNA targets in human ES cells reveals a role for miR-302 in modulating BMP response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchina, Inna; Elkabetz, Yechiel; Hafner, Markus; Sheridan, Robert; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Tuschl, Thomas; Sander, Chris; Studer, Lorenz; Betel, Doron

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators in many cellular processes, including stem cell self-renewal. Recent studies demonstrated their function as pluripotency factors with the capacity for somatic cell reprogramming. However, their role in human embryonic stem (ES) cells (hESCs) remains poorly understood, partially due to the lack of genome-wide strategies to identify their targets. Here, we performed comprehensive microRNA profiling in hESCs and in purified neural and mesenchymal derivatives. Using a combination of AGO cross-linking and microRNA perturbation experiments, together with computational prediction, we identified the targets of the miR-302/367 cluster, the most abundant microRNAs in hESCs. Functional studies identified novel roles of miR-302/367 in maintaining pluripotency and regulating hESC differentiation. We show that in addition to its role in TGF-β signaling, miR-302/367 promotes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by targeting BMP inhibitors TOB2, DAZAP2, and SLAIN1. This study broadens our understanding of microRNA function in hESCs and is a valuable resource for future studies in this area. PMID:22012620

  12. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengfeng, E-mail: limf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Lei; Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yuan, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Molecules from Oceanic Microorganisms (Sun Yat-sen University), Department of Education of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2013-10-23

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy.

  13. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Lei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy

  14. Control of Drosophila Type I and Type II central brain neuroblast proliferation by bantam microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Ruifen; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports proliferat......Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports...

  15. Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yei-Tsung Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP and fibroelastic deficiency (FED are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD, which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174. The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN, aggrecan (ACAN, fibromodulin (FMOD, α actin 2 (ACTA2, extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2, desmin (DES, endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1, and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1, as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics.

  16. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs during Tail Regeneration in the Mexican Axolotl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah D. Gearhart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum is one member of a select group of vertebrate animals that have retained the amazing ability to regenerate multiple body parts. In addition to being an important model system for regeneration, the axolotl has also contributed extensively to studies of basic development. While many genes known to play key roles during development have now been implicated in various forms of regeneration, much of the regulatory apparatus controlling the underlying molecular circuitry remains unknown. In recent years, microRNAs have been identified as key regulators of gene expression during development, in many diseases and also, increasingly, in regeneration. Here, we have used deep sequencing combined with qRT-PCR to undertake a comprehensive identification of microRNAs involved in regulating regeneration in the axolotl. Specifically, among the microRNAs that we have found to be expressed in axolotl tissues, we have identified 4564 microRNA families known to be widely conserved among vertebrates, as well as 59,811 reads of putative novel microRNAs. These findings support the hypothesis that microRNAs play key roles in managing the precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression that ensures the correct regeneration of missing tissues.

  17. A systematic review of overlapping microRNA patterns in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gianluca; Roberts, William Neal; Roman, Jesse; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    Lung fibrosis can be observed in systemic sclerosis and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two disorders where lung involvement carries a poor prognosis. Although much has been learned about the pathogenesis of these conditions, interventions capable of reversing or, at the very least, halting disease progression are not available. Recent studies point to the potential role of micro messenger RNAs (microRNAs) in cancer and tissue fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA sequences (20-23 nucleotides) that are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved and encoded in the genome. By acting on several genes, microRNAs control protein expression. Considering the above, we engaged in a systematic review of the literature in search of overlapping observations implicating microRNAs in the pathogenesis of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our objective was to uncover top microRNA candidates for further investigation based on their mechanisms of action and their potential for serving as targets for intervention against lung fibrosis. Our review points to microRNAs of the -29 family, -21-5p and -92a-3p, -26a-5p and let-7d-5p as having distinct and counter-balancing actions related to lung fibrosis. Based on this, we speculate that readjusting the disrupted balance between these microRNAs in lung fibrosis related to SSc and IPF may have therapeutic potential. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. A discovery of novel microRNAs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Qing; Cai, Yimei; Luo, Qibin; Lin, Hongbin; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes via their post-transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. We sequenced 14 libraries of small RNAs constructed from samples spanning the life cycle of silkworms, and discovered 50 novel miRNAs previously not known in animals and verified 43 of them using stem-loop RT-PCR. Our genome-wide analyses of 27 species-specific miRNAs suggest they arise from transposable elements, protein-coding genes duplication/transposition and random foldback sequences; which is consistent with the idea that novel animal miRNAs may evolve from incomplete self-complementary transcripts and become fixed in the process of co-adaptation with their targets. Computational prediction suggests that the silkworm-specific miRNAs may have a preference of regulating genes that are related to life-cycle-associated traits, and these genes can serve as potential targets for subsequent studies of the modulating networks in the development of Bombyx mori.

  19. Regulation of B cell differentiation by intracellular membrane associated proteins and microRNAs: role in the antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eLou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available B cells are central to adaptive immunity and their functions in antibody responses are exquisitely regulated. As suggested by recent findings, B cell differentiation is mediated by intracellular membrane structures (including endosomes, lysosomes and autophagosomes and protein factors specifically associated with these membranes, including Rab7, Atg5 and Atg7. These factors participate in vesicle formation/trafficking, signal transduction and induction of gene expression to promote antigen presentation, CSR/SHM, and generation/maintenance of plasma cells and memory B cells. Their expression is induced in B cells activated to differentiate and further fine-tuned by immune-modulating microRNAs, which coordinates CSR/SHM, plasma cell differentiation and memory B cell differentiation. These short non-coding RNAs would individually target multiple factors associated with the same intracellular membrane compartments and collaboratively target a single factor in addition to regulate AID and Blimp-1. These, together with regulation of microRNA biogenesis and activities by endosomes and autophagosomes, show that intracellular membranes and microRNAs, two broadly relevant cell constituents, play important roles in balancing gene expression to specify B cell differentiation processes for optimal antibody responses.

  20. microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    CYP17A1 inhibition with abiraterone in castration- resistant prostate cancer : induction of steroidogenesis and androgen receptor splice variants...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0353 TITLE: microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone- Resistant Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  2. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  3. MicroRNA-134 regulates poliovirus replication by IRES targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Bakre, Abhijeet A.; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Global poliovirus eradication efforts include high vaccination coverage with live oral polio vaccine (OPV), surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and OPV “mop-up” campaigns. An important objective involves host-directed strategies to reduce PV replication to diminish viral shedding in OPV recipients. In this study, we show that microRNA-134-5p (miR-134) can regulate Sabin-1 replication but not Sabin-2 or Sabin-3 via direct interaction with the PV 5′UTR. Hypochromicity data showed miR-134 ...

  4. From cell biology to immunology: Controlling metastatic progression of cancer via microRNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyon; Theodoratou, Evropi; Calin, George A; Shin, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of microRNAs has expanded our knowledge of the fundamental processes of cancer biology and the underlying mechanisms behind tumor metastasis. Extensive research in the fields of microRNA and its novel mechanisms of actions against various cancers has more recently led to the trial of a first cancer-targeted microRNA drug, MRX34. Yet, these microRNAs are mostly being studied and clinically trialed solely based on the understanding of their cell biologic effects, thus, neglecting the important immunologic effects that are sometimes opposite of the cell biologic effects. Here, we summarize both the cell biologic and immunologic effects of various microRNAs and discuss the importance of considering both effects before using them in clinical settings. We stress the importance of understanding the miRNA's effect on cancer metastasis from a "systems" perspective before developing a miRNA-targeted therapeutic in treating cancer metastasis.

  5. Clinical applications of microRNAs [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1o3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Hydbring

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs derived from polymerase II controlled transcriptional regions. The primary transcript forms one or several bulging double stranded hairpins which are processed by Drosha and Dicer into hetero-duplexes. The targeting microRNA strand of the duplex is incorporated into the RNA Induced Silencing Complex from where it silences up to hundreds of mRNA transcript by inducing mRNA degradation or blocking protein translation. Apart from involvement in a variety of biological processes, microRNAs were early recognized for their potential in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their stability, microRNAs could be used as biomarkers. Currently, there are microRNA panels helping physicians determining the origins of cancer in disseminated tumors. The development of microRNA therapeutics has proved more challenging mainly due to delivery issues. However, one drug is already in clinical trials and several more await entering clinical phases. This review summarizes what has been recognized pre-clinically and clinically on diagnostic microRNAs. In addition, it highlights individual microRNA drugs in running platforms driven by four leading microRNA-therapeutic companies.

  6. Differentially Expressed microRNAs and Target Genes Associated with Plastic Internode Elongation in Alternanthera philoxeroides in Contrasting Hydrological Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyun Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is crucial for plants to survive in changing environments. Discovering microRNAs, identifying their targets and further inferring microRNA functions in mediating plastic developmental responses to environmental changes have been a critical strategy for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In this study, the dynamic expression patterns of microRNAs under contrasting hydrological habitats in the amphibious species Alternanthera philoxeroides were identified by time course expression profiling using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 128 known and 18 novel microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under contrasting hydrological habitats. The microRNA:mRNA pairs potentially associated with plastic internode elongation were identified by integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles, and were validated by qRT-PCR and 5′ RLM-RACE. The results showed that both the universal microRNAs conserved across different plants and the unique microRNAs novelly identified in A. philoxeroides were involved in the responses to varied water regimes. The results also showed that most of the differentially expressed microRNAs were transiently up-/down-regulated at certain time points during the treatments. The fine-scale temporal changes in microRNA expression highlighted the importance of time-series sampling in identifying stress-responsive microRNAs and analyzing their role in stress response/tolerance.

  7. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Updates and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Guarino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately monitor the status of gestational diabetes. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs demonstrated to modulate gene expression, have been proven to be secreted by cells of origin and can be found in many biological fluids such as serum or plasma. Such feature renders microRNAs as optimal biomarkers and sensors of in situ tissue alterations. Furthermore, secretion of microRNAs via exosomes has been reported to contribute to tissue cross talk, thus potentially represents, if disrupted, a mechanistic cause of tissue/cell dysfunction in a specific disease. In this review, we summarized the recent findings on circulating microRNAs and gestational diabetes mellitus with particular focus on the potential use of microRNAs as putative biomarkers of disease as well as a potential cause of GDM complications and β cell dysfunction.

  8. MicroRNAs and Periodontal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, X; Zhou, X; Trombetta-eSilva, J; Francis, M; Gaharwar, A K; Atsawasuwan, P; Diekwisch, T G H

    2017-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels. In the periodontium, miRNAs play key roles in development and periodontal homeostasis and during the loss of periodontal tissue integrity as a result of periodontal disease. As part of the anabolic phase of periodontal homeostasis and periodontal development, miRNAs direct periodontal fibroblasts toward alveolar bone lineage differentiation and new bone formation through WNT, bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch signaling pathways. miRNAs contribute equally to the catabolic aspect of periodontal homeostasis as they affect osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function, either by directly promoting osteoclast activity or by inhibiting osteoclast signaling intermediaries or through negative feedback loops. Their small size and ability to target multiple regulatory networks of related sets of genes have predisposed miRNAs to become ideal candidates for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. To address the immense therapeutic potential of miRNAs and their antagomirs, an ever growing number of delivery approaches toward clinical applications have been developed, including nanoparticle carriers and secondary structure interference inhibitor systems. However, only a fraction of the miRNAs involved in periodontal health and disease are known today. It is anticipated that continued research will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the periodontal miRNA world, and a systematic

  9. PACCMIT/PACCMIT-CDS: identifying microRNA targets in 3′ UTRs and coding sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Marín, Ray M.; Robins, Harlan S.; Vaníček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the proposed web server, publicly available at http://paccmit.epfl.ch, is to provide a user-friendly interface to two algorithms for predicting messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules regulated by microRNAs: (i) PACCMIT (Prediction of ACcessible and/or Conserved MIcroRNA Targets), which identifies primarily mRNA transcripts targeted in their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs), and (ii) PACCMIT-CDS, designed to find mRNAs targeted within their coding sequences (CDSs). While PACCMIT belongs among the accurate algorithms for predicting conserved microRNA targets in the 3′ UTRs, the main contribution of the web server is 2-fold: PACCMIT provides an accurate tool for predicting targets also of weakly conserved or non-conserved microRNAs, whereas PACCMIT-CDS addresses the lack of similar portals adapted specifically for targets in CDS. The web server asks the user for microRNAs and mRNAs to be analyzed, accesses the precomputed P-values for all microRNA–mRNA pairs from a database for all mRNAs and microRNAs in a given species, ranks the predicted microRNA–mRNA pairs, evaluates their significance according to the false discovery rate and finally displays the predictions in a tabular form. The results are also available for download in several standard formats. PMID:25948580

  10. MicroRNAs as Regulators of Adipogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Dana; Ali, Dalia; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute complex regulatory network, fine tuning the expression of a myriad of genes involved in different biological and physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma......, and the stroma of many other tissues, and can give rise to a number of mesoderm-type cells including adipocytes and osteoblasts, which form medullary fat and bone tissues, respectively. The role of bone marrow fat in bone mass homeostasis is an area of intensive investigation with the aim of developing novel...

  11. MicroRNAs Control Macrophage Formation and Activation: The Inflammatory Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cheng-An Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation and recruitment of resident macrophages in tissues in response to physiological stress are crucial regulatory processes in promoting the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that microRNAs play important roles in modulating monocyte formation, macrophage maturation, infiltration into tissues and activation. Macrophage-dependent systemic physiological and tissue-specific responses also involve cell-cell interactions between macrophages and host tissue niche cell components, including other tissue-resident immune cell lineages, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle and others. In this review, we highlight the roles of microRNAs in regulating the development and function of macrophages in the context of obesity, which could provide insights into the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Microarray Analysis of microRNA Expression during Axolotl Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Edna C.; Campbell, Leah J.; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression) of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum (“Amex”) miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3′UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes. PMID:23028429

  13. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression during axolotl limb regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna C Holman

    Full Text Available Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum ("Amex" miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3'UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes.

  14. MicroRNAs, Innate Immunity and Ventricular Rupture in Human Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zidar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs, functionioning as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Some microRNAs have been demonstrated to play a role in regulation of innate immunity. After myocardial infarction (MI, innate immunity is activated leading to an acute inflammatory reaction. There is evidence that an intense inflammatory reaction might contribute to the development of ventricular rupture (VR after MI.

  15. MicroRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury. MicroRNAs control a range of physiological and pathological functions such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism, and may serve as potential targets for progress assessment and intervention against TBI to mitigate secondary damage to the brain. This has implications regarding improving the diagnostic accuracy of brain impairment and long-term outcomes as well as potential novel treatments. Recent human studies have identified specific microRNAs in serum/plasma (miR-425-p, -21, -93, -191 and -499 and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF (miR-328, -362-3p, -451, -486a as possible indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Experimental animal studies have examined specific microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for moderate and mild TBI (e.g., miR-21, miR-23b. MicroRNA profiling was altered by voluntary exercise. Differences in basal microRNA expression in the brain of adult and aged animals and alterations in response to TBI (e.g., miR-21 have also been reported. Further large-scale studies with TBI patients are needed to provide more information on the changes in microRNA profiles in different age groups (children, adults, and elderly.

  16. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and circulating microRNAs in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wander, Pandora L; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Qiu, Chunfang; Holzman, Claudia; Williams, Michelle A

    Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study. Plasma miRNA expression was characterised using epigenome-wide (319 miRNAs) profiling among 20 pregnant women in each cohort. Cohort-specific linear regression models that included the predictor (pre-pregnancy body mass index), the outcome (microRNA expression), and adjustment factors (maternal age, gestational age at blood collection, and race) were fit. Expression of 27 miRNAs was positively associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index in both cohorts (p-values pregnancy body mass index is associated with circulating miRNAs in early-mid pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Selected microRNAs define cell fate determination of murine central memory CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Almanza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an immune response T cells enter memory fate determination, a program that divides them into two main populations: effector memory and central memory T cells. Since in many systems protection appears to be preferentially mediated by T cells of the central memory it is important to understand when and how fate determination takes place. To date, cell intrinsic molecular events that determine their differentiation remains unclear. MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, causing translational repression and/or messenger RNA degradation. Here, using an in vitro system where activated CD8 T cells driven by IL-2 or IL-15 become either effector memory or central memory cells, we assessed the role of microRNAs in memory T cell fate determination. We found that fate determination to central memory T cells is under the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs including miR-150, miR-155 and the let-7 family. Based on miR-150 a new target, KChIP.1 (K (+ channel interacting protein 1, was uncovered, which is specifically upregulated in developing central memory CD8 T cells. Our studies indicate that cell fate determination such as surface phenotype and self-renewal may be decided at the pre-effector stage on the basis of the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs. These results may have implications for the development of T cell vaccines and T cell-based adoptive therapies.

  18. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  19. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,671] Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including Teleworkers Reporting to... Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston...

  20. Cross disease analysis of co-functional microRNA pairs on a reconstructed network of disease-gene-microRNA tripartite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Lan, Chaowang; Zheng, Yi; Hutvagner, Gyorgy; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Jinyan

    2017-03-24

    MicroRNAs always function cooperatively in their regulation of gene expression. Dysfunctions of these co-functional microRNAs can play significant roles in disease development. We are interested in those multi-disease associated co-functional microRNAs that regulate their common dysfunctional target genes cooperatively in the development of multiple diseases. The research is potentially useful for human disease studies at the transcriptional level and for the study of multi-purpose microRNA therapeutics. We designed a computational method to detect multi-disease associated co-functional microRNA pairs and conducted cross disease analysis on a reconstructed disease-gene-microRNA (DGR) tripartite network. The construction of the DGR tripartite network is by the integration of newly predicted disease-microRNA associations with those relationships of diseases, microRNAs and genes maintained by existing databases. The prediction method uses a set of reliable negative samples of disease-microRNA association and a pre-computed kernel matrix instead of kernel functions. From this reconstructed DGR tripartite network, multi-disease associated co-functional microRNA pairs are detected together with their common dysfunctional target genes and ranked by a novel scoring method. We also conducted proof-of-concept case studies on cancer-related co-functional microRNA pairs as well as on non-cancer disease-related microRNA pairs. With the prioritization of the co-functional microRNAs that relate to a series of diseases, we found that the co-function phenomenon is not unusual. We also confirmed that the regulation of the microRNAs for the development of cancers is more complex and have more unique properties than those of non-cancer diseases.

  1. Evaluation of microRNA stability in plasma and serum from healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enelund, Lars; Nielsen, Lise Nikolic; Cirera, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: The levels of four microRNAs (cfa-let-7a, cfa-miR-16, cfa-miR-23a and cfa-miR-26a) known to be stably expressed from other canine studies, have been measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: MicroRNA levels were found sufficiently stable for gene profiling in serum- and plasma stored...

  2. Identification of Serum microRNA Biomarkers for Tuberculosis Using RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongtai; Sun, Zhaogang; Wei, Wenjing; Liu, Zhonghui; Fleming, Joy; Zhang, Shuai; Lin, Nan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Maoshan; Xu, Yuhui; Zhou, Jie; Li, Chuanyou; Bi, Lijun; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant human health issue. More effective biomarkers for use in tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, including markers that can discriminate between healthy individuals and those with latent infection, are urgently needed. To identify a set of such markers, we used Solexa sequencing to examine microRNA expression in the serum of patients with active disease, healthy individuals with latent TB, and those with or without prior BCG inoculation. We i...

  3. Identification and developmental profiling of microRNAs in diamondback moth, Plutellaxylostella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Although miRNA profiles have been documented in over two dozen insect species, few are agricultural pests. In this study, both conserved and novel miRNAs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., a devastating insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, were documented. High-throughput sequencing of a small RNA library constructed from a mixed life stages of P. xylostella, including eggs, 1st to 4th (last instar larvae, pupae and adults, identified 384 miRNAs, of which 174 were P. xylostella specific. In addition, temporal expressions of 234 miRNAs at various developmental stages were investigated using a customized microarray analysis. Among the 91 differentially expressed miRNAs, qRT-PCR analysis was used to validate highly expressed miRNAs at each stage. The combined results not only systematically document miRNA profiles in an agriculturally important insect pest, but also provide molecular targets for future functional analysis and, ultimately, genetic-based pest control practice.

  4. MicroRNA-155 knockout mice are susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Matsumura, Kazunori; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Kirikae, Fumiko; Kiga, Kotaro; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, conserved, non-coding RNA molecules that repress translation, followed by the decay of miRNA-targeted mRNAs that encode molecules involved in cell differentiation, development, immunity and apoptosis. At least six miRNAs, including microRNA-155 (miR-155), were up-regulated when born marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. C57BL/6 mice intravenously infected with Erdman showed up-regulation of miR-155 in livers and lungs. Following infection, miR-155-deficient C57BL/6 mice died significantly earlier and had significantly higher numbers of CFU in lungs than wild-type mice. Moreover, fewer CD4(+) T cells, but higher numbers of monocytes and neutrophils, were present in the lungs of Erdman-infected miR-155 knockout (miR-155(-/-)) than of wild-type mice. These findings indicated that miR-155 plays a critical role in immune responses to M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro-RNAs and Their Roles in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis; An Updated Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Bakhshi Aliabad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-RNAs (miRNAs are small molecules that modulate the translation of target mRNA through binding to these molecules. In cancer, the expression of oncogenes and suppressors are increased and decreased, respectively. MiRNAs are one of the causing factors in the formation of cancer. To collect data, research articles in PubMed and Google Scholar were searched under keywords including breast cancer and micro-RNA. The data obtained from articles published in prestigious journals showed that some miRNAs are involved in the suppression and some in the induction of cancer cell growth in breast cancer tissue. Some of them are also involved in the aggression and metastasis. According to the obtained results, it seems that assessing miRNAs in breast cancer tissue can be considered as a potential candidate for prognosis and may be used in pre-diagnosis of the disease in near future.

  6. Comparison of the release of microRNAs and extracellular vesicles from platelets in response to different agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashley R; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Kurmani, Sameer A; Goodall, Alison H

    2018-07-01

    On activation platelets release microRNAs and extracellular vesicles (EV) into circulation. The release of EV from platelets has been shown to be dependent on the agonist; in this study, we investigated whether the microRNA profile or EV released from platelets was also agonist specific. Washed platelets from healthy subjects were maximally stimulated with agonists specific for the receptors for collagen (Glycoprotein VI (GPVI)), thrombin (PAR1/PAR4), or ADP (P2Y1/P2Y12) with/without inhibiting secondary mediators, using aspirin to block cyclooxygenase-1 and apyrase to remove ADP. The released microRNAs were profiled using TaqMan microRNA microarray cards. Platelet-derived EV (pdEV) were characterized by size (Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, NTA), for procoagulant activity (Annexin-V binding and support of thrombin generation), and for the EV markers CD63 and HSP70. Platelet activation triggered the release of 57-79 different microRNAs, dependent upon agonist, with a core of 46 microRNAs observed with all agonists. There was a high level of correlation between agonists (r 2  > 0.98; p  0.98; p < 0.0001). The 46 microRNAs seen in all samples are predicted to have significant effects on the translation of proteins involved in endocytosis, cell cycle control, and differentiation. MiR-223-3p was the most abundant in all samples and has previously been implicated in myeloid lineage development and demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Stimulation through GPVI produced a pdEV population with significantly more procoagulant activity than the other agonists. Apyrase significantly reduced microRNA and pdEV release, while aspirin had little effect. These data suggest that all tested agonists trigger the release of a similar microRNA profile while the procoagulant activity of the pdEV was agonist dependent. ADP was shown to play an important role in the release of both microRNAs and pdEV.

  7. Prognostic microRNAs in cancer tissue from patients operated for pancreatic cancer--five microRNAs in a prognostic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Andersen, Klaus; Roslind, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC)....

  8. MicroRNA-145 influences the balance of Th1/Th2 via regulating RUNX3 in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linxia; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Linlan; Chen, Qizhang; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Hui; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Yang

    To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4 + T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4 + T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level. Th1 or Th2 related cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. MicroRNA-145 mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the CD4 + T cells and the changes of RUNX3 level, Th1 or Th2 related cytokines and the percentage of Th1 and Th2 were observed after transfection. MicroRNA-145 level of CD4 + T cells was higher with a lower RUNX3 expression in asthma patients. There is negative correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. Th2 hyperactivity and Th1 deficiency was detected in the CD4 + T cells of asthma patients. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay has shown that RUNX3 is a target of microRNA. Up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-145 level caused RUNX3 expression changes in CD4 + T cells and influence the related cytokines. Inhibition of microRNA-145 may reverse the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through targeting the RUNX3 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 and RUNX3 may be used as biomarkers or targets in the diagnosis or therapy of asthma.

  9. microRNA involvement in developmental and functional aspects of the nervous system and in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Schratt, Gerhard M

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are emerging as important regulatory molecules involved in the fine-tuning of gene expression during neuronal development and function. microRNAs have roles during neuronal stem cell commitment...... and early differentiation as well as in later stages of neuronal development, such as dendritogenesis and synaptic plasticity. A link between microRNAs and neurological diseases, such as neurodegeneration or synaptic dysfunction, is becoming increasingly clear. This review summarizes the current knowledge...... of the function of microRNAs in the developing and adult nervous system and their potential contribution to the etiology of neurological diseases....

  10. mirPub: a database for searching microRNA publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergoulis, Thanasis; Kanellos, Ilias; Kostoulas, Nikos; Georgakilas, Georgios; Sellis, Timos; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Dalamagas, Theodore

    2015-05-01

    Identifying, amongst millions of publications available in MEDLINE, those that are relevant to specific microRNAs (miRNAs) of interest based on keyword search faces major obstacles. References to miRNA names in the literature often deviate from standard nomenclature for various reasons, since even the official nomenclature evolves. For instance, a single miRNA name may identify two completely different molecules or two different names may refer to the same molecule. mirPub is a database with a powerful and intuitive interface, which facilitates searching for miRNA literature, addressing the aforementioned issues. To provide effective search services, mirPub applies text mining techniques on MEDLINE, integrates data from several curated databases and exploits data from its user community following a crowdsourcing approach. Other key features include an interactive visualization service that illustrates intuitively the evolution of miRNA data, tag clouds summarizing the relevance of publications to particular diseases, cell types or tissues and access to TarBase 6.0 data to oversee genes related to miRNA publications. mirPub is freely available at http://www.microrna.gr/mirpub/. vergoulis@imis.athena-innovation.gr or dalamag@imis.athena-innovation.gr Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Regulatory roles and therapeutic potential of microRNA in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Jun; Yang, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded noncoding RNAs involved in various biological processes, including cell differentiation and development. They play multiple key roles as tumour suppressors, oncogenes or both in particular cases. This review aims to summarise current findings of the expression of miRNAs and their role in clinical oncology. Current knowledge regarding the involvement of miRNAs in different sarcoma subtypes will be assessed, in conjunction with their potential application as therapeutic targets. Relevant articles in scientific databases were identified using a combination of search terms, including "microRNA," "deregulation," "sarcoma," and "targeted therapy". These databases included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Review, Pubmed and Scopus. Aberrant miRNA expression patterns have been identified in a range of sarcoma subtypes, and differences in miRNA expression profiles between malignant cells and their normal counterparts suggests that miRNAs play key roles in sarcoma development. The identification of unique miRNA patterns in individual tumour types could possibly be used as a diagnostic tool in sarcoma. Moreover, identification of these miRNAs provides novel targets for the development of therapeutic strategies in distinct sarcoma subtypes. miRNAs hold significant potential as diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets in sarcoma. Possible future clinical applications include the use of miRNA pathways as therapeutic targets or miRNA expression profiling as a means of patient selection. The involvement miRNAs will undoubtedly contribute to the advancement of future targeted therapeutic interventions in sarcoma, and further establishment of appropriate delivery systems is vital for their use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MicroRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    YATA, KAZUYA; BEDER, LEVENT BEKIR; TAMAGAWA, SHUNJI; HOTOMI, MUNEKI; HIROHASHI, YOSHIHIKO; GRENMAN, REIDAR; YAMANAKA, NOBORU

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cancer stem cells have essential roles in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and resistance to chemo-radiation. Recent research has pointed out biological importance of microRNAs in cancer stem cell dysregulation. Total number of mature microRNAs in human genome increased to more than 2,500 with the recent up-date of the database. However, currently no information is available regarding microRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and nec...

  13. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including Teleworkers Reporting to... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...). Since eligible workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

  14. Targeting of microRNAs for therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    miRNAs (microRNAs) comprise a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNAs. Recent evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in a wide variety of human diseases, such as viral infections, cancer...

  15. Circulating microRNAs in serum from cattle challenged with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopat...

  16. Serum microRNA-1 and microRNA-133a levels reflect myocardial steatosis in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalo-Calvo, D. de; Meer, R.W. van der; Rijzewijk, L.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Revuelta-Lopez, E.; Nasarre, L.; Escola-Gil, J.C.; Lamb, H.J.; Llorente-Cortes, V.

    2017-01-01

    Using in vitro, in vivo and patient-based approaches, we investigated the potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as surrogate biomarkers of myocardial steatosis, a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We analysed the cardiomyocyte-enriched miRNA signature in serum from patients with

  17. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MicroRNA Detection in Archived Oral Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The noncoding RNA designated as microRNA (miRNA is a large group of small single-stranded regulatory RNA and has generated wide-spread interest in human disease studies. To facilitate delineating the role of microRNAs in cancer pathology, we sought to explore the feasibility of detecting microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Using FFPE materials, we have compared fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedures to detect miR-146a with (a different synthetic probes: regular custom DNA oligonucleotides versus locked nucleic acid (LNA incorporated DNA oligonucleotides; (b different reporters for the probes: biotin versus digoxigenin (DIG; (c different visualization: traditional versus tyramide signal amplification (TSA system; (d different blocking reagents for endogenous peroxidase. Finally, we performed miR-146a FISH on a commercially available oral cancer tissue microarray, which contains 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and 10 cases of normal epithelia from the human oral cavity. A sample FISH protocol for detecting miR-146a is provided. In summary, we have established reliable in situ hybridization procedures for detecting the expression of microRNA in FFPE oral cancer tissues. This method is an important tool for studies on the involvement of microRNA in oral cancer pathology and may have potential prognostic or diagnostic value.

  18. Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays a role in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Wang, Jufang; Ding, Nan; Hu, Wentao; Zhang, Xurui; Wang, Bing; Hua, Junrui; Wei, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Bystander effects can be induced through cellular communication between irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells. The signals that mediate this cellular communication, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and even microRNAs, can be transferred between cells via gap junctions or extracellular medium. We have previously reported that miR-21, a well described DDR (DNA damage response) microRNA, is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects through a medium-mediated way. However, the mechanisms of the microRNA transfer have not been elucidated in details. In the present study, it was found that exosomes isolated from irradiated conditioned medium could induce bystander effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated plenty of evidences that miR-21, which is up-regulated as a result of mimic transfection or irradiation, can be transferred from donor or irradiated cells into extracellular medium and subsequently get access to the recipient or bystander cells through exosomes to induce bystander effects. Inhibiting the miR-21 expression in advance can offset the bystander effects to some extent. From all of these results, it can be concluded that the exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effects. These findings provide new insights into the functions of microRNAs and the cellular communication between the directly irradiated cells and the non-irradiated cells.

  19. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via microRNAs regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Song, Changheng; Zhang, Fangzhen; Xiang, Lihua; Chen, Yanjing; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2015-02-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX), estradiol valerate (EV), or RDE. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD) and the three-dimensional microarchitecture of the alveolar bone were analyzed to assess bone mass. Microarrays were used to evaluate microRNA expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of microRNAs was validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the target genes of validated microRNAs were predicted and further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using qRT-PCR. Our results show that RDE inhibits alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs and downregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs in the alveolar bone in the microarray analysis. qRT-PCR helped validate 13 of 16 differentially expressed microRNAs, and 114 putative target genes of the validated microRNAs were retrieved. The IPA showed that these putative target genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/Smad signaling pathway (Tgfbr2/Bmpr2, Smad3/4/5, and Bcl-2) and interleukin (IL)-6/oncostatin M (OSM)/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathway (Jak1, STAT3, and Il6r). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may involve the simultaneous inhibition of bone formation and bone resorption, which is associated with modulation of the TGF-β/BMPs/Smad and the IL-6/OSM/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathways via microRNA regulation.

  20. Diverse microRNAs with convergent functions regulate tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate several biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In order to comprehend the roles of miRNAs in cancer, various screens were performed to investigate the changes in the expression levels of miRNAs that occur in different types of cancer. The present review focuses on the results of five recent screens, whereby a number of overlapping miRNAs were identified to be downregulated or differentially regulated, whereas no miRNAs were observed to be frequently upregulated. Furthermore, the majority of the miRNAs that were common to >1 screen were involved in signaling networks, including wingless-related integration site, receptor tyrosine kinase and transforming growth factor-β, or in cell cycle checkpoint control. The present review will discuss the aforementioned miRNAs implicated in cell cycle checkpoint control and signaling networks.

  1. MicroRNA mimicry blocks pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montgomery, Rusty L; Yu, Guoying; Latimer, Paul A; Stack, Christianna; Robinson, Kathryn; Dalby, Christina M; Kaminski, Naftali; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, great enthusiasm has evolved for microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics. Part of the excitement stems from the fact that a miRNA often regulates numerous related mRNAs. As such, modulation of a single miRNA allows for parallel regulation of multiple genes involved in a particular

  2. MicroRNAs, Regulatory Networks, and Comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, Francesco; Belling, Kirstine; Jensen, Anders Boeck

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Each miRNA targets a specific set of mRNAs. Upon binding the miRNA inhibits mRNA translation or facilitate mRNA degradation. miRNAs are frequently deregulated in several pathologies...

  3. Dynamical modeling of microRNA action on the protein translation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Andrei; Morozova, Nadya; Nonne, Nora; Barillot, Emmanuel; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Gorban, Alexander N

    2010-02-24

    Protein translation is a multistep process which can be represented as a cascade of biochemical reactions (initiation, ribosome assembly, elongation, etc.), the rate of which can be regulated by small non-coding microRNAs through multiple mechanisms. It remains unclear what mechanisms of microRNA action are the most dominant: moreover, many experimental reports deliver controversial messages on what is the concrete mechanism actually observed in the experiment. Nissan and Parker have recently demonstrated that it might be impossible to distinguish alternative biological hypotheses using the steady state data on the rate of protein synthesis. For their analysis they used two simple kinetic models of protein translation. In contrary to the study by Nissan and Parker, we show that dynamical data allow discriminating some of the mechanisms of microRNA action. We demonstrate this using the same models as developed by Nissan and Parker for the sake of comparison but the methods developed (asymptotology of biochemical networks) can be used for other models. We formulate a hypothesis that the effect of microRNA action is measurable and observable only if it affects the dominant system (generalization of the limiting step notion for complex networks) of the protein translation machinery. The dominant system can vary in different experimental conditions that can partially explain the existing controversy of some of the experimental data. Our analysis of the transient protein translation dynamics shows that it gives enough information to verify or reject a hypothesis about a particular molecular mechanism of microRNA action on protein translation. For multiscale systems only that action of microRNA is distinguishable which affects the parameters of dominant system (critical parameters), or changes the dominant system itself. Dominant systems generalize and further develop the old and very popular idea of limiting step. Algorithms for identifying dominant systems in multiscale

  4. Dynamical modeling of microRNA action on the protein translation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barillot Emmanuel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein translation is a multistep process which can be represented as a cascade of biochemical reactions (initiation, ribosome assembly, elongation, etc., the rate of which can be regulated by small non-coding microRNAs through multiple mechanisms. It remains unclear what mechanisms of microRNA action are the most dominant: moreover, many experimental reports deliver controversial messages on what is the concrete mechanism actually observed in the experiment. Nissan and Parker have recently demonstrated that it might be impossible to distinguish alternative biological hypotheses using the steady state data on the rate of protein synthesis. For their analysis they used two simple kinetic models of protein translation. Results In contrary to the study by Nissan and Parker, we show that dynamical data allow discriminating some of the mechanisms of microRNA action. We demonstrate this using the same models as developed by Nissan and Parker for the sake of comparison but the methods developed (asymptotology of biochemical networks can be used for other models. We formulate a hypothesis that the effect of microRNA action is measurable and observable only if it affects the dominant system (generalization of the limiting step notion for complex networks of the protein translation machinery. The dominant system can vary in different experimental conditions that can partially explain the existing controversy of some of the experimental data. Conclusions Our analysis of the transient protein translation dynamics shows that it gives enough information to verify or reject a hypothesis about a particular molecular mechanism of microRNA action on protein translation. For multiscale systems only that action of microRNA is distinguishable which affects the parameters of dominant system (critical parameters, or changes the dominant system itself. Dominant systems generalize and further develop the old and very popular idea of limiting step

  5. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  6. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  7. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  8. MicroRNAs as potential therapeutic targets in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan G; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    One cornerstone of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is fibrosis, as kidneys are susceptible due to their high vascularity and predisposition to ischemia. Presently, only therapies targeting the angiotensin receptor are used in clinical practice to retard the progression of CKD. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies designed to treat the damaged kidney. Several independent laboratories have identified a number of microRNAs that are dysregulated in human and animal models of CKD. We will explore the evidence suggesting that by blocking the activity of such dysregulated microRNAs, new therapeutics could be developed to treat the progression of CKD. PMID:23660218

  9. Distinct Expression Profiles and Novel Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Spermatogonia, Pachytene Spermatocytes, and Round Spermatids between OA Patients and NOA Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chencheng Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human spermatogenesis includes three main stages, namely, the mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and spermiogenesis of spermatids, which are precisely regulated by epigenetic and genetic factors. Abnormality of epigenetic and genetic factors can result in aberrant spermatogenesis and eventual male infertility. However, epigenetic regulators in controlling each stage of normal and abnormal human spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we have revealed for the first time the distinct microRNA profiles in human spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids between obstructive azoospermia (OA patients and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA patients. Human spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids from OA patients and NOA patients were isolated using STA-PUT velocity sedimentation and identified by numerous hallmarks for these cells. RNA deep sequencing showed that 396 microRNAs were differentially expressed in human spermatogonia between OA patients and NOA patients and 395 differentially expressed microRNAs were found in human pachytene spermatocytes between OA patients and NOA patients. Moreover, 378 microRNAs were differentially expressed in human round spermatids between OA patients and NOA patients. The differential expression of numerous microRNAs identified by RNA deep sequencing was verified by real-time PCR. Moreover, a number of novel targeting genes for microRNAs were predicted using various kinds of software and further verified by real-time PCR. This study thus sheds novel insights into epigenetic regulation of human normal spermatogenesis and the etiology of azoospermia, and it could offer new targets for molecular therapy to treat male infertility.

  10. Non-canonical microRNAs miR-320 and miR-702 promote proliferation in Dgcr8-deficient embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeong-Moo; Choi, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) lacking non-canonical miRNAs proliferate slower. ► miR-320 and miR-702 are two non-canonical miRNAs expressed in ESCs. ► miR-320 and miR-702 promote proliferation of Dgcr8-deficient ESCs. ► miR-320 targets p57 and helps to release Dgcr8-deficient ESCs from G1 arrest. ► miR-702 targets p21 and helps to release Dgcr8-deficient ESCs from G1 arrest. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs are known to contribute significantly to stem cell phenotype by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Most of our knowledge of microRNAs comes from the study of canonical microRNAs that require two sequential cleavages by the Drosha/Dgcr8 heterodimer and Dicer to generate mature products. In contrast, non-canonical microRNAs bypass the cleavage by the Drosha/Dgcr8 heterodimer within the nucleus but still require cytoplasmic cleavage by Dicer. The function of non-canonical microRNAs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains obscure. It has been hypothesized that non-canonical microRNAs have important roles in ESCs based upon the phenotypes of ESC lines that lack these specific classes of microRNAs; Dicer-deficient ESCs lacking both canonical and non-canonical microRNAs have much more severe proliferation defect than Dgcr8-deficient ESCs lacking only canonical microRNAs. Using these cell lines, we identified two non-canonical microRNAs, miR-320 and miR-702, that promote proliferation of Dgcr8-deficient ESCs by releasing them from G1 arrest. This is accomplished by targeting the 3′-untranslated regions of the cell cycle inhibitors p57 and p21 and thereby inhibiting their expression. This is the first report of the crucial role of non-canonical microRNAs in ESCs.

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profile in the Prenatal Amniotic Fluid Samples of Pregnant Women with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Emin; Aykut, Ayça; Ertürk, Biray; Durmaz, Burak; Güler, Ahmet; Büke, Barış; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Özkınay, Ferda; Özeren, Mehmet; Kazandı, Mert; Akercan, Fuat; Sağol, Sermet; Gündüz, Cumhur; Çoğulu, Özgür

    2018-03-15

    Down syndrome, which is the most common human chromosomal anomaly that can affect people of any race and age, can be diagnosed prenatally in most cases. Prenatal diagnosis via culture method is time-consuming; thus, genetic analysis has thus been introduced and is continually being developed for rapid prenatal diagnosis. For this reason, the effective use of microRNA profiling for the rapid analysis of prenatal amniotic fluid samples for the diagnosis of Down syndrome was investigated. To evaluate the expression levels of 14 microRNAs encoded by chromosome 21 in amniotic fluid samples and their utility for prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Case-control study. We performed invasive prenatal testing for 56 pregnant women; 23 carried fetuses with Down syndrome, and 33 carried fetuses with a normal karyotype. Advanced maternal age and increased risk for Down syndrome in the screening tests were indications for invasive prenatal testing. The age of gestation in the study and control groups ranged between 17 and 18 weeks. The expression levels of microRNA were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of microRNA-125b-2, microRNA-155 , and microRNA-3156 were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The presence of significantly dysregulated microRNAs may be associated with either the phenotype or the result of abnormal development. Further large-scale comparative studies conducted in a variety of conditions may bring novel insights in the field of abnormal prenatal conditions.

  12. Use of MicroRNA biomarkers to distinguish enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Maozhou; Mayer, Theodore; Johnstone, Brian; Les, Clifford; Frisch, Nicholas; Parsons, Theodore; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Gibson, Gary

    2017-03-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis between benign enchondroma versus low-grade chondrosarcoma presents a potential challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) have proven to be effective biomarkers for the identification of tumors and tumor progression. We present analysis, both array and quantitative PCR, that shows consistently and substantially increased expression of two microRNAs, miRs-181a and -138, in low-grade chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas. The data suggest these microRNAs would provide an analytical distinction between the chondrosarcoma and benign neoplasms that can be performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Together with recent publications, these data indicate that miRs-181a and -138 also play a role in tumor development and homeostasis and may provide new targets for the development of much needed therapeutic intervention.

  13. Progress in research on ionizing radiation-induced microRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zheng; Tie Yi; Sun Zhixian; Zheng Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded noncoding RNAs consisting of 21-23 nucleotides that play important gene-regulatory roles in eukaryotes by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. A growing body of evidence indicates that alterations in miRNA expression may occur following exposure to several oxidative stress including ionizing radiation. So miRNAs may serve as potential new targets for co-therapies aiming to improve the effects of radiation disease therapy in cancer patients. The progress in research on ionizing radiation-induced miRNAs is reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  14. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  15. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica remains a major public health problem in China. Its pathogen, Schistosoma japonicum has a complex life cycle and a unique repertoire of genes expressed at different life cycle stages. Exploring schistosome gene regulation will yield the best prospects for new drug targets and vaccine candidates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a highly conserved class of noncoding RNA that control many biological processes by sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified from plants to mammals, it remains no experimental proof whether schistosome exist miRNAs. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We have identified novel miRNAs from Schistosoma japonicum by cloning and sequencing a small (18-26 nt RNA cDNA library from the adult worms. Five novel miRNAs were identified from 227 cloned RNA sequences and verified by Northern blot. Alignments of the miRNAs with corresponding family members indicated that four of them belong to a metazoan miRNA family: let-7, miR-71, bantam and miR-125. The fifth potentially new (non conserved miRNA appears to belong to a previously undescribed family in the genus Schistosome. The novel miRNAs were designated as sja-let-7, sja-miR-71, sja-bantam, sja-miR-125 and sja-miR-new1, respectively. Expression of sja-let-7, sja-miR-71 and sja-bantam were analyzed in six stages of the life cycle, i.e. egg, miracidium, sporocyst, cercaria, schistosomulum, and adult worm, by a modified stem-loop reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method developed in our laboratory. The expression patterns of these miRNAs were highly stage-specific. In particular, sja-miR-71 and sja-bantam expression reach their peaks in the cercaria stage and then drop quickly to the nadirs in the schistosomulum stage, following penetration of cercaria into a mammalian host. CONCLUSIONS: Authentic miRNAs were identified for the first time in S. japonicum, including a new schistosome

  16. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogribny, Igor P.; Beland, Frederick A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  17. Identification of microRNAs and their targets in Finger millet by high throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, S; Jyothi, M N; Sharadamma, N; Dixit, Rekha; Devaraj, V R; Nagesh Babu, R

    2015-12-15

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs which play an important role in regulating gene expression by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. The majority of identified miRNAs were evolutionarily conserved; however, others expressed in a species-specific manner. Finger millet is an important cereal crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available on microRNAs to date. In this study, we have identified 95 conserved microRNAs belonging to 39 families and 3 novel microRNAs by high throughput sequencing. For the identified conserved and novel miRNAs a total of 507 targets were predicted. 11 miRNAs were validated and tissue specificity was determined by stem loop RT-qPCR, Northern blot. GO analyses revealed targets of miRNA were involved in wide range of regulatory functions. This study implies large number of known and novel miRNAs found in Finger millet which may play important role in growth and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  19. MicroRNAs: A Puzzling Tool in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Barbara; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a dominating class of small RNAs that regulate diverse cellular functions. Due the pivotal role of miRNAs in biological processes, a deregulated miRNA expression is likely involved in human cancers. MicroRNAs possess tumor suppressor capability, as well as display oncogenic characteristics. Interestingly, miRNAs exist in various biological fluids as circulating entities. Changes in the profile of circulating miRNAs are indicative of pathophysiological conditions in human cancer. This concept has led to consider circulating miRNAs valid biomarkers in cancer diagnostics. Furthermore, current research promotes the use of miRNAs as a target in cancer therapy. However, miRNAs are an evolving research field. Although miRNAs have been demonstrated to be potentially valuable tools both in cancer diagnosis and treatment, a greater effort should be made to improve our understanding of miRNAs biology. This review describes the biology of microRNAs, emphasizing on the use of miRNAs in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNAs: regulators of oncogenesis and stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannakopoulos Thales

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de-differentiated brain tumor cancer stem cells resembles that of neural stem cells. In this issue of BMC Medicine, Silber et al provide evidence of the expression of such miRNAs and their potential to mediate differentiation in both stem cell populations. In this commentary, we discuss the known functions of miRNAs in cancer and stem cells, their therapeutic potential and how the findings of Silber et al provide insight into the role of miR-124/miR-137 dysregulation in glioblastomas.

  1. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  2. MicroRNA target finding by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robin C; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in virtually every metazoan biological process, exerting a widespread impact on gene expression. MicroRNA repression is conferred by relatively short "seed match" sequences, although the degree of repression varies widely for individual target sites. The factors controlling whether, and to what extent, a target site is repressed are not fully understood. As an alternative to target prediction based on sequence alone, comparative genomics has emerged as an invaluable tool for identifying miRNA targets that are conserved by natural selection, and hence likely effective and important. Here we present a general method for quantifying conservation of miRNA seed match sites, separating it from background conservation, controlling for various biases, and predicting miRNA targets. This method is useful not only for generating predictions but also as a tool for empirically evaluating the importance of various target prediction criteria.

  3. Profile of circulating microRNAs in fibromyalgia and their relation to symptom severity: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjersing, Jan L; Bokarewa, Maria I; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2015-04-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by generalized chronic pain and reduced pain thresholds. Disturbed neuroendocrine function and impairment of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 is common. However, the pathophysiology of FM is not clear. MicroRNAs are important regulatory factors reflecting interface of genes and environment. Our aim was to identify characteristic microRNAs in FM and relations of specific microRNAs with characteristic symptoms. A total of 374 circulating microRNAs were measured in women with FM (n = 20; median 52.5 years) and healthy women (n = 20; 52.5 years) by quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Pain [fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) pain] levels were rated (0-100 mm) using FIQ. Fatigue (FIQ fatigue) was rated (0-100 mm) using FIQ and multidimensional fatigue inventory general fatigue. Sleep quantity and quality (1-4) rated from satisfactory to nonsatisfactory. Higher scores indicate more severe symptoms. Eight microRNAs differed significantly between FM and healthy women. Seven microRNAs, miR-103a-3p, miR-107, let-7a-5p, miR-30b-5p, miR-151a-5p, miR-142-3p and miR-374b-5p, were lower in FM. However, levels of miR-320a were higher in FM. MiR-103a-3p correlated with pain (r = 0.530, p = 0.016) and sleep quantity (r = 0.593, p = 0.006) in FM. MiR-320a correlated inversely with pain (r = -0.468, p = 0.037). MiR-374b-5p correlated inversely with pain threshold (r = -0.612, p = 0.004). MiR-30b-5p correlated with sleep quantity (r = 0.509, p = 0.022), and let-7a-5p was associated with sleep symptoms. When adjusted for body mass index, the correlation of sleep quantity with miR-103a and miR-30b was no longer significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study of circulating microRNAs in FM. Levels of several microRNAs differed significantly in FM compared to healthy women. Three microRNAs were associated with pain or pain threshold in FM.

  4. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

  5. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Elaine Sørensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome.

  6. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. MicroRNAs - A New Generation Molecular Targets for Treating Cellular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a unique class of non-coding, small RNAs, similar to mRNAs, transcribed by cells, but for entirely different reasons. While mRNAs are transcribed to code for proteins, miRNAs are produced to regulate the production of proteins from mRNAs. miRNAs are central components that tightly and temporally regulating gene expression in cells. Dysregulation of miRNAs expressions in cellular pathogenesis, including cancer, has been reported, and it clearly supports the importance of...

  8. Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, David M; Montgomery, Rusty L; Qi, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs inhibit mRNA translation or promote mRNA degradation by binding complementary sequences in 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in response to cardiac stress, and its inhibition by a cholesterol-modified antagomir has been reported to prevent card...

  9. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer....... We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41......,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated...

  10. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E; Meyer, Claudius U; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Provost, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen+ ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin+ UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p < 0.05) and an impaired platelet aggregation response to ADP (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Intercept treatment may induce platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established.

  11. MicroRNAs in CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders: an integrated review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Laura; Popescu, Bogdan O

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small RNAs involved in gene silencing. They play important roles in transcriptional regulation and are selectively and abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. A considerable amount of the human genome is comprised of tandem repeating nucleotide streams. Several diseases are caused by above-threshold expansion of certain trinucleotide repeats occurring in a protein-coding or non-coding region. Though monogenic, CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders have a complex pathogenesis, various combinations of multiple coexisting pathways resulting in one common final consequence: selective neurodegeneration. Mutant protein and mutant transcript gain of toxic function are considered to be the core pathogenic mechanisms. The profile of microRNAs in CAG trinucleotide repeat disorders is scarcely described, however microRNA dysregulation has been identified in these diseases and microRNA-related intereference with gene expression is considered to be involved in their pathogenesis. Better understanding of microRNAs functions and means of manipulation promises to offer further insights into the pathogenic pathways of CAG repeat expansion disorders, to point out new potential targets for drug intervention and to provide some of the much needed etiopathogenic therapeutic agents. A number of disease-modifying microRNA silencing strategies are under development, but several implementation impediments still have to be resolved. CAG targeting seems feasible and efficient in animal models and is an appealing approach for clinical practice. Preliminary human trials are just beginning.

  12. miRanalyzer: a microRNA detection and analysis tool for next-generation sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Michael; Sturm, Martin; Langenberger, David; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Aransay, Ana M

    2009-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing allows now the sequencing of small RNA molecules and the estimation of their expression levels. Consequently, there will be a high demand of bioinformatics tools to cope with the several gigabytes of sequence data generated in each single deep-sequencing experiment. Given this scene, we developed miRanalyzer, a web server tool for the analysis of deep-sequencing experiments for small RNAs. The web server tool requires a simple input file containing a list of unique reads and its copy numbers (expression levels). Using these data, miRanalyzer (i) detects all known microRNA sequences annotated in miRBase, (ii) finds all perfect matches against other libraries of transcribed sequences and (iii) predicts new microRNAs. The prediction of new microRNAs is an especially important point as there are many species with very few known microRNAs. Therefore, we implemented a highly accurate machine learning algorithm for the prediction of new microRNAs that reaches AUC values of 97.9% and recall values of up to 75% on unseen data. The web tool summarizes all the described steps in a single output page, which provides a comprehensive overview of the analysis, adding links to more detailed output pages for each analysis module. miRanalyzer is available at http://web.bioinformatics.cicbiogune.es/microRNA/.

  13. MicroRNA Expression during Viral Infection or PolyI:C Stimulation in a Fish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Bøgelund Juel; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish are important as small vertebrate models for studying various aspects of development and disease. MicroRNA regulation in fish has so far received attention especially in studies of their expression and function during embryonic development. In the studies carried out at the National Veterinary...... Institute in Århus we aim at using fish models for studying microRNA regulation during viral infection. In the studies presented here we make use of a qPCR method to detect miRNAs in fish cells. We present results regarding the expression of the immunologically relevant microRNAs, miR-155, miR-146a and mi......R-146b in fish cells during infection with the fish pathogenic virus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and during immune stimulation with double stranded RNA (polyI:C). We highlight the need of finding stable normalization genes for microRNA detection....

  14. A novel method of predicting microRNA-disease associations based on microRNA, disease, gene and environment factor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Lan, Wei; Zhong, Jiancheng; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2017-07-15

    MicroRNAs have been reported to have close relationship with diseases due to their deregulation of the expression of target mRNAs. Detecting disease-related microRNAs is helpful for disease therapies. With the development of high throughput experimental techniques, a large number of microRNAs have been sequenced. However, it is still a big challenge to identify which microRNAs are related to diseases. Recently, researchers are interesting in combining multiple-biological information to identify the associations between microRNAs and diseases. In this work, we have proposed a novel method to predict the microRNA-disease associations based on four biological properties. They are microRNA, disease, gene and environment factor. Compared with previous methods, our method makes predictions not only by using the prior knowledge of associations among microRNAs, disease, environment factors and genes, but also by using the internal relationship among these biological properties. We constructed four biological networks based on the similarity of microRNAs, diseases, environment factors and genes, respectively. Then random walking was implemented on the four networks unequally. In the walking course, the associations can be inferred from the neighbors in the same networks. Meanwhile the association information can be transferred from one network to another. The results of experiment showed that our method achieved better prediction performance than other existing state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The increase of microRNA-21 during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ota, Chiharu; Takahashi, Toru; Tando, Yukiko; Suzuki, Takaya; Fujino, Naoya; Makiguchi, Tomonori; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-09-24

    The excess and persistent accumulation of fibroblasts due to aberrant tissue repair results in fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent reports have revealed significant changes in microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and evidence in support of a role for microRNAs in myofibroblast differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the context of fibrosis. It has been reported that microRNA-21 is up-regulated in myofibroblasts during fibrosis and promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad7. However, expression changes in microRNA-21 and the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung fibrosis have not yet been defined. Lungs from saline- or bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 J mice and lung specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were analyzed. Enzymatic digestions were performed to isolate single lung cells. Lung epithelial cells were isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting. The expression of microRNA-21 was analyzed using both quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. To induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in culture, isolated mouse lung alveolar type II cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides in the presence of transforming growth factor-β, thus generating conditions that enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To investigate the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we transfected cells with a microRNA-21 inhibitor. Total RNA was isolated from the freshly isolated and cultured cells. MicroRNA-21, as well as mRNAs of genes that are markers of alveolar epithelial or mesenchymal cell differentiation, were quantified using quantitative PCR. The lung epithelial cells isolated from the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model system had decreased expression of epithelial marker genes, whereas the expression of mesenchymal marker genes was increased. MicroRNA-21 was significantly upregulated in isolated lung epithelial

  16. Overview of research on Bombyx mori microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tang, Shun-ming; Shen, Xing-jia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute some of the most significant regulatory factors involved at the post-transcriptional level after gene expression, contributing to the modulation of a large number of physiological processes such as development, metabolism, and disease occurrence. This review comprehensively and retrospectively explores the literature investigating silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombicidae), miRNAs published to date, including discovery, identification, expression profiling analysis, target gene prediction, and the functional analysis of both miRNAs and their targets. It may provide experimental considerations and approaches for future study of miRNAs and benefit elucidation of the mechanisms of miRNAs involved in silkworm developmental processes and intracellular activities of other unknown non-coding RNAs. PMID:25368077

  17. Non-canonical microRNAs miR-320 and miR-702 promote proliferation in Dgcr8-deficient embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong-Moo [Department of Medicine/GI Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Choi, Michael Y., E-mail: mchoi@partners.org [Department of Medicine/GI Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) lacking non-canonical miRNAs proliferate slower. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320 and miR-702 are two non-canonical miRNAs expressed in ESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320 and miR-702 promote proliferation of Dgcr8-deficient ESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320 targets p57 and helps to release Dgcr8-deficient ESCs from G1 arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-702 targets p21 and helps to release Dgcr8-deficient ESCs from G1 arrest. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs are known to contribute significantly to stem cell phenotype by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Most of our knowledge of microRNAs comes from the study of canonical microRNAs that require two sequential cleavages by the Drosha/Dgcr8 heterodimer and Dicer to generate mature products. In contrast, non-canonical microRNAs bypass the cleavage by the Drosha/Dgcr8 heterodimer within the nucleus but still require cytoplasmic cleavage by Dicer. The function of non-canonical microRNAs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains obscure. It has been hypothesized that non-canonical microRNAs have important roles in ESCs based upon the phenotypes of ESC lines that lack these specific classes of microRNAs; Dicer-deficient ESCs lacking both canonical and non-canonical microRNAs have much more severe proliferation defect than Dgcr8-deficient ESCs lacking only canonical microRNAs. Using these cell lines, we identified two non-canonical microRNAs, miR-320 and miR-702, that promote proliferation of Dgcr8-deficient ESCs by releasing them from G1 arrest. This is accomplished by targeting the 3 Prime -untranslated regions of the cell cycle inhibitors p57 and p21 and thereby inhibiting their expression. This is the first report of the crucial role of non-canonical microRNAs in ESCs.

  18. MicroRNAs and toxicology: A love marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schraml

    Full Text Available With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii rapid turnaround of the test result and iv most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of the ongoing physiologic processes in cells and tissues that package and release miRNAs into cell-free space. These characteristics have also established circulating miRNAs as promising biomarker candidates for toxicological studies, where they are used as biomarkers of drug-, or chemical-induced tissue injury for safety assessment. The tissue-specificity and early release of circulating miRNAs upon tissue injury, when damage is still reversible, are main factors for their clinical utility in toxicology. Here we summarize in brief, current knowledge of this field. Keywords: microRNAs, Biomarker, Toxicology, Minimal-invasive, DILI

  19. SeedVicious: Analysis of microRNA target and near-target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Here I describe seedVicious, a versatile microRNA target site prediction software that can be easily fitted into annotation pipelines and run over custom datasets. SeedVicious finds microRNA canonical sites plus other, less efficient, target sites. Among other novel features, seedVicious can compute evolutionary gains/losses of target sites using maximum parsimony, and also detect near-target sites, which have one nucleotide different from a canonical site. Near-target sites are important to study population variation in microRNA regulation. Some analyses suggest that near-target sites may also be functional sites, although there is no conclusive evidence for that, and they may actually be target alleles segregating in a population. SeedVicious does not aim to outperform but to complement existing microRNA prediction tools. For instance, the precision of TargetScan is almost doubled (from 11% to ~20%) when we filter predictions by the distance between target sites using this program. Interestingly, two adjacent canonical target sites are more likely to be present in bona fide target transcripts than pairs of target sites at slightly longer distances. The software is written in Perl and runs on 64-bit Unix computers (Linux and MacOS X). Users with no computing experience can also run the program in a dedicated web-server by uploading custom data, or browse pre-computed predictions. SeedVicious and its associated web-server and database (SeedBank) are distributed under the GPL/GNU license.

  20. Peripheral blood cell microRNA quantification during the first trimester predicts preeclampsia: Proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Winger

    Full Text Available We investigated the capacity of microRNAs isolated from peripheral blood buffy coat collected late during the first trimester to predict preeclampsia.The cohort study comprised 48 pregnant women with the following pregnancy outcomes: 8 preeclampsia and 40 with normal delivery outcomes. Quantitative rtPCR was performed on a panel of 30 microRNAs from buffy coat samples drawn at a mean of 12.7±0.5 weeks gestation. MicroRNA Risk Scores were calculated and AUC-ROC calculations derived.The AUC-ROC for preeclampsia risk was 0.91 (p<0.0001. When women with normal delivery and high-risk background (those with SLE/APS, chronic hypertension and/or Type 2 Diabetes were compared to women who developed preeclampsia but with a normal risk background (without these mentioned risk factors, preeclampsia was still predicted with an AUC-ROC of 0.92 (p<0.0001.MicroRNA quantification of peripheral immune cell microRNA provides sensitive and specific prediction of preeclampsia in the first trimester of pregnant women. With this study, we extend the range during which disorders of the placental bed may be predicted from early to the end of the first trimester. This study confirms that buffy coat may be used as a sample preparation.

  1. A cytometry microparticle platform approach for screening tobacco microRNA changes after agrobacterium delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Key message nta-miR-398 is significantly up-regulated while nta-miR-428d is significantly down-regulated in tobacco after agroinfiltration AbstractMicroRNAs are a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs that can modulate development as well as alter innate antiviral defenses in plants. In this study we explored host changes at the microRNA level within tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after expression of a recombinant anti-Ebola GP1 antibody through Agrobacterium tumefaciens agroinfiltration delivery. A multiplex nanoparticle-based cytometry assay tracked the host expression changes of 53 tobacco microRNAs. Our results revealed that the most abundant microRNAs in actively growing leaves corresponded to nanoparticle probes specific to nta-mir-6149 and nta-miR-168b. After agroinfiltration, probes targeting nta-mir-398 and nta-mir-482d were significantly altered in their respective expression levels and were further verified through RT-qPCR analysis. To our knowledge this study is the first to profile microRNA expression in tobacco after agroinfiltration using a multiplex nanoparticle approach.

  2. Aberrant microRNA expression in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gimsing, Peter; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a devastating disease with a complex biology, and in spite of improved survivability by novel treatment strategies over the last decade, MM is still incurable by current therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post...

  3. Profiling microRNAs in lung tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Anthon, Christian; Bak, Mads

    2012-01-01

    significantly up-regulated in the necrotic sample and 12 were down-regulated. The expression analysis of a number of candidates revealed microRNAs of potential importance in the innate immune response. MiR-155, a known key player in inflammation, was found expressed in both samples. Moreover, miR-664-5p, mi......R-451 and miR-15a appear as very promising candidates for microRNAs involved in response to pathogen infection. Conclusions: This is the first study revealing significant differences in composition and expression profiles of miRNAs in lungs infected with a bacterial pathogen. Our results extend......Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus...

  4. Calcitriol increases Dicer expression and modifies the microRNAs signature in SiHa cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Ramiro José; Cázares-Ordoñez, Verna; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra; Díaz, Lorenza; Ortíz, Víctor; Freyre-González, Julio Augusto; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Larrea, Fernando; Avila, Euclides

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in cancer biology. Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, regulates microRNAs expression in tumor cells. In the present study we asked if calcitriol would modify some of the components of the microRNA processing machinery, namely, Drosha and Dicer, in calcitriol-responsive cervical cancer cells. We found that calcitriol treatment did not affect Drosha mRNA; however, it significantly increased Dicer mRNA and protein expression in VDR-positive SiHa and HeLa cells. In VDR-negative C33-A cells, calcitriol had no effect on Dicer mRNA. We also found a vitamin D response element in Dicer promoter that interacts in vitro to vitamin D and retinoid X receptors. To explore the biological plausibility of these results, we asked if calcitriol alters the microRNA expression profile in SiHa cells. Our results revealed that calcitriol regulates the expression of a subset of microRNAs with potential regulatory functions in cancer pathways, such as miR-22, miR-296-3p, and miR-498, which exert tumor-suppressive effects. In summary, the data indicate that in SiHa cells, calcitriol stimulates the expression of Dicer possibly through the vitamin D response element located in its promoter. This may explain the calcitriol-dependent modulation of microRNAs whose target mRNAs are related to anticancer pathways, further adding to the various anticancer mechanisms of calcitriol.

  5. Identification and bioinformatics analysis of microRNAs from the sporophyte and gametophyte of Pyropia haitanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiyou; Wang, Guangce

    2016-05-01

    Pyropia haitanensis (T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng) N. Kikuchi et M. Miyata ( Porphyra haitanensis) is an economically important genus that is cultured widely in China. P. haitanensis is cultured on a larger scale than Pyropia yezoensis, making up an important part of the total production of cultivated Pyropia in China. However, the majority of molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological processes of P. haitanensis remain unknown. P. haitanensis could utilize inorganic carbon and the sporophytes of P. haitanensis might possess a PCK-type C4-like carbon-fixation pathway. To identify microRNAs and their probable roles in sporophyte and gametophyte development, we constructed and sequenced small RNA libraries from sporophytes and gametophytes of P. haitanensis. Five microRNAs were identified that shared no sequence homology with known microRNAs. Our results indicated that P. haitanensis might posses a complex sRNA processing system in which the novel microRNAs act as important regulators of the development of different generations of P. haitanensis.

  6. Circulating Extracellular microRNA in Systemic Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Carlsen, Anting Liu; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    killer cells, neutrophil granulocytes, and monocyte-macrophages. Exploratory studies (only validated in a few cases) also show that specific profiles of circulating miRNAs are associated with different systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis......, extracellular miRNA is protected against degradation by complexation with carrier proteins and/or by being enclosed in subcellular membrane vesicles. This, together with their tissue- and disease-specific expression, has fuelled the interest in using circulating microRNA profiles as harbingers of disease, i.......e., as diagnostic analytes and as clues to dysregulated pathways in disease. Many studies show that inflammation and immune dysregulation, e.g., in autoimmune diseases, are associated with distinct miRNA expression changes in targeted tissues and in innate and adaptive immunity cells such as lymphocytes, natural...

  7. MicroRNA-223 Expression Is Upregulated in Insulin Resistant Human Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yueh Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and influence many cellular functions including glucose and lipid metabolism. We previously reported that adipose tissue (AT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or controls with insulin resistance (IR revealed a differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA profile, including upregulated miR-93 in PCOS patients and in non-PCOS women with IR. Overexpressed miR-93 directly inhibited glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4 expression, thereby influencing glucose metabolism. We have now studied the role of miR-223, which is also abnormally expressed in the AT of IR subjects. Our data indicates that miR-223 is significantly overexpressed in the AT of IR women, regardless of whether they had PCOS or not. miR-223 expression in AT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Unlike what is reported in cardiomyocytes, overexpression of miR-223 in human differentiated adipocytes was associated with a reduction in GLUT4 protein content and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In addition, our data suggests miR-223 regulates GLUT4 expression by direct binding to its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR. In conclusion, in AT miR-223 is an IR-related miRNA that may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of IR-related disorders.

  8. Quantification of microRNA-21 and microRNA-125b in melanoma tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandler, Anne; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Hager, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potent mediators of melanoma development and progression, a precise understanding of their oncogenic role remains unclear. In this study, we analysed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from two separate melanoma cohorts and from a series...... the important involvement of different miRNAs in melanoma biology and may serve as solid basics for further miRNA investigations in melanoma formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In particular, there is increased expression of miR-21 in melanomas compared with benign nevi....

  9. microRNA-140 Inhibits Inflammation and Stimulates Chondrogenesis in a Model of Interleukin 1β-induced Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy A Karlsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a serious disease of articular cartilage. The pathogenic factors contributing to this disorder are inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and failure to rebuild the articular cartilage. Preclinical studies suggest that microRNA-140 may play a protective role in osteoarthritis development, but little is known about the mechanism by which this occurs. Here we present the results of forced expression of microRNA-140 in an in vitro model of osteoarthritis, evaluated by global proteomics analysis. We show that inflammation was reduced through the altered levels of multiple proteins involved in the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 pathway. microRNA-140 upregulated many of the components involved in the synthesis of hyaline extracellular matrix and reduced the levels of aggrecanases and syndecan 4, thus potentially both increasing cartilage repair and reducing cartilage breakdown. These results show how forced expression of microRNA-140 is likely to counteract all three pathogenic processes, and support the idea that intra-articular injection of microRNA-140 may benefit patients suffering from early osteoarthritis.

  10. MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Anupama; Lee, Bongyong; Boniface, Katia; Seneschal, Julien; Sahoo, Sanjaya K; Seki, Tatsuya; Wang, Chunyan; Das, Soumen; Han, Xianlin; Steppie, Michael; Seal, Sudipta; Taieb, Alain; Perera, Ranjan J

    2017-09-01

    Vitiligo is a common chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical causes, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. In this study we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocyte line HEM-l by RNA sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched microRNA-211, a known metabolic switch in nonpigmented melanoma cells, was severely down-regulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsy samples from vitiligo patients, whereas its predicted targets PPARGC1A, RRM2, and TAOK1 were reciprocally up-regulated. microRNA-211 binds to PGC1-α 3' untranslated region locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated microRNA-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of microRNA-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping posttranscriptional regulation of the human glycome uncovers microRNA defining the glycocode

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Praveen; Kurcon, Tomasz; Pilobello, Kanoelani T.; Rakus, John F.; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Liu, Zhongyin; Batista, Bianca S.; Eng, William S.; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Liang, Yaxuan; Mahal, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (glycans) are complex cell surface molecules that control multiple aspects of cell biology, including cell–cell communication, cancer metastasis, and inflammation. Glycan biosynthesis requires the coordination of many enzymes, but how this is regulated is not well understood. Herein we show that microRNA (miRNA), small noncoding RNA, are a major regulator of cell surface glycosylation. We map miRNA expression onto carbohydrate signatures obtained by using lectin microarrays, a g...

  12. MicroRNAs as New Characters in the Plot between Epigenetics and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Paone, Alessio; Galli, Roberta; Fabbri, Muller

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) still represents a leading cause of death. An increasing number of studies have documented that microRNAs (miRNAs), a subgroup of non-coding RNAs with gene regulatory functions, are differentially expressed in PCA respect to the normal tissue counterpart, suggesting their involvement in prostate carcinogenesis and dissemination. Interestingly, it has been shown that miRNAs undergo the same regulatory mechanisms than any other protein coding gene, including epigenetic reg...

  13. Identification of novel microRNA genes in freshwater and marine ecotypes of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, S M; Nedoluzhko, A V; Sharko, F S; Boulygina, E S; Sokolov, A S; Gruzdeva, N M; Skryabin, K G; Prokhortchouk, E B

    2016-11-01

    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) is an important model organism for studying the molecular mechanisms of speciation and adaptation to salinity. Despite increased interest to microRNA discovery and recent publication on microRNA prediction in the three-spined stickleback using bioinformatics approaches, there is still a lack of experimental support for these data. In this paper, high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to identify microRNA genes in gills of the three-spined stickleback. In total, 595 miRNA genes were discovered; half of them were predicted in previous computational studies and were confirmed here as microRNAs expressed in gill tissue. Moreover, 298 novel microRNA genes were identified. The presence of miRNA genes in selected 'divergence islands' was analysed and 10 miRNA genes were identified as not randomly located in 'divergence islands'. Regulatory regions of miRNA genes were found enriched with selective SNPs that may play a role in freshwater adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  15. Liver microRNA-21 is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and contributes to the disease in experimental models by inhibiting PPARα expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, Xavier; Paradis, Valérie; Hénique, Carole; Vion, Anne-Clémence; Colnot, Nathalie; Guerin, Coralie L; Devue, Cécile; On, Sissi; Scetbun, Jérémy; Romain, Mélissa; Paul, Jean-Louis; Rothenberg, Marc E; Marcellin, Patrick; Durand, François; Bedossa, Pierre; Prip-Buus, Carina; Baugé, Eric; Staels, Bart; Boulanger, Chantal M; Tedgui, Alain; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggested that microRNA-21 may be upregulated in the liver in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but its role in the development of this disease remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of microRNA-21 in NASH. Design We inhibited or suppressed microRNA-21 in different mouse models of NASH: (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with antagomir-21 or antagomir control; (b) microRNA-21-deficient and wild-type mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet; (c) peroxisome proliferation-activator receptor α (PPARα)-deficient mice fed an MCD diet and treated with antagomir-21 or antagomir control. We assessed features of NASH and determined liver microRNA-21 levels and cell localisation. MicroRNA-21 levels were also quantified in the liver of patients with NASH, bland steatosis or normal liver and localisation was determined. Results Inhibiting or suppressing liver microRNA-21 expression reduced liver cell injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis without affecting liver lipid accumulation in Ldlr−/− fed a high-fat diet and in wild-type mice fed an MCD diet. Liver microRNA-21 was overexpressed, primarily in biliary and inflammatory cells, in mouse models as well as in patients with NASH, but not in patients with bland steatosis. PPARα, a known microRNA-21 target, implicated in NASH, was decreased in the liver of mice with NASH and restored following microRNA-21 inhibition or suppression. The effect of antagomir-21 was lost in PPARα-deficient mice. Conclusions MicroRNA-21 inhibition or suppression decreases liver injury, inflammation and fibrosis, by restoring PPARα expression. Antagomir-21 might be a future therapeutic strategy for NASH. PMID:26338827

  16. MicroRNAs and the metabolic hallmarks of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Berta; Nunez Lopez, Yury O; Masternak, Michal M

    2017-11-05

    Aging, the natural process of growing older, is characterized by a progressive deterioration of physiological homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. Metabolically, the aging process is characterized by extensive changes in body composition, multi-tissue/multi-organ insulin resistance, and physiological declines in multiple signaling pathways including growth hormone, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, and sex steroids regulation. With this review, we intend to consolidate published information about microRNAs that regulate critical metabolic processes relevant to aging. In certain occasions we uncover relationships likely relevant to aging, which has not been directly described before, such as the miR-451/AMPK axis. We have also included a provocative section highlighting the potential role in aging of a new designation of miRNAs, namely fecal miRNAs, recently discovered to regulate intestinal microbiota in mammals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Integrative microRNA and proteomic approaches identify novel osteoarthritis genes and their collaborative metabolic and inflammatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Iliopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a multifactorial disease characterized by destruction of the articular cartilage due to genetic, mechanical and environmental components affecting more than 100 million individuals all over the world. Despite the high prevalence of the disease, the absence of large-scale molecular studies limits our ability to understand the molecular pathobiology of osteoathritis and identify targets for drug development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we integrated genetic, bioinformatic and proteomic approaches in order to identify new genes and their collaborative networks involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. MicroRNA profiling of patient-derived osteoarthritic cartilage in comparison to normal cartilage, revealed a 16 microRNA osteoarthritis gene signature. Using reverse-phase protein arrays in the same tissues we detected 76 differentially expressed proteins between osteoarthritic and normal chondrocytes. Proteins such as SOX11, FGF23, KLF6, WWOX and GDF15 not implicated previously in the genesis of osteoarthritis were identified. Integration of microRNA and proteomic data with microRNA gene-target prediction algorithms, generated a potential "interactome" network consisting of 11 microRNAs and 58 proteins linked by 414 potential functional associations. Comparison of the molecular and clinical data, revealed specific microRNAs (miR-22, miR-103 and proteins (PPARA, BMP7, IL1B to be highly correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Experimental validation revealed that miR-22 regulated PPARA and BMP7 expression and its inhibition blocked inflammatory and catabolic changes in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that obesity and inflammation are related to osteoarthritis, a metabolic disease affected by microRNA deregulation. Gene network approaches provide new insights for elucidating the complexity of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The integration of microRNA, proteomic

  18. Diagnostic and Prognostic MicroRNA Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer in Cell-free Urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Rasmussen, Anne Karin; Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PC) detection has led to extensive overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Urine-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers could be useful in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: To train and validate urine-based micro......RNA (miRNA) biomarkers that may assist in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Design, setting, and participants: We profiled the expression levels of 92 miRNAs via reverse transcriptase–poymerase chain reaction in cell-free urine samples from 29 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 215 patients...... could help in primary diagnosis of PC and guide treatment decisions. Further validation studies are warranted. Patient summary: Using two large patient cohorts, we searched for novel prostate cancer biomarkers in urine. We found two new sets of microRNA biomarkers in urine that could accurately predict...

  19. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  20. Strategies to identify microRNA targets: New advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules functioning to modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and playing an important role in many developmental and physiological processes. Ten thousand miRNAs have been discovered in various organisms. Although considerable progr...

  1. Pivotal role of microRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a major public health concerns and increase in the incidence of MetS caused a rise in the rates of global morbidity, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery are recommended in order to control this syndrome. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders are essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA-33 plays imperative regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including collaboration with sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, high-density lipoprotein formation, fatty acid oxidation, and insulin signaling. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improve our understanding of metabolic disorders, and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the role of miRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNA-33 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for this syndrome.   Keywords: MicroRNA-33, Insulin Resistance Syndrome X, Regulatory Role 

  2. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus, and their t......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus...

  3. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1 thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2 Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3 ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of

  4. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  5. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3 and ONIHL subjects (n=3. Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05. Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05. A total of 659 (27.0% genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3′ UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01. Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05. This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  6. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Yang, Y; Yan, Y T; Xu, L W; Ma, H Y; Shao, Y X; Cao, C J; Wu, X; Qi, M J; Wu, Y Y; Chen, R; Hong, Y; Tan, X H; Yang, L

    2018-01-11

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3) and ONIHL subjects (n=3). Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p) and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p) in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05). Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05). A total of 659 (27.0%) genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3' UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01). Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05). This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  7. Isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization of DNA and microRNA in digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Zanoli, Laura Maria; D'Agata, Roberta; Finotti, Alessia; Gambari, Roberto; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic-acid amplification is a crucial step in nucleic-acid-sequence-detection assays. The use of digital microfluidic devices to miniaturize amplification techniques reduces the required sample volume and the analysis time and offers new possibilities for process automation and integration in a single device. The recently introduced droplet polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) amplification methods require repeated cycles of two or three temperature-dependent steps during the amplification of the nucleic-acid target sequence. In contrast, low-temperature isothermal-amplification methods have no need for thermal cycling, thus requiring simplified microfluidic-device features. Here, the combined use of digital microfluidics and molecular-beacon (MB)-assisted isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization (ICSDP) to detect microRNA-210 sequences is described. MicroRNA-210 has been described as the most consistently and predominantly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor. The nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) detection capabilities of the method were first tested by targeting single-stranded DNA sequences from the genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean. The ability of the droplet-ICSDP method to discriminate between full-matched, single-mismatched, and unrelated sequences was also investigated. The detection of a range of nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) microRNA-210 solutions compartmentalized in nanoliter-sized droplets was performed, establishing the ability of the method to detect as little as 10(-18) mol of microRNA target sequences compartmentalized in 20 nL droplets. The suitability of the method for biological samples was tested by detecting microRNA-210 from transfected K562 cells.

  8. Circulating C19MC MicroRNAs in Preeclampsia, Gestational Hypertension, and Fetal Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Hromadnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the profile of circulating C19MC microRNAs (miR-516-5p, miR-517*, miR-518b, miR-520a*, miR-520h, miR-525, and miR-526a in patients with established preeclampsia (n=63, fetal growth restriction (n=27, and gestational hypertension (n=23. We examined the correlation between plasmatic concentrations and expression levels of microRNAs and the severity of the disease with respect to clinical signs, requirements for the delivery, and Doppler ultrasound parameters. Using absolute and relative quantification approaches, increased extracellular C19MC microRNA levels (miR-516-5p, P=0.037, P=0.009; miR-517*, P=0.033, P=0.043; miR-520a*, P=0.001, P=0.009; miR-525, P=0.026, P=0.01; miR-526a, P=0.03, P=0.035 were detected in patients with preeclampsia. The association analysis pointed to no relationship between C19MC microRNA plasmatic concentrations and expression profile and identified risk factors for a poorer perinatal outcome. However, the dependence between the levels of plasmatic C19MC microRNAs and the pulsatility index in the middle cerebral artery and the values of cerebroplacental ratio was demonstrated. The study brought the interesting finding that the upregulation of miR-516-5p, miR-517*, miR-520a*, miR-525, and miR-526a is a characteristic phenomenon of established preeclampsia.

  9. MicroRNAs horizon in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mirakholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the retinoblastoma research, it is of great interest to identify molecular markers associated with the genetics of tumorigenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in many crucial cellular pathways such as differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. A body of evidences showed dysregulation of miRNAs in tumor biology and many diseases. They potentially play a significant role in tumorigenesis processes and have been the subject of research in many types of cancers including retinal tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling was found to be associated with tumor development, progression and treatment. These associations demonstrate the putative applications of miRNAs in monitoring of different aspect of tumors consisting diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic. Herein, we review the current literature concerning to the study of miRNA target recognition, function to tumorigenesis and treatment in retinoblastoma. Identification the specific miRNA biomarkers associated with retinoblastoma cancer may help to establish new therapeutic approaches for salvage affected eyes in patients.

  10. Biodegradable polymer nanocarriers for therapeutic antisense microRNA delivery in living animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Sekar, Narayana M.; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression, deregulated in several cellular diseases including cancer. Altering the cellular microenvironment by modulating the microRNAs functions can regulate different genes involved in major cellular processes, and this approach is now being investigated as a promising new generation of molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies. AntagomiRs (Antisense-miRNAs) are a novel class of chemically modified stable oligonucleotides used for blocking the functions of endogenous microRNAs, which are overexpressed. A key challenge in achieving effective microRNAbased therapeutics lies in the development of an efficient delivery system capable of specifically delivering antisense oligonucleotides and target cancer cells in living animals. We are now developing an effective delivery system designed to selectively deliver antagomiR- 21 and antagomiR-10b to triple negative breast cancer cells, and to revert tumor cell metastasis and invasiveness. The FDA-approved biodegradable PLGA-nanoparticles were selected as a carrier for antagomiRs delivery. Chemically modified antagomiRs (antagomiR-21 and antagomiR-10b) were co-encapsulated in PEGylated-PLGA-nanoparticles by using the double-emulsification (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method, and the resulting average particle size of 150-200nm was used for different in vitro and in vivo experiments. The antagomiR encapsulated PLGA-nanoparticles were evaluated for their in vitro antagomiRs delivery, intracellular release profile, and antagomiRs functional effects, by measuring the endogenous cellular targets, and the cell growth and metastasis. The xenografts of tumor cells in living mice were used for evaluating the anti-metastatic and anti-invasive properties of cells. The results showed that the use of PLGA for antagomiR delivery is not only efficient in crossing cell membrane, but can also maintain functional intracellular antagomiRs level for a extended period of time and achieve

  11. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  12. Smart detection of microRNAs through fluorescence enhancement on a photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquardini, L; Potrich, C; Vaghi, V; Lunelli, L; Frascella, F; Descrovi, E; Pirri, C F; Pederzolli, C

    2016-04-01

    The detection of low abundant biomarkers, such as circulating microRNAs, demands innovative detection methods with increased resolution, sensitivity and specificity. Here, a biofunctional surface was implemented for the selective capture of microRNAs, which were detected through fluorescence enhancement directly on a photonic crystal. To set up the optimal biofunctional surface, epoxy-coated commercially available microscope slides were spotted with specific anti-microRNA probes. The optimal concentration of probe as well as of passivating agent were selected and employed for titrating the microRNA hybridization. Cross-hybridization of different microRNAs was also tested, resulting negligible. Once optimized, the protocol was adapted to the photonic crystal surface, where fluorescent synthetic miR-16 was hybridized and imaged with a dedicated equipment. The photonic crystal consists of a dielectric multilayer patterned with a grating structure. In this way, it is possible to take advantage from both a resonant excitation of fluorophores and an angularly redirection of the emitted radiation. As a result, a significant fluorescence enhancement due to the resonant structure is collected from the patterned photonic crystal with respect to the outer non-structured surface. The dedicated read-out system is compact and based on a wide-field imaging detection, with little or no optical alignment issues, which makes this approach particularly interesting for further development such as for example in microarray-type bioassays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

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    Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI, and from healthy controls.The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (P<0.05. A unique signature of 11 microRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems.We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  14. MicroRNA-31 functions as an oncogenic microRNA in mouse and human lung cancer cells by repressing specific tumor suppressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Ouyang, Haoxu

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression. It has been suggested that obtaining miRNA expression profiles can improve classification, diagnostic, and prognostic information in oncology. Here, we sought to comprehensively identify the miRNAs that are overexpressed in lung cancer by conducting mi...

  15. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryou-u; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers

  16. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryou-u [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroaki [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Ochiya, Takahiro, E-mail: tochiya@ncc.go.jp [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2015-04-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.

  17. Use of tissue-specific microRNA to control pathology of wild-type adenovirus without attenuation of its ability to kill cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Ryan; Chen, Hannah H; Carroll, Fionnadh; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; van Rooijen, Nico; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-05-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.

  18. The therapeutic potential of MicroRNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Stine Buch; Obad, Susanna; Jensen, Niels Frank

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as important posttranscriptional regulators of nearly every biological process in the cell. Furthermore, mounting evidence implies that miRNAs play key roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and that many miRNAs can function either as oncogenes or tumor...

  19. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M; Michael, Michael Z; Watson, David I; Tan, Grace; Astill, David St J; Hummel, Richard; Hussey, Damian J

    2013-01-08

    Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis) is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett's oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett's oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A). miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in oesophageal squamous mucosa of individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. These mi

  20. Identification of novel microRNA signatures linked to acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Kohei; Muranski, Pawel; Feng, Xingmin; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Townsley, Danielle M; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Chen, Jichun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Taylor, James G; Hourigan, Christopher S; Barrett, A John; Young, Neal S

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that microRNA control and modulate immunity. MicroRNA have not been investigated in acquired aplastic anemia, a T-cell-mediated immune disease. Analysis of 84 microRNA expression levels in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells of patients with aplastic anemia revealed concurrent down-regulation of miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-199a-5p (>3-fold change, Paplastic anemia compared to other hematologic disorders. MiR-126-3p and miR-223-3p were down-regulated in CD4(+) T effector memory cells, and miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p, and miR-223-3p were down-regulated in CD8(+) T effector memory and terminal effector cells. Successful immunosuppressive therapy was associated with restoration to normal expression levels of miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p, and miR-223-3p (>2-fold change, Paplastic anemia patients, MYC and PIK3R2 were up-regulated and proved to be targets of miR-145-5p and miR-126-3p, respectively. MiR-126-3p and miR-145-5p knockdown promoted proliferation and increased interferon-γ and granzyme B production in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Our work describes previously unknown regulatory roles of microRNA in T-cell activation in aplastic anemia, which may open a new perspective for development of effective therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT 01623167. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. TGFβ1-induced down-regulation of microRNA-138 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Tiepeng; Han, Lu; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhao; Xu, Benling; Gao, Quanli; Song, Yongping

    2018-02-19

    The existence of cancer stem cells within the tumor could lead to cancer therapy resistance. TGFβ1 is considered as one of the most powerful players in the generation of CSCs through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in different types of cancer including lung cancer, however, the detailed mechanisms by which TGFβ1 contribute to EMT induction and CSC maintenance remains unclear. Here, we showed primary lung cancer cells treated by TGFβ1 exhibit mesenchymal features, including morphology and expression of mesenchymal marker in a time-dependent manner. We also observed long-term TGFβ1 exposure leads to an enrichment of a sub-population of CD44 + CD90 + cells which represent CSCs in lung cancer cells. Moreover, the differential expression microRNAs between CSCs and non-CSCs were identified using next-generation sequencing to screen key miRNAs which might contribute to TGFβ1-induced EMT and CSCs generation. Among those differentially expressed miRNAs, the expression of microRNA-138 was time-dependently down-regulated by TGFβ1 treatment. We further demonstrated primary lung cancer cells, in which we knockdown the expression of miR-138, exhibit mesenchymal phenotypes and stem cell properties. Taken together, these findings indicate TGFβ1-induced down-regulation of microRNA-138 contributes to EMT in primary lung cancer cells, and suggest that miR-138 might serve as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood cell mRNAs and microRNAs: optimized protocols for extraction and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikmans, Michael; Rekers, Niels V; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Claas, Frans H J

    2013-03-14

    Assessing messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA levels in peripheral blood cells may complement conventional parameters in clinical practice. Working with small, precious samples requires optimal RNA yields and minimal RNA degradation. Several procedures for RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis were compared for their efficiency. The effect on RNA quality of freeze-thawing peripheral blood cells and storage in preserving reagents was investigated. In terms of RNA yield and convenience, quality quantitative polymerase chain reaction signals per nanogram of total RNA and using NucleoSpin and mirVana columns is preferable. The SuperScript III protocol results in the highest cDNA yields. During conventional procedures of storing peripheral blood cells at -180°C and thawing them thereafter, RNA integrity is maintained. TRIzol preserves RNA in cells stored at -20°C. Detection of mRNA levels significantly decreases in degraded RNA samples, whereas microRNA molecules remain relatively stable. When standardized to reference targets, mRNA transcripts and microRNAs can be reliably quantified in moderately degraded (quality index 4-7) and severely degraded (quality index <4) RNA samples, respectively. We describe a strategy for obtaining high-quality and quantity RNA from fresh and stored cells from blood. The results serve as a guideline for sensitive mRNA and microRNA expression assessment in clinical material.

  3. MicroRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease by promoting neurogenesis in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-124 contributes to neurogenesis through regulating its targets, but its expression both in the brain of Huntington′s disease mouse models and patients is decreased. However, the effects of microRNA-124 on the progression of Huntington′s disease have not been reported. Results from this study showed that microRNA-124 increased the latency to fall for each R6/2 Huntington′s disease transgenic mouse in the rotarod test. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU staining of the striatum shows an increase in neurogenesis. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protein levels in the striatum were increased and SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 protein level was decreased. These findings suggest that microRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease possibly through its important role in neuronal differentiation and survival.

  4. Characterization and potential role of microRNA in the Chinese dominant malaria mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout four different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Wu, Jiatong; Zhou, Shuisen; Wang, Jingwen; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are one kind of small non-coding RNAs widely distributed in insects. Many studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in development, differentiation, apoptosis, and innate immunity. However, there are a few reports describing miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis , the most common, and one of the dominant malaria mosquito in China. Here, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile across four different developmental stages including embryo, larval, pupal, and adult stages using Illumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing. In total, 164 miRNAs were obtained out of 107.46 million raw sequencing reads. 99 of them identified as known miRNAs, and the remaining 65 miRNAs were considered as novel. By analyzing the read counts of miRNAs in all developmental stages, 95 miRNAs showed stage-specific expression (q  1) in consecutive stages, indicating that these miRNAs may be involved in critical physiological activity during development. Sixteen miRNAs were identified to be commonly dysregulated throughout four developmental stages. Many miRNAs showed stage-specific expression, such as asi-miR-2943 was exclusively expressed in the embryo stage, and asi-miR-1891 could not be detected in larval stage. The expression of six selected differentially expressed miRNAs identified by qRT-PCR were consistent with our sequencing results. Furthermore, 5296 and 1902 target genes were identified for the dysregulated 68 known and 27 novel miRNAs respectively by combining miRanda and RNAhybrid prediction. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis for the predicted genes of dysregulated miRNAs revealed that they might be involved in a broad range of biological processes related with the development, such as membrane, organic substance transport and several key pathways including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, propanoate metabolism and folate biosynthesis. Thirty-two key miRNAs were identified by microRNA-gene network analysis. The present study represents the

  5. Role of G3BP1 in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated microRNA-15b and microRNA-23a biogenesis in endothelial cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Poon, Po-Ying; Mak, Kylie Hin-Man; Zhang, Lin-Yao; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Mak, Nai-Ki; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control

  6. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  7. Roles and regulation of Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooykaas, M.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional gene regulators that play important roles in many cellular processes. These short non-coding RNA molecules regulate gene expression by binding to complementary target mRNAs, thereby inducing RNA destabilization and inhibition of translation. Several DNA viruses

  8. Identification of tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Prior

    Full Text Available To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance.We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41. The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101. In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance.TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074. High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance.We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.

  9. MicroRNA regulation of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    recently contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery, yet several gaps remain in our knowledge of this process. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) established a new paradigm of post-transcriptional gene regulation and during the past decade these small non......RNAs to regulation of the autophagy pathway. This regulation occurs both through specific core pathway components as well as through less well-defined mechanisms. Although this field is still in its infancy, we are beginning to understand the potential implications of these initial findings, both from a pathological...

  10. Isolation of Exosome-Like Nanoparticles and Analysis of MicroRNAs Derived from Coconut Water Based on Small RNA High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhehao; Yu, Siran; Li, Min; Gui, Xin; Li, Ping

    2018-03-21

    In this study, the presence of microRNAs in coconut water was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the results of high-throughput small RNA sequencing. In addition, the differences in microRNA content between immature and mature coconut water were compared. A total of 47 known microRNAs belonging to 25 families and 14 new microRNAs were identified in coconut endosperm. Through analysis using a target gene prediction software, potential microRNA target genes were identified in the human genome. Real-time PCR showed that the level of most microRNAs was higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Then, exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water. After ultracentrifugation, some particle structures were seen in coconut water samples using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate fluorescence staining. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy observation and dynamic light scattering analysis also revealed some exosome-like nanoparticles in coconut water, and the mean diameters of the particles detected by the two methods were 13.16 and 59.72 nm, respectively. In conclusion, there are extracellular microRNAs in coconut water, and their levels are higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Some exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water, and the diameter of these particles was smaller than that of animal-derived exosomes.

  11. The Drosophila nerfin-1 mRNA requires multiple microRNAs to regulate its spatial and temporal translation dynamics in the developing nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Kundu, Mukta; Brody, Thomas; Odenwald, Ward F

    2007-10-01

    The mRNA encoding the Drosophila Zn-finger transcription factor Nerfin-1, required for CNS axon pathfinding events, is subject to post-transcriptional silencing. Although nerfin-1 mRNA is expressed in many neural precursor cells including all early delaminating CNS neuroblasts, the encoded Nerfin-1 protein is detected only in the nuclei of neural precursors that divide just once to generate neurons and then only transiently in nascent neurons. Using a nerfin-1 promoter-controlled reporter transgene, replacement of the nerfin-1 3' UTR with the viral SV-40 3' UTR releases the neuroblast translational block and prolongs reporter protein expression in neurons. Comparative genomics analysis reveals that the nerfin-1 mRNA 3' UTR contains multiple highly conserved sequence blocks that either harbor and/or overlap 21 predicted binding sites for 18 different microRNAs. To determine the functional significance of these microRNA-binding sites and less conserved microRNA target sites, we have studied their ability to block or limit the expression of reporter protein in nerfin-1-expressing cells during embryonic development. Our results indicate that no single microRNA is sufficient to fully inhibit protein expression but rather multiple microRNAs that target different binding sites are required to block ectopic protein expression in neural precursor cells and temporally restrict expression in neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple microRNAs play a cooperative role in the post-transcriptional regulation of nerfin-1 mRNA, and the high degree of microRNA-binding site evolutionary conservation indicates that all members of the Drosophila genus employ a similar strategy to regulate the onset and extinction dynamics of Nerfin-1 expression.

  12. Intronic microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.-Y.; Lin, S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular mRNAs that contain partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. MiRNA was originally discovered in the intergenic regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during animal development. However, neither RNA promoter nor polymerase responsible for miRNA biogenesis was determined. Recent findings of intron-derived miRNA in C. elegans, mouse, and human have inevitably led to an alternative pathway for miRNA biogenesis, which relies on the coupled interaction of Pol-II-mediated pre-mRNA transcription and intron excision, occurring in certain nuclear regions proximal to genomic perichromatin fibrils

  13. Unsuccessful Detection of Plant MicroRNAs in Beer, Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Human Plasma After an Acute Ingestion of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Victor; Martín, Roberto; Lasunción, Miguel A; Ordovás, Jose M; Daimiel, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    The recent description of the presence of exogenous plant microRNAs from rice in human plasma had profound implications for the interpretation of microRNAs function in human health. If validated, these results suggest that food should not be considered only as a macronutrient and micronutrient supplier but it could also be a way of genomic interchange between kingdoms. Subsequently, several studies have tried to replicate these results in rice and other plant foods and most of them have failed to find plant microRNAs in human plasma. In this scenario, we aimed to detect plant microRNAs in beer and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)--two plant-derived liquid products frequently consumed in Spain--as well as in human plasma after an acute ingestion of EVOO. Our hypothesis was that microRNAs present in beer and EVOO raw material could survive manufacturing processes, be part of these liquid products, be absorbed by human gut and circulate in human plasma. To test this hypothesis, we first optimized the microRNA extraction protocol to extract microRNAs from beer and EVOO, and then tried to detect microRNAs in those samples and in plasma samples of healthy volunteers after an acute ingestion of EVOO.

  14. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Leung, Eric; Lee, Nelson; Lui, Grace; To, Ka-Fai; Chan, Raphael C Y; Ip, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (PmicroRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems. We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  15. MicroRNA-200, associated with metastatic breast cancer, promotes traits of mammary luminal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cid, Lourdes; Pons, Mònica; Lozano, Juan José; Rubio, Nuria; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Soriano, Aroa; Paris-Coderch, Laia; Segura, Miquel F; Fueyo, Raquel; Arguimbau, Judit; Zodda, Erika; Bermudo, Raquel; Alonso, Immaculada; Caparrós, Xavier; Cascante, Marta; Rafii, Arash; Kang, Yibin; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; Weiss, Stephen J; Blanco, Jerónimo; Muñoz, Montserrat; Fernández, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2017-10-13

    MicroRNAs are critical regulators of gene networks in normal and abnormal biological processes. Focusing on invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC), we have found dysregulated expression in tumor samples of several microRNAs, including the miR-200 family, along progression from primary tumors to distant metastases, further reflected in higher blood levels of miR-200b and miR-7 in IDC patients with regional or distant metastases relative to patients with primary node-negative tumors. Forced expression of miR-200s in MCF10CA1h mammary cells induced an enhanced epithelial program, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, mammosphere growth and ability to form branched tubuloalveolar structures while promoting orthotopic tumor growth and lung colonization in vivo . MiR-200s also induced the constitutive activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling through downregulation of PTEN, and the enhanced mammosphere growth and ALDH activity induced in MCF10CA1h cells by miR-200s required the activation of this signaling pathway. Interestingly, the morphology of tumors formed in vivo by cells expressing miR-200s was reminiscent of metaplastic breast cancer (MBC). Indeed, the epithelial components of MBC samples expressed significantly higher levels of miR-200s than their mesenchymal components and displayed a marker profile compatible with luminal progenitor cells. We propose that microRNAs of the miR-200 family promote traits of highly proliferative breast luminal progenitor cells, thereby exacerbating the growth and metastatic properties of transformed mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Inhibition of microRNA function by antimiR oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Petri, Andreas; Lindow, Morten

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many developmental and cellular processes. Moreover, there is now ample evidence that perturbations in the levels of individual or entire families of miRNAs are strongly associated...

  17. MicroRNA Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pathophysiologically involved in acute cerebral ischemia. This study compared miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid...

  18. Enzyme-free electrochemical detection of microRNA-21 using immobilized hairpin probes and a target-triggered hybridization chain reaction amplification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongying; Bei, Xiaoqiong; Xia, Qiuting; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Maochuan; Fan, Kai; Zhang, Mingzhen; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a sensitive enzyme-free bioassay for the determination of microRNA-21. It is based on a combination of target-triggered hybridization chain reaction, tagging with CdTe quantum dots (QDs), and anodic stripping voltammetry. Firstly, a thiolated capture hairpin probe SH-HP1 was immobilized on the surface of a gold electrode. HP1 unfolds in the presence of microRNA-21. If hairpin probe 2 (HP2) is present, a HP1-HP2 complex will be formed which possesses an exposed stem of HP2, and microRNA is released in parallel. The released microRNA-21 triggers a hybridization chain reaction and this leads to form an exposed DNA segment of HP2 and cycle use microRNA-21. With the aid of assistant DNA A1 and A2, the exposed DNA segment of HP2 progressed to a long double strand. The strand is rich in CdTe QDs with the help of QDs-A1. Then, the attached QDs were dissolved with HNO 3 to give dissolved Cd(II) ions. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical current response of Cd(II) is monitored by anodic stripping voltammetry and used to quantify the concentration of microRNA-21. More microRNA-21 participated in this reaction increases the number of CdTe QDs, which results in increased electrochemical current. Thus, an ultrasensitive detection of microRNA-21 is accomplished by anodic stripping voltammetry. This gene assay displays a detection limit as low as 33 aM. It can discriminate between complementary DNA sequence and single-base mismatched DNA, indicating its high specificity. (author)

  19. Identification of XMRV infection-associated microRNAs in four cell types in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketha V K Mohan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: XMRV is a gammaretrovirus that was thought to be associated with prostate cancer (PC and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in humans until recently. The virus is culturable in various cells of human origin like the lymphocytes, NK cells, neuronal cells, and prostate cell lines. MicroRNAs (miRNA, which regulate gene expression, were so far not identified in cells infected with XMRV in culture. METHODS: Two prostate cell lines (LNCaP and DU145 and two primary cells, Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes [PBL] and Monocyte-derived Macrophages [MDM] were infected with XMRV. Total mRNA was extracted from mock- and virus-infected cells at 6, 24 and 48 hours post infection and evaluated for microRNA profile in a microarray. RESULTS: MicroRNA expression profiles of XMRV-infected continuous prostate cancer cell lines differ from that of virus-infected primary cells (PBL and MDMs. miR-193a-3p and miRPlus-E1245 observed to be specific to XMRV infection in all 4 cell types. While miR-193a-3p levels were down regulated miRPlus-E1245 on the other hand exhibited varied expression profile between the 4 cell types. DISCUSSION: The present study clearly demonstrates that cellular microRNAs are expressed during XMRV infection of human cells and this is the first report demonstrating the regulation of miR193a-3p and miRPlus-E1245 during XMRV infection in four different human cell types.

  20. microRNA expression profiling in fetal single ventricle malformation identified by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Bin; Han, Shu-Ping; Bai, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Chun; Pan, Ya; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many biological processes, particularly cardiac growth and development, although the specific miRNA expression profile associated with this process remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to characterize the cellular microRNA profile involved in the development of congenital heart malformation, through the investigation of single ventricle (SV) defects. Comprehensive miRNA profiling in human fetal SV cardiac tissue was performed by deep sequencing. Differential expression of 48 miRNAs was revealed by sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD) analysis. Of these, 38 were down-regulated and 10 were up-regulated in differentiated SV cardiac tissue, compared to control cardiac tissue. This was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Predicted target genes of the 48 differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed by gene ontology and categorized according to cellular process, regulation of biological process and metabolic process. Pathway-Express analysis identified the WNT and mTOR signaling pathways as the most significant processes putatively affected by the differential expression of these miRNAs. The candidate genes involved in cardiac development were identified as potential targets for these differentially expressed microRNAs and the collaborative network of microRNAs and cardiac development related-mRNAs was constructed. These data provide the basis for future investigation of the mechanism of the occurrence and development of fetal SV malformations.

  1. Subgenomic analysis of microRNAs in polyploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kantar, M.; Akpinar, B. A.; Valárik, Miroslav; Lucas, S. J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hernandez, P.; Budak, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-479 ISSN 1438-793X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * microRNA * miRNA prediction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2012

  2. Computational methods for ab initio detection of microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eYousef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small RNA sequences of 18-24 nucleotides in length, which serve as templates to drive post transcriptional gene silencing. The canonical microRNA pathway starts with transcription from DNA and is followed by processing via the Microprocessor complex, yielding a hairpin structure. Which is then exported into the cytosol where it is processed by Dicer and then incorporated into the RNA induced silencing complex. All of these biogenesis steps add to the overall specificity of miRNA production and effect. Unfortunately, their modes of action are just beginning to be elucidated and therefore computational prediction algorithms cannot model the process but are usually forced to employ machine learning approaches. This work focuses on ab initio prediction methods throughout; and therefore homology-based miRNA detection methods are not discussed. Current ab initio prediction algorithms, their ties to data mining, and their prediction accuracy are detailed.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Profiling by Bead Array Technology in Human Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Interferon-Alpha-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrist Fredy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs are positive and negative regulators of eukaryotic gene expression that modulate transcript abundance by specific binding to sequence motifs located prevalently in the 3' untranslated regions of target messenger RNAs (mRNA. Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα induces a large set of protein coding genes mediating antiproliferative and antiviral responses. Here we use a global microarray-based microRNA detection platform to identify genes that are induced by IFNα in hepatoma- or melanoma-derived human tumor cell lines. Despite the enormous differences in expression levels between these models, we were able to identify microRNAs that are upregulated by IFNα in both lines suggesting the possibility that interferon-regulated microRNAs are involved in the transcriptional repression of mRNA relevant to cytokine responses.

  4. An epidermal microRNA regulates neuronal migration through control of the cellular glycosylation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Snieckute, Goda; Kagias, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate balance in glycosylation of proteoglycans is crucial for their ability to regulate animal development. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans microRNA mir-79, an ortholog of mammalian miR-9, controls sugar-chain homeostasis by targeting two proteins in the proteoglycan bio...... that impinges on a LON-2/glypican pathway and disrupts neuronal migration. Our results identify a regulatory axis controlled by a conserved microRNA that maintains proteoglycan homeostasis in cells....

  5. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-08-28

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application.The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies.CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization.Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies.This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications.

  6. LNA-modified oligonucleotides mediate specific inhibition of microRNA function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Kauppinen, Sakari; Lund, Anders H

    2006-01-01

    microRNAs are short, endogenous non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression. Important functions for microRNAs have been found in the regulation of development, cellular proliferation and differentiation, while perturbed miRNA expression patterns have been...... observed in many human cancers. Here we present a method for specific inhibition of miRNA function through interaction with LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides and report the specificity of this application. We show that LNA-modified oligonucleotides can inhibit exogenously introduced miRNAs with high...... specificity using a heterologous reporter assay, and furthermore demonstrate their ability to inhibit an endogenous miRNA in Drosophila melanogaster cells, leading to up-regulation of the cognate target protein. The method shows stoichiometric and reliable inhibition of the targeted miRNA and can thus...

  7. Changes in circulating microRNA-126 during treatment with chemotherapy and bevacizumab predicts treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Carlsen, A L; Heegaard, N H H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the predictive value of circulating microRNA-126 (cir-miRNA-126) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with first-line chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab.METHODS: The study included 68 patients. Blood samples (plasma) were collected b...

  8. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based.......001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (Pcolon cancer. Furthermore...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...

  9. MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Wang J and Sen S 2011 MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to biomarkers of disease. ... growth factor type I receptor; INSR, insulin receptor; IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; IPMN, ..... Prostate cancer signalling.

  10. MicroRNA induction in human macrophages associated with infection with ancient and modern TB strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Furci

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the genetic diversity among Mtb strains and, in particular between ancient and modern strains, reflects on several aspects of host-pathogen interaction. In particular, the modulation of specific cellular microRNAs upon MTBC infection suggests a potential role for these microRNAs in the outcome of infection and, to a major extent, to the different epidemiological success of Mtb strains.

  11. Dissecting microRNA dysregulation in age-related macular degeneration: new targets for eye gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askou, Anne Louise; Alsing, Sidsel; Holmgaard, Andreas; Bek, Toke; Corydon, Thomas J

    2018-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in humans. Overexpression or depletion of individual miRNAs is associated with human disease. Current knowledge suggests that the retina is influenced by miRNAs and that dysregulation of miRNAs as well as alterations in components of the miRNA biogenesis machinery are involved in retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that the vitreous has a specific panel of circulating miRNAs and that this panel varies according to the specific pathological stress experienced by the retinal cells. MicroRNA (miRNA) profiling indicates subtype-specific miRNA profiles for late-stage AMD highlighting the importance of proper miRNA regulation in AMD. This review will describe the function of important miRNAs involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and pathological neovascularization, the key molecular mechanisms leading to AMD, and focus on dysregulated miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets in AMD. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  13. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  14. Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potentia...

  15. TargetSpy: a supervised machine learning approach for microRNA target prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martin; Hackenberg, Michael; Langenberger, David; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2010-05-28

    Virtually all currently available microRNA target site prediction algorithms require the presence of a (conserved) seed match to the 5' end of the microRNA. Recently however, it has been shown that this requirement might be too stringent, leading to a substantial number of missed target sites. We developed TargetSpy, a novel computational approach for predicting target sites regardless of the presence of a seed match. It is based on machine learning and automatic feature selection using a wide spectrum of compositional, structural, and base pairing features covering current biological knowledge. Our model does not rely on evolutionary conservation, which allows the detection of species-specific interactions and makes TargetSpy suitable for analyzing unconserved genomic sequences.In order to allow for an unbiased comparison of TargetSpy to other methods, we classified all algorithms into three groups: I) no seed match requirement, II) seed match requirement, and III) conserved seed match requirement. TargetSpy predictions for classes II and III are generated by appropriate postfiltering. On a human dataset revealing fold-change in protein production for five selected microRNAs our method shows superior performance in all classes. In Drosophila melanogaster not only our class II and III predictions are on par with other algorithms, but notably the class I (no-seed) predictions are just marginally less accurate. We estimate that TargetSpy predicts between 26 and 112 functional target sites without a seed match per microRNA that are missed by all other currently available algorithms. Only a few algorithms can predict target sites without demanding a seed match and TargetSpy demonstrates a substantial improvement in prediction accuracy in that class. Furthermore, when conservation and the presence of a seed match are required, the performance is comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms. TargetSpy was trained on mouse and performs well in human and drosophila

  16. TargetSpy: a supervised machine learning approach for microRNA target prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langenberger David

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all currently available microRNA target site prediction algorithms require the presence of a (conserved seed match to the 5' end of the microRNA. Recently however, it has been shown that this requirement might be too stringent, leading to a substantial number of missed target sites. Results We developed TargetSpy, a novel computational approach for predicting target sites regardless of the presence of a seed match. It is based on machine learning and automatic feature selection using a wide spectrum of compositional, structural, and base pairing features covering current biological knowledge. Our model does not rely on evolutionary conservation, which allows the detection of species-specific interactions and makes TargetSpy suitable for analyzing unconserved genomic sequences. In order to allow for an unbiased comparison of TargetSpy to other methods, we classified all algorithms into three groups: I no seed match requirement, II seed match requirement, and III conserved seed match requirement. TargetSpy predictions for classes II and III are generated by appropriate postfiltering. On a human dataset revealing fold-change in protein production for five selected microRNAs our method shows superior performance in all classes. In Drosophila melanogaster not only our class II and III predictions are on par with other algorithms, but notably the class I (no-seed predictions are just marginally less accurate. We estimate that TargetSpy predicts between 26 and 112 functional target sites without a seed match per microRNA that are missed by all other currently available algorithms. Conclusion Only a few algorithms can predict target sites without demanding a seed match and TargetSpy demonstrates a substantial improvement in prediction accuracy in that class. Furthermore, when conservation and the presence of a seed match are required, the performance is comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms. TargetSpy was trained on

  17. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Cameron M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett’s oesophagus. Barrett’s oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett’s oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett’s oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A. Results miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Conclusions Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in

  18. MicroRNA-200a suppresses the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by interacting with ?-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    SU, JUAN; ZHANG, ANLING; SHI, ZHENDONG; MA, FEIFEI; PU, PEIYU; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, JIE; KANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, QINGYU

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for human organ development and is involved in tumor progression of many cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression of ?-catenin is, in part, regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of a recently identified epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-200a, in cancer cells. We also aimed to identify specific miR-200a target genes ...

  19. Functional microRNA high throughput screening reveals miR-9 as a central regulator of liver oncogenesis by affecting the PPARA-CDH1 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakaki, Alexandra; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Polytarchou, Christos; Vorvis, Christina; Poultsides, George A.; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, reflecting the aggressiveness of this type of cancer and the absence of effective therapeutic regimens. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancers, including liver cancer. Our aim was to identify microRNAs that have both functional and clinical relevance in HCC and examine their downstream signaling effectors. MicroRNA and gene expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in HCC tumors and controls. A TargetScan algorithm was used to identify miR-9 downstream direct targets. A high-throughput screen of the human microRNAome revealed 28 microRNAs as regulators of liver cancer cell invasiveness. MiR-9, miR-21 and miR-224 were the top inducers of HCC invasiveness and also their expression was increased in HCC relative to control liver tissues. Integration of the microRNA screen and expression data revealed miR-9 as the top microRNA, having both functional and clinical significance. MiR-9 levels correlated with HCC tumor stage and miR-9 overexpression induced SNU-449 and HepG2 cell growth, invasiveness and their ability to form colonies in soft agar. Bioinformatics and 3′UTR luciferase analyses identified E-cadherin (CDH1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) as direct downstream effectors of miR-9 activity. Inhibition of PPARA suppressed CDH1 mRNA levels, suggesting that miR-9 regulates CDH1 expression directly through binding in its 3′UTR and indirectly through PPARA. On the other hand, miR-9 inhibition of overexpression suppressed HCC tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PPARA and CDH1 mRNA levels were decreased in HCC relative to controls and were inversely correlated with miR-9 levels. Taken together, this study revealed the involvement of the miR-9/PPARA/CDH1 signaling pathway in HCC oncogenesis. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1562-9) contains supplementary material, which is

  20. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  1. Signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for microRNA-319a detection based on two-stage isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghui; Zhou, Yunlei; Yin, Huanshun; Jiang, Wenjing; Wang, Haiyan; Ai, Shiyun

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs play crucial role in regulating gene expression in organism, thus it is very necessary to exploit an efficient method for the sensitive and specific detection of microRNA. Herein, a signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor was fabricated for microRNA-319a detection based on two-stage isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction (ISDPR). In the presence of target microRNA, amounts of trigger DNA could be generated by the first ISDPR. Then, the trigger DNA and the primer hybridized simultaneously with the hairpin probe to open the stem of the probe, and then the ECL signal will be emitted. In the presence of phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTPs, the trigger DNA could be displaced to initiate a new cycle which was the second ISDPR. Due to the two-stage amplification, this method presented excellent detection sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 fM. Moreover, the applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by detecting the change of microRNA-319a content in the leaves of rice seedlings after the rice seeds were incubated with chemical mutagen of ethyl methanesulfonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Potential of MicroRNAs as Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Fabris (Linda); Y. Ceder (Yvonne); A.M. Chinnaiyan (Arul); G.W. Jenster (Guido); K.D. Sorensen (Karina D.); S.A. Tomlins (Scott A); T. Visakorpi (Tapio); G.A. Calin (George)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContext: Short noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) control protein expression through the degradation of RNA or the inhibition of protein translation. The miRNAs influence a wide range of biologic processes and are often deregulated in cancer. This family of small RNAs constitutes

  3. Evolution of microRNA diversity and regulation in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The ancient origin of miRNAs, their dramatic expansion in bilaterian animals and their function in providing robustness to transcriptional programmes suggest that miRNAs

  4. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA biogenesis and function related proteins in eleven animal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuying; Luo, GuanZheng; Bai, Xiujuan; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2009-10-01

    MicroRNAs are approximately 22 nt long small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in eukaryotes. The biogenesis and functional processes of microRNAs require the participation of many proteins, of which, the well studied ones are Dicer, Drosha, Argonaute and Exportin 5. To systematically study these four protein families, we screened 11 animal genomes to search for genes encoding above mentioned proteins, and identified some new members for each family. Domain analysis results revealed that most proteins within the same family share identical or similar domains. Alternative spliced transcript variants were found for some proteins. We also examined the expression patterns of these proteins in different human tissues and identified other proteins that could potentially interact with these proteins. These findings provided systematic information on the four key proteins involved in microRNA biogenesis and functional pathways in animals, and will shed light on further functional studies of these proteins.

  5. MicroRNA-22 impairs anti-tumor ability of dendritic cells by targeting p38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a critical role in triggering anti-tumor immune responses. Their intracellular p38 signaling is of great importance in controlling DC activity. In this study, we identified microRNA-22 (miR-22 as a microRNA inhibiting p38 protein expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of its mRNA. The p38 down-regulation further interfered with the synthesis of DC-derived IL-6 and the differentiation of DC-driven Th17 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-22 in DCs impaired their tumor-suppressing ability while miR-22 inhibitor could reverse this phenomenon and improve the curative effect of DC-based immunotherapy. Thus, our results highlight a suppressive role for miR-22 in the process of DC-invoked anti-tumor immunity and that blocking this microRNA provides a new strategy for generating potent DC vaccines for patients with cancer.

  6. Hepatic expression of inflammatory genes and microRNAs in pigs with high “cholesteryl ester transfer protein” (CETP) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, Susanna; Tørsleff, Benedicte C Juul; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    levels (designated as CETP-high and CETP-low, respectively). Furthermore, breed and gender differences were also investigated. We found significant difference (P hepatic expression levels of several mRNAs and microRNAs between the CETP-high and -low groups (C5, IL1RN, IL18, and miR-223-5p......) promoting the redistribution of cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma proteins. Moreover, obesity and ORD are often linked with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to detect...... differences in the hepatic expression of genes involved in low-grade inflammation and of obesity- and cholesterol-related microRNAs in two mixed breed populations of pigs (Yorkshire-Göttingen minipig, YM and Duroc-Göttingen minipig, DM) including males and females, with extreme phenotypes for CETP activity...

  7. Computational identification of 18 micrornas and their targets in three species of rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, I.A.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Achakzai, A.K.K.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding, small endogenous RNAs. Their length ranges from 18-26 nucleotides (nt). The miRNAs convergence property becomes a rational approach for the hunt of novel miRNAs in other organisms by homology search. As presently very little miRNAs are reported for rose species, so this study deals with the identification of miRNAs in different species of rose. Consequently 18 miRNA belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified in 3 species of rose (Rosa hybrid, Rosa chinensis and Rosa virginiana). All of the identified miRNA families (miR156, 160, 164, 166, 398, 482, 831, 837, 838, 841, 847, 3436, 3627, 6135, 6285, 6287 and 6288) are being reported for the first time in rose. Precursors of the identified miRNAs form stable minimum free energy (MFE) stem-loop structures and the mature miRNAs are found in the stem portions of their corresponding precursors. 11 putative targets of the miRNAs have also been identified. The identified targets are various proteins including transcription factors. Identification of 18 miRNAs will be supportive to explore the gene regulation phenomenon in various species of roses and it will be a good contribution for understanding the post transcriptional gene regulation in various stages of the life cycles of roses. (author)

  8. MicroRNA Implications across Neurodevelopment and Neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabata Martino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have rapidly emerged as biologically important mediators of posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulation in both plants and animals. miRNAs function through a variety of mechanisms including mRNA degradation and translational repression; additionally, miRNAs may guide gene expression by serving as transcription factors. miRNAs are highly expressed in human brain. Tissue and cell type-specific enrichments of certain miRNAs within the nervous system argue for a biological significance during neurodevelopmental stages. On the other hand, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathologic conditions such as cancer, heart diseases, and neurodegeneration. Thus, profiles of distinct or aberrant miRNA signatures have most recently surged as one of the most fascinating interests in current biology. Here, the most recent insights into the involvement of miRNAs in the biology of the nervous system and the occurrence of neuropathological disorders are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  10. Identifying mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancer: with application to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou Louis S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA regulate mRNA levels in a tissue specific way, either by inducing degradation of the transcript or by inhibiting translation or transcription. Putative mRNA targets of microRNA identified from seed sequence matches are available in many databases. However, such matches have a high false positive rate and cannot identify tissue specificity of regulation. Results We describe a simple method to identify direct mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancers from expression level measurements in patient matched tumor/normal samples. The word "direct" is used here in a strict sense to: a represent mRNA which have an exact seed sequence match to the microRNA in their 3'UTR, b the seed sequence match is strictly conserved across mouse, human, rat and dog genomes, c the mRNA and microRNA expression levels can distinguish tumor from normal with high significance and d the microRNA/mRNA expression levels are strongly and significantly anti-correlated in tumor and/or normal samples. We apply and validate the method using clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples, limiting our analysis to mRNA targets which undergo degradation of the mRNA transcript because of a perfect seed sequence match. Dysregulated microRNA and mRNA are first identified by comparing their expression levels in tumor vs normal samples. Putative dysregulated microRNA/mRNA pairs are identified from these using seed sequence matches, requiring that the seed sequence be conserved in human/dog/rat/mouse genomes. These are further pruned by requiring a strong anti-correlation signature in tumor and/or normal samples. The method revealed many new regulations in ccRCC. For instance, loss of miR-149, miR-200c and mir-141 causes gain of function of oncogenes (KCNMA1, LOX, VEGFA and SEMA6A respectively and increased levels of miR-142-3p, miR-185, mir-34a, miR-224, miR-21 cause loss of function of tumor suppressors LRRC2, PTPN13, SFRP1

  11. Gene function analysis by artificial microRNAs in Physcomitrella patens.

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Fattash, Isam; Arif, Muhammad Asif; Frank, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nt long small RNAs transcribed from endogenous MIR genes which form precursor RNAs with a characteristic hairpin structure. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary

  12. Ibrutinib targets microRNA-21 in multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Gong, Wei; Liu, Su; Li, Qian; Guo, Mengzheng; Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Suying; Chen, Naiyao; Wang, Yafei; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The oncogenic microRNA-21 contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Ibrutinib (also referred to as PCI-32765), an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, while its effects on multiple myeloma have not been well described. Here, we show that microRNA-21 is an oncogenic marker closely linked with progression of multiple myeloma. Moreover, ibrutinib attenuates microRNA-21 expression in multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that ibrutinib is a promising potential treatment for multiple myeloma. Further investigation of mechanisms of ibrutinib function in multiple myeloma will be necessary to evaluate its use as a novel multiple myeloma treatment.

  13. MicroRNA's are novel biomarkers in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Edith Smed; Alamili, Mahdi; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The discovery of small non-coding microRNAs (miRs) and their correlation to sepsis has gained increasing interest. Our aim was to systematically review the literature examining the association ...... searching the computational target prediction databases. Conclusion: Various miRs are associated with sepsis, but no corresponding predictor genes were found....

  14. A novel vector-based method for exclusive overexpression of star-form microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    Full Text Available The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs as important regulators of gene expression have been studied intensively. Although most of these investigations have involved the highly expressed form of the two mature miRNA species, increasing evidence points to essential roles for star-form microRNAs (miRNA*, which are usually expressed at much lower levels. Owing to the nature of miRNA biogenesis, it is challenging to use plasmids containing miRNA coding sequences for gain-of-function experiments concerning the roles of microRNA* species. Synthetic microRNA mimics could introduce specific miRNA* species into cells, but this transient overexpression system has many shortcomings. Here, we report that specific miRNA* species can be overexpressed by introducing artificially designed stem-loop sequences into short hairpin RNA (shRNA overexpression vectors. By our prototypic plasmid, designed to overexpress hsa-miR-146b-3p, we successfully expressed high levels of hsa-miR-146b-3p without detectable change of hsa-miR-146b-5p. Functional analysis involving luciferase reporter assays showed that, like natural miRNAs, the overexpressed hsa-miR-146b-3p inhibited target gene expression by 3'UTR seed pairing. Our demonstration that this method could overexpress two other miRNAs suggests that the approach should be broadly applicable. Our novel strategy opens the way for exclusively stable overexpression of miRNA* species and analyzing their unique functions both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Complex Epigenetic Regulation of Chemotherapy Resistance and Biology in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Lindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance towards chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We investigated the role of specific microRNAs in chemotherapy resistance and tumor biology. Methods: We selected three microRNAs from characteristic microRNA signatures of resistant ESCC (hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-130a-3p, hsa-miR-1226-3p, and hsa-miR-148a-3p. Effects on chemotherapy, adhesion, migration, apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed in six ESCC cell lines. Target analyses were performed using Western blotting and luciferase techniques. Results: MiR-130a-3p sensitized cells towards cisplatin in 100% of cell lines, miR-148a-3p in 83%, miR-125a-5p in 67%, miR-1226-3p in 50% (p ≤ 0.04. MiR-130a-3p sensitized 83% of cell lines towards 5-FU, miR-148a-3p/miR-125a-5p/miR-1226-3p only 33% (p ≤ 0.015. Several resistance-relevant pathways seem to be targeted on various levels. Bcl-2 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-130a-3p and miR-148a-3p, and p53 as a target of miR-125a-5p. All microRNAs decreased migration and adhesion, except miR-130a-3p, and increased apoptosis. Simultaneous manipulation of two microRNAs exhibited additive sensitizing effects towards cisplatin in 50% (miR-125a-5p/miR-148a-3p, and 75% (miR-148a-3p/miR-130a-3p of cell lines (p ≤ 0.006. Conclusion: Our data present strong evidence that specific microRNA signatures are responsible for drug resistance and aggressiveness of ESCC. Final functional readout of these complex processes appears to be more important than single microRNA-target interactions.

  16. MicroRNAs regulate B-cell receptor signaling-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, J. L.; Chen, C-Z

    Apoptosis induced by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for antigen-driven selection, a process critical to tolerance and immunity. Here, we examined the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BCR signaling-induced apoptosis using the widely applied WEHI-231 model. Comparison of miRNA levels in

  17. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsen, Anke J.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Creemers, Esther E.

    2012-01-01

    Tijsen AJ, Pinto YM, Creemers EE. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H1085-H1095, 2012. First published August 31, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00191.2012.-One of the major challenges in cardiovascular disease is the

  18. microRNA-101 is a potent inhibitor of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Wen, Jiayu; Lees, Michael

    2011-01-01

    performed a functional screen in search of microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate the autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. In this study, we identified the tumour suppressive miRNA, miR-101, as a potent inhibitor of basal, etoposide- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. Through transcriptome profiling, we...

  19. Circulating microRNA-1a is a biomarker of Graves' disease patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Xuan; Tian, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; She, Dun-Min; Guo, Fei-Fan; Zhai, Qi-Wei; Ying, Hao; Xue, Ying

    2017-07-01

    It has been increasingly suggested that specific microRNAs expression profiles in the circulation and atrial tissue are associated with the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation. Nonetheless, the role of circulating microRNAs in Graves' disease patients with atrial fibrillation has not yet been well described. The objective of the study was to identify the role of circulating microRNAs as specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of Graves' disease with atrial fibrillation. The expression profiles of eight serum microRNAs, which are found to be critical in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, were determined in patients with Graves' disease with or without atrial fibrillation. MicroRNA expression analysis was performed by real-time PCR in normal control subjects (NC; n = 17), patients with Graves' disease without atrial fibrillation (GD; n = 29), patients with Graves' disease with atrial fibrillation (GD + AF; n = 14), and euthyroid patients with atrial fibrillation (AF; n = 22). Three of the eight serum microRNAs,i.e., miR-1a, miR-26a, and miR-133, had significantly different expression profiles among the four groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the relative expression level of miR-1a was positively correlated with free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), and negatively related to thyroid stimulating hormone. Spearman's correlations analysis also revealed that the level of miR-1a was negatively correlated with a critical echocardiographic parameter (left atrial diameter), which was dramatically increased in GD + AF group compared to GD group. Furthermore, the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that, among the eight microRNAs, miR-1a had the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves not only for discriminating between individuals with and without Graves' disease, but also for predicting the presence of atrial fibrillation in patients with Graves' disease. Our findings

  20. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto; Oehmen, Martin; Bicker, Silvia; Christensen, Mette; Khudayberdiev, Sharof; Leuschner, Philipp F; Busch, Clara J L; Kane, Christina; Hübel, Katja; Dekker, Frank; Hedberg, Christian; Rengarajan, Balamurugan; Drepper, Carsten; Waldmann, Herbert; Kauppinen, Sakari; Greenberg, Michael E; Draguhn, Andreas; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Martinez, Javier; Schratt, Gerhard M; Dekker, Frank

    The microRNA pathway has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis and ultimately in dendritic spine morphogenesis, a phenomenon associated with long-lasting forms of memory. However, the particular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved are largely unknown. Here we identify specific

  1. MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis in Egypt. Heba Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Ayman Asaad Ibrahim, Maha Salah El-din Hamdy, Nashwa Aly Morshedy ...

  2. Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes 
on Tumor Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress.

  3. MicroRNA profiling reveals dysregulated microRNAs and their target gene regulatory networks in cemento-ossifying fibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thaís Dos Santos Fontes; Brito, João Artur Ricieri; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; de Lacerda, Júlio Cesar Tanos; de Castro, Wagner Henriques; Coimbra, Roney Santos; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a benign fibro-osseous neoplasm of uncertain pathogenesis, and its treatment results in morbidity. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and may represent therapeutic targets. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive miRNA profile of COF compared to normal bone. Additionally, the most relevant pathways and target genes of differentially expressed miRNA were investigated by in silico analysis. Nine COF and ten normal bone samples were included in the study. miRNA profiling was carried out by using TaqMan® OpenArray® Human microRNA panel containing 754 validated human miRNAs. We identified the most relevant miRNAs target genes through the leader gene approach, using STRING and Cytoscape software. Pathways enrichment analysis was performed using DIANA-miRPath. Eleven miRNAs were downregulated (hsa-miR-95-3p, hsa-miR-141-3p, hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-223-3p, hsa-miR-31-5p, hsa-miR-944, hsa-miR-200b-3p, hsa-miR-135b-5p, hsa-miR-31-3p, hsa-miR-223-5p and hsa-miR-200c-3p), and five were upregulated (hsa-miR-181a-5p, hsa-miR-181c-5p, hsa-miR-149-5p, hsa-miR-138-5p and hsa-miR-199a-3p) in COF compared to normal bone. Eighteen common target genes were predicted, and the leader genes approach identified the following genes involved in human COF: EZH2, XIAP, MET and TGFBR1. According to the biology of bone and COF, the most relevant KEGG pathways revealed by enrichment analysis were proteoglycans in cancer, miRNAs in cancer, pathways in cancer, p53-, PI3K-Akt-, FoxO- and TGF-beta signalling pathways, which were previously found to be differentially regulated in bone neoplasms, odontogenic tumours and osteogenesis. miRNA dysregulation occurs in COF, and EZH2, XIAP, MET and TGFBR1 are potential targets for functional analysis validation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Marijuana-derived Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses Th1/Th17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity through microRNA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sido, Jessica M; Jackson, Austin R; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-09-01

    ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the major bioactive cannabinoids derived from the Cannabis sativa plant and is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is driven by proinflammatory T helper cells including the classic inflammatory Th1 lineage as well as the more recently discovered Th17 lineage. In the current study, we investigated whether THC can alter the induction of Th1/Th17 cells involved in mBSA-induced DTH response. THC treatment (20 mg/kg) of C57BL/6 mice with DTH caused decreased swelling and infiltration of immune cells at the site of antigen rechallenge. Additionally, THC treatment decreased lymphocyte activation as well as Th1/Th17 lineage commitment, including reduced lineage-specific transcription factors and cytokines. Interestingly, while DTH caused an overexpression of miR-21, which increases Th17 differentiation via SMAD7 inhibition, and downregulation of miR-29b, an IFN-γ inhibitor, THC treatment reversed this microRNA (miR) dysregulation. Furthermore, when we transfected primary cells from DTH mice with miR-21 inhibitor or miR-29b mimic, as seen with THC treatment, the expression of target gene message was directly impacted increasing SMAD7 and decreasing IFN-γ expression, respectively. In summary, the current study suggests that THC treatment during DTH response can simultaneously inhibit Th1/Th17 activation via regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression. • THC treatment inhibits simultaneous Th1/Th17 driven inflammation. • THC treatment corrects DTH-mediated microRNA dysregulation. • THC treatment regulates proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors.

  5. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  6. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  7. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihui; Zhao, Jiangping; Wang, Jianbin; Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  8. Cancer Exosomes Perform Cell-Independent MicroRNA Biogenesis and Promote Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Sonia A.; Sugimoto, Hikaru; O’Connell, Joyce T.; Kato, Noritoshi; Villanueva, Alberto; Vidal, August; Qiu, Le; Vitkin, Edward; Perelman, Lev T.; Melo, Carlos A.; Lucci, Anthony; Ivan, Cristina; Calin, George A.; Kalluri, Raghu

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Exosomes are secreted by all cell types and contain proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we report that breast cancer associated exosomes contain microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the RISC Loading Complex (RLC) and display cell-independent capacity to process precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) into mature miRNAs. Pre-miRNAs, along with Dicer, AGO2, and TRBP, are present in exosomes of cancer cells. CD43 mediates the accumulation of Dicer specifically in cancer exosomes. Cancer exosomes mediate an efficient and rapid silencing of mRNAs to reprogram the target cell transcriptome. Exosomes derived from cells and sera of patients with breast cancer instigate non-tumorigenic epithelial cells to form tumors in a Dicer-dependent manner. These findings offer opportunities for the development of exosomes based biomarkers and therapies. PMID:25446899

  9. MicroRNA-29b modulates innate and antigen-specific immune responses in mouse models of autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolline Salama

    Full Text Available In addition to important regulatory roles in gene expression through RNA interference, it has recently been shown that microRNAs display immune stimulatory effects through direct interaction with receptors of innate immunity of the Toll-like receptor family, aggravating neuronal damage and tumour growth. Yet no evidence exists on consequences of microRNA immune stimulatory actions in the context of an autoimmune disease. Using microRNA analogues, we here show that pancreatic beta cell-derived microRNA sequences induce pro-inflammatory (TNFa, IFNa, IL-12, IL-6 or suppressive (IL-10 cytokine secretion by primary mouse dendritic cells in a sequence-dependent manner. For miR-29b, immune stimulation in RAW264.7 macrophages involved the endosomal Toll-like receptor-7, independently of the canonical RNA interference pathway. In vivo, the systemic delivery of miR-29b activates CD11b+B220- myeloid and CD11b-B220+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells and induces IFNa, TNFa and IL-6 production in the serum of recipient mice. Strikingly, in a murine model of adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes, miR-29b reduces the cytolytic activity of transferred effector CD8+ T-cells, insulitis and disease incidence in a single standalone intervention. Endogenous miR-29b, spontaneously released from beta-cells within exosomes, stimulates TNFa secretion from spleen cells isolated from diabetes-prone NOD mice in vitro. Hence, microRNA sequences modulate innate and ongoing adaptive immune responses raising the question of their potential role in the breakdown of tolerance and opening up new applications for microRNA-based immune therapy.

  10. Emerging roles of microRNAs as molecular switches in the integrated circuit of the cancer cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Lianidou, Evi; Mourelatos, Zissimos

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of normal cells into malignant tumors requires the acquisition of six hallmark traits, e.g., self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to antigrowth signals and self-renewal, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replication potential, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, which are common to all cancers (Hanahan and Weinberg 2000). These new cellular traits evolve from defects in major regulatory microcircuits that are fundamental for normal homeostasis. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a new class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to various mRNA targets suggests that these tiny RNA molecules likely act as molecular switches in the extensive regulatory web that involves thousands of transcripts. Most importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that numerous microRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human cancers. In this review, we discuss the emergent roles of microRNAs as switches that function to turn on/off known cellular microcircuits. We outline recent compelling evidence that deregulated microRNA-mediated control of cellular microcircuits cooperates with other well-established regulatory mechanisms to confer the hallmark traits of the cancer cell. Furthermore, these exciting insights into aberrant microRNA control in cancer-associated circuits may be exploited for cancer therapies that will target deregulated miRNA switches. PMID:19561119

  11. Detecting new microRNAs in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes identifies miR-3085 as a human, chondrocyte-selective, microRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, N.; Swingler, T.E.; Le, L.T.T.; Barter, M.J.; Wheeler, G.; Pais, H.; Donell, S.T.; Young, D.A.; Dalmay, T.; Clark, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To use deep sequencing to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs) in human osteoarthritic cartilage which have a functional role in chondrocyte phenotype or function. Design A small RNA library was prepared from human osteoarthritic primary chondrocytes using in-house adaptors and analysed by Illumina sequencing. Novel candidate miRNAs were validated by northern blot and qRT-PCR. Expression was measured in cartilage models. Targets of novel candidates were identified by microarray...

  12. Hypomethylation of miR-142 promoter and upregulation of microRNAs that target the oxytocin receptor gene in the autism prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Michal; Nardone, Stefano; Sams, Dev Sharan; Elliott, Evan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the translation of protein from gene transcripts and are a powerful mechanism to regulate gene networks. Next-generation sequencing technologies have produced important insights into gene transcription changes that occur in the brain of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (asd). However, these technologies have not yet been employed to uncover changes in microRNAs in the brain of individuals diagnosed with asd. Small RNA next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from 12 human autism brain samples and 12 controls. Real-time PCR was used to validate a sample of the differentially expressed microRNAs, and bioinformatic analysis determined common pathways of gene targets. MicroRNA expression data was correlated to genome-wide DNA methylation data to determine if there is epigenetic regulation of dysregulated microRNAs in the autism brain. Luciferase assays, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine how dysregulated microRNAs may regulate the expression and translation of an autism-related gene transcript. We determined that miR-142-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-451a, miR-144-3p, and miR-21-5p are overexpressed in the asd brain. Furthermore, the promoter region of the miR-142 gene is hypomethylated in the same brain samples, suggesting that epigenetics plays a role in dysregulation of microRNAs in the brain. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these microRNAs target genes that are involved in synaptic function. Further bioinformatic analysis, coupled with in vitro luciferase assays, determined that miR-451a and miR-21-5p can target the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. OXTR gene expression is increased in these same brain samples, and there is a positive correlation between miR-21-5p and OXTR expression. However, miR-21-5p expression negatively correlates to production of OXTR protein from the OXTR transcript. Therefore, we suggest that miR-21-5p may attenuate OXTR expression in

  13. Two microRNA signatures for malignancy and immune infiltration predict overall survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Ilya; Parameswaran, Janaki; Shapira, Iuliana; Lovecchio, John; Menzin, Andrew; Whyte, Jill; Dos Santos, Lisa; Liang, Sharon; Bhuiya, Tawfiqul; Keogh, Mary; Khalili, Houman; Pond, Cassandra; Liew, Anthony; Shih, Andrew; Gregersen, Peter K; Lee, Annette T

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs have been established as key regulators of tumor gene expression and as prime biomarker candidates for clinical phenotypes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We analyzed the coexpression and regulatory structure of microRNAs and their co-localized gene targets in primary tumor tissue of 20 patients with advanced EOC in order to construct a regulatory signature for clinical prognosis. We performed an integrative analysis to identify two prognostic microRNA/mRNA coexpression modules, each enriched for consistent biological functions. One module, enriched for malignancy-related functions, was found to be upregulated in malignant versus benign samples. The second module, enriched for immune-related functions, was strongly correlated with imputed intratumoral immune infiltrates of T cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes, and macrophages. We validated the prognostic relevance of the immunological module microRNAs in the publicly available The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. These findings provide novel functional roles for microRNAs in the progression of advanced EOC and possible prognostic signatures for survival. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. MicroRNAs Change the Landscape of Cancer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Wu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the cancer treatment is the development of drug resistance. It represents a major obstacle to curing cancer with constrained efficacy of both conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapies, even recent immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Deciphering the mechanisms of resistance is critical to further understanding the multifactorial pathways involved, and developing more specific targeted treatments. To date, numerous studies have reported the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the resistance to various cancer treatments. MicroRNAs are a family of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by sequence-specific targeting of mRNAs causing translational repression or mRNA degradation. More than 1200 validated human miRNAs have been identified in human genome. While one miRNA can regulate hundreds of targets, a single target can also be affected by multiple miRNAs. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of specific miRNAs may be involved in the acquisition of resistance, thereby modulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to treatment. Therefore, manipulation of miRNAs may be an attractive strategy for more effective individualized therapies through reprograming resistant network in cancer cells.

  15. Categorization of species based on their microRNAs employing sequence motifs, information-theoretic sequence feature extraction, and k-mers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousef, Malik; Nigatu, Dawit; Levy, Dalit; Allmer, Jens; Henkel, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diseases like cancer can manifest themselves through changes in protein abundance, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the modulation of protein quantity. MicroRNAs are used throughout all kingdoms and have been shown to be exploited by viruses to modulate their host

  16. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  17. An update on the microRNAs and their targets in unicellular red alga porphyridium cruentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.K.

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and regulatory RNAs about approx 21 nucleotides in length. The miRNAs are reported in large number of higher eukaryotic plant species. But very little data of miRNAs in algae is available. Porphyridium cruentum is unicellular red alga famous as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins and polysaccharide contents. The present study is aimed to update the microRNAs and their targets in this important algal species. A comparative genomics approach was applied to update the miRNAs in P. cruentum. This effort resulted in a total of 49 miRNAs belonging to 46 families in P. cruentum. Their precursor-miRNAs were observed with a range of 40 to 351 nucleotides (nt). The mature miRNA sequences showed a range of 17-24 nts. The minimum free energies by stem loop structures of these miRNAs are found with an average of -32 Kcalmol-1. A total of 13 targets, including important proteins like; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, Light-harvesting complex I, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein, Phycobiliproteins, Granule-bound starch synthase and Carbonic anhydrase were also predicted for these miRNAs. (author)

  18. Chronic ethanol consumption modulates growth factor release, mucosal cytokine production, and microRNA expression in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Mark; Pasala, Sumana; Engelmann, Flora; Haberthur, Kristen; Meyer, Christine; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2014-04-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to both systemic and mucosal infections. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this enhanced susceptibility remain incompletely understood. Using a nonhuman primate model of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, we examined the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on immune homeostasis, cytokine, and growth factor production in peripheral blood, lung, and intestinal mucosa following 12 months of chronic EtOH exposure. EtOH exposure inhibited activation-induced production of growth factors hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Moreover, EtOH significantly reduced the frequency of colonic Th1 and Th17 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, we did not observe differences in lymphocyte frequency or soluble factor production in the lung of EtOH-consuming animals. To uncover mechanisms underlying reduced growth factor and Th1/Th17 cytokine production, we compared expression levels of microRNAs in PBMC and intestinal mucosa. Our analysis revealed EtOH-dependent up-regulation of distinct microRNAs in affected tissues (miR-181a and miR-221 in PBMC; miR-155 in colon). Moreover, we were able to detect reduced expression of the transcription factors STAT3 and ARNT, which regulate expression of VEGF, G-CSF, and HGF and contain targets for these microRNAs. To confirm and extend these observations, PBMC were transfected with either mimics or antagomirs of miR-181 and miR-221, and protein levels of the transcription factors and growth factors were determined. Transfection of microRNA mimics led to a reduction in both STAT3/ARNT as well as VEGF/HGF/G-CSF levels. The opposite outcome was observed when microRNA antagomirs were transfected. Chronic EtOH consumption significantly disrupts both peripheral and mucosal immune homeostasis, and this dysregulation may be

  19. Implications of microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Development, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eZhai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs with critical regulatory functions as post-transcriptional regulators. Due to the fundamental importance and broad impact of miRNAs on multiple genes and pathways, dysregulated miRNAs have been associated with human diseases, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is among the most deadly diseases, and miRNAs offer a new frontier for target discovery and novel biomarkers for both diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the recent advancement of miRNA research in CRC, in particular, the roles of miRNAs in colorectal cancer stem cells, EMT, chemoresistance, therapeutics, diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. Identification of microRNAs in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2014-03-21

    Coral reefs are major contributors to marine biodiversity. However, they are in rapid decline due to global environmental changes such as rising sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, and pollution. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have broadened our understanding of coral biology, but a study of the microRNA (miRNA) repertoire of corals is missing. miRNAs constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nt in size that play crucial roles in development, metabolism, and stress response in plants and animals alike. In this study, we examined the coral Stylophora pistillata for the presence of miRNAs and the corresponding core protein machinery required for their processing and function. Based on small RNA sequencing, we present evidence for 31 bona fide microRNAs, 5 of which (miR-100, miR-2022, miR-2023, miR-2030, and miR-2036) are conserved in other metazoans. Homologues of Argonaute, Piwi, Dicer, Drosha, Pasha, and HEN1 were identified in the transcriptome of S. pistillata based on strong sequence conservation with known RNAi proteins, with additional support derived from phylogenetic trees. Examination of putative miRNA gene targets indicates potential roles in development, metabolism, immunity, and biomineralisation for several of the microRNAs. Here, we present first evidence of a functional RNAi machinery and five conserved miRNAs in S. pistillata, implying that miRNAs play a role in organismal biology of scleractinian corals. Analysis of predicted miRNA target genes in S. pistillata suggests potential roles of miRNAs in symbiosis and coral calcification. Given the importance of miRNAs in regulating gene expression in other metazoans, further expression analyses of small non-coding RNAs in transcriptional studies of corals should be informative about miRNA-affected processes and pathways.

  1. ChemiRs: a web application for microRNAs and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chen, Yu-Sing; Tien, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Jeff; Ho, Bing-Ching; Yu, Sung-Liang; Singh, Sher

    2016-04-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are about 22 nucleotides, non-coding RNAs that affect various cellular functions, and play a regulatory role in different organisms including human. Until now, more than 2500 mature miRNAs in human have been discovered and registered, but still lack of information or algorithms to reveal the relations among miRNAs, environmental chemicals and human health. Chemicals in environment affect our health and daily life, and some of them can lead to diseases by inferring biological pathways. We develop a creditable online web server, ChemiRs, for predicting interactions and relations among miRNAs, chemicals and pathways. The database not only compares gene lists affected by chemicals and miRNAs, but also incorporates curated pathways to identify possible interactions. Here, we manually retrieved associations of miRNAs and chemicals from biomedical literature. We developed an online system, ChemiRs, which contains miRNAs, diseases, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms, chemicals, genes, pathways and PubMed IDs. We connected each miRNA to miRBase, and every current gene symbol to HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) for genome annotation. Human pathway information is also provided from KEGG and REACTOME databases. Information about Gene Ontology (GO) is queried from GO Online SQL Environment (GOOSE). With a user-friendly interface, the web application is easy to use. Multiple query results can be easily integrated and exported as report documents in PDF format. Association analysis of miRNAs and chemicals can help us understand the pathogenesis of chemical components. ChemiRs is freely available for public use at http://omics.biol.ntnu.edu.tw/ChemiRs .

  2. Mechanisms in endocrinology: micro-RNAs: targets for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Bjerre Hokland, Lea; Chen, Li; Kauppinen, Sakari; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-03-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of miRNA biology and their role in bone formation and discusses their potential use in future therapeutic applications for metabolic bone diseases.

  3. Function of microRNAs in the Osteogenic Differentiation and Therapeutic Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter M. Hodges

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic wounds with segmental bone defects represent substantial reconstructive challenges. Autologous bone grafting is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment in many cases, but donor site morbidity and associated post-operative complications remain a concern. Advances in regenerative techniques utilizing mesenchymal stem cell populations from bone and adipose tissue have opened the door to improving bone repair in the limbs, spine, and craniofacial skeleton. The widespread availability, ease of extraction, and lack of immunogenicity have made adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs particularly attractive as a stem cell source for regenerative strategies. Recently it has been shown that small, non-coding miRNAs are involved in the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. Specifically, microRNAs such as miR-17, miR-23a, and miR-31 are expressed during the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and appear to play a role in inhibiting various steps in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 mediated osteogenesis. Importantly, a number of microRNAs including miR-17 and miR-31 that act to attenuate the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs are themselves stimulated by transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1. In addition, transforming growth factor β-1 is also known to suppress the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenic differentiation. These data suggest that preconditioning strategies to reduce TGFβ-1 activity in ASCs may improve the therapeutic potential of ASCs for musculoskeletal application. Moreover, these findings support the isolation of ASCs from subcutaneous fat depots that tend to have low endogenous levels of TGFβ-1 expression.

  4. Expression of coding (mRNA) and non-coding (microRNA) RNA in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pleuropneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-23 nt), that regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that microRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning innate and adaptive immune responses. Still, little is known about...... the impact of microRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of microRNA known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue and in blood from pigs experimentally infected...... with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP). Expression differences of mRNA and microRNA were quantified at different time points (6h, 12h, 24h, 48h PI) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (Rotor-Gene and Fluidigm). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals were further studied using mi...

  5. Identification of valid reference genes for microRNA expression studies in a hepatitis B virus replicating liver cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Nielsen, Kirstine Overgaard; Nordmann Winther, Thilde

    2016-01-01

    expressed microRNAs with liver-specific target genes in plasma from children with chronic hepatitis B. To further understand the biological role of these microRNAs in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B, we have used the human liver cell line HepG2, with and without HBV replication, after transfection...

  6. Plasma EBV microRNAs in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; Dean, Jonathan; De Gascun, Cillian F; Riordan, Michael; Sweeney, Clodagh; Connell, Jeff; Awan, Atif

    2018-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus identified to express microRNA (miRNA). To date, 44 mature miRNAs are encoded for within the EBV genome. EBV miRNAs have not been profiled in paediatric renal transplant recipients. In this study, we investigated circulating EBV miRNA profiles as novel biomarkers in paediatric renal transplant patients. Forty-two microRNAs encoded within 2 EBV open reading frames (BART and BHRF) were examined in renal transplant recipients who resolved EBV infection (REI) or maintained chronic high viral loads (CHL), and in non-transplant patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). Plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p was present in higher numbers of IM (7/8) and CHL (7/10) compared to REI (7/12) patients. A trend was observed between the numbers of plasma EBV miRNAs expressed and EBV viral load (p < 0.07). Several EBV-miRs including BART7-3p, 15, 9-3p, 11-3p, 1-3p and 3-3p were detected in IM and CHL patients only. The lytic EBV-miRs, BHRF1-2-3p and 1-1, indicating active viral replication, were detected in IM patients only. One CHL patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after several years and analysis of 10 samples over a 30-month period showed an average 24-fold higher change in plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p compared to the CHL group and 110-fold higher change compared to the REI group. Our results suggest that EBV-miR-BART2-5p, which targets the stress-induced immune ligand MICB to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells, may have a role in sustaining high EBV viral loads in CHL paediatric kidney transplant recipients.

  7. MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonstegard Tad S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miR are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth.

  8. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Alessandra; Bonon, Anna; Volinia, Stefano; Lanza, Giovanni; Gambari, Roberto; Pinton, Paolo; Russo, Gian Rosario; del Senno, Laura; Dell’Atti, Lucio; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:25426415

  9. MicroRNA 128a increases intracellular ROS level by targeting Bmi-1 and inhibits medulloblastoma cancer cell growth by promoting senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Venkataraman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs that regulate cell homeostasis by inhibiting translation or degrading mRNA of target genes, and thereby can act as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The role of microRNAs in medulloblastoma has only recently been addressed. We hypothesized that microRNAs differentially expressed during normal CNS development might be abnormally regulated in medulloblastoma and are functionally important for medulloblastoma cell growth. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the expression of microRNAs in medulloblastoma and then investigated the functional role of one specific one, miR-128a, in regulating medulloblastoma cell growth. We found that many microRNAs associated with normal neuronal differentiation are significantly down regulated in medulloblastoma. One of these, miR-128a, inhibits growth of medulloblastoma cells by targeting the Bmi-1 oncogene. In addition, miR-128a alters the intracellular redox state of the tumor cells and promotes cellular senescence. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report the novel regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by microRNA 128a via the specific inhibition of the Bmi-1 oncogene. We demonstrate that miR-128a has growth suppressive activity in medulloblastoma and that this activity is partially mediated by targeting Bmi-1. This data has implications for the modulation of redox states in cancer stem cells, which are thought to be resistant to therapy due to their low ROS states.

  10. Identification of rat lung-specific microRNAs by microRNA microarray: valuable discoveries for the facilitation of lung research

    OpenAIRE

    Chintagari Narendranath; Chen Zhongming; Gou Deming; Weng Tingting; Wang Yang; Liu Lin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background An important mechanism for gene regulation utilizes small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). These small RNAs play important roles in tissue development, cell differentiation and proliferation, lipid and fat metabolism, stem cells, exocytosis, diseases and cancers. To date, relatively little is known about functions of miRNAs in the lung except lung cancer. Results In this study, we utilized a rat miRNA microarray containing 216 miRNA probes, printed in-house, to d...

  11. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim; Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de; Garicochea, Bernardo; Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

  12. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Garicochea, Bernardo [Centro de Oncologia Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer.

  13. Inhibition of Mef2a Enhances Neovascularization via Post-transcriptional Regulation of 14q32 MicroRNAs miR-329 and miR-494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine M.J. Welten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficacy of neovascularization is a promising strategy to restore perfusion of ischemic tissues in patients with peripheral arterial disease. The 14q32 microRNA cluster is highly involved in neovascularization. The Mef2a transcription factor has been shown to induce transcription of the microRNAs within this cluster. We inhibited expression of Mef2a using gene-silencing oligonucleotides (GSOs in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model. Treatment with GSO-Mef2a clearly improved blood flow recovery within 3 days (44% recovery versus 25% recovery in control and persisted until 14 days after ischemia induction (80% recovery versus 60% recovery in control. Animals treated with GSO-Mef2a showed increased arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in the relevant muscle tissues. Inhibition of Mef2a decreased expression of 14q32 microRNAs miR-329 (p = 0.026 and miR-494 (trend, p = 0.06, but not of other 14q32 microRNAs, nor of 14q32 microRNA precursors. Because Mef2a did not influence 14q32 microRNA transcription, we hypothesized it functions as an RNA-binding protein that influences processing of 14q32 microRNA miR-329 and miR-494. Mef2A immunoprecipitation followed by RNA isolation and rt/qPCR confirmed direct binding of MEF2A to pri-miR-494, supporting this hypothesis. Our study demonstrates a novel function for Mef2a in post-ischemic neovascularization via post-transcriptional regulation of 14q32 microRNAs miR-329 and miR-494.

  14. MicroRNA delivery for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages and disadvantages. A number of studies have demonstrated success in augmenting osteogenesis, improving cardiogenesis, and reducing fibrosis among many other tissue engineering applications. A scaffold-based approach with the possibility of local and sustained delivery of miRNA is particularly attractive since the physical cues provided by the scaffold may synergize with the biochemical cues induced by miRNA therapy. Herein, we first briefly cover the application of miRNA to direct stem cell fate via replacement and inhibition therapies, followed by the discussion of the promising viral and nonviral delivery systems. Next we present the unique advantages of a scaffold-based delivery in achieving lineage-specific differentiation and tissue development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  16. Microrna-31 mediates radiation induced apoptosis selectively in malignant tumour cells with dysfunctional P53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Mukherjee, Prabuddho; Babu, Bincy; Chandna, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    The protein p53 has been recognized as an important radio-responsive protein which functions mainly through transcriptional control of its target genes and microRNAs that target multiple response pathways. In this study, we investigate a putative link between p53 functionality and microRNA-31 expression that largely contributes to cellular transformation/malignancy and also establishes the role of miR-31 in radiation-induced cell death. The expression of miR-31 is found to be attenuated in cells in successive stages of cancer progression

  17. Regulation of IGF-1 signaling by microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Jin eJung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates critical biological processes including development, homeostasis, and aging. Dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in a myriad of diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders, making the IGF-1 signaling pathway a prime target to develop therapeutic and intervention strategies. Recently, small non-coding RNA molecules in ~22 nucleotide length, microRNAs (miRNAs, have emerged as a new regulator of biological processes in virtually all organ systems and increasing studies are linking altered miRNA function to disease mechanisms. A miRNA binds to 3’UTRs of multiple target genes and coordinately down-regulates their expression, thereby exerting a profound influence on gene regulatory networks. Here we review the components of the IGF-1 signaling pathway that are known targets of miRNA regulation, and highlight recent studies that suggest therapeutic potential of these miRNAs against various diseases.

  18. MicroRNA Gene Regulatory Networks in Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no...Reinhardt F, Benaich N, Calogrias D, Szasz AM, Wang ZC, Brock JE, Richardson AL, Weinberg RA (2009) A pleiotropically acting microRNA, miR-31, inhibits breast

  19. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-06

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy.

  20. Two Virus-Induced MicroRNAs Known Only from Teleost Fishes Are Orthologues of MicroRNAs Involved in Cell Cycle Control in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bela-Ong, Dennis; Jalali, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are similar to 22 base pair-long non-coding RNAs which regulate gene expression in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells by binding to specific target regions in mRNAs to mediate transcriptional blocking or mRNA cleavage. Through their fundamental roles in cellular pathways, gene...... regulation mediated by miRNAs has been shown to be involved in almost all biological phenomena, including development, metabolism, cell cycle, tumor formation, and host-pathogen interactions. To address the latter in a primitive vertebrate host, we here used an array platform to analyze the miRNA response...... regulation. Stimulation of fish cell cultures with the IFN inducer poly I:C accordingly upregulated the expression of miR-462 and miR-731, while no stimulatory effect on miR-191 and miR-425 expression was observed in human cell lines. Despite high sequence conservation, evolution has thus resulted...

  1. MicroRNA Array Normalization: An Evaluation Using a Randomized Dataset as the Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA arrays possess a number of unique data features that challenge the assumption key to many normalization methods. We assessed the performance of existing normalization methods using two microRNA array datasets derived from the same set of tumor samples: one dataset was generated using a blocked randomization design when assigning arrays to samples and hence was free of confounding array effects; the second dataset was generated without blocking or randomization and exhibited array effects. The randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression between two tumor groups and treated as the benchmark. The non-randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression after normalization and compared against the benchmark. Normalization improved the true positive rate significantly in the non-randomized data but still possessed a false discovery rate as high as 50%. Adding a batch adjustment step before normalization further reduced the number of false positive markers while maintaining a similar number of true positive markers, which resulted in a false discovery rate of 32% to 48%, depending on the specific normalization method. We concluded the paper with some insights on possible causes of false discoveries to shed light on how to improve normalization for microRNA arrays. PMID:24905456

  2. A circulating microrna profile is associated with late-stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10-3. A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10-8. To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005. Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.

  3. Computational evidence for hundreds of non-conserved plant microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2005-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small (20-25 nt) non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through interaction with mRNA in plants and metazoans. A few hundred miRNAs are known or predicted, and most of those are evolutionarily conserved. In general plant miRNA are different from...

  4. MicroRNA Polymorphisms in Cancer: A Literature Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipan, Veronika; Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we collected 20 SNPs, which are located within 18 miRNA encoding genes and have been associated with 16 types of cancer. Among 20 miRNA gene polymorphisms 13 are located within the premature miRNA region, five within mature, and two within mature seed miRNA region. We graphically visualized a network of miRNA-cancer associations which revealed miRNA genes and cancer types with the highest number of connections. Our study showed that, despite a large number of variations currently known to be located within miRNA genes in humans, most of them have not yet been tested for association with cancer. MicroRNA SNPs collected in this study represent only 0.43% of known miRNA gene variations (20/4687). Results of the present study will be useful to researchers investigating the clinical use of miRNAs, such as the roles of miRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets

  5. MicroRNA Polymorphisms in Cancer: A Literature Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipan, Veronika; Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja, E-mail: tanja.kunej@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, SI-1230 Domzale (Slovenia)

    2015-09-09

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we collected 20 SNPs, which are located within 18 miRNA encoding genes and have been associated with 16 types of cancer. Among 20 miRNA gene polymorphisms 13 are located within the premature miRNA region, five within mature, and two within mature seed miRNA region. We graphically visualized a network of miRNA-cancer associations which revealed miRNA genes and cancer types with the highest number of connections. Our study showed that, despite a large number of variations currently known to be located within miRNA genes in humans, most of them have not yet been tested for association with cancer. MicroRNA SNPs collected in this study represent only 0.43% of known miRNA gene variations (20/4687). Results of the present study will be useful to researchers investigating the clinical use of miRNAs, such as the roles of miRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  6. microRNA expression profile in human coronary smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles is a source of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of extracellular vesicles is a potential tool for clinical practice. Despite the key role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in cardiovascular pathology, there is limited information about the presence of miRNAs in microparticles secreted by this cell type, including human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Here, we tested whether HCASMC-derived microparticles contain miRNAs and the value of these miRNAs as biomarkers. HCASMC and explants from atherosclerotic or non-atherosclerotic areas were obtained from coronary arteries of patients undergoing heart transplant. Plasma samples were collected from: normocholesterolemic controls (N=12) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (N=12). Both groups were strictly matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. Microparticle (0.1-1μm) isolation and characterization was performed using standard techniques. VSMC-enriched miRNAs expression (miR-21-5p, -143-3p, -145-5p, -221-3p and -222-3p) was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Total RNA isolated from HCASMC-derived microparticles contained small RNAs, including VSMC-enriched miRNAs. Exposition of HCASMC to pathophysiological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia, induced a decrease in the expression level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p in microparticles, not in cells. Expression levels of miR-222-3p were lower in circulating microparticles from FH patients compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Microparticles derived from atherosclerotic plaque areas showed a decreased level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p compared to non-atherosclerotic areas. We demonstrated for the first time that microparticles secreted by HCASMC contain microRNAs. Hypercholesterolemia alters the microRNA profile of HCASMC-derived microparticles. The miRNA signature of HCASMC-derived microparticles is a source of cardiovascular biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  7. A host MicroRNA brokers truce with HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Justin M; Sullivan, Christopher S

    2014-04-09

    Establishing lifelong infection and periodically shedding infectious progeny is a successful strategy employed by several persistent pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Pan et al. (2014) demonstrate that a cell-type-specific host microRNA can restrict gene expression and pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus 1, thereby promoting long-term infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of peripheral nerve regeneration: Emerging roles of microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that suppress gene expression through target mRNA degradation or translation repression. Recent studies suggest that miRNA plays an important role in multiple physiological and pathological processes in the nervous system. In this review article, we described what is currently known about the mechanisms in peripheral nerve regeneration on the cellular and molecular levels. Recently, changes in microRNA expression profiles have been detected in different injury models, and emerging evidence strongly indicates that these changes promote neurons to survive and shift their physiology from maintaining a structure and supporting synaptic transmission toward a regenerative phenotype. We reviewed the putative mechanisms involved in miRNA mediated post-transcriptional regulation and pointed out several areas where future research is necessary to advance our understanding of how targeting miRNA machinery can be used as a therapeutic approach for treating nerve injuries.

  10. microRNA-320/RUNX2 axis regulates adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, D; Ali, D; Vishnubalaji, R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human mesenchymal (skeletal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes (ADs) are not fully understood. Thus, we performed global microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiling during adipocytic differentiation of h...... differentiation and accelerated formation of mature ADs in ex vivo cultures. Integrated analysis of bioinformatics and global gene expression profiling in miR-320c overexpressing cells and during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC identified several biologically relevant gene targets for miR-320c including RUNX2...

  11. Research advances in microRNAs in regulating hepatitis C virus replication and antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xianghua

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the most common causes of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small, non-coding RNA, are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in human bodies. The mechanism by which miRNAs regulate HCV replication is described, and the effects of liver-specific microRNA-122 antagonists on hepatitis C antiviral therapy are discussed. Our study indicates that miRNAs play an important regulatory role in HCV expression. Targeting miRNAs may be a potential therapeutic approach for treating HCV infection, but further studies are still in need.

  12. MicroRNA-99 family members suppress Homeobox A1 expression in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Zujian; Jin, Yi; Dragas, Dragan; Zhang, Leitao; Adjei, Barima S; Wang, Anxun; Dai, Yang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR), Homeobox A1 (HOXA1), CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL), N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1), Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A), and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5). HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP) assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2) and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and migration during

  13. MicroRNA-99 family members suppress Homeobox A1 expression in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    Full Text Available The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR, Homeobox A1 (HOXA1, CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL, N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1, Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A, and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5. HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2 and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and

  14. MicroRNAs and Presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Wu, Junwu; Jiang, Wenjing; Tang, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is the most universal sensory degenerative disease in elderly people caused by the degeneration of cochlear cells. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play a fundamental role in gene regulation in almost every multicellular organism, and control the aging processes. It has been identified that various miRNAs are up- or down-regulated during mammalian aging processes in tissue-specific manners. Most miRNAs bind to specific sites on their target messenger-RNAs (mRNAs) and decrease their expression. Germline mutation may lead to dysregulation of potential miRNAs expression, causing progressive hair cell degeneration and age-related hearing loss. Therapeutic innovations could emerge from a better understanding of diverse function of miRNAs in presbycusis. This review summarizes the relationship between miRNAs and presbycusis, and presents novel miRNAs-targeted strategies against presbycusis.

  15. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-15

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies.

  16. MicroRNAs in large herpesvirus DNA genomes: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Océane; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. They alter mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity, leading to regulation of genes during both physiological and pathological processes. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to take advantage of the host cells to multiply and/or persist over the lifetime of the host. Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with a number of important diseases, including lymphoproliferative diseases. Herpesviruses establish lifelong latent infections through modulation of the interface between the virus and its host. A number of reports have identified miRNAs in a very large number of human and animal herpesviruses suggesting that these short non-coding transcripts could play essential roles in herpesvirus biology. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances on the functions of herpesvirus miRNAs in infection and pathogenesis.

  17. MicroRNA Detection by Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andachi, Yoshiki; Kohara, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) loaded on argonaute proteins guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to target mRNAs. An excellent method to decipher the spatiotemporal expression patterns of miRNAs is whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), which has been successfully used in vertebrate embryos but still remains unavailable for many animal species. Here, we describe a WISH method for miRNA detection in Caenorhabditis elegans at both embryonic and post-embryonic stages. Strategies devised for detection include fixation of animals with carbodiimide at a high temperature and subsequent partial digestion of the fixed animals with an extremely high concentration of proteinase. WISH signals are visualized by staining with a chromogenic substrate or a fluorescent dye.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes Induces a Virulence-Dependent microRNA Signature That Regulates the Immune Response in Galleria mellonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala K. Mannala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs coordinate several physiological and pathological processes by regulating the fate of mRNAs. Studies conducted in vitro indicate a role of microRNAs in the control of host-microbe interactions. However, there is limited understanding of miRNA functions in in vivo models of bacterial infections. In this study, we systematically explored changes in miRNA expression levels of Galleria mellonella larvae (greater-wax moth, a model system that recapitulates the vertebrate innate immunity, following infection with L. monocytogenes. Using an insect-specific miRNA microarray with more than 2000 probes, we found differential expression of 90 miRNAs (39 upregulated and 51 downregulated in response to infection with L. monocytogenes. We validated the expression of a subset of miRNAs which have mammalian homologs of known or predicted function. In contrast, non-pathogenic L. innocua failed to induce these miRNAs, indicating a virulence-dependent miRNA deregulation. To predict miRNA targets using established algorithms, we generated a publically available G. mellonella transcriptome database. We identified miRNA targets involved in innate immunity, signal transduction and autophagy, including spätzle, MAP kinase, and optineurin, respectively, which exhibited a virulence-specific differential expression. Finally, in silico estimation of minimum free energy of miRNA-mRNA duplexes of validated microRNAs and target transcripts revealed a regulatory network of the host immune response to L. monocytogenes. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a role of miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response following bacterial infection in a simple, rapid and scalable in vivo model that may predict host-microbe interactions in higher vertebrates.

  19. Stability of Circulating Blood-Based MicroRNAs - Pre-Analytic Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Clauss, Sebastian; Boddum, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The potential of microRNAs (miRNA) as non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, has recently been recognized. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of consistency in the methodology used, but to our knowledge, no...

  20. MicroRNAs as regulators of mitochondrial function: Role in cancer suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1840, č. 4 (2014), s. 1441-1453 ISSN 0304-4165 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Mitochondrion * MicroRNA * Cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.381, year: 2014

  1. GW182-Free microRNA Silencing Complex Controls Post-transcriptional Gene Expression during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Jannot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs and Argonaute form the microRNA induced silencing complex or miRISC that recruits GW182, causing mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. Despite the clear conservation and molecular significance, it is unknown if miRISC-GW182 interaction is essential for gene silencing during animal development. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore this question, we examined the relationship and effect on gene silencing between the GW182 orthologs, AIN-1 and AIN-2, and the microRNA-specific Argonaute, ALG-1. Homology modeling based on human Argonaute structures indicated that ALG-1 possesses conserved Tryptophan-binding Pockets required for GW182 binding. We show in vitro and in vivo that their mutations severely altered the association with AIN-1 and AIN-2. ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant animals retained microRNA-binding and processing ability, but were deficient in reporter silencing activity. Interestingly, the ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant phenocopied the loss of alg-1 in worms during larval stages, yet was sufficient to rescue embryonic lethality, indicating the dispensability of AINs association with the miRISC at this developmental stage. The dispensability of AINs in miRNA regulation is further demonstrated by the capacity of ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant to regulate a target of the embryonic mir-35 microRNA family. Thus, our results demonstrate that the microRNA pathway can act independently of GW182 proteins during C. elegans embryogenesis.

  2. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors – a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer......, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266...... microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated...

  3. Regulation of Plant Microprocessor Function in Shaping microRNA Landscape

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    Jakub Dolata

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small molecules (∼21 nucleotides long that are key regulators of gene expression. They originate from long stem–loop RNAs as a product of cleavage by a protein complex called Microprocessor. The core components of the plant Microprocessor are the RNase type III enzyme Dicer-Like 1 (DCL1, the zinc finger protein Serrate (SE, and the double-stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1. Microprocessor assembly and its processing of microRNA precursors have been reported to occur in discrete nuclear bodies called Dicing bodies. The accessibility of and modifications to Microprocessor components affect microRNA levels and may have dramatic consequences in plant development. Currently, numerous lines of evidence indicate that plant Microprocessor activity is tightly regulated. The cellular localization of HYL1 is dependent on a specific KETCH1 importin, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 indirectly protects HYL1 from degradation in a light-dependent manner. Furthermore, proper localization of HYL1 in Dicing bodies is regulated by MOS2. On the other hand, the Dicing body localization of DCL1 is regulated by NOT2b, which also interacts with SE in the nucleus. Post-translational modifications are substantial factors that contribute to protein functional diversity and provide a fine-tuning system for the regulation of protein activity. The phosphorylation status of HYL1 is crucial for its activity/stability and is a result of the interplay between kinases (MPK3 and SnRK2 and phosphatases (CPL1 and PP4. Additionally, MPK3 and SnRK2 are known to phosphorylate SE. Several other proteins (e.g., TGH, CDF2, SIC, and RCF3 that interact with Microprocessor have been found to influence its RNA-binding and processing activities. In this minireview, recent findings on the various modes of Microprocessor activity regulation are discussed.

  4. microRNAs as regulators of adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Dana; Ali, Dalia; Kassem, Moustapha; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M

    2015-02-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) constitute complex regulatory network, fine tuning the expression of a myriad of genes involved in different biological and physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma, and the stroma of many other tissues, and can give rise to a number of mesoderm-type cells including adipocytes and osteoblasts, which form medullary fat and bone tissues, respectively. The role of bone marrow fat in bone mass homeostasis is an area of intensive investigation with the aim of developing novel approaches for enhancing osteoblastic bone formation through inhibition of bone marrow fat formation. A number of recent studies have reported several miRNAs that enhance or inhibit adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and with potential use in microRNA-based therapy to regulate adipogenesis in the context of treating bone diseases and metabolic disorders. The current review focuses on miRNAs and their role in regulating adipogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  5. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  6. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks and excita...

  7. Pathogens Use and Abuse MicroRNAs to Deceive the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flór, Thomas B.; Blom, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in the survival and amplification of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. There are various ways in which pathogens can benefit from miR-directed alterations in protein translation and signal transduction. Members of the

  8. MicroRNAs in Coronary Heart Disease: Ready to Enter the Clinical Arena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cavarretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD and its complication remain the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries despite great advances in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs, act as posttranscriptional gene expression modulators and have been implicated as key regulators in several physiological and pathological processes linked to CAD. Circulating miRNAs have been evaluated as promising novel biomarkers of CAD, acute coronary syndromes, and acute myocardial infarction, with prognostic implications. Several challenges related to technical aspects, miRNAs normalization, drugs interaction, and quality reporting of statistical multivariable analysis of the miRNAs observational studies remain unresolved. MicroRNA-based therapies in cardiovascular diseases are not ready yet for human trials but definitely appealing. Through this review we will provide clinicians with a concise overview of the pros and cons of microRNAs.

  9. microRNA expression in the neural retina: Focus on Müller glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Heberto; Lamas, Mónica

    2018-03-01

    The neural retina hosts a unique specialized type of macroglial cell that not only preserves retinal homeostasis, function, and integrity but also may serve as a source of new neurons during regenerative processes: the Müller cell. Precise microRNA-driven mechanisms of gene regulation impel and direct the processes of Müller glia lineage acquisition from retinal progenitors during development, the triggering of their response to retinal degeneration and, in some cases, Müller cell reprogramming and regenerative events. In this review we survey the recent reports describing, through functional assays, the regulatory role of microRNAs in Müller cell physiology, differentiation potential, and retinal pathology. We discuss also the evidence based on expression analysis that points out the relevance of a Müller glia-specific microRNA signature that would orchestrate these processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of a Novel Substance P–Neurokinin-1 Receptor MicroRNA-221-5p Inflammatory Network in Human Colonic Epithelial CellsSummary

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    Kai Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide member of the tachykinin family, plays a critical role in colitis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We examined whether SP modulates expression of microRNAs in human colonic epithelial cells. Methods: We performed microRNA profiling analysis of SP-stimulated human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing neurokinin-1 receptor (NCM460-NK-1R. Targets of SP-regulated microRNAs were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Functions of miRNAs were tested in NCM460-NK-1R cells and the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS models of colitis. Results: SP stimulated differential expression of 29 microRNAs, including miR-221-5p, the highest up-regulated miR (by 12.6-fold upon SP stimulation. Bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analyses identified interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R mRNA as a direct target of miR-221-5p in NCM460 cells. Accordingly, SP exposure of NCM460-NK-1R cells increased IL-6R mRNA expression, and overexpression of miR-221-5p reduced IL-6R expression. Nuclear factor κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition decreased SP-induced miR-221-5p expression. MiR-221-5p expression was increased in both TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and in colonic biopsy samples from ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease patients compared with controls. In mice, intracolonic administration of a miR-221-5p chemical inhibitor exacerbated TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and increased colonic tumor necrosis factor-α, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (Cxcl10, and collagen, type II, α 1 (Col2α1 mRNA expression. In situ hybridization in TNBS- and DSS-exposed colons revealed increased miR-221-5p expression primarily in colonocytes. Conclusions: Our results reveal a novel NK-1R-miR-221-5p-IL-6R network that protects from colitis. The use of miR-221-5p mimics may be a promising approach for colitis

  11. Recent Advance in Biosensors for microRNAs Detection in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catuogno, Silvia; Esposito, Carla L. [Istituto per l' Endocrinologia e l' Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR “G. Salvatore”, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Quintavalle, Cristina [Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Cerchia, Laura [Istituto per l' Endocrinologia e l' Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR “G. Salvatore”, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Condorelli, Gerolama [Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Facolta di Scienze Biotecnologiche, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Franciscis, Vittorio de, E-mail: defranci@unina.it [Istituto per l' Endocrinologia e l' Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR “G. Salvatore”, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2011-04-08

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes. They act by sequence-specific base pairing in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNA leading to mRNA degradation or translation inhibition. Recent studies have implicated miRNAs in a wide range of biological processes and diseases including development, metabolism and cancer, and revealed that expression levels of individual miRNAs may serve as reliable molecular biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, a major challenge is to develop innovative tools able to couple high sensitivity and specificity for rapid detection of miRNAs in a given cell or tissue. In this review, we focus on the latest innovative approaches proposed for miRNA profiling in cancer and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Recent Advance in Biosensors for microRNAs Detection in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catuogno, Silvia; Esposito, Carla L.; Quintavalle, Cristina; Cerchia, Laura; Condorelli, Gerolama; Franciscis, Vittorio de

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes. They act by sequence-specific base pairing in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNA leading to mRNA degradation or translation inhibition. Recent studies have implicated miRNAs in a wide range of biological processes and diseases including development, metabolism and cancer, and revealed that expression levels of individual miRNAs may serve as reliable molecular biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, a major challenge is to develop innovative tools able to couple high sensitivity and specificity for rapid detection of miRNAs in a given cell or tissue. In this review, we focus on the latest innovative approaches proposed for miRNA profiling in cancer and discuss their advantages and disadvantages

  13. Circulating microRNAs in patients with Shiga-Toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 induced hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan M Lorenzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early May 2011, an outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS first developed in Northern Germany and spread to 15 other countries in Europe. The outbreak-strain O104:H4, which combined virulence factors of typical enteroaggregative and Shiga-Toxin-producing E. coli was associated with an unusual high rate of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Also an unexpected high rate of coma and seizures leading to mechanical ventilation and ICU treatment was observed. MicroRNAs are small ribonucleotides orchestrating gene expression. We tested whether circulating microRNAs in serum of HUS patients during the 2011 epidemics are altered in this patient cohort and related to clinical manifestations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We profiled microRNAs using RNA isolated from serum of patients and healthy age-matched controls. The results were validated in 38 patients at baseline, 29 patients during follow-up and 21 age-matched healthy controls by miRNA-specific quantitative RT-PCR. Circulating levels of miR-24, miR-126 were increased in HUS patients versus controls. There was no association between these microRNAs and renal function or the need for renal replacement therapy. In contrast, levels of miR-126 were associated with neurological symptoms at baseline and during follow-up. In addition, miR-126 (on admission and miR-24 (on admission and during follow-up were associated with platelet count. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Circulating microRNAs are strongly altered in this patient cohort and associated with neurological symptoms as well as platelet count.

  14. Alterations of MicroRNAs in Solid Cancers and Their Prognostic Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chira, Panagiota; Vareli, Katerina; Sainis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Christos; Briasoulis, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, naturally abundant, small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. Each miRNA represses the protein expression of several coding genes in a manner proportional to the sequence complementarity with the target transcripts. MicroRNAs play key regulatory roles in organismal development and homeostasis. They control fundamental biological processes, such as stem-cell regulation and cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. Differential miRNA expression is found in malignant tumors in comparison to normal tissue counterparts. This indicates that miRNA deregulation contributes to the initiation and progression of cancer. Currently, miRNA expression signatures are being rigorously investigated in various tumor types, with the aim of developing novel, efficient biomarkers that can improve clinical management of cancer patients. This review discusses deregulated miRNAs in solid tumors, and focuses on their emerging prognostic potential

  15. A mRNA and cognate microRNAs localize in the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gutierrez, Pablo; Ritland Politz, Joan C; Pederson, Thoru

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered that a set of 5 microRNAs are concentrated in the nucleolus of rat myoblasts. We now report that several mRNAs are also localized in the nucleoli of these cells as determined by microarray analysis of RNA from purified nucleoli. Among the most abundant of these nucleolus-localized mRNAs is that encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a regulator of myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The presence of IGF2 mRNA in nucleoli was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that these nucleolar transcripts are spliced, thus arriving from the nucleoplasm. Bioinformatics analysis predicted canonically structured, highly thermodynamically stable interactions between IGF2 mRNA and all 5 of the nucleolus-localized microRNAs. These results raise the possibility that the nucleolus is a staging site for setting up particular mRNA-microRNA interactions prior to export to the cytoplasm.

  16. Microarray profiling of microRNAs expressed in testis tissues of developing primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Naihong; Lu, Yilu; Sun, Huaqin

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have been identified as potent regulators of gene expression. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in mammalian spermatogenesis but the mechanism of regulation is largely unknown....

  17. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  18. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  19. The MicroRNA Repertoire of Symbiodinium, the Dinoflagellate Symbiont of Reef-Building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous microRNAs and potential gene targets, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over nine experimental treatments of cultures from the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. A1, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals. We identified a total of 75 novel smRNAs in Symbiodinum sp. A1 that share stringent key features with functional microRNAs from other model organisms. A subset of 38 smRNAs was predicted independently over all nine treatments and their putative gene targets were identified. We found 3,187 animal-like target sites in the 3’UTRs of 12,858 mRNAs and 53 plantlike target sites in 51,917 genes. Furthermore, we identified the core RNAi protein machinery in Symbiodinium. Integration of smRNA and mRNA expression profiling identified a variety of processes that could be under microRNA control, e.g. regulation of translation, DNA modification, and chromatin silencing. Given that Symbiodinium seems to have a paucity of transcription factors and differentially expressed genes, identification and characterization of its smRNA repertoire establishes the possibility of a range of gene regulatory mechanisms in dinoflagellates acting post-transcriptionally.

  20. C. elegans microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Monica C; Slack, Frank J

    2005-09-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs found in many phyla that control such diverse events as development, metabolism, cell fate and cell death. They have also been implicated in human cancers. The C. elegans genome encodes hundreds of miRNAs, including the founding members of the miRNA family lin-4 and let-7. Despite the abundance of C. elegans miRNAs, few miRNA targets are known and little is known about the mechanism by which they function. However, C. elegans research continues to push the boundaries of discovery in this area. lin-4 and let-7 are the best understood miRNAs. They control the timing of adult cell fate determination in hypodermal cells by binding to partially complementary sites in the mRNA of key developmental regulators to repress protein expression. For example, lin-4 is predicted to bind to seven sites in the lin-14 3' untranslated region (UTR) to repress LIN-14, while let-7 is predicted to bind two let-7 complementary sites in the lin-41 3' UTR to down-regulate LIN-41. Two other miRNAs, lsy-6 and mir-273, control left-right asymmetry in neural development, and also target key developmental regulators for repression. Approximately one third of the C. elegans miRNAs are differentially expressed during development indicating a major role for miRNAs in C. elegans development. Given the remarkable conservation of developmental mechanism across phylogeny, many of the principles of miRNAs discovered in C. elegans are likely to be applicable to higher animals.

  1. MicroRNA regulation of cancer metabolism: role in tumour suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Santarelli, L.; Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, part a SI (2014), s. 29-38 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : MicroRNA * Mitochondria * Tumour suppression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2014

  2. In Vitro Assays for Mouse Müller Cell Phenotyping Through microRNA Profiling in the Damaged Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Aguirre, Luis I; Quintero, Heberto; Estrada-Leyva, Brenda; Lamas, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    microRNA profiling has identified cell-specific expression patterns that could represent molecular signatures triggering the acquisition of a specific phenotype; in other words, of cellular identity and its associated function. Several groups have hypothesized that retinal cell phenotyping could be achieved through the determination of the global pattern of miRNA expression across specific cell types in the adult retina. This is especially relevant for Müller glia in the context of retinal damage, as these cells undergo dramatic changes of gene expression in response to injury, that render them susceptible to acquire a progenitor-like phenotype and be a source of new neurons.We describe a method that combines an experimental protocol for excitotoxic-induced retinal damage through N-methyl-D-aspartate subretinal injection with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) of Müller cells and RNA isolation for microRNA profiling. Comparison of microRNA patterns of expression should allow Müller cell phenotyping under different experimental conditions.

  3. dbSMR: a novel resource of genome-wide SNPs affecting microRNA mediated regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Manoj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate several biological processes through post-transcriptional gene silencing. The efficiency of binding of miRNAs to target transcripts depends on the sequence as well as intramolecular structure of the transcript. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs can contribute to alterations in the structure of regions flanking them, thereby influencing the accessibility for miRNA binding. Description The entire human genome was analyzed for SNPs in and around predicted miRNA target sites. Polymorphisms within 200 nucleotides that could alter the intramolecular structure at the target site, thereby altering regulation were annotated. Collated information was ported in a MySQL database with a user-friendly interface accessible through the URL: http://miracle.igib.res.in/dbSMR. Conclusion The database has a user-friendly interface where the information can be queried using either the gene name, microRNA name, polymorphism ID or transcript ID. Combination queries using 'AND' or 'OR' is also possible along with specifying the degree of change of intramolecular bonding with and without the polymorphism. Such a resource would enable researchers address questions like the role of regulatory SNPs in the 3' UTRs and population specific regulatory modulations in the context of microRNA targets.

  4. microRNA biosensors: Opportunities and challenges among conventional and commercially available techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Tugba; Erdem, Arzum; Ozsoz, Mehmet; Carrara, Sandro

    2018-01-15

    As being the most extensively studied, non-coding, evolutionary conserved, post-transcriptional gene regulators of genome, microRNAs (miRNAs) have taken great attention among various disciplines due to their important roles in biological processes and link with cancer. Due to their diagnostic value, there have been many conventional methods used in detection of miRNAs including northern blotting, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray technology besides novel techniques based on various nanotechnology approaches and molecular biology tools including miRNA biosensors. The aim of this review is to explain the importance of miRNAs in biomedical field with an emphasis on early cancer diagnosis by overviewing both research based and commercially available miRNA detection methods in the last decade considering their strengths and weakness with an emphasis on miRNA biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNA and protein profiling of brain metastasis competent cell-derived exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camacho

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by most cell types including tumor cells. The intercellular exchange of proteins and genetic material via exosomes is a potentially effective approach for cell-to-cell communication and it may perform multiple functions aiding to tumor survival and metastasis. We investigated microRNA and protein profiles of brain metastatic (BM versus non-brain metastatic (non-BM cell-derived exosomes. We studied the cargo of exosomes isolated from brain-tropic 70W, MDA-MB-231BR, and circulating tumor cell brain metastasis-selected markers (CTC1BMSM variants, and compared them with parental non-BM MeWo, MDA-MB-231P and CTC1P cells, respectively. By performing microRNA PCR array we identified one up-regulated (miR-210 and two down-regulated miRNAs (miR-19a and miR-29c in BM versus non-BM exosomes. Second, we analyzed the proteomic content of cells and exosomes isolated from these six cell lines, and detected high expression of proteins implicated in cell communication, cell cycle, and in key cancer invasion and metastasis pathways. Third, we show that BM cell-derived exosomes can be internalized by non-BM cells and that they effectively transport their cargo into cells, resulting in increased cell adhesive and invasive potencies. These results provide a strong rationale for additional investigations of exosomal proteins and miRNAs towards more profound understandings of exosome roles in brain metastasis biogenesis, and for the discovery and application of non-invasive biomarkers for new therapies combating brain metastasis.

  6. In-vivo quantification of primary microRNA processing by Drosha with a luciferase based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegra, Danilo; Mertens, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Posttranscriptional regulation of miRNA processing is difficult to quantify. → Our in-vivo processing assay can quantify Drosha cleavage in live cells. → It is based on luciferase reporters fused with pri-miRNAs. → The assay validates the processing defect caused by a mutation in pri-16-1. → It is a sensitive method to quantify pri-miRNA cleavage by Drosha in live cells. -- Abstract: The RNAse III Drosha is responsible for the first step of microRNA maturation, the cleavage of primary miRNA to produce the precursor miRNA. Processing by Drosha is finely regulated and influences the amount of mature microRNA in a cell. We describe in the present work a method to quantify Drosha processing activity in-vivo, which is applicable to any microRNA. With respect to other methods for measuring Drosha activity, our system is faster and scalable, can be used with any cellular system and does not require cell sorting or use of radioactive isotopes. This system is useful to study regulation of Drosha activity in physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Differential expression profiles of microRNAs in liver of 60Co γ-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiujin; Cui Fengmei; Huang Chengcheng; Hu Mingjiang; Wang Daojin; Tu Yu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential expression profiles of microRNAs in the liver of 60 Co γ-ray irradiated mice using microRNA microarray and to explore their main functions by bioinformatic analysis. Methods: After SPF C57BL/6J mice expose to 4 Gy-single whole body radiation,total number of peripheral WBC and the fMNPCE were measured at 3 d.The differentially expressed miRNAs in mouse liver were detected with miRNA microarray, miRNA-124 and miR-34a were confirmed by real time RT-PCR assay. Bioinformatic analysis was applied to explore target genes and the main functions of the differential expressed miRNAs. Results: Compared with control group, the total number of peripheral WBC decreased (t=2.87, P<0.05), while the fMNPCE in bone marrow increased (t=-2.91, P<0.05) after 4 Gy γ-ray irradiation.miRNA microarray revealed that 17 miRNAs were differentially expressed, in which 9 up-regulated, 8 down-regulated. The expression levels of miR-124 and miR-34a were coincident with the result of real time RT-PCR. GO analysis showed that some pathways including adherens junction and cell cycle were suppressed, while some immune-related pathways were activated. Conclusions: miR-34a and miR-194 were involved in the regulation of acute radiation damage, some other miRNAs including miR-124, miR-382 and miR-92a * also played important roles in radiation process. (authors)

  8. MicroRNAs as putative mediators of treatment response in prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, Fardod

    2012-05-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of noncoding RNAs that function to regulate post-transcriptional gene expression, predominantly by translational repression. In addition to their role in prostate cancer initiation and progression, recent evidence suggests that miRNAs might also participate in treatment response across a range of therapies including radiation treatment, chemotherapy and androgen suppression. The mechanism of this regulation is thought to be multifactorial and is currently poorly understood. To date, only a small number of studies have examined the functional role of miRNAs in response to prostate cancer treatment. Elucidating the role of miRNAs in treatment response following radiotherapy, chemotherapy and androgen suppression will provide new avenues of investigation for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. GAMUT: GPU accelerated microRNA analysis to uncover target genes through CUDA-miRanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-coding sequences such as microRNAs have important roles in disease processes. Computational microRNA target identification (CMTI) is becoming increasingly important since traditional experimental methods for target identification pose many difficulties. These methods are time-consuming, costly, and often need guidance from computational methods to narrow down candidate genes anyway. However, most CMTI methods are computationally demanding, since they need to handle not only several million query microRNA and reference RNA pairs, but also several million nucleotide comparisons within each given pair. Thus, the need to perform microRNA identification at such large scale has increased the demand for parallel computing. Methods Although most CMTI programs (e.g., the miRanda algorithm) are based on a modified Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm, the existing parallel SW implementations (e.g., CUDASW++ 2.0/3.0, SWIPE) are unable to meet this demand in CMTI tasks. We present CUDA-miRanda, a fast microRNA target identification algorithm that takes advantage of massively parallel computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). CUDA-miRanda specifically focuses on the local alignment of short (i.e., ≤ 32 nucleotides) sequences against longer reference sequences (e.g., 20K nucleotides). Moreover, the proposed algorithm is able to report multiple alignments (up to 191 top scores) and the corresponding traceback sequences for any given (query sequence, reference sequence) pair. Results Speeds over 5.36 Giga Cell Updates Per Second (GCUPs) are achieved on a server with 4 NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. Compared to the original miRanda algorithm, which is evaluated on an Intel Xeon E5620@2.4 GHz CPU, the experimental results show up to 166 times performance gains in terms of execution time. In addition, we have verified that the exact same targets were predicted in both CUDA-miRanda and the original mi

  10. Involvement and Clinical Aspects of MicroRNA in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Ram Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, but its pathogenesis has been difficult to establish because of its well-known heterogeneous nature. OS has been associated with genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities, which include function-impairing mutations in tumor suppressors and the activation of oncogenes. OS tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations of several genes characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA amplifications and deletions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18–25-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, are critical for various biological processes like differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Dysregulation of miRNA expression leads to phenotypic and genotypic changes in cells, which leads to cancer. Studies on miRNAs have initiated a significant effect in both diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the current knowledge of clinical applications of miRNAs for the better diagnosis and management of OS.

  11. Identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Sun, Lulu; Ding, Yi

    2013-04-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of non-protein coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Although thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, little studies have been reported about chickpea microRNAs. In this study, 28 potential miRNA candidates belonging to 20 families were identified from 16 ESTs and 12 GSSs in chickpea using a comparative genome-based computational analysis. A total of 664 miRNA targets were predicted and some of them encoded transcription factors as well as genes that function in stress response, signal transduction, methylation and a variety of other metabolic processes. These findings lay the foundation for further understanding of miRNA function in the development of chickpea.

  12. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: ► microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. ► microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. ► HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. ► HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. ► HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of

  13. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  14. MicroRNAs in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs with critical functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. An explosion of reports on the discovery and characterization of different miRNA species and their involvement in almost every aspect of cardiac biology and diseases has established an exciting new dimension in gene regulation networks for cardiac development and pathogenesis. CONTENT: Alterations in the metabolic control of lipid and glucose homeostasis predispose an individual to develop cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Work over the last years has suggested that miRNAs play an important role in regulating these physiological processes. Besides a cell-specific transcription factor profile, cell-specific miRNA-regulated gene expression is integral to cell fate and activation decisions. Thus, the cell types involved in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and its myocardial sequelae may be differentially regulated by distinct miRNAs, thereby controlling highly complex processes, for example, smooth muscle cell phenotype and inflammatory responses of endothelial cells or macrophages. The recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating biomarkers or therapeutic modalities, will hopefully be able to provide a strong basis for future research to further expand our insights into miRNA function in cardiovascular biology. SUMMARY: MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are potent modulators of diverse biological processes and pathologies. Recent findings demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the vasculature and the orchestration of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. MiRNA networks represent an additional layer of regulation for gene expression that absorbs perturbations and ensures the robustness of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mi

  15. A prototypical