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Sample records for life events necessitate

  1. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose necessitating ICU admission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) overdose necessitating intensive care unit (ICU) admission remains a significant problem in the Western Cape. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the course of life-threatening TCA overdose in our centre to identify potential prognostic indicators. TCA levels >1 000 ng/ml were associated ...

  2. Life events and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Shmuel-Baruch, Sharona; Horesh, Netta; Apter, Alan

    2013-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Although TS is primarily biological in origin, stress-diatheses interactions most probably play a role in the course of the illness. The precise influence of the environment on this basically biological disorder is difficult to ascertain, particularly when TS is complicated by comorbidities. Among the many questions that remain unresolved are the differential impact of positive and negative events and specific subtypes of events, and the importance of major crucial events relative to minor daily ones to tic severity. To examine the relationships between life events, tic severity and comorbid disorders in Tourette Syndrome (TS), including OCD, ADHD, anxiety, depression and rage attacks. Life events were classified by quantity, quality (positive or negative) and classification types of events (family, friends etc.). Sixty patients aged 7-17 years with Tourette syndrome or a chronic tic disorder were recruited from Psychological Medicine Clinic in Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; Life Experiences Survey; Brief Adolescent Life Events Scale; Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; Child Depression Inventory/Beck Depression Inventory; ADHD Rating Scale IV; Overt Aggression Scale. Regarding tics and minor life events, there was a weak but significant correlation between severity of motor tics and the quantity of negative events. No significant correlation was found between tic severity and quantity of positive events. Analysis of the BALES categories yielded a significant direct correlation between severity of vocal tics and quantity of negative events involving friends. Regarding comorbidities and minor life events, highly significant correlations were found with depression and anxiety. Regarding tics and major life

  3. A cross-cultural study of the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember more life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age. The cultural life script represents semantic knowledge about commonly shared expectations regarding the order and timing...... of major transitional life events in an idealized life course. By comparing the lifespan distribution of life scripts events and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive...

  4. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  5. Four Essays on Family Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    of the present thesis is the way in which individual, social, and institutional contexts shape family life events. The main objective of the present thesis is twofold: to highlight the importance of how family life events are theoretically understood and methodologically approached, and to examine why social...... differentiation in family life events persists across institutional settings and over time. Specifically, from a life course perspective and by means of dynamic quantitative methods, three central themes are investigated: a) the importance of children’s characteristics, b) the need to link family contexts......As demographic and social trends continue to change the institution of the family, a need to reconsider the study family life events as they unfold over the life course has emerged. To advance current knowledge of social dynamics associated with this new complexity, the point of departure...

  6. WeChat Addiction Suppresses the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Shengyi; Zhai, Huizhen

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the influences of stressful life events and WeChat addiction on life satisfaction, and investigated the mediating role of WeChat addiction on the relationship between the two research variables. A total of 463 undergraduates completed self-reported scales for stressful life events, WeChat addiction, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the questionnaire data. The results showed the suppressing effect of WeChat addiction on the negative impact of stressful life events on life satisfaction. Stressful life events affect life satisfaction both directly and indirectly. Stressful life events are positively associated with WeChat addiction, which exerts positive impact on life satisfaction. The contributions of the findings are discussed.

  7. Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Post, Maria C.; Landis, Anna Marie; Alliegro, Marissa C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale is presented for the derivation of a new measure of stressful life events for use with students [Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)]. Ten stressful life events questionnaires were reviewed, and the more than 600 items mentioned in these scales were culled based on the following criteria: (a) only long-term and unpleasant…

  8. Identifying Prominent Life Events on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Thomas; Fernández, Miriam; Thomas, Lisa A.; Mulholland, Paul; Briggs, Pam; Alani, Harith

    2015-01-01

    Social media is a common place for people to post and share digital reflections of their life events, including major events such as getting married, having children, graduating, etc. Although the creation of such posts is straightforward, the identification of events on online media remains a challenge. Much research in recent years focused on extracting major events from Twitter, such as earthquakes, storms, and floods. This paper however, targets the automatic detection of personal life ev...

  9. Four Essays on Family Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    . In addition, the present thesis underlines the need for an improved understanding of the role of health and caregiving as fundamental aspects of family life, and in doing so allocates increased attention to how children’s characteristics are central to family-level outcomes. Just as the lives of family......As demographic and social trends continue to change the institution of the family, a need to reconsider the study family life events as they unfold over the life course has emerged. To advance current knowledge of social dynamics associated with this new complexity, the point of departure...... of the present thesis is the way in which individual, social, and institutional contexts shape family life events. The main objective of the present thesis is twofold: to highlight the importance of how family life events are theoretically understood and methodologically approached, and to examine why social...

  10. Life events in schizoaffective disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaxi, Chrysoula Ch; Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2018-02-01

    Life events play a central role in the development of psychiatric disorders and impact course and outcome. We present a systematic review of the literature on the relationship of life events with the onset and long-term course of schizoaffective disorder. MEDLINE was searched with the combination of the key words: 'life events' plus 'schizoaffective'. The PRISMA method was followed in the review process. From the identified 66 papers only 12 were considered to be of relevance to the current study and 6 more papers were identified by inspecting the reference lists of the identified papers. There are very few studies focusing on the role of life events in schizoaffective disorder indicating insufficient data concerning the relationship of life events with onset and long-term course of schizoaffective disorder. Reported effects are not generic but concern specific events like the loss of mother, and females seem to be more vulnerable. Patients with schizoaffective disorder manifest high rates of PTSD. The literature on life events with the development and course of schizoaffective disorder is limited and precludes solid conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods....... Most of these memories are rated as emotionally positive (Rubin & Berntsen, 2003). The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealised life course. By comparing the lifespan distribution of the life scripts events...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  12. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  13. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  14. The Impact of Life Events on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Lange, Thomas; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2012-01-01

    Employing fixed effects regression techniques on longitudinal data, we investigate how life events affect employees' job satisfaction. Unlike previous work-life research, exploring mostly contemporaneous correlations, we look for evidence of adaptation in the years following major life events. We find evidence of adaptation following the first…

  15. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  16. Life events and hopelessness depression: The influence of affective experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhou

    Full Text Available This study explored the association of the affective experience (AE of life events on hopelessness depression (HD. Undergraduates (N = 301 participating in a 12-week prospective study completed measures of HD, cognitive style, and psychological stress. The results indicate AE is an underlying mechanism influencing the longitudinal link between life events and HD. Negative life events with clear negative AE directly promoted the development of HD. Positive life events with clear positive AE directly impeded the development of HD. Neutral life events with mixed AE directly and interacting with negative cognitive style promoted the development of HD. The results should increase understanding of the hopelessness theory of depression, and suggest that neutral life events should be important elements in depression therapy.

  17. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  18. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R; Buckholdt, Kelly E

    2013-10-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of event-related rumination and depression. Results indicated that perceptions of mothers' and fathers' awareness of sadness regarding stressful life events as well as mothers' and fathers' verbal event processing predicted symptoms of event-related rumination and depression. Results support the inclusion of perceptions of parental awareness in the understanding of how emerging adults continue to cope with past stressful life events.

  19. Lifetime traumatic events, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2017-10-01

    The aims were to assess the association between lifetime traumatic events and post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and satisfaction with life stratified by gender among a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Data used came from the ESA-Services study (2011-2013) and included a large convenience sample of 1811 older adults. Traumatic events were measured using a list of 14 events. PTSS was measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. HRQOL and life satisfaction were measured with the EQ-5D-3L and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between traumatic events, PTSS, and quality of life. Respondents had a mean age of 73.90 years (SD: 6.13, range 65-97). Our results showed that exposure to violence (OR 4.88, CI 2.72-8.77), an accident (OR 2.33, CI 1.29-4.22), and sexual abuse (OR 2.26 CI 1.17-4.37) was associated with PTSS only in women. No traumatic event was associated only in men. The interaction between gender and exposure to violence and life-threatening disease of a close one was significant. Experiencing violence (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease of a close one, sexual abuse, and other type of traumatic events. A life-threatening disease (β = -0.90, p life satisfaction only in men and the exposure of violence (β = -1.18, p life satisfaction in women. Our study could help healthcare professionals to identify and monitor traumatic events that are at higher risk to be associated with PTSS and a lower quality of life for older men and women.

  20. Major life events and risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Johnni; Schernhammer, Eva

    2010-01-01

    major life events are risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Between 1986 and 2006, we identified 13,695 patients with a (PD) primary diagnosis of PD in the Danish National Hospital Register. Each case was frequency matched by age and gender to five population controls. Information on major life events...... before onset of PD was ascertained from national registries. Among men, number of life events was associated with risk of Parkinson's disease in an inverse dose-response manner (P ....34-0.99). Life events were not associated with PD in women. In contrast, a higher risk of PD was observed among women who had never been married (1.16; 1.04-1.29) and among men (1.47; 1.18-1.82) and women (1.30; 1.05-1.61) who have never been employees. The lower risk of Parkinson's disease among men who had...

  1. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of eve...

  2. Reciprocal influences between negative life events and callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Centifanti, Luna C M; Allen, Jennifer L; Frick, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Children with conduct problems and co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits show more severe, stable, and aggressive antisocial behaviors than those without CU traits. Exposure to negative life events has been identified as an important contributing factor to the expression of CU traits across time, although the directionality of this effect has remained unknown due to a lack of longitudinal study. The present longitudinal study examined potential bidirectional effects of CU traits leading to experiencing more negative life events and negative life events leading to increases in CU traits across 3 years among a sample of community-based school-aged (M = 10.9, SD = 1.71 years) boys and girls (N = 98). Repeated rating measures of CU traits, negative life events and conduct problems completed by children and parents during annual assessments were moderately to highly stable across time. Cross-lagged models supported a reciprocal relationship of moderate magnitude between child-reported CU traits and "controllable" negative life events. Parent-reported CU traits predicted "uncontrollable" life events at the earlier time point and controllable life events at the later time point, but no reciprocal effect was evident. These findings have important implications for understanding developmental processes that contribute to the stability of CU traits in youth.

  3. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  4. The accuracy of dysphoric and nondepressed groups' predictions of life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapçi, E G; Cramer, D

    1998-11-01

    The phenomenon of depressive realism was examined in relation to the future prediction of positive and negative life events. A group of dysphoric (n = 20) and nondepressed (n = 38) British undergraduates participated in a prospective study lasting 3 months. Partly consistent with the depressive realism hypotheses, dysphoric participants were more realistic concerning the negative life events they would experience, but they were less realistic concerning the negative life events they would not experience. Although no difference was found for predicting the occurrence of positive life events, dysphoric participants were found to be more realistic concerning positive life events that they would not experience.

  5. The influence of negative life events on hippocampal and amygdala volumes in old age: a life-course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, L; Kalpouzos, G; Westman, E; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L O; Bäckman, L; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H X

    2015-04-01

    Psychosocial stress has been related to changes in the nervous system, with both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of negative events experienced throughout the entire lifespan and hippocampal and amygdala volumes in older adults. In 466 non-demented old adults (age range 60-96 years, 58% female), hippocampal and amygdala volumes were segmented using Freesurfer. Negative life events and the age at which these events occurred were assessed by means of a structured questionnaire. Using generalized linear models, hippocampal and amygdala volumes were estimated with life events as independent variables. The statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and cognitive functioning. Total number of negative life events and of late-life events, but not of early-life, early-adulthood, or middle-adulthood events, was related to larger amygdala volume. There were interactions of early-life events with age and gender. Participants who reported two or more early-life events had significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampal volumes with increasing age. Furthermore, smaller hippocampal volume was found in men who reported two or more early-life events, but not in women. These results suggest that the effect of negative life events on the brain depends on the time when the events occurred, with the strongest effects observed during the critical time periods of early and late life.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  7. Negative life events and life satisfaction in university students: Belief in a just world as a mediator and moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xunlong

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the role of belief in a just world between negative life events and life satisfaction. The results revealed that two dimensions of belief in a just world played partial mediating roles between negative life events and life satisfaction. Moreover, belief in a just world was also a moderator between negative life events and life satisfaction that mitigates the adverse effects of negative life events. In conclusion, these results suggest that belief in a just world could be both a mediator and a moderator between negative life events and life satisfaction.

  8. Stressful life events are not associated with the development of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Sundstr?m, Anna; R?nnlund, Michael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-G?ran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion. Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants...

  9. Major life events and risk of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just-Østergaard, Emilie; Mortensen, Erik L.; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2018-01-01

    , household income, cohabitation status and psychiatric comorbidity. Findings: Serious family conflicts in childhood [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00, 1.83] and serious economic problems in adult life (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.64, 3.01) were associated significantly with increased......Aims: To estimate associations of individual major life events as well as accumulated major life events in childhood, adult private life and adult work life with risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design: Prospective cohort study with baseline examination in 1991–93 and linkage to national...

  10. Negative life events have detrimental effects on in-vitro fertlization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nafiye; Kahyaoglu, İnci; İnal, Hasan Ali; Görkem, Ümit; Devran, Aysun; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on in-vitro-fertilization (IVF) outcome. Depression and negative life events were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and List of Recent Events in 83 women attending the IVF clinic of a tertiary research and education hospital with the diagnosis of unexplained infertility between January 2013 and August 2013. Demographic features, stimulation parameters, depression scores, and negative life events of pregnant and non-pregnant participants were compared and the relation between negative life events, depression scores, and IVF outcome was investigated. Women who did not achieve a pregnancy experienced more negative life events than women who became pregnant (77.2% vs. 23.1%) (p > 0.001). The number of patients with moderate-to-severe depression (BDI scores > 16) was higher in the non-pregnant group than pregnant group (49.1% vs. 26.9%), however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.057). Clinical pregnancy showed a significant moderate negative correlation with the number of negative life events (r = -0.513, p = 0.001), but the correlation between clinical pregnancy and BDI scores was not statistically significant (r = -0.209, p = 0.059). Stressful life events have a negative influence on the quality of life, which eventually affects in IVF outcome, possibly through maladaptive lifestyle behavior.

  11. Individuals' quality of life linked to major life events, perceived social support, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.

  12. Stressful life events and neuroticism as predictors of late-life versus early-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Herrmann, François R; Bartolomei, Javier; Digiorgio, Sergio; Ortiz Chicherio, Nadia; Delaloye, Christophe; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lecerf, Thierry; De Ribaupierre, Anik; Canuto, Alessandra

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of depression in younger adults is related to the combination of long-standing factors such as personality traits (neuroticism) and more acute factors such as the subjective impact of stressful life events. Whether an increase in physical illnesses changes these associations in old age depression remains a matter of debate. We compared 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 never-depressed controls; subjects included both young (mean age: 35 years) and older (mean age: 70 years) adults. Assessments included the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, NEO Personality Inventory and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between depression and subjective impact of stressful life events while controlling for neuroticism and physical illness. Patients and controls experienced the same number of stressful life events in the past 12 months. However, in contrast to the controls, patients associated the events with a subjective negative emotional impact. Negative stress impact and levels of neuroticism, but not physical illness, significantly predicted depression in young age. In old age, negative stress impact was weakly associated with depression. In this age group, depressive illness was also determined by physical illness burden and neuroticism. Our data suggest that the subjective impact of life stressors, although rated as of the same magnitude, plays a less important role in accounting for depression in older age compared to young age. They also indicate an increasing weight of physical illness burden in the prediction of depression occurrence in old age. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. Zooming in on Life Events: Is Hedonic Adaptation Sensitive to the Temporal Distance from the Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanova, Ekaterina A.; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of major positive and negative life events (marriage, divorce, birth of child, widowhood, and unemployment) on life satisfaction. For the first time, this study estimated the effects of life events not with a precision of 12 months but of 3 months. Specifically, two questions were addressed: (1) Does the precision of…

  14. Stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to observe the difference between male and female Eritrean students on the basis of stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression. Stressful life Events Questionnaire, Vulnerable to Stress Instrument and Beck Depression Scale were administered to gather information. The data ...

  15. "Rationality" as a Moderator Between Life Events and Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarik, Gene

    1986-01-01

    The author examined the theory of rational beliefs as a moderator between life events and illness using a sample of 283 college students. Results suggested that rationality functioned to prevent stress and illness when there were few stressors, but did not reduce the effect of high levels of life events. (Author/MT)

  16. Study of Life Events and Personality Dimensions in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, A Sri Sennath J

    2016-04-01

    Life events, recognized as stressors, due to their unanticipated nature, can cause psychiatric illness. Also there is some line of continuity between neurotic illness and antecedent personality traits. To study generalized anxiety disorder in relation to Life events and personality dimensions. Certain hypotheses were tested in two groups, namely 30 Generalized Anxiety Disorder patients (GAD) and 30 matched controls, by utilizing assessment tools. These include: GAD patients experience more undesirable Life events than normal; GAD patients with high level of anxiety experience more undesirable Life events; Neuroticism is related to the severity of anxiety; Extroverts experience more anxiety; Level of anxiety in females is higher; GAD patients with higher education level experience more anxiety, while those with lower education level somatize more. The group differences were examined using Chi-Square test, Student t-test and ANOVA. Pearson's Correlation Co-efficient was used to find the correlation between anxiety and the undesirable Life events. The level of statistical significance was set at panxiety experienced more undesirable Life events, with the coefficient of correlation being quite high. A significant association between Neuroticism scale and GAD was observed. The study suggests a possible causative link between the undesirable Life events and GAD; and a significant association between Neuroticism dimension and the anxiety disorder. Role of environmental stressors and personality traits in treatment outcome among GAD patients awaits further, prospective studies.

  17. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Naeeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progression. The analysis of data was performed using SPSS 15. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.9 ± 7.1. Most of them (n=87 had relapsing- remitting MS. 51% of patients and 26% of controls had stressful life events (P<0.001. Odd's Ratio with confidence interval of 95% was 2.71. The most frequent stressful events were family problems and death of first degree relatives. Conclusion: This study showed that stressful life events were significantly more prevalent in MS, but we cannot conclude that stress lonely is a cause of MS. Although, major stress along with multiple other risk factors may be related to MS.

  19. Life events, locus of control, and behavioral problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Liu, L; Ma, D

    2000-12-01

    This study examined associations of life events and locus of control with behavioral problems among 1,365 Chinese adolescents by using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was 10.7% (95% CI = 9.9-11.5%). Logistic-regression analyses showed that a total of 13 negative life events mainly coming from academic domain and interpersonal relationships, high life-stress score, and high external locus score significantly increased the risk for behavioral problems. Life stress and locus of control significantly interacted with behavioral problems. These findings support the linkage between stressful life events and psychopathology in a general population of adolescents from mainland China, and demonstrate the stress-moderating effects of locus of control on psychopathology as well.

  20. Suicide in Relation to the Experience of Stressful Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsted, Rita; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stressful life events have been associated with high risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether persons who died by suicide in Denmark had more frequently been exposed to stressful life events, specifically divorce, death of a close relative, exposure to violence......, and imprisonment, when compared to gender and age-matched controls. Data from Danish national registers were obtained for the period of 2000-2010 and a nested case-control design was applied. The association between exposure to stressful life events and suicide was examined using logistic regression analysis...... compared to controls. People who died by suicide had 1.5-fold (CI-95%: 1.3-1.6) higher risk of having experienced a divorce. Stressful life events, such as divorce and imprisonment, were more frequent in temporal proximity to the date of death among the suicide cases than for end of exposure for controls...

  1. Effects of Negative Emotions and Life Events on Women's Missed Miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huilin; Luo, Yaping; Wang, Shouying

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of negative emotions and life events on women's missed miscarriage. Overall, 214 women diagnosed with a missed miscarriage by prenatal examination from 2016-2017 in Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, China were selected as the observation group compared to 214 women as control group. The general data of the patients were investigated by self-programmed questionnaires. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Center Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; Life Events Scale for Pregnant Women were used conduct the study. General data, anxiety, depression and life events were compared between the two groups of patients, and statistically different factors were included in the multivariate Logistic regression analysis. There were statistically significant differences in the educational level, pre-pregnancy health status, planned pregnancy, pre-pregnancy or gestational gynecological inflammation and the initiative to obtain knowledge of prenatal and postnatal care between the two groups of pregnant women ( P life events, score of anxiety and score of depression between them ( P life events, anxiety and depression were independent risk factors for it. Negative emotions and life events increase the risk of women's missed miscarriage, and the high educational level, good health status before pregnancy and the initiative to obtain the knowledge of prenatal and postnatal care reduce the risk of women's missed miscarriage.

  2. An adaptation framework for turning real life events into games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Sacha Kjærhus; Bunkenborg, Nanna Cassøe; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2017-01-01

    Many games are inspired by real life events. The presented adaptation framework is based on the design of a board game with a companion app that addresses the Syrian refugee crisis. The aim of the game is to allow players to simulate the experience of being a Syrian refugee traveling through Europe....... We applied an agile development method and participatory design to achieve our ambition. In conclusion we found that turning real life events into board games can be advanced by the following game design adaptation framework, which balances four interrelated layers: (1) real life events (game fiction...

  3. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  4. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2018-04-01

    Parents of young children generally report more depressive symptoms than parents of adult children or people without children, mainly because the presence of young children increases exposure to significant stressors (such as stressful life events). However, most studies on the depressogenic role of stressful life events in parents of young children have focussed on mothers. Using data from 1138 families with young children in Norway, we investigated gender differences in the effect of stressful life events after a child's birth on the development of parental depressive symptoms in 3 follow-ups at child's ages 3-6 years. We also explored if gender differences in disposition (personality) may explain any gender differences in the depressogenic effect of life events. Nesting parents within families, we found a female gender bias for both neuroticism and depressive symptoms but no gender difference in the number of life events reported. Importantly, the number of stressful life events predicted the level and course of depressive symptoms similarly for mothers and fathers. Personality traits did not change the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in either mothers or fathers. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. There was no gender difference in the depressogenic effect of stressful life events in our sample. There was no evidence for a female dispositional sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stressful life events, either. Stressful life events put both mothers and fathers of young children at risk of depression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  6. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Gender Differences in Perceived Social Support and Stressful Life Events in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Bhat, S M; Latha, K S; Praharaj, S K

    2016-03-01

    To study the gender differences in perceived social support and life events in patients with depression. A total of 118 patients aged 18 to 60 years, with depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR, were evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. The perceived social support score was significantly higher in males than females (p friends than females (p life events as well as specific type of life events in males that became apparent after controlling for education (p life event in both males and females. Work-related problems were more commonly reported by males, whereas family and marital conflict were more frequently reported by females. Perceived social support and stressful life events were higher in males with depression than females.

  8. Autobiographical memories of important life story events in Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinue; Shao, Zhifang

    to recall seven autobiographical memories of important personal life story events. In addition, participants indicated how often they think or talk about the reported events. The three common important life events recalled by participants from all four cultures were having children, getting married......, and attending college. Results showed cross-cultural differences in the rehearsal (think/talk) ratings for positive events, but not for negative events.......Individuals often think and talk about autobiographical memories of important life events from their personal past. Do these life events and how often often participants rehearse them differ across cultures? In this study, researchers asked participants from Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark...

  9. Autobiographical memories of important life story events in Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinue; Shao, Zhifang

    Individuals often think and talk about autobiographical memories of important life events from their personal past. Do these life events and how often often participants rehearse them differ across cultures? In this study, researchers asked participants from Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark...... to recall seven autobiographical memories of important personal life story events. In addition, participants indicated how often they think or talk about the reported events. The three common important life events recalled by participants from all four cultures were having children, getting married......, and attending college. Results showed cross-cultural differences in the rehearsal (think/talk) ratings for positive events, but not for negative events....

  10. The Great Recession, Life Events, and Mental Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Heid, Allison R; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2017-03-01

    Historical events and personal experiences have the potential to alter the way people age. Using a life-course model, we examined how the Economic Recession of 2008 and experienced life events affected the mental health of 3,393 older adults in New Jersey. Data collected between 2006 and 2012 revealed a significant increase in mean depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that people with incident depression were more likely to have lost a job, become a caregiver, experienced a major illness, or have a family member with a major illness than people with no depression. Compared with the incident depression group, those with remitted depression were less likely to report having lost a job or experienced a major illness. Modeling the effects of individual life events and the economic recession on depression enriches understanding about the association between macro socioeconomic events, life events, and the mental health of older adults.

  11. Maternal life event stress and congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, S L; Shaw, G M

    2000-01-01

    We used data from a population-based case-control study to explore the relation between certain life events during the periconceptional period and several types of congenital anomalies. We ascertained cases from pregnancies ending in 1987-1989 and randomly selected controls from eligible liveborn infants. In telephone interviews, women reported deaths of anyone close to them. They also reported job losses or separations/divorces, for themselves or anyone close to them. Experiencing at least one stressful event during the periconceptional period was associated with a prevalence odds ratio of 1.4-1.5 for the delivery of infants with conotruncal heart defects, neural tube defects, and isolated cleft lip with or without palate. These associations tended to be restricted to women who were not obese and women with less than or equal to a high school education. This study suggests that women who experience stressful life events around the time of conception or early gestation may be at increased risk of delivering infants with certain congenital anomalies.

  12. Betting on Life: Associations Between Significant Life Events and Gambling Trajectories Among Gamblers with the Intent to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2018-03-24

    Considerable evidence has suggested that problem gambling may be transitory and episodic, with gamblers routinely moving in and out of clinical thresholds. Findings in qualitative and quantitative studies have converged on identifying preliminary evidence for the role of life events as motivators and contributing factors for gambling changes over time. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between life events, their respective experience as positive or negative, and gambling trajectories among problem gamblers intending to quit. Life event occurrence and ratings as positive or negative, and changes in gambling severity were analyzed over a 12-month period for 204 adult problem gamblers intending to reduce or quit their gambling. Overall, mixed effects models revealed several relationships between life events and both the magnitude and direction of gambling change over time. In particular, gamblers who experienced a greater number of positive events or specific events such as legal events, the adoption/loss of a child, or negative changes to their social relationships, finances, work environments or social/health activities were more likely to exhibit greater gambling reductions over time. Conversely, gamblers who experienced a greater number of negative events, such as family bereavement, the dissolution of a marriage, or negative changes to their residence exhibited smaller gambling reductions or increases in gambling severity. Possible mechanisms which may explain the findings and the importance of examining the subjective experience of life events are discussed. Recommendations for future studies examining associations between life events and gambling trajectories are provided.

  13. Quality of Life and Stressful Life Events in First and Second Generation Immigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lemos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in quality of life and stressful life events, in first and second generation immigrant adolescents living in Algarve. A total of 172 immigrant adolescents participated in the study, completing the kidscreen-52, the stressful and negative life events inventory and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results suggest that younger immigrant adolescents report more physical well-being and a higher mood level. Concerning gender differences, girls scored higher than boys in physical well-being, mood and self-perception, but no differences were found on the other kidscreen subscales. First generation immigrants scored significantly higher than second generation ones on the general quality of life index, psychological well-being, autonomy, financial resources and school environment. However, the second-generation immigrants did not seem to be more exposed to stressful life events than the first-generation group. When selecting relevant variables for well-being promotion and for intervention, we must consider that immigrants are more exposed to economic vulnerability, may experience difficulties in adapting to a different school context, and are at higher risk of social exclusion.

  14. Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences - evidence for mediation by adulthood adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, V; Boydell, J; McGuire, P; Harris, V; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; MacCabe, J H; Morgan, C

    2017-10-09

    We have previously reported an association between childhood abuse and psychotic experiences (PEs) in survey data from South East London. Childhood abuse is related to subsequent adulthood adversity, which could form one pathway to PEs. We aimed to investigate evidence of mediation of the association between childhood abuse and PEs by adverse life events. Data were analysed from the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH, n = 1698). Estimates of the total effects on PEs of any physical or sexual abuse while growing up were partitioned into direct (i.e. unmediated) and indirect (total and specific) effects, mediated via violent and non-violent life events. There was strong statistical evidence for direct (OR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.1) and indirect (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.32-1.72) effects of childhood abuse on PEs after adjustment for potential confounders, indicating partial mediation of this effect via violent and non-violent life events. An estimated 47% of the total effect of abuse on PEs was mediated via adulthood adverse life events, of which violent life events made up 33% and non-violent life events the remaining 14%. The association between childhood abuse and PEs is partly mediated through the experience of adverse life events in adulthood. There is some evidence that a larger proportion of this effect was mediated through violent life events than non-violent life events.

  15. Stressful life events in a clinical sample of depressed children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, László; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Eniko; Vetró, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    There is limited information on the characteristics of stressful life events in depressed pediatric clinical populations and the extent to which sex, age, and their interactions may influence the relations of life events and depression. Using a very large clinical sample of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD), we therefore examined life events in various ways, as well as their relations to age and sex. The study included a clinic-based sample of 434 children (ages 7-14) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD and their mothers, and a school-based comparison sample of 724 children and their mothers. Life event information was obtained from the mothers. Children with MDD had twice the number of lifetime stressful events than did the comparison group, with very high levels of stressors by the age of 7-9 that stabilized across adolescence. In contrast, the comparison sample experienced a gradual increase in stressful life events as a function of age up to mid-adolescence. Parental health events, death of close relatives, and intrafamilial events were significantly associated with MDD diagnosis. There were significantly stronger associations between parental health- as well as death-event clusters and MDD diagnosis among younger children than adolescents. Geographical differences between the clinical and comparison samples, as well as possible parental reporting biases may affect the generalizability of these findings. The association between some stressful life events and MDD seems to be moderated by age, underscoring the need to examine specific events, as well as clusters of events. Better understanding of such interactions may facilitate early identification of possible risk factors for pediatric MDD.

  16. Evaluation of Life Events in Major Depression: Assessing Negative Emotional Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, Laura; Driver-Linn, Erin; Miller, Gregory A; Deldin, Patricia J

    2017-05-01

    Overly negative appraisals of negative life events characterize depression but patterns of emotion bias associated with life events in depression are not well understood. The goal of this paper is to determine under which situations emotional responses are stronger than expected given life events and which emotions are biased. Depressed (n = 16) and non-depressed (n = 14) participants (mean age = 41.4 years) wrote about negative life events involving their own actions and inactions, and rated the current emotion elicited by those events. They also rated emotions elicited by someone else's actions and inactions. These ratings were compared with evaluations provided by a second, 'benchmark' group of non-depressed individuals (n = 20) in order to assess the magnitude and direction of possible biased emotional reactions in the two groups. Participants with depression reported greater anger and disgust than expected in response to both actions and inactions, whereas they reported greater guilt, shame, sadness, responsibility and fear than expected in response to inactions. Relative to non-depressed and benchmark participants, depressed participants were overly negative in the evaluation of their own life events, but not the life events of others. A standardized method for establishing emotional bias reveals a pattern of overly negative emotion only in depressed individuals' self-evaluations, and in particular with respect to anger and disgust, lending support to claims that major depressives' evaluations represent negative emotional bias and to clinical interventions that address this bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or relational challenges. Methods We used a sample of 398 adolescents (Mage = 16.94, SD = 2.90), including 52 depressed outpatients, who all reported stressful life event(s). Path analyses in Mplus were used to test mediation, for the whole sample as well as separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression, using multigroup analyses. Results Health threats and relational challenging stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms, while loss was not. More frequent use of maladaptive strategies was related to more depressive symptoms. More frequent use of adaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. The relationship between challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in the whole group was mediated by maladaptive strategies (self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination). No mediation effect was found for adaptive strategies. Conclusion The association between relational challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms was mediated by maladaptive, cognitive emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27571274

  18. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  19. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozita Naeeni; Zlbar Soltanzadeh; Homan Salimipour; Zahra Vahhabi; Samira Yadegari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progres...

  20. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  1. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  2. Children's Eyewitness Memory for Multiple Real-Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Cooper, Crystal M.; Lampinen, James M.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of prior knowledge on children's free recall, cued recall, recognition memory, and source memory judgments for a series of similar real-life events. Forty children (5-12 years old) attended 4 thematic birthday parties and were later interviewed about the events that transpired during the parties using…

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Stressful Life Events Among Rural Women With HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Alexander, Melissa; Reid, Paula; Jackson, Morgan Parks

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events are frequent and distressing problems for women living with HIV (WLWH). Studies have independently focused on the impact of these problems, but little work has examined the relationship between PTSD and stressful life events. Our cross-sectional study examined relationships between PTSD and recent stressful life events in WLWH. A sample of 60 women recruited through HIV community agencies in southeastern North Carolina completed the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). PTSD prevalence was high (43.2%). Two-thirds (66%) reported three or more recent life stressors. Women who experienced a higher number of recent life stressors scored higher on the PCL-C than those with fewer life stressors (p stressful life events may accelerate PTSD symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues in HIV treatment settings. Implications for nursing practice are provided. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social support and stressful events in two dimensions: life events and illness as an event.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Flap, H.D.; Foets, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research on the buffering effects of social support focused mainly on life events as stressors, and mental illness as outcome. Furthermore, the question as to why support influences illness has not been subjected to theoretical or empirical study much. In this article we develop a

  5. A Random Walk Down University Avenue: Life Paths, Life Events, and Personality Trait Change at the Transition to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relation between continuity and change in the Big Five personality traits and life events. Approximately 2,000 German students were tracked from high school to university or to vocational training or work, with 3 assessments over 4 years. Life events were reported retrospectively at the 2nd and 3rd assessment. Latent curve analyses were used to assess change in personality traits, revealing 3 main findings. First, mean-level changes in the Big Five factors over the 4 years were in line with the maturity principle, indicating increasing psychological maturity from adolescence to young adulthood. Second, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences relating to the life path followed; participants on a more vocationally oriented path showed higher increases in conscientiousness and lower increases in agreeableness than their peers at university. Third, initial level and change in the Big Five factors (especially Neuroticism and Extraversion) were linked to the occurrence of aggregated as well as single positive and negative life events. The analyses suggest that individual differences in personality development are associated with life transitions and individual life experiences. PMID:21744977

  6. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression: from trait to state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. In 333 patients (≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder, anxiety was assessed with the BAI, personality traits with the NEO-FFI and the Mastery Scale, and life-events with the Brugha questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with anxiety severity as dependent and life-events and personality traits as independent variables. 147 patients (44.1%) had recently experienced one or more life-events. The presence of a life-event is not associated with anxiety (p = .161) or depression severity (p = .440). However, certain personality traits interacted with life-events in explaining anxiety severity. Stratified analyses showed that life-events were associated with higher anxiety levels in case of high levels of neuroticism and openness and low levels of conscientiousness or mastery. In the face of a life-event, personality traits may play a central role in increased anxiety levels in late-life depression.

  7. Stressful life events and occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Dias, Adriano

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between stressful life events and occupational accidents. This was a population-based case-control study, carried out in the city of Botucatu, in southeast Brazil. The cases consisted of 108 workers who had recently experienced occupational accidents. Each case was matched with three controls. The cases and controls answered a questionnaire about recent exposure to stressful life events. Reporting of "environmental problems", "being a victim of assault", "not having enough food at home" and "nonoccupational fatigue" were found to be risk factors for work-related accidents with estimated incidence rate ratios of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.7], 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6), and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) respectively. The findings of the study suggested that nonwork variables contribute to occupational accidents, thus broadening the understanding of these phenomena, which can support new approaches to the prevention of occupational accidents.

  8. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  9. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  10. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  11. Event centrality of positive and negative autobiographical memories to identity and life story across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cultural differences exist in event centrality, emotional distress and well-being in a total of 565 adults above age 40 from Mexico, Greenland, China and Denmark. Participants completed questionnaires to determine their level of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, and of life satisfaction. They also completed event centrality scales for their most positive and most negative life events. Across cultures, participants rated positive events as more central to their identity and life stories, compared with negative events. Furthermore, participants with higher levels of emotional distress rated negative events as more central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. However, a converse pattern was not found for positive events. Finally, participants with higher scores of life satisfaction tended to rate positive events as more central and negative events as less central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. It is concluded that across cultures, positive events are considered more central to identity and life story than negative events and that event centrality ratings tend to be affected in similar ways by higher versus lower levels of emotional distress or well-being.

  12. Major life events and development of major depression in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Bordelon, Y; Thompson, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-motor symptoms including depression are important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aim to address the relationship between major life events and depression amongst PD patients free of depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: New-onset PD patients from California...... were recruited in 2001-2007 and followed up for 3-4 years. The participants (n = 221) were examined by neurologists and responded to comprehensive interviews that included major life events, social support, and coping measures from validated scales. Major depression was assessed using the Structured...... Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV depression module (SCID). RESULTS: More than half of all patients had experienced major life events since diagnosed with PD, and 22 patients developed a major depression. The number of life events was associated with risk of depression in an exposure-dependent manner...

  13. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression; however, it is possible this link is bidirectional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Stressful life events, depression, and anxiety symptoms were measured twice five years apart. Cross-lagged panel analysis examined the mutual influences of stressful life events on depression and on anxiety over time. Life events predicted later depressive symptomatology (p = .01), but the depression predicting life events relationship was less strong (p = .06), whereas earlier anxiety predicted life events five years later (p = .001). There was evidence of sex differences in the extent to which life events predicted later anxiety. This study provides evidence of stress causation for depression and weaker evidence for stress generation. In contrast, there was strong evidence of stress generation for anxiety but weaker evidence for stress causation, and that differed for men and women.

  14. Aversive Life Events Enhance Human Freezing Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  15. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  16. Life events, difficulties and onset of depressive episodes in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, EI; Ormel, J

    Background. The importance of stressful life events and long-term difficulties in the onset of episodes of unipolar depression is well established for young and middle-aged persons, but less so for older people. Method. A prospective case-control study was nested in a large community survey of older

  17. Between- and within-person associations between negative life events and alcohol outcomes in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Louie, Kristine T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-09-01

    Escalations in alcohol use during adolescence may be linked with exposure to negative life events, but most of this research has focused on between-person associations. Moreover, adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be an especially vulnerable population, reporting more life events and alcohol involvement and may even be more sensitive to the effects of life events on alcohol outcomes compared with those without ADHD. We tested the between- and within-person effects of the number and perceptions of negative life events on the development of alcohol use outcomes from age 14 to 17 years in 259 adolescents with and without ADHD using generalized estimating equations. Between-person differences in exposure to negative life events across adolescence, but not the perception of those events, were associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years. Within-person differences in life events were associated with alcohol use above and beyond that predicted by an adolescents' typical trajectory over time. Parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with more negative perceptions of life events and with greater alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years, but symptoms did not moderate the life event-alcohol association. Interventions should consider the variables that produce vulnerability to life events as well as the immediate impact of life events. That the accumulation of life events, rather than their perceived negativity, was associated with alcohol outcomes indicates that interventions targeting the reduction of negative events, rather than emotional response, may be more protective against alcohol use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. How to integrate proxy data from two informants in life event assessment in psychological autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Youqing; Fang, Le

    2018-04-27

    Life event assessment is an important part in psychological autopsy, and how to integrate its proxy data from two informants is a major methodological issue which needs solving. Totally 416 living subjects and their two informants were interviewed by psychological autopsy, and life events were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. Validities of integrated proxy data using six psychological autopsy information reconstruction methods were evaluated, with living subjects' self-reports used as gold-standard criteria. For all the life events, average value of Youden Indexes for proxy data by type C information reconstruction method (choosing positive value from two informants) was larger than other five methods'. For family life related events, proxy data by type 1st information reconstruction method were not significantly different from living subjects' self-reports (P = 0.828). For all other life events, proxy data by type C information reconstruction method were not significantly different from the gold-standard. Choosing positive value is a relatively better method for integrating dichotomous (positive vs. negative) proxy data from two informants in life event assessment in psychological autopsy, except for family life related events. In that case, using information provided by 1st informants (mainly family member) is recommended.

  19. Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, Marina; Niklasson, Johan; Saarela, Jan; Nygård, Mikael; Olofsson, Birgitta; Conradsson, Mia; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-10-27

    The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period. The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses. The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale. Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  20. Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Life Events Experienced by Young Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a longitudinal design to test the effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Criteria were the adolescents' depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Analysis showed a significant effect for the adolescents' controllable, but not uncontrollable, negative events. (Author/RWB)

  1. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Stability amidst turmoil: Grit buffers the effects of negative life events on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Dan V; Young, Kevin C; Kleiman, Evan M

    2015-08-30

    The goal of the current study is to examine the role of grit as a resilience factor that reduces the risk for suicidal ideation conferred by negative life events. Participants (N=209) completed measures of negative life events and grit at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation at follow-up four weeks later. Poisson regression analyses found that higher levels of grit buffered the relationship between negative life events and suicidal ideation such that negative life events only predicted suicidal ideation if grit was low. These results suggest that high grit can abate the increased suicidal ideation associated with negative life events. Aside from absolute levels of suicidal ideation, being able to predict or buffer dramatic shifts in suicidal ideation can be a useful diagnostic tool during interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  4. Stressful life events as predictors of functioning: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M. E.; Skodol, A. E.; Stout, R. L.; Shea, M. T.; Yen, S.; Grilo, C. M.; Sanislow, C. A.; Bender, D. S.; McGlashan, T. H.; Zanarini, M. C.; Gunderson, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although much attention has been given to the effects of adverse childhood experiences on the development of personality disorders (PDs), we know far less about how recent life events influence the ongoing course of functioning. We examined the extent to which PD subjects differ in rates of life events and the extent to which life events impact psychosocial functioning. Method A total of 633 subjects were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), a multi-site study of four personality disorders – schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) – and a comparison group of major depressive disorders (MDD) without PD. Results Borderline personality disorder subjects reported significantly more total negative life events than other PDs or subjects with MDD. Negative events, especially interpersonal events, predicted decreased psychosocial functioning over time. Conclusion Our findings indicate higher rates of negative events in subjects with more severe PDs and suggest that negative life events adversely impact multiple areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:15521826

  5. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrajindrajith, S; Devanarayana, N M; Rajapakshe, N N; Benninga, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC in children. We aimed to assess the association between traumatic life events and development of FC in children. We conducted a cross sectional, school based study.Children aged 13-18 years were selected from four semi-urban schools in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaires were used for collect data on functional gastrointestinal disease and traumatic life events. FC was defined using the Rome III criteria. A total of1792 children were included in the analysis [males 975 (54.4%), mean age 14.4 years, SD 1.3 yearsyears]. Out of them, 138(7.7%) had FC. Prevalence of FC was significantly higher in those exposed to traumatic life events compared to controls (53.6% vs.32.9%,p children to develop FC. Parental substance abuse (12.8% vs. 7.4%), domestic violence (14.8 vs. 7.5%) were not associated with FC (p > 0.05). FC is associated with childhoodtraumatic experiences. This provides further insight intohow traumatic childhood events are associated withdevelopment and perpetuation of FC in children.

  6. Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.

  7. Incidence and management of life-threatening adverse events during cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Huie; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marshall, Audrey C; Porras, Diego; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Balzer, David T; Beekman, Robert H; Torres, Alejandro; Vincent, Julie A; Moore, John W; Holzer, Ralf; Armsby, Laurie; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases performed at the 8 participating institutions of the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes were captured between 2007 and 2010 [median 1,095/site (range 133-3,802)]. The incidence of all life-threatening events was 2.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.4 %], whereas mortality was 0.28 % (95 % CI 0.18-0.41 %). Fifty-seven life-threatening events required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas 9 % required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of a risk adjustment model showed that age events. Using this model, standardized life-threatening event ratios were calculated, thus showing that one institution had a life-threatening event rate greater than expected. Congenital cardiac catheterization and intervention can be performed safely with a low rate of life-threatening events and mortality; preprocedural evaluation of risk may optimize preparation of emergency rescue and bailout procedures. Risk predictors (age < 1, hemodynamic vulnerability, and procedure risk category) can enhance preprocedural patient risk stratification and planning.

  8. Negative life events and school adjustment among Chinese nursing students: The mediating role of psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Adjustment difficulties of college students are common and their school adjustment has gained wide concern in recent years. Negative life events and psychological capital (PsyCap) have been associated with school adjustment. However, the potential impact of negative life events on PsyCap, and whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment among nursing students have not been studied. To investigate the relationship among negative life events, PsyCap, and school adjustment among five-year vocational high school nursing students in China and the mediating role of PsyCap between negative life events and school adjustment. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted. 643 five-year vocational high school nursing students were recruited from three public high vocational colleges in Shandong of China. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students scale (PCQAS), and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS) were used in this study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of PsyCap. Negative life events were negatively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment (interpersonal relationship adaptation, learning adaptation, campus life adaptation, career adaptation, emotional adaptation, self-adaptation, and degree of satisfaction). PsyCap was positively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment and negatively associated with negative life events. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment. Negative life events may increase the risk of school maladjustment in individuals with low PsyCap. Interventions designed to increase nursing students' PsyCap might buffer the stress of adverse life events, and thereby, enhance students' positive adjustment to school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive Engagement Mediates the Relationship between Positive Life Events and Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Need for Cognition (NFC is conceptualized as an individuals’ tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one’s cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE. Moreover, evidence suggests NFC to be related to an active, problem-focused coping style. We therefore hypothesized NFC to mediate between life events and individual differences in PE and NE. In a sample of N = 202 volunteers from the general population, we observed that the number of past positive and negative life events had direct effects on PE, and NE, respectively, and that for positive life events, a mediating effect on PE via NFC was observed, with a higher number of past positive life events being related to higher NFC that in turn was related to increased PE. Thus, the present results lend support to the notion of NFC as an important factor supporting personal well-being by way of its mediating role between the number of past positive life events and positive affect.

  10. Alcoholics' and nonalcoholics' attributions of control of future life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M H; Obitz, F W

    1984-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects rated the degree of control that they and others possess over future life events. Alcoholics attributed less personal control over events to themselves than nonalcoholics did. Alcoholics also attributed less control to themselves than to others, whereas nonalcoholics attributed more control to themselves than to others. These differences prevailed despite the similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, recent life experiences and beliefs concerning the general controllability of events of both alcoholics and nonalcoholics. The attributions of alcoholics were consistent with others' notions of self-handicapping. The attributions of nonalcoholics were consistent with control motivation. Alcoholics who attributed less control to themselves than to others more frequently failed to complete treatment than did alcoholics who attributed more control to themselves.

  11. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...

  12. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.; Agerbo, E.; Mortensen, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research...... was found on the association between life events and the first admission with mania, totally, or for men or women, separately regarding ageing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of death in the family and the experience of major life events are associated with increased risk of first admission with bipolar...

  13. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  14. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  15. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  16. "Everything happens for a reason": children's beliefs about purpose in life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Do children believe that "everything happens for a reason?" That is, do children endorse purpose-based, teleological explanations for significant life events, as they do for social behavior, artifacts, biological properties, and natural kinds? Across three experiments, 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 80), 8- to 10-year-olds (N = 72), and adults (N = 91) chose between teleological and nonteleological accounts of significant life events and judged how helpful those accounts were for understanding an event's cause. Five- to 7-year-olds favored teleological explanations, but this preference diminished with age. Five- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 10-year-olds also found teleological explanations more helpful than did adults. Perceiving purpose in life events may therefore have roots in childhood, potentially reflecting a more general sensitivity to purpose in the social and natural worlds. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  18. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  19. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  20. Stressful life events and Graves' disease: Results of a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintor, A.B.; Barrenechea, E.A.; Laureta, E.G.; Ligon, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged worry has generally been acknowledged as one of the main precipitating factors of the onset of Graves' disease. A review of literature reveals that emotional stresses of considerable severity precede the onset of hyperthyroidism in about 90% of cases. However, not everyone subscribes to the Stress/Graves' disease hypothesis. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus on whether a correlation can be shown between the magnitude of antecedent life events and the disease. Hence the main objective of the present study was to identify the possible association between stressful life events and Graves' disease. This paper presents the results of a case-control study, involving patents and subjects from the Veterans Memorial Medical Centre of Manila. A total of 224 patients of Graves' disease, newly or previously diagnosed, representing the 'patient's' arm were interviewed. All patients were questioned regarding various stresses, which greatly affected their life style spanning over a 12-month period prior to the onset of the disease. Simultaneously, 224 control subjects were also interviewed, and their stresses spanning over a similar period preceding the dates of interviews were recorded in quantifiable terms. Different stresses were given different intensity scores based on a social readjustment scale taking into consideration the life situations, emotions and diseases. In cases of multiple stresses, intensity scores were added to obtain the total stress intensity. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and percent distribution. Scatter plot was also constructed for intensity of stressful life events. To determine association of different factors with Graves' disease, Students t-test and chi-square tests were applied to the data. Odds ratio (OR) was also computed to determine risk attributed to each factor. Since there was significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and controls, stratified Mantel

  1. Enhancing the Quality of Life through Cultural Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.

    2008-01-01

    . The present research recognizes the articulated aims of the festival and investigates how a cultural event influences participants' quality of life (QOL). The study adopts a twofold approach to examine organizers' expectations as well as the impacts on participants' short-term subjective well being...

  2. Stressful Life Events and Irrational Beliefs as Predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressful Life Events and Irrational Beliefs as Predictors of Psychological Wellbeing ... characterized with negative indicators, such as, anxiety, depression. Does similar relationship is evident referring to positive indicators of Psychological ...

  3. Association between adverse life events and addictive behaviors among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pstressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Psychological approach to different skin diseases: life events and tendency to complain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordeurs, D; Poot, F; Janne, P; Reynaert, C; Salamon, V

    2001-01-01

    For nearly two decades, dermatology has associated with psychology to find a better way to care for dermatology conditions. A scientific trend called psychosomatics is creating a link between dermatology and psychology. The purpose of this article was to examine two concepts closely linked to psychodermatology (life events and tendency to complain) and to emphasize the difference between factors playing a role in the onset of certain skin diseases (psoriasis, alopecia areata, benign tumors, eczema). We found that psoriasis patients have a greater tendency to complain than people with the other disease. This point to the importance of taking emotions into account when studying psoriasis. We also found that life events play a role in the onset of psoriasis and alopecia areata. Moreover, these events were anterior by more than 12 months in alopecia patients. We propose exploring emotions in psoriasis patients and life events over the prior year in alopecia areata patients.

  6. Clinical study on role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Medhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to know about the role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression in four groups of patients with dissociative disorder, somatisation disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and depression. It was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. Methods and materials: It was a case control study with 100 cases of neurotic disorders and depression (25 cases in each group attending indoor and outdoor, and diagnosed using research diagnostic criteria of the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. The groups were compared with similar number of matched controls, in respect to number, scoring, and type of life events occurring within one year prior to the onset of illness using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics were also seen between cases and controls. Result and conclusion: Number of life events was significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety groups than control group. Total life events scores were significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety group than control group. Undesirable events were significantly higher in all groups. Personal events were significantly higher in depressives than control. Events related to interpersonal relation were significantly higher in depressive, dissociative, and GAD groups than control. Bereavement was closely associated with depression and GAD. Events related to health, finance, and education were higher in dissociative group than control. Events related to move were found significantly higher in GAD group than control. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Life review based on remembering specific positive events in active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, José M; Serrano, Juan P; Ricarte, Jorge; Bonete, Beatriz; Ros, Laura; Sitges, Esther

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of life review (LR) based on specific positive events in non-depressed older adults taking part in an active aging program. Fifty-five older adults were randomly assigned to an experimental group or an active control (AC) group. A six-session individual training of LR based on specific positive events was carried out with the experimental group. The AC group undertook a "media workshop" of six sessions focused on learning journalistic techniques. Pre-test and post-test measures included life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, experiencing the environment as rewarding, and autobiographical memory (AM) scales. LR intervention decreased depressive symptomatology, improved life satisfaction, and increased specific memories. The findings suggest that practice in AM for specific events is an effective component of LR that could be a useful tool in enhancing emotional well-being in active aging programs, thus reducing depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Upsetting the apple cart: a community anticoagulation clinic survey of life event factors that undermine safe therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Sarah; Stuenkel, Diane L; Connolly, Phyllis M

    2005-09-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is a life-enhancing therapy for patients who are at risk for embolic events secondary to atrial fibrillation, valve replacement, and other comorbidities. Clinicians are motivated to decrease the amount of time that patients are either under- or over-anticoagulated, common conditions that decrease patient safety at either extreme. The primary purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship between personal life event factors as measured by Norbeck's Life Events Questionnaire, core demographics such as age and income, and anticoagulation regulation. Although many factors affect anticoagulation therapy, the precise impact of life events, positive or negative, is unknown. The salient findings of this study (n = 202) showed a small, though statistically significant, inverse relationship (r = -0.184, P < .01) between negative life events and decreased time within therapeutic international normalized ratio. Total Life Event scores showed a statistically significant inverse relationship (r = -0.159, P < .05) to international normalized ratio time within therapeutic level. Lower income was inversely associated with higher negative Life Event scores (r = -0.192, P < .01). The findings demonstrate the need for strategies that address the potential impact of life events in conjunction with coexisting screening measures used in anticoagulation clinics. Implications for this study are limited by lack of methodology documenting concurrent social support factors and limitations of the research tool to reflect life event issues specific to outpatient seniors.

  9. Quality of life of residents living in a city hosting mega-sport events: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2016-10-21

    It remains unknown whether and when the hosting of mega-sport events increases quality of life of host city residents. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in quality of life of host city residents over the course of hosting a mega-sport event until three months after the event, depending on residents' perception of the atmosphere during the event. The study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in soccer. Participants were recruited from a Brazilian market research agency's panel and surveyed online. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to measure quality of life of residents of Rio de Janeiro (n = 281) in three waves in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Perceived atmosphere at the event was measured via an established scale. Piecewise latent growth models were used to analyze individual changes in the four domains of quality of life per se and depending on perceived atmosphere. There was no change in quality of life with respect to physical, social, psychological, and environmental health for all participants during the course of the event. However, residents who perceived a positive atmosphere rated the social and environmental domains of quality of life more positively right after the end (vs. at the beginning) of the World Cup. This increase sustained until three months after the event. Physical health (particularly at high levels of perceived atmosphere) and psychological health decreased from right after the event until three months after. There was no positive effect of the hosting of the mega-sport event on the four quality of life domains of the panel members (who were residents of a city hosting a mega-sport event) per se. The individual changes in quality of life vary by perception of atmosphere and by domain of quality of life.

  10. Patterns of life events preceding the suicide in rural young Chinese: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what are found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "Then It Will Be Good": Negative Life Events and Resilience in Ugandan Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Youths (N = 57; mean age = 13.83 years) residing near Tororo, Uganda, were interviewed to obtain quantitative and qualitative data pertaining to negative life events, adjustment problems, coping, social support, self-worth, and hope. On average, they experienced nearly half of the 22 negative life events assessed. The experience of negative life…

  12. Mental Health and Stressful Life Events in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non- Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Nateghian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: "n The main goal of this study is to compare stressful life events and mental health in coronary heart disease (CHD patients and non-patients. "nMethod: In this research, 120 participants (n=68 male, n= 52 female were divided into two groups of patients (n=60 and non-patients (n=60. They were selected from Vali Asr Hospital of Meshginshahr (Iran and completed the  General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Stressful Life Events Inventory . "nResults: Data was analyzed using independent t-test. The results showed significant differences between CHD patients and non-patients in mental health and stressful life events. CHD patients showed high rates of physical symptoms and anxiety of GHQ . "nConclusion: CHD patients reported more stressful life events. Therefore, it can be inferred that psychological factors are important in coronary heart disease.

  13. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Stressful life events preceding the onset of depression in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim, Ahmad; Si, Tian-Mei; Jeon, Hong Jin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Shen-ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the significant role of stressful life events in the onset of depressive episodes. However, there is a paucity of cross-national studies on stressful life events that precede depression. We aimed to compare types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in five Asian countries. A total of 507 outpatients with MDD were recruited in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Thailand (n = 103) and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the List of Threatening Experiences. The prevalence of each type of stressful life events was calculated and compared between each country. The type of stressful life event that preceded the onset of a depressive episode differed between patients in China and Taiwan and those in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Patients in China and Taiwan were less likely to report interpersonal relationship problems and occupational/financial problems than patients in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Understanding the nature and basis of culturally determined susceptibilities to specific stressful life events is critical for establishing a policy of depression prevention and providing effective counseling services for depressed patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  16. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Ogle, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  17. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  18. Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L A; Corcoran, C; Turner, K; Yuan, N; Green, B L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation. The SLESQ showed good test-retest reliability, with a median kappa of .73, adequate convergent validity (with a lengthier interview) with a median kappa of .64, and good discrimination between Criterion A and non-Criterion A events. The discussion addresses some of the challenges of assessing traumatic event exposure along the dimensions of defining traumatic events, assessment methodologies, reporting consistency, and incident validation.

  19. Survey of the incidence and effect of major life events on graduate medical education trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars J. Grimm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the incidence of major life events during graduate medical education (GME training and to establish any associations with modifiable activities and career planning. Methods: The authors surveyed graduating GME trainees from their parent institution in June 2013. Demographic information (clinical department, gender, training duration and major life events (marriage, children, death/illness, home purchase, legal troubles, property loss were surveyed. Respondents were queried about the relationship between life events and career planning. A multivariable logistic regression model tested for associations. Results: A total of 53.2% (166/312 of graduates responded to the survey. 50% (83/166 of respondents were female. Major life events occurred in 96.4% (160/166 of respondents. Male trainees were more likely (56.1% [46/82] vs. 30.1% [25/83] to have a child during training (p=0.01. A total of 41.6% (69/166 of responders consciously engaged or avoided activities during GME training, while 31.9% (53/166 of responders reported that life events influenced their career plans. Trainees in lifestyle residencies (p=0.02, those who experienced the death or illness of a close associate (p=0.01, and those with legal troubles (p=0.04 were significantly more likely to consciously control life events. Conclusion: Major life events are very common and changed career plans in nearly a third of GME trainees. Furthermore, many trainees consciously avoided activities due to their responsibilities during training. GME training programs should closely assess the institutional support systems available to trainees during this difficult time.

  20. Association between serotonin 2A receptor genetic variations, stressful life events and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Asghar; Seifi, Morteza; Baybordi, Fatemeh; Danaei, Nasim; Samadi Rad, Bahram

    2018-06-05

    Life events are series of events that disrupt a person's psychological equilibrium and may enhance the development of a disorder such as suicide. Several studies have assessed a relationship between 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene polymorphisms with an increased risk of suicide. However, there has been no study about the association between three 5-HTR2A gene polymorphisms, A1438G (rs6311), T102C (rs6313) and C1354T (rs6314), suicide, stressful life, and loss events in a same time. Relatives of 191 suicide victims were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire designed according to Iranian culture. Venous blood was taken from all subjects for DNA isolation. 5-HTR2A polymorphisms in a total of 191 suicide victims and 218 healthy controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between suicide and control groups. Correction for multiple comparisons was calculated using Bonferroni correction. There was a significant association between the 102 C/C genotype of 5-HTR2A gene and suicide (к 2  = 8.700, P = 0.012). Furthermore, we found that suicide victims with a 102 C/C genotype had a significantly higher number of stressful life and loss events (P suicide victims and control participants and there was no association between genotype distribution and higher number of stressful life and loss events (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that C102T (rs6313) polymorphism of 5-HTR2A gene may be involved in the susceptibility to suicide, higher number of stressful life and loss events, but A1438G (rs6311) and C1354T (rs6314) polymorphisms of 5-HTR2A gene were not associated with suicide, higher number of stressful life and loss events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 38552 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... provides that major life-changing events include marriage, divorce, death of spouse, or other events..., we require evidence documenting the settlement and the reason(s) for the settlement. These changes... major life-changing events if the reasons for such loss are due to the ordinary risk of investment...

  2. The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Wright

    Full Text Available The precipitating role of life events in the onset of depression is well-established. The present study sought to examine whether life events hypothesised to be personally salient would be more strongly associated with depression than other life events. In a sample of women making the first transition to parenthood, we hypothesised that negative events related to the partner relationship would be particularly salient and thus more strongly predictive of depression than other events.A community-based sample of 316 first-time mothers stratified by psychosocial risk completed interviews at 32 weeks gestation and 29 weeks postpartum to assess dated occurrence of life events and depression onsets from conception to 29 weeks postpartum. Complete data was available from 273 (86.4%. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine risk for onset of depression in the 6 months following a relationship event versus other events, after accounting for past history of depression and other potential confounders.52 women (19.0% experienced an onset of depression between conception and 6 months postpartum. Both relationship events (Hazard Ratio = 2.1, p = .001 and other life events (Hazard Ratio = 1.3, p = .020 were associated with increased risk for depression onset; however, relationship events showed a significantly greater risk for depression than did other life events (p = .044.The results are consistent with the hypothesis that personally salient events are more predictive of depression onset than other events. Further, they indicate the clinical significance of events related to the partner relationship during pregnancy and the postpartum.

  3. No interactions between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events on outcome of antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms seem to influence the response on antidepressant treatment and moderate the impact of stress on depression. The present study aimed to assess, whether allelic variants and stressful life events interact on the clinical outcome of depression. In a sample of 290 systematically...... recruited patients diagnosed with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10, we assessed the outcome of antidepressant treatment and the presence of stressful life events in a 6-month period preceding onset of depression by means of structured interviews. Further, we genotyped nine polymorphisms...... dependent on stressful life events experienced by the individual prior to onset of depression....

  4. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital......-II) and the interview of recent life events (IRLE). Medical treatment history was assessed in detail using standardised procedures (TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score or= 4 on TRAQ following (1) first trial of antidepressant treatment (2) two adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: A total of 399...... patients participated in the interview and among these 301 patients obtained a SCAN diagnosis of a single depressive episode. A total of 62.8% of the 301 patients experienced at least one moderate to severe stressful life event in a 6 months period prior to symptom onset. The presence of a stressful life...

  5. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  7. The Impact of Sleep Disturbance on the Association Between Stressful Life Events and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda; Burgard, Sarah; Zivin, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are common across the adult life span and may exacerbate depressive symptoms and the effect of common risk factors for depressive symptoms such as life stress. We examine sleep disturbance as a moderator of the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms across five waves (25 years) of the nationally representative, longitudinal American Changing Lives Study. The sample includes 3,597 adults aged 25 years or older who were surveyed up to five times over 25 years. Multilevel models were run to examine between- and within-person variability in sleep disturbance and life event stress as predictors of depressive symptoms, and an interaction to test sleep disturbance as a moderator is included in a second step. Life events and sleep disturbance were associated with elevated depressive symptoms at the between- and within-person levels. A significant sleep disturbance by interaction of life events was found, indicating that when individuals experienced an above average number of life events and slept more restlessly than usual, they had a higher risk for depressive symptoms than individuals who experienced above average stress but slept well. Sleeping restfully may allow individuals the rejuvenation needed to manage stress adaptively and reduce depressive symptom burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Serotonin transporter genotype, salivary cortisol, neuroticism and life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cortisol alone or in interaction with other risk factors (familial risk, the serotonin transporter genotype, neuroticism and life events (LEs)) predicts onset of psychiatric disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk. MATRIAL AND METHODS: In a high-risk study...

  9. Patterns of Life Events Preceding the Suicide in Rural Young Chinese: A Case Control Study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. Aim We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Methods Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. Results We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Conclusions Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22595373

  10. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  11. Temporal compression in episodic memory for real-life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunehomme, Olivier; Folville, Adrien; Stawarczyk, David; Van der Linden, Martial; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2018-07-01

    Remembering an event typically takes less time than experiencing it, suggesting that episodic memory represents past experience in a temporally compressed way. Little is known, however, about how the continuous flow of real-life events is summarised in memory. Here we investigated the nature and determinants of temporal compression by directly comparing memory contents with the objective timing of events as measured by a wearable camera. We found that episodic memories consist of a succession of moments of prior experience that represent events with varying compression rates, such that the density of retrieved information is modulated by goal processing and perceptual changes. Furthermore, the results showed that temporal compression rates remain relatively stable over one week and increase after a one-month delay, particularly for goal-related events. These data shed new light on temporal compression in episodic memory and suggest that compression rates are adaptively modulated to maintain current goal-relevant information.

  12. Development and validation of the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butjosa, Anna; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Usall, Judith; Grau, Norma; Granell, Luis; Sola, Andrea; Carlson, Janina; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-12-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) are important indicators prior to the onset of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Although there are well-validated interviews and self-reports for assessing SLE on proximate events, unfortunately there are no instruments to assess SLE covering an entire lifetime. This study includes detailed specific items of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood focused on the presence of SLE, emotional impact (stressfulness), and the age at which the event occurred. Our research describes 2 studies designed to develop and validate a new scale to assess SLE: the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE). In Study 1, an over-inclusive item pool was generated based on review of group of experts at Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu and content validity was examined by an Expert Survey. The whole scale represents the content domain. In Study 2, item-level analyses revealed good distributional properties, intra-rater reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. In the sensitivity and specificity analysis, 18 items had high relevance in the discriminability between patients with FEP and healthy controls. We note that there was an AUC of 0.676, indicating a good predictor. Using 7 as a cutoff to predict an individual as a patient would yield a sensitivity of 64.8% and a specificity of 65%. Overall, the QSLE displayed satisfactory psychometric characteristics in a Spanish population. These results suggest that QSLE gives us the opportunity to investigate childhood, adolescent, and adult life events by measuring the stress and age at the moment on a continuous scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-08-01

    We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing a universal model of reading necessitates cracking the orthographic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J

    2012-10-01

    I argue, contra Frost, that when prime lexicality and target density are considered, it is not clear that there are fundamental differences between form priming effects in Semitic and European languages. Furthermore, identifying and naming printed words in these languages raises common theoretical problems. Solving these problems and developing a universal model of reading necessitates "cracking" the orthographic input code.

  15. [Suicide exposure and its modulatory effects on relations between life events and suicide risk in Chinese college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiubo; Zhao, Jingbo; Xiao, Rong; Yang, Xueling; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    To explore the incidence of suicide exposure and its association with suicide risk in Chinese college students, and study the modulatory effects of suicide exposure on the relations between life events and suicide risks. A total of 8202 college students from 12 Chinese colleges and universities in mainland China completed a cross-sectional survey that included suicidal behaviors questionnaire-revised (SBQ-R), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), suicide exposure questionnaire, social and demographic characteristics questionnaire. The incidence of exposure to suicide events involving close relatives and acquaintances were 3.9% and 11.8% among sampled Chinese college students, respectively. Students exposed to suicide events involving close relatives had significantly higher total SBQ-R scores than those who did not (5.51∓2.44 vs 4.68∓2.11, P0.05), but exposure to acquaintance suicide events moderated the effects of life events on suicide risk (P<0.01), and the college students with a high level of life events and history of acquaintance suicide had the highest risk for suicide. In Chinese college students, the risk of suicide is closely associated with exposure to suicide events and life events, and exposure to suicide events involving acquaintances can modulate the effects of life events on suicide risk.

  16. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  17. The relationships between stressful life events during childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between stressful life events in childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood. The sample included 217 students (173 females and 44 males) from a college in northern Israel. Participants completed the Hebrew versions of Life Events Checklist (LEC), Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R) and intergenerational triangulation (INTRI). The main findings were that levels of stressful life events during childhood and adolescence among both genders were positively correlated with the levels of fusion with others and intergenerational triangulation. The levels of positive life events were negatively related to levels of emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off and intergenerational triangulation. Levels of stressful life events in females were positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Intergenerational triangulation was correlated with emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off, fusion with others and I-position. Findings suggest that families that experience higher levels of stressful life events may be at risk for higher levels of intergenerational triangulation and lower levels of differentiation of self. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Associations Between Negative and Positive Life Events and the Course of Depression: A Detailed Repeated-Assessments Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.

  19. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  20. The Effects of Life Events and Socioeconomic Position in Childhood and Adulthood on Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Aartsen, Marja J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn

    2017-03-01

    Building on social stress theory, this study has 2 aims. First, we aim to estimate the effects of stressful life events in childhood and adulthood on Successful Aging (SA). Second, we examine how unequal exposure to such life events between individuals with different socioeconomic position (SEP) contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in SA. We used 16-year longitudinal data from 2,185 respondents aged 55-85 years in 1992 in the Dutch nationally representative Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Measurement of SA was based on earlier work, in which we integrated trajectories in 9 indicators of functioning into an index of SA. Using path analysis, we investigated direct and indirect effects of parental and adulthood SEP as well as of self-reported childhood and adulthood life events on SA. Almost all included life events had negative direct effects on SA. Parental SEP had no direct effect on SA, whereas adulthood SEP had. Higher Parental SEP increased the likelihood of parental problems and parental death in childhood, resulting in negative indirect effects on SA. Higher adulthood SEP had both positive and negative indirect effects on SA, through increasing the likelihood of divorce and unemployment, but decreasing the likelihood of occupational disability. SEP and particular stressful life events are largely, but not entirely independent predictors of SA. We found that high and low SEP may increase exposure to particular events that negatively affect SA. Findings suggest that low (childhood) SEP and stressful life events are interrelated factors that may limit individual opportunities to age successfully. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood life events, immune activation and the development of mood and anxiety disorders: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, I; Rosmalen, J G M; Schoevers, R A

    2017-05-02

    The experience of childhood life events is associated with higher vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. One of the pathways suggested to lead to this vulnerability is activation of the immune system. The aim of this study is to find out whether the association between childhood life events and the development of mood and anxiety disorders is predicted by the activation of the immune system. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort, from which a subgroup was selected (N=1084, 54.3% female, mean age 19.0 (s.d., 0.6)). Childhood life events before age 16 were assessed using questionnaires at age 12, 14, 16 and 19. Immune activation was assessed at age 16 by elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and by levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the herpes viruses herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. At age 19, the presence of mood and anxiety disorders was determined using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Regression analyses were used to study the association between life events, the inflammatory markers and mental health. We found that childhood life events score was associated with risk of mood disorders (B=0.269, P<0.001) and anxiety disorders (B=0.129, P<0.001). Childhood life events score was marginally associated with elevated hsCRP (B=0.076, P=0.006), but not with the antibody levels. This was especially due to separation trauma (P=0.015) and sexual abuse (P=0.019). Associations lost significance after correcting for lifestyle factors such as body mass index and substance abuse (P=0.042). None of the inflammatory markers were associated with development of anxiety disorders or mood disorders. In conclusion, the life event scores predicted the development of anxiety disorders and mood disorders at age 19. Life event scores were associated with elevated hsCRP, which was partly explained by lifestyle factors. Elevated hs

  3. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety

  4. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  5. The Unfolding of LGBT Lives: Key Events Associated With Health and Well-being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Jen, Sarah; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Life events are associated with the health and well-being of older adults. Using the Health Equity Promotion Model, this article explores historical and environmental context as it frames life experiences and adaptation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods: This was the largest study to date of LGBT older adults to identify life events related to identity development, work, and kin relationships and their associations with health and quality of life (QOL). Using latent profile analysis (LPA), clusters of life events were identified and associations between life event clusters were tested. Results: On average, LGBT older adults first disclosed their identities in their 20s; many experienced job-related discrimination. More had been in opposite-sex marriage than in same-sex marriage. Four clusters emerged: “Retired Survivors” were the oldest and one of the most prevalent groups; “Midlife Bloomers” first disclosed their LGBT identities in mid-40s, on average; “Beleaguered At-Risk” had high rates of job-related discrimination and few social resources; and “Visibly Resourced” had a high degree of identity visibility and were socially and economically advantaged. Clusters differed significantly in mental and physical health and QOL, with the Visibly Resourced faring best and Beleaguered At-Risk faring worst on most indicators; Retired Survivors and Midlife Bloomers showed similar health and QOL. Implications: Historical and environmental contexts frame normative and non-normative life events. Future research will benefit from the use of longitudinal data and an assessment of timing and sequencing of key life events in the lives of LGBT older adults. PMID:28087792

  6. Association of stressful life events with accelerated bone loss in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Taylor, Brent C.; Schousboe, John T.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Introduction Prior studies suggest that stressful life events may increase adverse health outcomes, including falls and possibly fractures. The current study builds on these findings and examines whether stressful life events are associated with increased bone loss. Methods 4388 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study completed total hip bone mineral density (BMD) measures at baseline and visit 2, approximately 4.6 years later, and self-reported stressful life events data mid-way between baseline and visit 2, and at visit 2. We used linear regression to model the association of stressful life events with concurrent annualized total hip BMD loss, and log binomial regression or Poisson regression to model risk of concurrent accelerated BMD loss (>1 SD more than mean annualized change). Results 75.3% of men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event, including 43.3% with ≥2 types of stressful life events. Mean annualized BMD loss was −0.36% (SD 0.88) and 13.9% of men were categorized with accelerated BMD loss (about 5.7% or more total loss). Rate of annualized BMD loss increased with the number of types of stressful life events after adjustment for age (pstressful life events (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.16]) per increase of 1 type of stressful life event). Fracture risk was not significantly different between stressful life event-accelerated bone loss subgroups (p=0.08). Conclusions In these older men, stressful life events were associated with a small, dose-related increase in risk of concurrent accelerated hip bone loss. Low frequency of fractures limited assessment of whether rapid bone loss mediates any association of stressful life events with incident fractures. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the mechanism that may underlie this association. PMID:25169421

  7. The effect of childhood trauma and Five-Factor Model personality traits on exposure to adult life events in patients with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; Boyette, Lindy Lou; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Haan, Lieuwe; For Group

    2016-11-01

    Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) predict adult life events, and whether the effect of childhood trauma on life events is mediated by personality traits. One hundred and sixty-three patients with psychotic disorders were assessed at baseline on history of childhood maltreatment and FFM personality traits, and on recent life events at 3-year follow-up. Childhood abuse is associated with negative life events, and part of the effect of childhood abuse on negative life events is mediated by openness to experience. Openness to experience and extraversion are associated with more positive and negative life events. Childhood neglect and lower extraversion are related to experiencing less positive events. The association between childhood trauma and recent life events is partly mediated by personality. Future research could focus on mechanisms leading to positive life events, as positive life events may buffer against development of mental health problems.

  8. Adverse Life Events and Mental Health in Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    This study's aim was to search for the appropriate functional form of the effect of proximal cumulative contextual risk (PCCR), measured with number of adverse life events experienced in the last 6 months, on adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study sample was 171 year…

  9. Cancer as a stressful life event: Perceptions of children with cancer and their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Katianne M Howard; Lindwall, Jennifer J; Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna M; Martin-Elbahesh, Karen M; Phipps, Sean

    2017-09-01

    The medical traumatic stress model is commonly applied to childhood cancer, assuming that the diagnosis of cancer is a traumatic event. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding what specifically children perceive as stressful about cancer or how it compares with other stressful events more often experienced by children. Children with cancer (254 children) and demographically similar peers without a history of serious illness (202 children) identified their most stressful life event as part of a diagnostic interview assessing for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The events identified as most stressful were categorized thematically, with categories established separately for cancer-related and non-cancer-related events. Events also were examined to assess whether they met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A criteria for PTSD. In the group of children with cancer, 54% described a cancer-related event as the most stressful event they had experienced. Six distinct categories of cancer-related events and 10 categories of non-cancer-related events were identified. The same noncancer events were identified by children in both groups, and occurred at similar frequencies. The percentage of cancer-related events that met DSM A criteria for PTSD differed dramatically depending on which version of the DSM was applied. Children do not necessarily view their cancer experience as their most stressful life event. The findings of the current study suggest that the diagnosis of cancer might be better viewed as a manageable stressor rather than a major trauma, and are consistent with the change in the fifth edition of the DSM to eliminate the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness as a qualifying trauma for PTSD. Cancer 2017;123:3385-93. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Adaptation of the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire (RLCQ) to measure stressful life events in adults residing in an urban megapolis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artani, Azmina; Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Azam, Iqbal; AbdulSultan, Moiz; Khoja, Adeel; Kamal, Ayeesha K

    2017-05-05

    Contextually relevant stressful life events are integral to the quantification of stress. None such measures have been adapted for the Pakistani population. The RLCQ developed by Richard Rahe measures stress of an individual through recording the experience of life changing events. We used qualitative methodology in order to identify contextually relevant stressors in an open ended format, using serial in-depth interviews until thematic saturation of reported stressful life events was achieved. In our next phase of adaptation, our objective was to scale each item on the questionnaire, so as to weigh each of these identified events, in terms of severity of stress. This scaling exercise was performed on 200 random participants residing in the four communities of Karachi namely Kharadar, Dhorajee, Gulshan and Garden. For analysis of the scaled tool, exploratory factor analysis was used to inform structuring. Finally, to complete the process of adaption, content and face validity exercises were performed. Content validity by subject expert review and face validity was performed by translation and back translation of the adapted RLCQ. This yielded our final adapted tool. Stressful life events emerging from the qualitative phase of the study reflect daily life stressors arising from the unstable socio-political environment. Some such events were public harassment, robbery/theft, missed life opportunities due to nepotism, extortion and threats, being a victim of state sponsored brutality, lack of electricity, water, sanitation, fuel, destruction due to natural disasters and direct or media based exposure to suicide bombing in the city. Personal or societal based relevant stressors included male child preference, having an unmarried middle aged daughter, lack of empowerment and respect reported by females. The finally adapted RLCQ incorporated "Environmental Stress" as a new category. The processes of qualitative methodology, in depth interview, community based scaling and

  11. Life events, coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among Chinese adolescents exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

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    Yuhong Zheng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake.

  12. Recent life events and psychosis: The role of childhood adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Recent events were recorded using a semi-structured interview with a normative and contextual approach. The diagnosis of psychosis was made according to Jablenski's criteria. Chi-square, t-test, odds ratio, and binary logistic regression statistical analyses were performed. Psychotic patients reported an excess of recent events. The occurrence of more than one recent event increased the risk of psychosis; there was a cumulative effect between recent and childhood events on psychosis. Recent events were significantly related to psychosis, even in the absence of childhood adversity or when adjusted for it. Our findings suggested that the effect of recent events on psychosis may be amplified by previous exposure to early adversity. Recent events alone, could be also linked to psychosis independently of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stressful life events are associated with a poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) - outcome: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Zachariae, Robert; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2009-01-01

    -fertility-related, naturally occurring stressors may influence IVF pregnancy chances. Our aim was to explore the association between IVF-outcome and negative, i.e. stressful, life-events during the previous 12 months. METHODS: Prior to IVF, 809 women (mean age: 31.2 years) completed the List of Recent Events (LRE...... number of life-events perceived as having a negative impact on quality of life may indicate chronic stress, and the results of our study indicate that stress may reduce the chances of a successful outcome following IVF, possibly through psychobiological mechanisms affecting medical end...

  14. Compelling Evidence of the Need for Corporate Work/Life Balance Initiatives: Results from a National Survey of Stressful Life-Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; Delunas, Linda; Kesic, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Considers how failure to balance excessive work and life/family demands can lead to negative consequences for both individuals and organizations, including higher stress levels, increased absenteeism, and lower productivity. Discusses results of a survey on stressful life events that offers an explanation of why work/life balance programs are so…

  15. The Unfolding of LGBT Lives: Key Events Associated With Health and Well-being in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Jen, Sarah; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Life events are associated with the health and well-being of older adults. Using the Health Equity Promotion Model, this article explores historical and environmental context as it frames life experiences and adaptation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This was the largest study to date of LGBT older adults to identify life events related to identity development, work, and kin relationships and their associations with health and quality of life (QOL). Using latent profile analysis (LPA), clusters of life events were identified and associations between life event clusters were tested. On average, LGBT older adults first disclosed their identities in their 20s; many experienced job-related discrimination. More had been in opposite-sex marriage than in same-sex marriage. Four clusters emerged: "Retired Survivors" were the oldest and one of the most prevalent groups; "Midlife Bloomers" first disclosed their LGBT identities in mid-40s, on average; "Beleaguered At-Risk" had high rates of job-related discrimination and few social resources; and "Visibly Resourced" had a high degree of identity visibility and were socially and economically advantaged. Clusters differed significantly in mental and physical health and QOL, with the Visibly Resourced faring best and Beleaguered At-Risk faring worst on most indicators; Retired Survivors and Midlife Bloomers showed similar health and QOL. Historical and environmental contexts frame normative and non-normative life events. Future research will benefit from the use of longitudinal data and an assessment of timing and sequencing of key life events in the lives of LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. How Do We Remember Happy Life Events? A Comparison Between Eudaimonic and Hedonic Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor

    2016-08-17

    Although positive events occur frequently in people's lives, autobiographical memory for happy events has received only marginal attention within the psychology literature. This study followed a between-subjects design to examine the similarities and differences between eudaimonic and hedonic happy memories. Two groups of undergraduates provided narratives of personally experienced eudaimonic and hedonic events, respectively. They also completed questionnaires assessing the memory characteristics of recalled events and the centrality of such events for the individual's identity and life story. In addition, the participants' levels of well-being were assessed. The content analysis of narratives revealed that eudaimonic memories mostly referred to transitional life events; by contrast, the most reported hedonic memories referred to close relationship experiences. Eudaimonic and hedonic recollections were further compared on quantitative measures of memory characteristics, statistically controlling for retention interval and event centrality. Results showed that eudaimonic memories involved more intense feelings of pride and were socially shared more frequently than hedonic memories. However, the two memory types were similar with respect to a number of features (e.g., sensory details). It is argued that participants remembering eudaimonic events were more influenced by cultural life scripts. Implications of the findings for the measurement of psychological well-being are also discussed.

  17. Examining the influence of major life events as drivers of residential mobility and neighbourhood transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Residential mobility and internal migration have long been key foci of research across a range of disciplines. However, the analytical strategies adopted in many studies are unable to unpick the drivers of mobility in sufficient detail because of two issues prevalent within the literature: a lack of detailed information on the individual context of people's lives and a failure to apply longitudinal methods. Methods: Using detailed data from a UK birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, and a multilevel recurrent-event history analysis approach, this paper overcomes these two major limitations and presents a number of findings. Results: Most life events increase the likelihood of moving, even though there is little evidence that they precede upwards or downwards mobility into more or less deprived neighbourhoods. The findings also suggest that families living in poor homes and neighbourhoods are more likely to be stuck in place following certain negative life events than those in good environments. Conclusions: While broad demographic and socioeconomic characteristics reliably account for mobility patterns, the occurrence of life events and a person's attitudes towards their living environment are necessary for a full understanding of mobility patterns. Future studies should strive to account for such detailed data. Contribution: We demonstrate the important impact that a wide range of life events has on the mobility of families and provide evidence that studies unable to account for major life events likely do not suffer strong bias results through unobserved confounding.

  18. Accumulation of Major Life Events in Childhood and Adult Life and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Jolene Masters Pedersen

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events (MLE in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction between childhood and adult MLE and to investigate modification of these associations by educational attainment.The study was based on 4,761 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study free of diabetes at baseline and followed for 10 years. MLE were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3 or more events. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM.In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developing T2DM (Odds Ratio (OR 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.60, 3.27. The accumulation of MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016 and work life (p-trend = 0.049 was associated with risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencing MLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM than experiencing events at only one time point. There was some evidence that being simultaneously exposed to childhood MLE and short education (OR 2.28; 95% C.I. 1.45, 3.59 and work MLE and short education (OR 2.86; 95% C.I. 1.62, 5.03 was associated with higher risk of T2DM, as the joint effects were greater than the sum of their individual effects.Findings from this study suggest that the accumulation of MLE in childhood, private adult life and work life, respectively, are risk factors for developing T2DM.

  19. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  20. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

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    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  1. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment ( N =46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann-Whitney U -tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment ( n =23) and the group that did not ( n =23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group ( n =13) and the trauma group ( n =10). Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should understand symptom

  2. The impact of outpatient chemotherapy-related adverse events on the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the impact of adverse events associated with the initial course of outpatient chemotherapy on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. We conducted a survey to assess the quality of life in 48 breast cancer patients before and after receiving their first course of outpatient chemotherapy at Gifu Municipal Hospital. Patients completed the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs before and after 1 course of outpatient chemotherapy. European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score decreased significantly after chemotherapy (pQuality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.003, pquality of life according to individual adverse events, the decrease in quality of life after chemotherapy in terms of the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score was greater in anorexic patients than in non-anorexic patients (p = 0.009 and pquality of life. Our findings reveal that anticancer drug-related adverse events, particularly anorexia, reduce overall quality of life following the first course of outpatient chemotherapy in current breast cancer patients. These findings are extremely useful and important in understanding the impact of anticancer drug-related adverse events on quality of life.

  3. Life events and borderline personality features: the influence of gene–environment interaction and gene–environment correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Trull, T.J.; Derom, C.A.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic life events are generally more common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) than in non-patients or patients with other personality disorders. This study investigates whether exposure to life events moderates the genetic architecture of BPD features. As the

  4. Measuring the impact of major life events upon happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Dorling, Danny

    2007-12-01

    In recent years there have been numerous attempts to define and measure happiness in various contexts and pertaining to a wide range of disciplines, ranging from neuroscience and psychology to philosophy, economics and social policy. This article builds on recent work by economists who attempt to estimate happiness regressions using large random samples of individuals in order to calculate monetary 'compensating amounts' for different life 'events'. We estimate happiness regressions using the 'major life event' and 'happiness' data from the British Household Panel Survey. The data and methods used in this article suggest that in contrast to living states such as 'being married', it is more events such as 'starting a new relationship' that have the highest positive effect on happiness. This is closely followed by 'employment-related gains' (in contrast to employment status). Also, women who become pregnant on average report higher than average levels of subjective happiness (in contrast to 'being a parent'). Other events that appear to be associated with happiness according to our analysis include 'personal education-related events' (e.g. starting a new course, graduating from University, passing exams) and 'finance/house related events' (e.g. buying a new house). On the other hand, the event that has the highest negative impact upon happiness according to our analysis is 'the end of my relationship' closely followed by 'death of a parent'. Adverse health events pertaining to the parents of the respondents also have a high negative coefficient and so does an employment-related loss. The analysis presented in this article suggests that what matters the most in people's lives in Britain is to have good dynamic interpersonal relationships and to be respected at work with that respect being constantly renewed. These 'goods' are as much reflected through dynamic events as static situations. Relationships at work appear to be of a similar order of importance to those at

  5. 10 Cents To Save a Life: Ending Hunger as a Special Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Ina Ruth

    The annual "10 Cents to Save a Life" program is a special event that has been held at Mount Ida College in Newton Centre, Massachusetts for two years. The purposes of the event include: (1) teaching the public relations class and communication majors applied public relations theory through both a fundraising campaign and an education…

  6. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  7. Menopausal symptoms: do life events predict severity of symptoms in peri- and post-menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina

    2012-08-01

    Hormonal changes during menopausal transition are linked to physical and psychological symptoms' emergence. This study aims to explore if life events predict menopausal symptoms. This cross-sectional research encompasses a community sample of 992 women who answered to socio-demographic, health, menopause-related and lifestyle questionnaires; menopausal symptoms and life events were assessed with validated instruments. Structural equation modeling was used to build a causal model. Menopausal status predicted only three symptoms: skin/facial hair changes (β=.136; p=.020), sexual (β=.157; p=.004) and, marginally, vasomotor symptoms (β=.094; p=.054). Life events predicted depressive mood (β=-.391; p=.002), anxiety (β=-.271; p=.003), perceived cognitive impairment (β=-.295; p=.003), body shape changes (β=-.136; p=.031), aches/pain (β=-.212; p=.007), skin/facial hair changes (β=-.171; p=.021), numbness (β=-.169; p=.015), perceived loss of control (β=-.234; p=.008), mouth, nails and hair changes (β=-.290; p=.004), vasomotor (β=-.113; p=.044) and sexual symptoms (β=-.208; p=.009). Although women in peri- and post-menopausal manifested higher symptoms' severity than their pre-menopausal counterparts, only three of the menopausal symptoms assessed were predicted by menopausal status. Since the vast majority of menopausal symptoms' severity was significantly influenced by the way women perceived their recent life events, it is concluded that the symptomatology exacerbation, in peri- and post-menopausal women, might be due to life conditions and events, rather than hormonal changes (nonetheless, the inverse influence should be investigated in future studies). Therefore, these should be accounted for in menopause-related clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An adaptation framework for turning Real-Life Events into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærhus Therkildsen, Sacha; Cassøe Bunkenborg, Nanna; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    method and participatory design to achieve our ambition. In conclusion we found that a framework for persuasive board games can be advanced by balancing five interrelated layers: 1) real life events (game fiction), 2) rules (formal game elements), 3) movement system (game mechanisms), 4) destiny...

  9. Mediators of the relationship between life events and memory functioning in a community sample of adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, N.C.M.; Sliwinski, M.J.; Comijs, H.C.; Smyth, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association of frequency and severity of life events with memory functioning in a community sample of adults. We tested the hypothesis that stress-related cognitive interference mediated the effects of recent life events on cognition, in addition to examining the

  10. The relation of early experienced negative life events and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2012-03-01

    Negative life events have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life events associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life events on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life events. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life event among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life events were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life events and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life events at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of a trait-like bias towards the perception of negative subjective life events with risk of developing premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Telek, Tamas; Pap, Dorottya; Rihmer, Zoltan; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-04-16

    Premenstrual symptoms affect the majority of healthy women. Premenstrual symptomatology has earlier been linked to stress and a state-like alteration in the perception of life events in the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesised that there is also a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events evident throughout the whole cycle which is associated with the likelihood to manifest more marked symptoms in the late-luteal phase of the cycle. 88 healthy women completed the PRISM calendar for three consecutive cycles and the Objective and Subjective Event Checklist during the follicular phase of the first cycle. Association between PRISM score change from the follicular through the late-luteal phase and life event variables was investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis (GENMOD). The PRISM score change showed a significant negative association with the ratio of positive subjective life events and a significant positive association with the ratio of negative subjective life events. There were no significant results in case of the objective life events. Our results indicate that women manifesting a more marked increase of symptoms from the late follicular through the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle are more likely to notice negative subjective life events and less likely to notice positive subjective life events. This suggest a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events present throughout the whole reproductive cycle which may play an important role in the emergence of premenstrual symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stressful life events and acute kidney injury in intensive and semi-intensive care unities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Denise Para; Marques, Daniella Aparecida; Blay, Sérgio Luis; Schor, Nestor

    2012-03-01

    Several studies point out that pathophysiological changes related to stress may influence renal function and are associated with disease onset and evolution. However, we have not found any studies about the influence of stress on renal function and acute kidney injury. To evaluate the association between stressful life events and acute kidney injury diagnosis, specifying the most stressful classes of events for these patients in the past 12 months. Case-control study. The study was carried out at Hospital São Paulo, in Universidade Federal de São Paulo and at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado de São Paulo, in Brazil. Patients with acute kidney injury and no chronic disease, admitted to the intensive or semi-intensive care units were included. Controls included patients in the same intensive care units with other acute diseases, except for the acute kidney injury, and also with no chronic disease. Out of the 579 patients initially identified, 475 answered to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) questionnaire and 398 were paired by age and gender (199 cases and 199 controls). The rate of stressful life events was statistically similar between cases and controls. The logistic regression analysis to detect associated effects of the independent variables to the stressful events showed that: increasing age and economic classes A and B in one of the hospitals (Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP) increased the chance of a stressful life event (SLE). This study did not show association between the Acute Kidney Injury Group with a higher frequency of stressful life events, but that old age, higher income, and type of clinical center were associated.

  13. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  14. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. [Suicide among the French National Police forces: Implication of life events and life trajectories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, G; Miras, A; Contrand, B; Séguin, M; Moulki, M; Queinec, R; René, J-S; Fériot, A; Mougin, M; Bonfils, M; Marien, P; Michel, G; Lagarde, E

    2016-08-01

    Research indicates that suicide rates are high among members of law enforcement. Our objectives were: (1) to determine life events implicated in suicide mortality among French law enforcement; and (2) to describe the different life trajectories of police officers who deceased by suicide. All suicides of police officers which occurred during 2008 (n=49) were explored using the psychological autopsy method. Key informants were: a supervisor, a colleague and a member of the family or a close friend. Each of them were interviewed by trained psychologists using standardized questionnaires exploring: sociodemographic characteristics, life events, social integration and support, health service use, mental health with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview short form (CIDI-SF), occupational stress with the Spielberger Inventory, impulsiveness with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and aggressiveness with the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime Aggression Scale. Information was then summarized in a timetable life trajectory of all life areas. All cases were finally appraised by at least two experts in order to identify the determinants of the suicide and to determine psychiatric diagnoses. For each period of time, a burdensomeness score was determined, from 6 (no adversity) to 1 (adversities in each sphere of life). Of the 49 cases of suicide, two were excluded and 39 were investigated and appraised (response rate: 39/47=83%). Eighty-two percent of the suicide cases were men and the mean age at death was 35years. In more than half of the cases, police officers used their service weapon to commit suicide. All deceased police officers were suffering from mental health symptoms (primarily depression). Of them, two thirds had used healthcare for this distress. The main other cause of suicide was problems in the married life (70% of the cases). Four distinct types of life trajectories of adversities could be identified by a qualitative analysis. It is the first time such a study was

  16. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research ...... disorder. The susceptibility to major life stressors of inducing mania does not seem to change throughout life....

  17. Cumulative effects of negative life events and family stress on children's mental health: the Bergen Child Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Serlachius, Anna Sofia; Sivertsen, Børge; Petrie, Keith J; Hysing, Mari

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mental health problems in children. One proposed pathway for this association has been differential exposure to accumulated risk factors in children of lower SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of exposure to negative life events and family stress and to examine the direct and interactive association between lower SES and exposure to life events and family stress in relation with mental health problems. Using cross-sectional data from the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (conducted in 2006), the current study investigated the association between lower SES and exposure to negative life events, family life stressors, and mental health problems in a sample of 2043 Norwegian 11-13 years and their parents. Information about mental health was self-reported by the children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas information about SES and exposure to negative life events and family stressors were provided by their parents. The findings showed that lower SES was associated with more symptoms of emotional-, conduct-, hyperactivity/inattention-, and peer problems and that exposure to life events and family stress explained some of this association (10-29% of the total effects). Low SES and higher prevalence of negative life events and family stressors were associated with more symptoms of mental health problems. Overall, the effect sizes were smaller than previous investigations (f 2 s = 0.015-0.031), perhaps suggesting a buffering effect of the social safety net in place in Norway.

  18. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  19. Cross-sectional study on the relationship between life events and mental health of secondary school students in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linlin; Fan, Juan; Du, Yasong

    2012-06-01

    The relationship of demographic factors and negative life events to the mental health of mainland Chinese school students has not been fully explored. Assess the prevalence of different types of life stressors among secondary school students and identify the demographic characteristics and types of life events that are most closely associated with perceived psychological difficulties in these students. This cross-sectional study administered two self-completion questionnaires to a stratified random cluster sample of 1818 students from four secondary schools in two districts of Shanghai: the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and an abbreviated version of the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) that assesses 11 negative life events. Academic stress (74%), criticism from others (66%), family conflict (29%) and peer bullying & discrimination or interpersonal conflict (26%) were the most frequently reported negative life events, but their prevalence varied significantly by gender, type of school and urban versus rural residence. Similarly the level of reported psychological stress associated with life events, the total perceived psychological difficulty, and the level of pro-social behavior in the students varied significantly between different groups of students. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of high perceived psychological difficulty in the prior 6 months (in order of importance): high total stress score from negative life events in the prior year, experiencing peer bullying & discrimination or interpersonal conflict, not experiencing the death of a family member, male gender, attending a school in a rural district, and not suffering from a major disease or physical impairment. The independent predictors of a high level of pro-social behavior were high total stress score from negative life events, attending an urban school, female gender, attending a regular-tier school (vs. a high

  20. "MENTAL STRAIN, MORE IMPORTANT THAN STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION"

    OpenAIRE

    M. Moosavi; M. Eslami; O. Sheikh Bagloo B. Birashk

    2004-01-01

    Stressful life events may play an important role in coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. This study was performed to compare the frequency of stressful events and mental strain in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and normal population. A case-control study was performed on 50 survivors of MI and 50 controls with no evidence of cardiovascular disease, matched by age, gender, education, race, and number of family members. A questionnaire was used to determine the numbe...

  1. Evaluating personality as a moderator of the association between life events stress and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; O'Riordan, Adam; McMahon, Grace; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible interaction between life events stress and personality in predicting cardiovascular stress responses. Participants (N = 184) completed psychometric measures of life event stress and personality styles and had cardiovascular responses monitored during a standardised stress testing protocol. In adjusted models, the observed blunted association between life event stress and SBP and DBP was moderated by openness; this was more evident at -1SD below the mean openness value. Further, the association between life event stress and TPR vascular resistance was found to be moderated by conscientiousness. In particular, we found conscientiousness at both the mean and 1SD above the mean buffered against the negative impact of life stress on TPR reactivity. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Life events and stress: do older men and women in Malaysia cope differently as consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fon Sim; Phillips, David R; Chai, Sen Tyng

    2013-06-01

    The study of major life events and their effects on well-being has considerable relevance for scientific disciplines and policy making in understanding the consumer behaviour of older people. There is evidence of differences in reactions to and coping with stress between males and females but relatively little knowledge about such gender differences amongst older people, especially in middle-income countries. This study of older Malaysians looked at both coping strategies and gender differences in reactions to stress when people are confronted with certain life events. Seventeen major life events were used in interviews with 645 respondents aged 50 years or older in five major urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis showed older women tended to experience higher levels of chronic stress than older men. They also had more health problems, had lower levels of self-esteem and were less satisfied with life. Whilst the results showed little support for gender differences in coping behaviours, stress had a significant influence on the way older men and women change store preferences. A hypothesis that older women would use more emotion-focused coping strategies was not supported. Knowledge of how older Malaysians cope with life events and stress and especially in this instance with regard to consumption behaviour, is likely to be of considerable academic and policy related interest.

  3. Ratings of Severity of Life Events by Ninth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jerry B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Special education, basic, and honors ninth-grade students (n=60) rated the severity of stress for each of the life events on the Source of Stress Inventory (Chandler, 1981). There was a significant positive relationship between the Chandler rankings (teachers and mental health workers) and the student rankings. (Author/NB)

  4. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  5. Life events and disability in rheumatoid arthritis : A European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leymarie, F; Jolly, D; Sanderman, R.; Briancon, S; Marchant, A.-C; Cuillemin, F; Eschard, J.-P; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; Pointrinal, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between life events (LE) and the clinical status of patients suffering from recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a 2 yr follow-up. As part of a multicentre European cohort study, 370 French and Dutch patients were questioned three times at I yr

  6. Associations among Life Events, Empathic Concern, and Adolescents' Prosocial and Aggressive Behaviors Toward Specific Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Luce, Haley; Davalos, Natasha

    2018-05-25

    The goal of the present study was to examine the links between life events and adolescents' social behaviors (prosocial and aggressive behaviors) toward specific targets and to examine how empathic concern may play a role in these associations. The study examined two hypotheses: both the mediating role of empathic concern and the moderating role of empathic concern. The sample included 311 high school students from the Midwest (M age = 16.10 years; age range = 14-19 years; 58.7% girls; 82.7% White, 13.6% Latino). The results demonstrated support for the moderation model as well as complex links between life events and prosocial and aggressive behaviors toward specific targets. The discussion focuses on the role of empathic concern in understanding how life events are ultimately associated with adolescents' social development.

  7. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative Life Events and Antenatal Depression among Pregnant Women in Rural China: The Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Fangnan; Jiang, Xiaoning; Xiao, Yun; Dong, Xuehan; Kong, Xianglei; Yang, Xuemei; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between psychological and the mental health status of pregnant women in rural China. The current study aims to explore the potential mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts between negative life events and antenatal depression. Data were collected in June 2012 and October 2012. 495 rural pregnant women were interviewed. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, stresses of pregnancy were measured by the pregnancy pressure scale, negative automatic thoughts were measured by the automatic thoughts questionnaire, and negative life events were measured by the life events scale for pregnant women. We used logistic regression and path analysis to test the mediating effect. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.7%. In the logistic regression, the only socio-demographic and health behavior factor significantly related to antenatal depression was sleep quality. Negative life events were not associated with depression in the fully adjusted model. Path analysis showed that the eventual direct and general effects of negative automatic thoughts were 0.39 and 0.51, which were larger than the effects of negative life events. This study suggested that there was a potentially significant mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts. Pregnant women who had lower scores of negative automatic thoughts were more likely to suffer less from negative life events which might lead to antenatal depression.

  10. Using Focus Groups to Explore the Stressful Life Events of Black College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Green, B. Lee; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey Joseph; Stanley, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Black students who attend predominately White institutions (PWI) face many obstacles. This study identified the stressful life events of Black college men via focus group discussions and examined how these events impact their mental health and health behaviors. Forty-six participants from a PWI and a historically Black college/university (HBCU)…

  11. Associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depression : A detailed repeated-assessments study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology

  12. Cognitive Personality Characteristics Impact the Course of Depression: A Prospective Test of Sociotropy, Autonomy and Domain-Specific Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Grant, David A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2009-01-01

    Prospective tests of the impact of sociotropy and autonomy on the course of depression are lacking. In a sample of 97 cognitive high-risk and 62 cognitive low-risk undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, the interactions of sociotropy and interpersonal life events and autonomy and achievement-related life events were examined as predictors of four indicators of the course of depression. Initial analyses failed to support the hypothesis that global scores for sociotropy and autonomy interact with domain-congruent life events to predict the course indicators. The autonomy-achievement events interaction predicted less severe episodes, contrary to hypothesis. Then, factors hypothesized to underlie Sociotropy (Fear of Criticism and Rejection; Preference for Affiliation) and Autonomy were also analyzed. The puzzling autonomy-achievement life event interaction was explained by the underlying Independent Goal Attainment factor. Interactions between Fear of Criticism and Rejection and achievement events, and between Sensitivity to Others' Control and interpersonal events, significantly predicted chronicity, number and severity of episodes. The findings are discussed in terms of the event-congruency hypothesis.

  13. Stressful life events and alcohol use among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the association between stressful life events and alcohol use among young adults pursuing university education in a university in Botswana was studied. A total of 312 young adults participated in the study (55.4% females, mean age = 21.58 (SD =1.87)). Student Stress Scale adapted from Holmes and Rahe's ...

  14. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-05-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge

  15. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, W L; Clarke, N; Nadeem, M; Coghlan, D

    2017-05-10

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge.

  16. How are important life events disclosed on facebook? Relationships with likelihood of sharing and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Cummings, Megan B; Kubiniec, Ashley; Mogannam, Megan; Price, Madison; Todd, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined an aspect of Facebook disclosure that has as yet gone unexplored: whether a user prefers to share information directly, for example, through status updates, or indirectly, via photos with no caption or relationship status changes without context or explanation. The focus was on the sharing of important positive and negative life events related to romantic relationships, health, and work/school in relation to likelihood of sharing this type of information on Facebook and general attitudes toward privacy. An online survey of 599 adult Facebook users found that when positive life events were shared, users preferred to do so indirectly, whereas negative life events were more likely to be disclosed directly. Privacy shared little association with how information was shared. Implications for understanding the finer nuances of how news is shared on Facebook are discussed.

  17. Associations among everyday stress, critical life events, and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Ledermann, Thomas; Blattner, Denise; Galluzzo, Claudia

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how stress is linked to sexual problems among women and men in close relationships. Psychological symptoms, relationship quality, internal daily stress (i.e., originating within the couple such as conflicts, worry for the partner), external daily stress (i.e., stress arising outside the couple such as job stress, stressful relatives, and so forth), and critical life events were examined with regard to their association with different sexual problems. The results support the hypotheses that (1) there is an incremental effect of stress on sexual problems after controlling for psychological symptoms and relationship quality, and that (2) it is primarily internal daily stress and in some cases critical life events rather than external daily stress that are related to sexual problems, particularly hypoactive sexual desire in women and men, sexual aversion in women, vaginismus in women, and premature ejaculation in men. Our findings indicate that the treatment of these sexual problems should address relationship issues and include a focus on helping individuals improve their stress management skills within their couple relationship.

  18. Trauma and recent life events in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: Review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, T.; Velthorst, E.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Haan, L.; van der Gaag, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma and recent life-events have been related to psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether childhood trauma and recent life-events are significantly more prevalent in patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic disorder compared

  19. Reduced infant birthweight consequent upon maternal exposure to severe life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and fetal growth (birthweight and small for gestational age). Stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Mothers of 1.38 million singleton live births in Denmark between January 1......). There was a significant association between maternal exposure to death of a relative and risk of a baby weighing below the 10th percentile (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.22) and 5th percentile (adjusted RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers exposed to severe life events before...... conception or during pregnancy have babies with significantly lower birthweight. If this association is causal, the potential mechanisms of stress-related effects on birthweight include changes in lifestyle due to the exposure and stress-related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during...

  20. Role of stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events on the onset of depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2009-09-01

    Although the stress and stressful life events are known as the precipitation of depressive disorder, the areas of stress and types of stressful life events found in depression are varied by different socio-cultural context. Identify the stress areas, stress severity, and types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder in Thai depressed patients. Ninety depressed and ninety non-depressed subjects, aged above 18 years old, from the Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, were recruited into the present study between July 2007 and January 2008. All subjects completed a demographic data form, and a 1-Year Life Stress Event Questionnaire. The association between the number of stressful life events, stress areas, stress severity, types of stressful life events, and the onset of depressive disorder were analyzed by independent t-test and chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of depressive disorder. Most of the subjects were young and middle-aged women, living in Bangkok and the central region. The depressed subjects experienced more stressful life events than the non-depressed subjects (5.81 +/- 3.19 vs. 3.24 +/- 2.80 events in one year) (p stress areas (health-related, family-related, financial, occupational, and social stress), and overall stress were associated with the onset of depressive disorder (p stress in all areas were at the higher risk of depressive disorder than those with the mild stress (p stress was the stress area highest associated with the depressive disorder (OR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.33-16.92, p stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder were the medical hospitalization, medical illness leading to missing work or disturbed daily routine, change in sleeping habits, absence of recreation, arguments with spouse, sexual difficulties with spouse, family financial problems, job loss, and trouble with boss (p stress was the significant

  1. Exploration of transitional life events in individuals with Friedreich ataxia: Implications for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Jennifer M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human development is a process of change, adaptation and growth. Throughout this process, transitional events mark important points in time when one's life course is significantly altered. This study captures transitional life events brought about or altered by Friedreich ataxia, a progressive chronic illness leading to disability, and the impact of these events on an affected individual's life course. Methods Forty-two adults with Friedreich ataxia (18-65y were interviewed regarding their perceptions of transitional life events. Data from the interviews were coded and analyzed thematically using an iterative process. Results Identified transitions were either a direct outcome of Friedreich ataxia, or a developmental event altered by having the condition. Specifically, an awareness of symptoms, fear of falling and changes in mobility status were the most salient themes from the experience of living with Friedreich ataxia. Developmental events primarily influenced by the condition were one's relationships and life's work. Conclusions Friedreich ataxia increased the complexity and magnitude of transitional events for study participants. Transitional events commonly represented significant loss and presented challenges to self-esteem and identity. Findings from this study help alert professionals of potentially challenging times in patients' lives, which are influenced by chronic illness or disability. Implications for developmental counseling approaches are suggested for genetic counseling. Background Human development can be described in terms of key transitional events, or significant times of change. Transitional events initiate shifts in the meaning or direction of life and require the individual to develop skills or utilize coping strategies to adapt to a novel situation 12. A successful transition has been defined as the development of a sense of mastery over the changed event 3. Transitions can be influenced by a variety

  2. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  3. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E.; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  4. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Berg, A. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  5. Stressful life events and social health factors in women using anxiolytics and antidepressants: an Italian observational study in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incau, Paola; Barbui, Corrado; Tubini, Jacopo; Conforti, Anita

    2011-04-01

    In Italy, as in all of Europe, women differ from men in that they are somewhat more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of stressful life events related to their social networks and emotional sphere. Women are more likely than men to have experienced poverty, gender discrimination, and physical and sexual abuse. The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge about the occurrence of stressful life events in women exposed and not exposed to anxiolytics and antidepressants in a community pharmacy setting. Women attending 100 community pharmacies in the Italian Veneto region were surveyed by pharmacists with regard to a number of general features of their current pharmacologic treatment. Women independently completed a written self-assessment questionnaire that focused on stressful life events. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between anxiolytics and antidepressants use and potential factors, including stressful life events. The study population comprised 11,357 women. One or more stressful life events occurred in 90% of the women treated with anxiolytics and/or antidepressants (users [n = 3848]) and in 74% of the women not treated with these drugs (nonusers [n = 7509]) (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% CI, 2.83-3.60). On average, the life events occurred during the previous 6 months and the women considered the influence of these events on their well-being to be severe. After the unconditional logistic regression analysis, the association between anxiolytics and/or antidepressants use remained positive for most of the stressful life events studied as well as for other factors: separation/divorce, living alone or with others (family or friends), unemployment, whether currently being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist, and treatment with drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system, or nervous system. A significant association between stressful life events and anxiolytics and

  6. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression, however, it is possible this link is bi-directional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Design: Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Methods:...

  7. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Alcohol Relapse: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Christina Delos; Pagano, Maria Elizabeth; Ronis, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Alcohol relapse is impacted by a variety of environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors. We examined the interaction between stressful life events, personality disorder subtype, and alcohol relapse among individuals enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Negative life events predicted relapse in all subjects. In individuals with a history of an alcohol use disorder prior to study entry, positive life events also predicted alcohol relapse. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) were found to be twice as likely to relapse in response to life stressors compared to individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), who were half as likely to relapse in response to life stressors. Further analysis revealed that individuals with OCPD and no history of an alcohol use disorder were almost 10 times more likely to relapse in the face of a stressful romantic problem, while those with ASPD and a history of an alcohol use disorder were six times more likely to relapse in response to a stressful financial event. These findings have implications for both the assessment and the treatment of individuals who present with co-morbid personality and alcohol use disorders.

  8. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    of depression among participants. METHOD: We applied a case-only design, including 290 ethnically homogeneous patients suffering exclusively from first episode depression. Psychiatric mo-morbidity, personality traits and disorders and stressful life events in a six months period preceding onset of depression......BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history......A, 2A, and 2C. RESULTS: The low activity variants of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region in the serotonin transporter gene and the Met-allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met) in the gene encoding brain derived neurotrophic factor were independently associated with the presence...

  9. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC

  10. Major stressful life events in adulthood and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Bager, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether psychological stress is associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied the association between major stressful life events and MS in a nationwide cohort study using death of a child or a spouse or marital dissolution as indicators of severe stress....

  11. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) adolescent population. Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005). Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria) were obtained. The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males), and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2)], adjusted by sex, education and age. Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.

  12. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... safety of life on navigable waters during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 5:30 a.m. to 2:30...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing...

  13. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 40.06, df = 4, p stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  14. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  15. Rectal Cancer: Treatment, Research and Quality of Life, Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute hosted a Facebook Live to discuss rectal cancer treatment, research, and quality of life. The event featured subject matter experts Carmen Allegra, MD, of the National Cancer Institute and University of Florida Health, Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and moderator

  16. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  17. The List of Threatening Experiences: the reliability and validity of a brief life events questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, T S; Cragg, D

    1990-07-01

    During the 23 years since the original work of Holmes & Rahe, research into stressful life events on human subjects has tended towards the development of longer and more complex inventories. The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) of Brugha et al., by virtue of its brevity, overcomes difficulties of clinical application. In a study of 50 psychiatric patients and informants, the questionnaire version of the list (LTE-Q) was shown to have high test-retest reliability, and good agreement with informant information. Concurrent validity, based on the criterion of independently rated adversity derived from a semistructured life events interview, making use of the Life Events and Difficulties Scales (LEDS) method developed by Brown & Harris, showed both high specificity and sensitivity. The LTE-Q is particularly recommended for use in psychiatric, psychological and social studies in which other intervening variables such as social support, coping, and cognitive variables are of interest, and resources do not allow for the use of extensive interview measures of stress.

  18. Potentially disruptive life events: what are the immediate impacts on chronic disease management? A case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Julie C; Gagne, Joshua J; Song, Zirui; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-08-04

    To explore the association between unexpected potentially disruptive life events in a patient or family member that may challenge an individual's ability to take medications as prescribed and the discontinuation of evidence-based medications for common, chronic conditions. Understanding the relationship between medication adherence and life stressors, especially those that can be identified using administrative data, may help identify patients at risk of non-adherence. Observational self-controlled case-crossover design. Individuals in a nationally representative US commercial health insurance database. Adult individuals who initiated an oral hypoglycaemic, antihypertensive and/or statin and subsequently stopped the medication for ≥90 days. Potentially disruptive life events among patients and their family members measured in the 30 days just before the medication was discontinued ('hazard period') compared with the 30 days before this period ('control period'). These events included personal injury, hospitalisation, emergency room visits, changes in insurance coverage, acute stress or acute anxiety. Among the 326 519 patients meeting study criteria who discontinued their chronic disease medications, 88 896 (27.2%) experienced at least one potentially disruptive life event. Newly experiencing an injury (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42), an emergency room visit (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) and acute stress (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31) were associated with discontinuation. Life events among patients' family members did not appear to be associated with medication discontinuation or occurred less frequently just prior to discontinuation. Potentially disruptive life events among individuals identified using routinely collected claims data are associated with discontinuation of chronic disease medications. Awareness of these events may help providers or payers identify patients at risk of non-adherence to maximise patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ

  19. Adler's psychology (of use) today: personal history of traumatic life events as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGree, C E; Snyder, C R

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the reporting of a history of traumatic life events may serve as a strategy to control attributions about performance in an evaluative setting (i.e., self-handicapping). Following from Alfred Adler's early theorization in the psychology of use, as well as more recent theory and research on self-handicapping, we predicted that individuals would emphasize the adversity of events and experiences in their background when an uncertain evaluation was expected and when a traumatic background would serve as a suitable excuse for potential failure. Results generally supported the hypothesized self-protective reporting of traumatic life events.

  20. A Macro-Observation Scheme for Abnormal Event Detection in Daily-Life Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Wei-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a macro-observation scheme for abnormal event detection in daily life. The proposed macro-observation representation records the time-space energy of motions of all moving objects in a scene without segmenting individual object parts. The energy history of each pixel in the scene is instantly updated with exponential weights without explicitly specifying the duration of each activity. Since possible activities in daily life are numerous and distinct from each other and not all abnormal events can be foreseen, images from a video sequence that spans sufficient repetition of normal day-to-day activities are first randomly sampled. A constrained clustering model is proposed to partition the sampled images into groups. The new observed event that has distinct distance from any of the cluster centroids is then classified as an anomaly. The proposed method has been evaluated in daily work of a laboratory and BEHAVE benchmark dataset. The experimental results reveal that it can well detect abnormal events such as burglary and fighting as long as they last for a sufficient duration of time. The proposed method can be used as a support system for the scene that requires full time monitoring personnel.

  1. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The radiology perspective: needs and tools for management of life-threatening events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, Ana Maria; Lerner, Catherine B.; Frush, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that life-threatening contrast agent reactions in adults are very rare, and even less common in children. The rarity of severe allergic reactions to contrast material challenges educators to achieve radiology resident competency in this setting. However, using a simulated anaphylactic contrast reaction paradigm, we have drawn two conclusions: (1) Residents are insufficiently prepared to recognize and manage these life-threatening events and (2) with an interactive, computer-based tool we can significantly improve resident performance in these situations. Simulation is a growing tool in medicine and allows standardized resident exposure to uncommon events in a setting that is conducive to resident education without fear of repercussions (see Ruddy and Patterson in this issue of Pediatric Radiology). More important, simulation provides a cornerstone in patient safety resident education without putting patients at risk. (orig.)

  3. The radiology perspective: needs and tools for management of life-threatening events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria; Lerner, Catherine B.; Frush, Donald P. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Studies have shown that life-threatening contrast agent reactions in adults are very rare, and even less common in children. The rarity of severe allergic reactions to contrast material challenges educators to achieve radiology resident competency in this setting. However, using a simulated anaphylactic contrast reaction paradigm, we have drawn two conclusions: (1) Residents are insufficiently prepared to recognize and manage these life-threatening events and (2) with an interactive, computer-based tool we can significantly improve resident performance in these situations. Simulation is a growing tool in medicine and allows standardized resident exposure to uncommon events in a setting that is conducive to resident education without fear of repercussions (see Ruddy and Patterson in this issue of Pediatric Radiology). More important, simulation provides a cornerstone in patient safety resident education without putting patients at risk. (orig.)

  4. Gender, negative life events and coping on different stages of depression severity: A cross-sectional study among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Jun; Niu, Geng-Feng; You, Zhi-Qi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Tang, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on depression have been well-documented. But depression is a heterogeneous syndrome of which the severity ranged from mild depression to major depression. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on different stages of depression severity. A total of 5989 students (aged 16-25 years, M=20.85, SD=0.58), recruited from six universities in the central region of China using the stratified cluster sampling method, completed Life Events Questionnaire, Coping Response Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ. Among the participants, 708 (11.8%) students presented different severity levels of depression. Gender, negative life events, positive coping, and negative coping all had significant effects on depression. That is, the possibility of being depressed was significantly higher in female university students, or students who had more negative life events, more negative coping, or positive coping. In terms of the different stages of depression severity, all these factors had significant effects on the stage from non- depression to mild depression; only gender, negative life events and positive coping had significant effects on the stage from mild depression to moderate depression; only gender had a significant effect on the stage from moderate depression to major depression. The causal role of these factors on different stages of depression severity could not be inferred. Moreover, the participants were from a non-clinical population. The effects of gender, negative life events and coping varied in different stages of depression severity. The effects of life events and coping styles became insignificant with the increasing severity of depression, whereas the effect of gender remained significant. The results could provide guidance for the prevention, intervention, and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Longitudinal study of appraisal at Three Mile Island: implications for life event research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K; Goldsteen, K S

    1989-01-01

    This study tests a path model which indicates the occurrence of appraisal following the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). The model posits a causal relationship between trust in TMI-related authorities, perceived danger, perceived harm to health, and psychological distress. The implications of the findings for life event research are discussed in terms of the etiological significance of meaning, event consequences, and control.

  6. [Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry.

  7. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  8. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain : a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; de Geus, E.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.; Dekker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to initiate chronic pain. Objectives We examine whether (i) function of biological stress systems, (ii) adverse life events, and (iii) their combination predict

  9. Association of stressful life events with incident falls and fractures in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: small, retrospective studies suggest that major life events and/or sudden emotional stress may increase fall and fracture risk. The current study examines these associations prospectively. Methods: a total of 5,152 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study self-reported data on stressful life events for 1 year prior to study Visit 2. Incident falls and fractures were ascertained for 1 year after Visit 2. Fractures were centrally confirmed. Results: a total of 2,932 (56.9%) men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event. In men with complete stressful life event, fall and covariate data (n = 3,949), any stressful life event was associated with a 33% increased risk of incident fall [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.49] and 68% increased risk of multiple falls (RR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.40–2.01) in the year following Visit 2 after adjustment for age, education, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, stroke, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment, chair stand time, walk speed, multiple past falls, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use. Risk increased with the number of types of stressful life events. Though any stressful life event was associated with a 58% increased age-adjusted risk for incident fracture, this association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after additional adjustment for total hip bone mineral density, fracture after age 50, Parkinson's disease, stroke and IADL impairment. Conclusions: in this cohort of older men, stressful life events significantly increased risk of incident falls independent of other explanatory variables, but did not independently increase incident fracture risk. PMID:24002237

  10. Reading the Bible for guidance, comfort, and strength during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Moore, Angelo D; Johnson, Khishaana A; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    The use of religious practices to promote mental health among African Americans is well documented. African Americans are more likely to report strong religious affiliations and to use religion over prescribed medications for mental health problems. However, few studies have explored how African Americans use religious practices in response to stressful life events. The aim of this study is to examine how African American women and men find comfort in using scripture passages from The Bible. Fifty-four African American adults residing in the Southeastern United States participated in a qualitative descriptive study using open-ended semistructured interviews. Participants were asked to describe their use of scripture passages from The Bible and the personal meanings associated with these scriptures in the context of a family death or life-threatening illness. These participants used scripture passages categorized as God as Protector, God as Beneficent, Praise and Thanksgiving, God as Healer, Memory of Forefathers, Prayers to God, and Life after Death. Few gender differences were noted. However, women were more likely to use scripture passages of God as Protector and Life after Death, whereas men were more likely to use God as Beneficent and God as Healer. The religious practice of reading scripture passages from The Bible is a mental health-promoting strategy used during stressful life events. The findings of this study have practical uses for nurses and can be used to inform acceptable and sensitive approaches in addressing mental health issues and spiritual care needs in African American patients.

  11. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births...... to estimate the effect of exposure on preterm birth, very preterm birth and extremely preterm birth. RESULTS: There were 58 626 (4.34%) preterm births (births and 3288 (0.24%) extremely preterm births in the study cohort. Severe life events in close relatives in the 6...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59...

  12. Pilot Mental Health, Negative Life Events, and Improving Safety with Peer Support and a Just Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Sanne; de Rooy, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with 576 fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture, meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss. We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems. Commercial aviation accidents and incidents in which a mental disorder of a pilot was thought to play a role were reviewed. Subsequently, PubMed and PsychInfo literature searches were performed on peer-support programs, just culture human resource management, and the risk of negative life events on developing suicidal ideation and behavior in comparable professional groups. Lethal accidents were mostly related to impaired coping with negative life events. Negative life events are clearly related to suicidal thoughts, attempts, and completed suicide. A protective effect of peer-support programs on mental health problems has not been established, although peer-support programs are generally appreciated by those involved. We did not find relevant literature on just culture. Negative life events are likely a useful screening tool for mental health risks. There is still a lack of evidence on how peer-support groups should be designed and how management of mental health risks can be implemented in a just culture.Mulder S, de Rooy D. Pilot mental health, negative life events, and improving safety with peer support and a just culture. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):41-51.

  13. Vulnerability, life events and depression amongst Moslem Malaysian women: comparing those married and those divorced or separated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2011-09-01

    The experiences of married and single mothers were compared in an investigation of psychosocial vulnerability, stress and depression in a community-based study of Moslem mothers in Malaysia. For the first time, a model of vulnerability-provoking agent originally developed by Brown et al. in the UK was tested in a Malaysian context. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the district of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Of the 1,200 women approached from membership of community associations, 1,002 (84%) completed the questionnaires. Severe life events Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Brugha and Cragg in Acta Psychiatr Scand 82:77-81, 1990) and psychosocial vulnerability (VDQ) (Moran et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 40:411-427, 2001) were used to measure vulnerability factors. Depression was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) (Havenaar et al. in Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43:209-215, 2008). Single mothers had significantly higher rates of depression than those married (60.5 vs. 39.5%), as well as higher rates of severe life events and Negative Elements in Close Relationships (lack of support and conflict with children). However, married mothers had greater Negative Evaluation of Self. The two vulnerability factors were correlated to each other and to severe life events and social adversity. Logistic regression showed an interaction between severe life events in the material and relationship domains and joint vulnerability for depression outcome. The results are discussed in relation to the low recognition of psychosocial risks for depression in single mothers in Malaysia, as well as lack of appropriate services.

  14. The relationship between stressful life events and Axis I diagnoses among adolescent offspring of probands with bipolar and non-bipolar psychiatric disorders and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Rooks, Brian T.; Hickey, Mary; Fan, Jie Yu; Merranko, John; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim S.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Hafeman, Daniella; Iyengar, Satish; Goldstein, Benjamin; Kupfer, David J.; Axelson, David; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have explored the role of stressful life events in the development of mood disorders. We examined the frequency and nature of stressful life events as measured by the Stressful Life Events Scale(SLES) among three groups of adolescent offspring of probands: with bipolar(BD), with non-BD psychiatric disorders, and healthy control(HC). Furthermore, we examined the relationship between stressful life events and presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders in these offspring. Stressful life events were characterized as dependent, independent, or uncertain (neither dependent or independent), and positive, negative, and neutral (neither positive or negative). Method Offspring of probands with BD aged 13–18 years(N=269), demographically-matched offspring of probands with non-BD Axis I disorders(N=88), and HC probands(N=81) from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study were assessed from 2002–2007 with standardized instruments at intake. Probands completed the SLES for their offspring for life events within the prior year. Life events were evaluated with regard to current offspring Axis I diagnoses after adjusting for confounds. Results After adjusting for demographic and clinical between-group differences(in probands and offspring), offspring of BD probands had greater independent and neutral life events compared with HC offspring and greater number of more severe stressful life events than HC offspring, but not non-BD offspring. Offspring of BD probands with comorbid substance use disorder reported more independent stressful life events. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with current Axis I disorder in offspring of both BD and non-BD affected probands regardless of dependency or valence. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with greater current Axis I disorder in all offspring. Conclusions Offspring of BD probands have greater exposure to independent and neutral life events than

  15. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  16. The longitudinal relation between accumulation of adverse life events and body mass index from early adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  17. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, L.; Smidt, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  18. High Decision Latitude at Work Combined with Traumatic Life Events in Private Life is Associated with Reduced Sleep Quality: Results from the GAZEL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Dich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress, both at work and at home, plays a role in sleep disturbances. Theoretical models of stress underscore the cumulative effect of stress from different domains in affecting health and well-being. However, previous research has not considered how work stress and stress in private life might interact to affect sleep. The study investigated potential synergistic effects of work stress and traumatic events in private life on sleep quality. Participants ('N' = 6552, average baseline age = 52 were a subset of the French GAZEL cohort who were working in 1999. Work stress was operationalized as high job demands and low decision latitude. These working conditions were self-reported in 1999 (study baseline. Traumatic events in the past 12 months were reported in 2000. Sleep quality was assessed in 2000 as disturbed sleep in the past 12 months, and current sleep problems was indexed by the sleep subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire. The results showed that recent events interacted with decision latitude, but not job demands, in predicting sleep quality. However, contrary to our expectations, it was 'high' and not low decision latitude at work that amplified the negative association between stressful events and sleep quality. Adjusted for baseline health, individuals with highest numbers of events and highest levels of decision latitude were at highest risk for impaired sleep. These results challenge the idea that high decision latitude always serves as a protective factor, and underscore the necessity for considering a broader life context when studying stress in a particular domain of life.

  19. Epidemiological evidence for a relationship between life events, coping style, and personality factors in the development of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, P N; Hiller, J E; Price, M A; Thackway, S V; Kricker, A; Tennant, C C

    2000-09-01

    Review empirical evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer development. Standardised quality assessment criteria were utilised to assess the evidence of psychosocial predictors of breast cancer development in the following domains: (a) stressful life events, (b) coping style, (c) social support, and (d) emotional and personality factors. Few well-designed studies report any association between life events and breast cancer, the exception being two small studies using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) reporting an association between severely threatening events and breast cancer risk. Seven studies show anger repression or alexithymia are predictors, the strongest evidence suggesting younger women are at increased risk. There is no evidence that social support, chronic anxiety, or depression affects breast cancer development. With the exception of rationality/anti-emotionality, personality factors do not predict breast cancer risk. The evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer is weak. The strongest predictors are emotional repression and severe life events. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding and greater methodological rigour. Recommendations are given.

  20. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  1. Financial difficulties but not other types of recent negative life events show strong interactions with 5-HTTLPR genotype in the development of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Eszlari, N; Kovacs, D; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Juhasz, G; Bagdy, G

    2016-05-03

    Several studies indicate that 5-HTTLPR mediates the effect of childhood adversity in the development of depression, while results are contradictory for recent negative life events. For childhood adversity the interaction with genotype is strongest for sexual abuse, but not for other types of childhood maltreatment; however, possible interactions with specific recent life events have not been investigated separately. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of four distinct types of recent life events in the development of depressive symptoms in a large community sample. Interaction between different types of recent life events measured by the List of Threatening Experiences and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on current depression measured by the depression subscale and additional items of the Brief Symptom Inventory was investigated in 2588 subjects in Manchester and Budapest. Only a nominal interaction was found between life events overall and 5-HTTLPR on depression, which failed to survive correction for multiple testing. However, subcategorising life events into four categories showed a robust interaction between financial difficulties and the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and a weaker interaction in the case of illness/injury. No interaction effect for the other two life event categories was present. We investigated a general non-representative sample in a cross-sectional approach. Depressive symptoms and life event evaluations were self-reported. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism showed a differential interaction pattern with different types of recent life events, with the strongest interaction effects of financial difficulties on depressive symptoms. This specificity of interaction with only particular types of life events may help to explain previous contradictory findings.

  2. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Dynamics and predictions in the co-event interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi-Tabatabai, Yousef; Wallden, Petros

    2009-01-01

    Sorkin has introduced a new, observer independent, interpretation of quantum mechanics that can give a successful realist account of the 'quantum micro-world' as well as explaining how classicality emerges at the level of observable events for a range of systems including single time 'Copenhagen measurements'. This 'co-event interpretation' presents us with a new ontology, in which a single 'co-event' is real. A new ontology necessitates a review of the dynamical and predictive mechanism of a theory, and in this paper we begin the process by exploring means of expressing the dynamical and predictive content of histories theories in terms of co-events

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  5. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market......BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational...... and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born...

  7. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  8. Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuske Elaine Mary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - The aim is to examine significant life events and social connections that encourage some women to gamble. Specifically, how do these events and connections described as important for women who develop gambling-related problems differ for women who remain recreational gamblers? DESIGN - 20 women who were electronic gaming machine (EGMs, poker machines, slots players were interviewed using a brief interview guide. They also completed the nine question Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI. 11 women self-identified as recreational gamblers (RG while 9 had sought and received help for their gambling problems (PG. Using a feminist, qualitative design and an adaptive grounded theory method to analyze their histories, a number of themes emerged indicating a progression to problem gambling for some and the ability to recognise when control over gambling was needed by others. RESULTS - Although both groups (RG and PG reported common gambling motivations differences appeared in the strength of their social support networks and ways of coping with stress, especially stress associated with a significant life event. CONCLUSIONS - The human need for social connectedness and personal bonds with others emphasised the usefulness of using social capital theories in gambling research with women.

  9. Who uses foodbanks and why? Exploring the impact of financial strain and adverse life events on food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, E; Chater, A; Chapman, S; Barker, M; Rahmawati, N; Waterfall, T; Grimble, G

    2017-11-14

    Rising use of foodbanks highlights food insecurity in the UK. Adverse life events (e.g. unemployment, benefit delays or sanctions) and financial strains are thought to be the drivers of foodbank use. This research aimed to explore who uses foodbanks, and factors associated with increased food insecurity. We surveyed those seeking help from front line crisis providers from foodbanks (N = 270) and a comparison group from Advice Centres (ACs) (N = 245) in relation to demographics, adverse life events, financial strain and household food security. About 55.9% of foodbank users were women and the majority were in receipt of benefits (64.8%). Benefit delays (31.9%), changes (11.1%) and low income (19.6%) were the most common reasons given for referral. Compared to AC users, there were more foodbank users who were single men without children, unemployed, currently homeless, experiencing more financial strain and adverse life events (P = 0.001). Food insecurity was high in both populations, and more severe if they also reported financial strain and adverse life events. Benefit-related problems appear to be a key reason for foodbank referral. By comparison with other disadvantaged groups, foodbank users experienced more financial strain, adverse life events, both increased the severity of food insecurity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Cross-sectional study on the relationship between life events and mental health of secondary school students in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Linlin; Fan, Juan; Du, Yasong

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship of demographic factors and negative life events to the mental health of mainland Chinese school students has not been fully explored. Aim Assess the prevalence of different types of life stressors among secondary school students and identify the demographic characteristics and types of life events that are most closely associated with perceived psychological difficulties in these students. Methods This cross-sectional study administered two self-completion question...

  11. Cultural Differences in Young Adults' Perceptions of the Probability of Future Family Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Calandra; Huang, Vivian; Konnert, Candace

    2017-09-01

    Most young adults are exposed to family caregiving; however, little is known about their perceptions of their future caregiving activities such as the probability of becoming a caregiver for their parents or providing assistance in relocating to a nursing home. This study examined the perceived probability of these events among 182 young adults and the following predictors of their probability ratings: gender, ethnicity, work or volunteer experience, experiences with caregiving and nursing homes, expectations about these transitions, and filial piety. Results indicated that Asian or South Asian participants rated the probability of being a caregiver as significantly higher than Caucasian participants, and the probability of placing a parent in a nursing home as significantly lower. Filial piety was the strongest predictor of the probability of these life events, and it mediated the relationship between ethnicity and probability ratings. These findings indicate the significant role of filial piety in shaping perceptions of future life events.

  12. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation

  13. Risk Factors related to hemorrhage necessitating renal artery embolization after percutaneous nephrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, Jung Hee; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Song, Ji Soo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate risk factors related to severe bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization (RAE) after percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). 36 patients who underwent RAE from January 2005 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 10 patients underwent embolization because of severe bleeding after PCN (bleeding group). From 1762 patients who underwent PCN in the same period, we selected 21 patients who underwent PCN without bleeding after the procedure (non-bleeding group). We investigated possible related risk factors, such as the presence of underlying diseases, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, puncture site, procedure time, size of the kidney, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, parenchymal thickness, and grade of hydronephrosis. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t test for data analyses. We classified hydronephrosis as either 'mild hydronephrosis,' or 'moderate or severe hydronephrosis.' The frequency of mild hydronephrosis was 80.0% (8/10) in the bleeding group and 33.3% (7/21) in the non-bleeding group (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of underlying diseases. Similarly, other risk factors (PT, aPTT, platelet count, procedure time, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, kidney size, and parenhcymal thickness) also did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mild hydronephrosis is a risk factor for severe bleeding necessitating RAE after PCN. Therefore, when performing PCN, careful attention should be paid to patients with mild hydronephrosis

  14. Risk Factors related to hemorrhage necessitating renal artery embolization after percutaneous nephrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, Jung Hee; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Song, Ji Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate risk factors related to severe bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization (RAE) after percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). 36 patients who underwent RAE from January 2005 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 10 patients underwent embolization because of severe bleeding after PCN (bleeding group). From 1762 patients who underwent PCN in the same period, we selected 21 patients who underwent PCN without bleeding after the procedure (non-bleeding group). We investigated possible related risk factors, such as the presence of underlying diseases, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, puncture site, procedure time, size of the kidney, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, parenchymal thickness, and grade of hydronephrosis. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t test for data analyses. We classified hydronephrosis as either 'mild hydronephrosis,' or 'moderate or severe hydronephrosis.' The frequency of mild hydronephrosis was 80.0% (8/10) in the bleeding group and 33.3% (7/21) in the non-bleeding group (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of underlying diseases. Similarly, other risk factors (PT, aPTT, platelet count, procedure time, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, kidney size, and parenhcymal thickness) also did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mild hydronephrosis is a risk factor for severe bleeding necessitating RAE after PCN. Therefore, when performing PCN, careful attention should be paid to patients with mild hydronephrosis.

  15. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered.

  16. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J. L.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Stolk, R. P.; Kotov, R.; Ormel, J.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we

  17. Role of Rhinovirus C in Apparently Life-Threatening Events in Infants, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. Luz; Pozo, Francisco; Reyes, Noelia; Pérez-Breña, Pilar; Casas, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    To assess whether infants hospitalized after an apparently life-threatening event had an associated respiratory virus infection, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from 16 patients. Nine of 11 infants with positive virus results were infected by rhinoviruses. We detected the new genogroup of rhinovirus C in 6 aspirates. PMID:19788827

  18. The Relationship Between Stressful Life Events, Locus of Control, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, James J.

    Numerous studies involving suicide attempters and those who commit suicide suggest that the suicidal individual perceives limited control over the environment, the occurrence of stressful life events and a diminished probability of future success. Results of the present study indicate a relationship between the frequency of suicidal thoughts among…

  19. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  20. Gender differences in the pathway from adverse life events to adolescent emotional and behavioural problems via negative cognitive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.

  1. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  2. Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili O. Horváth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE’s Hungarian randomly selected high school sample (N = 995 was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample (N = 140 in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14–17 years completed the SEYLE project’s self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4% in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2% (Χ2(1 = 12.231, p< 0.001. D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.

  3. Reconceptualizing Agency within the Life Course: The Power of Looking Ahead1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlin, Steven; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Empirical treatments of agency have not caught up with theoretical explication; empirical projects almost always focus on concurrent beliefs about one’s ability to act successfully without sufficiently attending to temporality. We suggest that understanding the modern life course necessitates a multidimensional understanding of subjective agency involving a) perceived capacities and b) perceived life-chances, or expectations about what life holds in store. We also suggest that a proper understanding of agency’s potential power within a life course necessitates moving beyond the domain-specific expectations more typical of past sociological work. Utilizing the Youth Development Study (YDS), we employ a scale of general life expectations in adolescence to explore the potential influence of a general sense of optimistic life-expectations in addition to the traditional agency-as-efficacy approach on a range of important outcomes. PMID:26166833

  4. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  5. The interaction of combined effects of the BDNF and PRKCG genes and negative life events in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Sun, Ning; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Kerang

    2016-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder that results from complex interplay between multiple and partially overlapping sets of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Protein kinase C gamma type (PRKCG) are logical candidate genes in MDD. Among diverse environmental factors, negative life events have been suggested to exert a crucial impact on brain development. In the present study, we hypothesized that interactions between genetic variants in BDNF and PRKCG and negative life events may play an important role in the development of MDD. We recruited a total of 406 patients with MDD and 391 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). Under a dominant model, we observed a significant three-way interaction among BDNF rs6265, PRKCG rs3745406, and negative life events. The gene-environment combination of PRKCG rs3745406 C allele, BDNF rs6265 G allele and high level of negative life events (C-G-HN) was significantly associated with MDD (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.71-13.15). To our knowledge, this is the first report of evidence that the BDNF-PRKCG interaction may modify the relationship between negative life events and MDD in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Influences of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health in a three-gorge area county].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Li, Jianqiao; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health. 1405 left-behind middle school students were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method and investigated with Middle School Student Mental Health Scale (MSSMHS), Multidimensional Life Events Rating Questionnaire for Middle School Students (MLERQ) and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ). The mental health detection rate of left-behind middle school students was 26.33%. Life event have significant influence on mental health (F = 447.624, P = 0.000). The main effect for negative coping style on mental health was significant (F = 263.669, P = 0.000). Positive coping style have effect on mental health but the main effect was not significant (F = 2.436, P = 0.119). The interaction effect of life event and negative coping style was significant (F = 23.173, P = 0.000). Life event and coping style has a certain effect on left-behind middle school student mental health, but its mechanism is complicated and still uncertain.

  7. Adverse events and the relation with quality of life in adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour using psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; Walraven, Sanne; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs are prescribed to approximately 30-40% of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour, despite the limited evidence of effectiveness and the potential of adverse events. To assess the prevalence of adverse events in association with psychotropic drug use in adults with ID and challenging behaviour and to examine the relation of these adverse events with the person's quality of life. The presence of adverse events was measured with a questionnaire that had to be filled in by the physicians of the participants. Movement disorders were measured separately with a standardised protocol. The strength of the association between adverse events and Intellectual Disability Quality of Life-16 (IDQOL-16), and daily functioning was investigated using linear regression analyses, taking into account the severity of disease (CGI-S) as potential confounder. Virtually all of 103 adults with ID and challenging behaviour had at least one adverse event (84.4%) and almost half had ≥3 adverse events (45.6%) across different subclasses. Using psychotropic drugs increased the prevalence of adverse events significantly. Respectively 13% of the patients without psychotropic drugs and 61% of the patients with ≥2 psychotropic drugs had ≥3 adverse events. Having adverse events had a significantly negative influence on the quality of life. A large majority of all patients had at least one adverse event associated with psychotropic drug use. More attention is needed for these adverse events and their negative influence on the quality of life of these patients, taking into account the lack of evidence of effectiveness of psychotropic drugs for challenging behaviour. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Age Differences in the Experience of Daily Life Events: A Study Based on the Social Goals Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lingling; Peng, Huamao; Xue, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined age differences in daily life events related to different types of social goals based on the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), and determined whether the positivity effect existed in the context of social goals in older adults' daily lives. Over a course of 14 days, 49 older adults and 36 younger adults wrote about up to three life events daily and rated the valence of each event. The findings indicated that (1) although both older and younger adults recorded events related to both emotional and knowledge-acquisition goals, the odds ratio for reporting a higher number of events related to emotional goals compared to the number of events related to knowledge-acquisition goals was 2.12 times higher in older adults than that observed in younger adults. (2) Considering the number of events, there was an age-related positivity effect only for knowledge-related goals, and (3) older adults' ratings for events related to emotional and knowledge-acquisition goals were significantly more positive compared to those observed in younger adults. These findings supported the SST, and to some extent, the positivity effect was demonstrated in the context of social goals.

  9. Age Differences in the Experience of Daily Life Events: A Study Based on the Social Goals Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined age differences in daily life events related to different types of social goals based on the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST, and determined whether the positivity effect existed in the context of social goals in older adults’ daily lives. Over a course of 14 days, 49 older adults and 36 younger adults wrote about up to three life events daily and rated the valence of each event. The findings indicated that (1 although both older and younger adults recorded events related to both emotional and knowledge-acquisition goals, the odds ratio for reporting a higher number of events related to emotional goals compared to the number of events related to knowledge-acquisition goals was 2.12 times higher in older adults than that observed in younger adults. (2 Considering the number of events, there was an age-related positivity effect only for knowledge-related goals, and (3 older adults’ ratings for events related to emotional and knowledge-acquisition goals were significantly more positive compared to those observed in younger adults. These findings supported the SST, and to some extent, the positivity effect was demonstrated in the context of social goals.

  10. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; MacFarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Smit, J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Dekker, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesised to initiate chronic pain. We examine whether (1) function of biological stress systems, (2) adverse life events, and (3) their combination predict the onset of chronic

  11. Validation of the Revised Stressful Life Event Questionnaire Using a Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Stressors have a serious role in precipitating mental and somatic disorders and are an interesting subject for many clinical and community-based studies. Hence, the proper and accurate measurement of them is very important. We revised the stressful life event (SLE questionnaire by adding weights to the events in order to measure and determine a cut point. Methods. A total of 4569 adults aged between 18 and 85 years completed the SLE questionnaire and the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. A hybrid model of genetic algorithm (GA and artificial neural networks (ANNs was applied to extract the relation between the stressful life events (evaluated by a 6-point Likert scale and the GHQ score as a response variable. In this model, GA is used in order to set some parameter of ANN for achieving more accurate results. Results. For each stressful life event, the number is defined as weight. Among all stressful life events, death of parents, spouse, or siblings is the most important and impactful stressor in the studied population. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% were obtained for the cut point 100. Conclusion. The SLE-revised (SLE-R questionnaire despite simplicity is a high-performance screening tool for investigating the stress level of life events and its management in both community and primary care settings. The SLE-R questionnaire is user-friendly and easy to be self-administered. This questionnaire allows the individuals to be aware of their own health status.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Factors Necessitating Commercial Banks and Manufacturing Firms’ Involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Idowu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the factors necessitating commercial banks and manufacturing firms’ involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Nigeria comparatively. The research took place in Lagos State in South-west geo-political zone in Nigeria. The survey research design was used in this research. Moreover, the purposive sampling was used in selecting five commercial banks and five manufacturing firms. Primary data were gathered with the aid of questionnaire from 216 respondents out of 250 selected respondents from bank and 205 respondents out of 250 selected respondents from manufacturing firms. Fifty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to each company. All respondents selected were involved in CSR activities of their companies. Factors necessitating companies’ involvement in CSR were examined with Analysis of Variance. The research reveals that t-test value is -0.39 and p-value is 0.8, which shows that there is no significant difference between factors necessitating of the commercial banks and manufacturing firms’ involvement in CSR. The research recommends that corporate organizations should give attention to CSR initiatives as these lead to improvement of customers loyalty, improvement of the positive image of the organization, improved relationship with local communities,   and enhances shareholders values as well as improved relations with public authorities amongst others.

  13. Short Personality and Life Event scale for detection of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Delgado-Gómez, David; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego; García-Vega, Juan Manuel; Berenguer, Nuria; Oquendo, Maria A; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario

    2015-01-01

    To develop a brief and reliable psychometric scale to identify individuals at risk for suicidal behaviour. Case-control study. 182 individuals (61 suicide attempters, 57 psychiatric controls, and 64 psychiatrically healthy controls) aged 18 or older, admitted to the Emergency Department at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. All participants completed a form including their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Personality and Life Events scale (27 items). To assess Axis I diagnoses, all psychiatric patients (including suicide attempters) were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic factors. Additionally, χ(2) independence tests were applied to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the Personality and Life Events scale between groups. A stepwise linear regression with backward variable selection was conducted to build the Short Personality Life Event (S-PLE) scale. In order to evaluate the accuracy, a ROC analysis was conducted. The internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the external reliability was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The S-PLE scale, composed of just 6 items, showed good performance in discriminating between medical controls, psychiatric controls and suicide attempters in an independent sample. For instance, the S-PLE scale discriminated between past suicide and past non-suicide attempters with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. The area under the ROC curve was 88%. A factor analysis extracted only one factor, revealing a single dimension of the S-PLE scale. Furthermore, the S-PLE scale provides values of internal and external reliability between poor (test-retest: 0.55) and acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.65) ranges. Administration time is about one minute. The S-PLE scale is a useful and accurate instrument for estimating the risk of suicidal behaviour in

  14. Parturition events and risk of urinary incontinence in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, David H; Brown, Jeanette S; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona I; Creasman, Jennifer M; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between specific events during vaginal deliveries and urinary incontinence later in life. A retrospective cohort study of 1,521 middle-aged and older women with at least one vaginal delivery who were long-term members of an integrated health delivery system. Age, race/ethnicity, current incontinence status, medical, surgical history, pregnancy and parturition history, menopausal status, hormone replacement, health habits, and general health were obtained by questionnaire. Labor and delivery records, archived since 1948, were abstracted by professional medical record abstractors to obtain parturition events including induction, length of labor stages, type of anesthesia, episiotomy, instrumental delivery, and birth weight. The primary dependent variable was current weekly urinary incontinence (once per week or more often) versus urinary incontinence less than monthly (including no incontinence) in past 12 months. Associations of parturition events and later incontinence were assessed in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 56 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, weekly urinary incontinence significantly associated with age at first birth (P = 0.036), greatest birth weight (P = 0.005), and ever having been induced for labor (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.06-2.16, P = 0.02). Risk of incontinence increased from OR = 1.35 (95%CI = 0.92-1.97, P = 0.12) for women with one induction to OR = 2.67 (95%CI = 1.25-5.71, P = 0.01) for women with two or more inductions (P = 0.01 for trend). No other parturition factors were associated with incontinence. Younger age at first birth, greatest birth weight, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of incontinence in later life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dynamics and predictions in the co-event interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi-Tabatabai, Yousef [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wallden, Petros [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2009-06-12

    Sorkin has introduced a new, observer independent, interpretation of quantum mechanics that can give a successful realist account of the 'quantum micro-world' as well as explaining how classicality emerges at the level of observable events for a range of systems including single time 'Copenhagen measurements'. This 'co-event interpretation' presents us with a new ontology, in which a single 'co-event' is real. A new ontology necessitates a review of the dynamical and predictive mechanism of a theory, and in this paper we begin the process by exploring means of expressing the dynamical and predictive content of histories theories in terms of co-events.

  16. Life Change Events as a Predictor of Accident Incidence in a College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furney, Steven R.

    1983-01-01

    To test the relationship between stressful life-change events and accident incidence, researchers administered the College Schedule of Recent Experience to male students at a large midwestern university. The study's implications for identifying high-risk persons and for accident prevention are discussed. (PP)

  17. [Mediating effects on depression regarding the relationship between negative life events and suicide ideation among college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Wu, Yun-tao; Feng, Shu-xiu; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui

    2012-11-01

    To understand the relationship between negative life events and suicide ideation, and how it was influenced by the mediating effect of depression. 1145 college students from one university were selected using cluster sampling. Both Symptom Check List (SCL-90) and Questionnaire were administered to measure depression and suicide ideation in the past week and on the prevalence of negative life events and related information. Recent negative life events would include physical illness, academic problem, financial problem and interpersonal conflict etc. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the mediating effect of depression. Physical illness (OR = 2.5, P = 0.028), interpersonal conflict (OR = 7.2, P = 0.002) and financial problem (OR = 1.6, P = 0.026) were significantly associated with suicide ideation, but academically-related problems did not seem to be significantly associated with suicide ideation (OR = 1.8, P = 0.090). After adjusted for depression, both physical illness and interpersonal conflicts were not but financial problem remained significantly associated with suicide ideation (OR = 1.7, P = 0.014). Our data showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between physical illness, interpersonal conflict and suicide ideation, but did not mediate the relationship between financial problem and suicide ideation. Depression played different mediating roles between different negative life events and suicide ideation. The findings from this study might be able to provide some clues for the prevention interventions on college students.

  18. Simulating the influence of life trajectory events on transport mode behavior in an agent-based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    this paper describes the results of a study on the impact of lifecycle or life trajectory events on activity-travel decisions. This lifecycle trajectory of individual agents can be easily incorporated in an agent-based simulation system. This paper focuses on two lifecycle events, change in

  19. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  20. Changes in the Order of Family Life Events in 20th-Century Europe: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Burgin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the evolution of the sequencing of family life events in Europe during the second half of the 20th century using individual data from the European Social Survey and from the Generation and Gender Program. Considering the four events ‘leaving the parental home‘, ‘first cohabiting union‘, ‘first marriage‘, and ‘first parenthood‘, we hypothesize a transition from a traditional standard event order characterized by a high degree of synchronization between the first three events towards a new standard whose features are a high degree of de-synchronization between first cohabitation and first marriage and a reversal of the traditional order between first marriage and first parenthood. We also hypothesize cross-regional differences in the timing and in the shape of the transition from one standard to another. Applying specifically developed tools to visualize and analyze event sequences, we show important regional variation in the evolution of the sequencing of family life events. Hardly any change can be observed in Southern Europe, where the sequencing behavior of family events has remained highly standardized and rooted in the traditional standard. In Eastern Europe where family event sequences have become less standardized and where a particular sequence characterized by the reversal of the traditional order between leaving home and family formation has been observed, the hypothesized transition is still in its very beginning. In Western Europe the transition is clearly on its way, but no re-standardization towards a new standard can be observed as for now. As expected, the transition is most advanced in Northern Europe, where evidence for a certain re-standardization process in the sequencing of family life events has been found.

  1. Childhood Socioeconomic Status and the Occurrence of Recent Negative Life Events as Predictors of Circulating and Stimulated Levels of Interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Marsland, Anna L; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supports an inverse association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with systemic inflammation in adulthood. However, it remains to be determined whether this association is dependent on exposure to stressful life experiences. We predicted that the combination of a high number of recent negative life events and low childhood SES would be associated with the highest levels of both circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of IL-6. We tested this prediction among a community sample of 459 adults (47% male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Inverse associations were found between childhood and adult SES indices with circulating IL-6 levels (r values between -0.07 and -0.16, p .05). The number of recent negative life events (mean [standard deviation] = 2.43 [2.34]) was not significantly related to subjective childhood SES and other SES indices (r values .10). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between the interaction of subjective childhood SES and recent negative life events and circulating IL-6 (β = -0.09, t(404) = -1.98, p = .049) and a marginally significant association with stimulated levels of IL-6 (β = -0.10, t(365) = -1.94, p = .054), whereas these covariate-adjusted models revealed no main effects for subjective SES or recent negative life events. The relationship between childhood SES and IL-6 seems to be moderated by recent life events, such that individuals with a relatively low childhood SES exhibit an inflammatory phenotype in the context of a high number of recent negative life events.

  2. Biological Stress Systems, Adverse Life Events, and the Improvement of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain Across a 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Macfarlane, Gary J; Geenen, Rinie; Smit, Johannes H; de Geus, Eco J C N; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-02-01

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1) function of biological stress systems, 2) adverse life events, and 3) their combination predict the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) with chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at baseline (N = 665) were followed-up 2, 4, and 6 years later. The Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire was used to determine improvement (not meeting the criteria) of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at follow-up. Baseline assessment of biological stress systems included function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (1-hour cortisol awakening response, evening level, and post dexamethasone level), the immune system (basal and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory markers), the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, pre-ejection period, SD of the normal-to-normal interval, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia). The number of adverse life events were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. We showed that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and autonomic nervous system functioning and adverse life events were not associated with the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain, either as a main effect or in interaction. This longitudinal study could not confirm that biological stress system dysfunction and adverse life events affect the course of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Biological stress systems and adverse life events are not associated with the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years of follow-up. Other determinants should thus be considered in future research to identify in which

  3. Association Between Stressful Life Events and Depression; Intersection of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-06-01

    Although stressful life events (SLEs) and depression are associated, we do not know if the intersection of race and gender modifies the magnitude of this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the USA, we tested if the association between SLE and major depressive episode (MDE) depends on the intersection of race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 5899 adults including 5008 Blacks (African-Americans or Caribbean Blacks), and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Stressful life events (past 30 days) was the independent variable, 12-month MDE was the dependent variable, and age, educational level, marital status, employment, and region of country were controls. In the pooled sample, SLE was associated with MDE above and beyond all covariates, without the SLE × race interaction term being significant. Among men, the SLE × race interaction was significant, suggesting a stronger association between SLE and MDE among White men compared to Black men. Such interaction between SLE × race could not be found among women. The association between SLE and depression may be stronger for White men than Black men; however, this link does not differ between White and Black women. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism behind race by gender variation in the stress-depression link.

  4. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; Diercks, R. L.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe

  5. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  6. Negative Life Events Vary by Neighborhood and Mediate the Relation Between Neighborhood Context and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a considerable amount of neighborhood research has addressed how fear of negative events may activate stress responses, few studies have noted the potentially embedded nature of negative life events within spatial riskscapes. Co-occurring contextual social and physical h...

  7. Interactions between the vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism and life events in susceptibility to major depressive disorder in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Qiao, Zhengxue; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Xiuxian; Ma, Jingsong; Chen, Mingqi; Yang, Jiarun; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Zhang, Congpei; Yang, Yanjie; Pan, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the development of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphism (+405G/C, rs2010963) and negative life events in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). DNA genotyping was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes in 274 patients with MDD and 273 age-and sex-matched controls. The frequency and severity of negative life events were assessed by the Life Events Scale (LES). A logistics method was employed to assess the gene-environment interaction (G×E). Differences in rs2010963 genotype distributions were observed between MDD patients and controls. Significant G×E interactions between allelic variation of rs2010963 and negative life events were observed. Individuals carrying the C alleles were susceptible to MDD only when exposed to high-negative life events. These results indicate that interactions between the VEGF rs2010963 polymorphism and environment increases the risk of developing MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department.

  9. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  10. The impact of major life events on the use of complementary and alternative medicine among individuals with chronic pain: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Fortier, Michelle A; Cheng, David Y; Perret, Danielle; Hata, Justin; Tan, Edwin T; Kain, Zeev N

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain affects millions of Americans. Treating chronic pain can be difficult because it is a complex condition influenced by genetic makeup and physiological and psychological factors. The experience of major life events has also been found to affect the psychosocial functioning, health, and health behaviors of patients. Whereas the impact of major life events on the use of traditional medical practices has been explored, only one study to date has examined the relationship between major life events and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examined the impact of major life events on the use of CAM among patients with chronic pain syndromes. Participants were consecutive patients seeking treatment at a pain clinic. The study occurred at a tertiary center for pain management in Southern California. Participants were adult patients experiencing chronic pain for at least 6 mo, seeking treatment at a pain center. Participants completed a measure assessing their use of CAM modalities as well as their receptiveness to using previously unused CAM modalities, and they provided demographic information, including the occurrence of major life events, such as a job loss. A total of 199 adults with chronic pain participated in the study. The majority (91.6%) of chronic pain patients in the study reported using at least one form of CAM, with an average of at least five different forms of CAM. Individuals reported receptiveness to CAM modalities that they had not previously used (P CAM use were greater among those that had experienced a major life event in the prior 6 mo (P chronic pain frequently use CAM therapies, especially those who had recently experienced a major life event. Major life events may motivate patients with chronic pain to seek out different forms of CAM as a way to manage their pain.

  11. Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of Early Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life events are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…

  12. The Greenlandic Life Script and Life Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of personal life events from their 15 - 30 years of age. This phenomenon is known as the reminiscence bump (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998). The reminiscence bump is highly populated by emotionally positive events (Rubin & Berntsen......, 2003), when cued by requests for important events. This dominance of positive events is not seen when cued by random words. Berntsen and Rubin (2004) presented a cultural explanation for the bump: cultural life script theory. Their theory claims that the bump for the life story can be explained...... by the life script; that is, culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealized life course. According to the cultural life script theory, the life script is used as a guideline for the recall of autobiographical memories, which help construct personal life...

  13. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83% completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 16.1% (parents' divorce for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for

  14. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  15. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  16. PARENTAL ASSISTANCE, NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS, AND ATTAINMENT DURING THE TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; McLaughlin, Heather; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2017-01-01

    Responding to the longer and more variable transition to adulthood, parents are stepping in to help their young adult children. Little is known, however, about the extent to which parental support promotes success, and whether parental support has different effects for young adult sons and daughters. Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that parental scaffolding assistance for educational expenses predicts college graduation for both men and women. Negative life events experienced during the transition to adulthood are associated with lower earnings by the early 30s, although there is some variation by type of event. More frequent parental support during times of need does not predict long-term economic attainment for sons or daughters.

  17. [Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Chen, Ling; Yin, Dan; Miao, Jinping; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. By adopting current situation random sampling method, Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List and Family APGAR Index were used to assess adolescents at random in a hygiene vocational school in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province and a collage in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. 3700 questionnaires were granted, 3675 questionnaires were collected, among which 3620 were valid. Chi-square test, t-test, and univariate logistic regression were employed in univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. The detection rate of suicide ideation is 7.0%, and the top five suicide ideation characteristics were: poor academic performance (33.6%), serious family functional impairment (25.8%), lower-middle academic performance (11.7%), bad economic conditions (10.8%) and study in Grade Three (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the following three high-level stress amount in negative life events are most crucial for suicide ideation. They are "relationships" (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 1.071 - 1. 202), "academic pressure" (OR = 1.169, 95% CI 1.101 - 1.241), and "external events" (OR = 1.278, 95% CI 1.187 - 1.376). What' s more, the stress of attending higher grades (OR = 1.980, 95% CI 1.302 - 3.008), poor academic performance (OR = 7.206, 95% CI 1.745 - 9.789), moderate family functional impairment (OR = 2.562, 95% CI 1.527 - 2.892) and its serious level (OR = 8.287, 95% CI 3.154 - 6.917) are also influential factors for suicide ideation. Severe family functional impairment and high-level stress amount of negative life events produced the main factors of suicide ideation. Therefore, necessary and sufficient support should be given to adolescents by

  18. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The interplay and etiological continuity of neuroticism, difficulties, and life events in the etiology of major and subsyndromal, first and recurrent depressive episodes in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Brilman, EI

    Objective: Stressful life events, longterm difficulties, and high neuroticism are established risk factors for depression. Less is known about their role in late-life depression, how they modify or mediate one another's effects, and whether this differs between major and subsyndromal, first and

  20. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  1. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  2. The effect of childhood trauma and Five-Factor Model personality traits on exposure to adult life events in patients with psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Boyette, Lindy Lou; Meijer, Carin J.; Koeter, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Haan, Lieuwe; for GROUP, GROUP; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; Meijer, Carin J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in

  3. Gambling and negative life events in a nationally representative sample of UK men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Sharman, Stephen; Coid, Jeremy; Murphy, Raegan; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Cowlishaw, Sean; Landon, Jason

    2017-12-01

    The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years. Measurements included self-reported gambling behaviours, as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS) and traumatic or stressful life events. Covariates included alcohol and drug dependence and socio-demographics. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations. Problem gambling (SOGS 3-4) and probable pathological gambling (SOGS 5+) were associated with increased odds of trauma in childhood (e.g. violence in the home (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR) 3.0 (CI=1.8-5.0) and 2.6 (CI=1.7-4.1) respectively), and life stressors in adulthood (e.g. intimate partner violence (AORs 4.5 (CI=2.0-10.3) and 4.7 (CI=2.3-9.7) and homelessness (AORs 2.2 (CI=1.1-4.6) and 3.2 (CI=1.9-5.5)). Results were attenuated when adjusted for probable alcohol and drug dependence with the latter having largest effects. Among men in the United Kingdom, disordered gambling remains uniquely associated with trauma and life stressors in childhood and adulthood after adjusting for alcohol and drug dependence. The results support a need for disordered gambling treatment services to undertake routine screening for alcohol, drugs, IPV and traumatic life events and to tailor treatment that specifically targets the effects of stress for clients who present with such a cluster of issues. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...... after adjusting for major life events and social support. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress...

  5. Major life events: their personal meaning, resolution, and mental health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John R; Turner, R Jay

    2008-06-01

    Researchers have employed varying strategies in an effort to better understand variation in responses to stress. This article argues that crisis theory makes a useful contribution to these efforts, particularly when studying variable response to major life events that are of high threat potential. Regression analyses of depressive symptomatology, mastery, and self-esteem in a community sample of adults (n = 1,542) provide preliminary support for the central tenets of crisis theory that specify the conditions under which experienced events are minimally and maximally hazardous. The results also offer mixed support for the proposition that successfully resolved crises can even yield emotional and coping benefits. Longitudinal models and further development of survey-based measures for distinguishing the occurrence of a crisis and assessing the adequacy of its resolution are needed to more thoroughly test crisis theory.

  6. [Study on the correlation between adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems and life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-zhu; Guo, Lan-ting; Tang, Guang-zheng

    2006-03-01

    To study the life events which are correlated with adolescent's emotion and behavior problems, and to provide evidence for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. Youth's Self Report (YSR) and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) were used to assess adolescent's emotional and behavioral problems and life events by 'spot' study. The referred group consisted of 585 patients from 11 to 18 years old in a Mental Health Centre of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from July in 2002 to March in 2004. Level of IQ was above 5th grade of primary school among the study subjects who were willing to fill in the YSR and ASLEC. The non-referred group was selected in a 1280 students cluster-sample from the schools of Chengdu city, whose sex, age and father's career were matched with the referred group. Variance inflation factor (VIF) was used to verify that there was no collinearity to each other in the 6 factors of ASLEC: interpersonal relationship, learning pressure, being punished, losing good adaptation and other. Linear stepwise regression was adopted. The YSR scores in referred group were higher than those in non-referred group, and the referred group had more emotional and behavioral problems than the non-referred one. Partial correlations ranged from 0.124 to 0.418 in referred group, and from 0.104 to 0.388 in non-referred group. Unsatisfied interpersonal relationship, heavy learning pressure, having been punished and poor adaptation were likely to increase the risk of youth's emotional and behavioral problems. More attention should be paid to help adolescents in the following areas: solving intrapersonal affairs, relieving pressure from learning, avoiding punishment, and improving ability to fit themselves to their surroundings.

  7. The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2013-10-01

    The role of "genes" on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one's job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated.

  8. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  9. The association of suicide risk with negative life events and social support according to gender in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad; Srisurapanont, Manit; Chang, Sung-man; Liu, Chia-Yih; Bautista, Dianne; Ge, Lan; Choon Chua, Hong; Pyo Hong, Jin

    2015-08-30

    We investigated the associations between negative life events, social support, depressive and hostile symptoms, and suicide risk according to gender in multinational Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 547 outpatients with MDD (352 women and 195 men, mean age of 39.58±13.21 years) were recruited in China, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the List of Threatening Experiences. Negative life events, social support, depressive symptoms, and hostility were all significantly associated with suicidality in female MDD patients. However, only depressive symptoms and hostility were significantly associated with suicidality in male patients. Depression severity and hostility only partially mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in female patients. In contrast, hostility fully mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in male patients. Our results highlight the need of in-depth assessment of suicide risk for depressed female patients who report a number of negative life events and poor social supports, even if they do not show severe psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three Mile Island accident: a case study of life event appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsteen, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    This research investigates community reactions to the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear powered electric generating plant in March, 1979. The investigation is placed in the context of life event research and chooses an appraisal orientation. Three innovations are argued: 1) perceived consequences of the event best predict reactions to it, 2) the attitudes of significant others toward the event influence reactions to the accident under certain circumstances, and 3) sense of well-being is a good outcome measure for a general population. The hypotheses posit that the attitudes of others will affect sense of well-being only when individual attitudes concerning the consequences of the accident are moderate; when individual attitudes are extreme, the attitudes of others will have no demonstrable effect on outcomes. The findings did not support all the prediction of the hypotheses. However, they indicate that perceived consequences are the best predictors of sense of well-being and that an individual's attitudinal position, his strength of attitude, and the nature of the stimulus are highly related to whether or not an individual will be influenced by the views of others

  11. Cognitive Personality Characteristics Impact the Course of Depression: A Prospective Test of Sociotropy, Autonomy and Domain-Specific Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; Grant, David A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2009-01-01

    Prospective tests of the impact of sociotropy and autonomy on the course of depression are lacking. In a sample of 97 cognitive high-risk and 62 cognitive low-risk undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, the interactions of sociotropy and interpersonal life events and autonomy and achievement-related life events were examined as predictors of four indicators of the course of depression. Initial analyses failed to support the hypothesis that global scores fo...

  12. Job loss and broken partnerships: do the number of stressful life events influence the risk of ischemic heart disease in men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 1.02-1.85). We found no indication of dose-response relationship between number of events and risk of IHD. CONCLUSION: In this study of middle-aged men, we found only weak support for the effect of psychosocial stress on IHD measured with register based life events; we found that IHD...... was associated with broken partnerships but not with job loss. We did not find that the risk of incident IHD varied with the number of these stressful life events....

  13. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  14. Prospective evaluation of a cognitive vulnerability-stress model for depression: the interaction of schema self-structures and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Dozois, David J A

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the diathesis-stress component of Beck's (1967) cognitive theory of depression. Initially, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema and depressive symptoms. One year later, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema, depressive symptoms, and negative life events. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for initial depression, indicated that more tightly interconnected negative content was associated with greater elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of life events. More diffusely interconnected positive content for interpersonal self-referent information also interacted with life events to predict depressive symptoms. Cognitive organization dimensions showed moderate to high stability across the follow-up, suggesting that they may be trait-like vulnerability factors. Implications for the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Women's financial planning for retirement: the impact of disruptive life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Nancy A; Ford, Ruth A; Brock, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    Providing care for an aged parent has immediate financial, emotional, psychological, and physical consequences for the primary caregiver. This pilot study of 138 middle aged and older females analyzes the long term financial consequences of providing care to aged relatives for female caregivers. The impact of this disruptive life event (e.g., caring for an aged relative) on retirement planning among middle aged and older adult women was analyzed using quantitative data collected from women residing in the Midwest region of the United States.

  16. Older Adults' Coping with Negative Life Events: Common Processes of Managing Health, Interpersonal, and Financial/Work Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether common stress and coping processes hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped…

  17. THE IMPACT OF STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS ON RELAPSE OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennifer L.; Moitra, Ethan; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with the onset of psychiatric disorders but little is known about the effects of SLEs on individuals already diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in which worry about life events is a defining characteristic. This study examined the impact of SLEs on relapse in adults already diagnosed with GAD. Methods Data are obtained from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project (HARP), a naturalistic longitudinal study of adults with a current or past history of anxiety disorders. One hundred and twelve adults recovered from an episode of GAD and 27 subsequently relapsed during the study. Eight categories of SLEs were assessed via interview and were examined as predictors of GAD relapse. Results An increased total number of SLEs was associated with a higher cumulative probability of relapse into episode of GAD and there was a nonsignificant statistical trend indicating specific categories of SLEs including health, death, and family/friends/household were related to an increased probability of relapse into episodes of GAD. Conclusions SLEs impact the course of GAD and certain types of stressors may be more relevant to symptomatology than others. The change and uncertainty associated with SLEs may exacerbate existing worry tendencies even among those who have recovered from GAD. PMID:22431499

  18. Relations of Parenting and Negative Life Events to Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alanna E.; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; LaGrange, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 299 children (grades 2, 4, and 6), we examined parenting and negative life events as predictors of depressive cognitions, specifically low self-perceived competence, depressive cognitive schemas, and depressogenic attributional style. We also examined developmental trends in these relations. Children completed measures of parenting,…

  19. Eating and weight/shape criticism as a specific life-event related to bulimia nervosa: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sonia Ferreira; Machado, Bárbara César; Martins, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of eating problems in bulimia nervosa patients. A case-control design was used involving the comparison of 60 female subjects who meet DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa with 60 healthy control subjects and 60 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. The RFI (Fairburn et al., 1998) subset of factors that represent exposure to life events in the 12 months immediately before the development of eating problems was used. Women with bulimia nervosa reported higher rates of major stress, criticism about eating, weight and shape and also a great number of antecedent life events during the year preceding the development of eating problems than the healthy control group. However, when compared with the general psychiatric control group only the exposure to critical comments about weight, shape, or eating emerged as a specific trigger for bulimia nervosa. Our findings support the fact that eating and shape/weight criticism in the year preceding the development of eating disturbance seems to be specifically related to bulimia nervosa.

  20. A Hospital Nursing Adverse Events Reporting System Project: An Approach Based on the Systems Development Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjuan; Ball, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Based on the System Development Life Cycle, a hospital based nursing adverse event reporting system was developed and implemented which integrated with the current Hospital Information System (HIS). Besides the potitive outcomes in terms of timeliness and efficiency, this approach has brought an enormous change in how the nurses report, analyze and respond to the adverse events.

  1. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  2. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  3. Centrality of event across cultures. Emotionally positive and negative events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...

  4. Does the Impact of Major Stressful Life Events on the Risk of Developing Depression Change Throughout Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.; Agerbo, E.; Mortensen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    for Longitudinal Labour Market Research. The study includes data on all admissions at psychiatric wards in Denmark from 1981 to 1998 and data on sociodemographic variables and death/suicide of first-degree relatives. RESULTS: A total of 13 006 patients who received a diagnosis of depression at the first ever...... at a psychiatric ward with a diagnosis of depression whereas death of a relative by causes other than suicide had no significant effect. In general, no interaction was found with age with any of the variables, totally, or for men or women, separately. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility to major life stressors does......BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether there is an interaction of ageing on the association between major life events and onset of depression. METHOD: This was a population-based nested case-control study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Integrated Database...

  5. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaosheng

    2017-01-01

    The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women. PMID:28757889

  6. Relationship between Postpartum Depression, Life Events and Social Support%产后抑郁症与生活事件及社会支持的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许祖年; 卢碧运

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine relationship of postpartum depression with life events and social support. Methods: Thirty patients with postpartum depression and 32 normal controls were rated by a life events scale and a social support scale. Results: The number of negative life events were found to be higher in patients with postpartum depression as compared to normal controls. Social support of patients with postpartum depression was also found to be lower than their normal counterparts. Conclusion: Negative life events and deficient social support were significantly related to postpartum depression.

  7. Hypochondriasis and Tendency to Adopt the Sick Role as Moderators of the Relationship between Life Events and Somatic Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A A C -! a" ’s Av~liI 2 Hypochondriasis and Tendency to Adopt the Sick Role as Moderators of the Relationship Between Life Events and Somatic ...AD-A096 846 STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK F/B 5/10 HYPOCHONDRIASIS AND TENDENCY TO ADOPT THE SICK ROLE AS NODERATO-ETC(U) JAN 81 A A STONE. J...ofteRelationship ~etween Life Events and Somatic ~* Syrptomatology,-. .. JO Arthur A./Stone Th A e/W /Z. Long Island Research Institute and Department of

  8. Fathers' parenting, adverse life events, and adolescents' emotional and eating disorder symptoms: the role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Ciara; Flouri, Eirini

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the role of emotion regulation in the relation between fathers' parenting (specifically warmth, behavioral control and psychological control) and adolescents' emotional and eating disorder symptoms, after adjustment for controls. A total of 203 11-18 year-old students from a school in a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London completed questionnaires assessing emotional symptoms (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire's (SDQ) Emotional Symptoms Scale), eating disorder symptoms (measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)), difficulties in emotion regulation (measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)), and fathers' overprotection and warmth, measured with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as behavioral and psychological control. The confounding variables considered were number of proximal (i.e., during the last year) adverse life events experienced, gender, age, and socio-economic status (eligibility for free school meals). Adolescents' difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the link between fathers' psychological control and adolescents' emotional symptoms, but not the link between fathers' parenting and adolescents' eating disorder symptoms, which appeared to be more directly linked to fathers' psychological control and number of proximal adverse life events experienced. Proximal adverse life events experienced were also strongly associated with difficulties in emotion regulation. The study findings have implications for intervention programs which may prove more fruitful in addressing adolescent emotional problems by targeting underlying emotion regulation abilities, and in addressing adolescent eating disorder symptoms by protecting adolescents with a recent experience of multiple adverse life events. Parenting programs also stand to benefit from the evidence presented in this study that paternal psychological control may have uniquely harmful consequences for

  9. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation decisions. Using data of the Dutch Time Competition Survey 2003 and the German Socio-Economic Panel 1984 – 2005 (GSOEP), this thesis shows that the happiness of partners in marital relationships is...

  10. Perfectionism and Stressful Life Events as Vulnerabilities to Depression Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kiani; Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe mood disorders such as depression are the most common mental disorders among individuals. In addition to, girls’ students as a group at high risk are known for developing this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perfectionism and stressful life events in predicting disordered depression symptoms among girls’ students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study on 344 girl students of Tehran’s high schools, who were selected by multiple cluster...

  11. Managing work-life balance of working mothers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Comm. (Business Management) Changes in the corporate landscape and an increase in female participation rates in corporate workforces necessitate a better understanding of female career paths and how organisations can accommodate them better. The purpose of this study is to identify the most appropriate work-life balance benefits organisations can offer to female employees to assist them in achieving greater work-life balance. The study further aims to identify learning and development op...

  12. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women.

  13. Mental health in retired professional football players: 12-month incidence, adverse life events and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of

  14. Life events and difficulties and their association with antenatal distress in White and South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traviss, Gemma D; Meer, Shaista; West, Robert M; House, Allan O

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of distress during pregnancy are common and often go unnoticed. There is a well-established relation between life events and depression. The current study aims to explore the association between life events and difficulties, and symptoms of emotional and somatic distress during pregnancy in White and South Asian women in the UK. 100 pregnant women attending routine antenatal appointments were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS). We investigated the frequency and type of events experienced in the year prior to conception and during pregnancy, as predictors for somatic and emotional distress, measured using the GHQ-28. Non-severe stressors accounted for over 90 % of those reported, half of which (43-53 %) were health and reproduction-related. Somatic symptoms were associated with the number of non-severe events, and number of children and emotional symptoms were associated with non-marked difficulties. There was little evidence of an association between severe events and distress. Ethnicity had little effect on any associations although South Asian women were at slightly higher odds of experiencing emotional symptoms, which appear to be buffered by social support. In routine antenatal care it is important to assess both emotional and somatic symptoms. Health professionals need to be sensitive to the health, social, cultural and environmental circumstances of women during pregnancy and ensure appropriate support is in place, particularly for multi-parous women. Regression models explained a small but significant amount of the variance in distress symptoms. Further work is necessary to explore other contributory factors and also the mechanisms through which stressors have their effect.

  15. Regulatory interventions necessitated by non-conservative operator decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, D.; Chande, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, India has 15 nuclear power units in operation and 8 units under construction. Though the safety performance of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in India has been excellent, a few recent events indicate that conservative decision making process can possibly get affected by perceived production goals. In one of the events, a need for some maintenance work arose while reactor start-up was in progress. After it was realized that the maintenance would require considerable time, the proper course of action would have been to shutdown the reactor and add neutron poison to moderator to ensure sufficient sub criticality. This was not done, as it would have delayed the start up of the reactor on completion of maintenance. In another incident, an unintended slow increase in reactor power occurred due to the adjuster rods becoming inoperable on account of blowing-off of fuses in their power supply. Under this condition, the reactor should have been tripped which was not done. Further, the automatic addition of boron poison to the reactor was inhibited. Regulatory review showed that both the incidents were indicative of degradation in safety culture and reflected operator's overriding concern for keeping the units in operation. Appropriate corrective actions were taken to prevent recurrence of such events in the respective units as also in all other operating units of similar type. In the wake of improved production performance operators may develop a tendency to create new operational records and compete with other units. This aspect points out to a need for careful study of events to check the presence of any element of non-conservative decision-making and to identify leading indicators of degradation in safety performance. (author)

  16. Stressful life events and maltreatment in conversion (functional neurological) disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Lea; Pasman, Joëlle A; Nicholson, Timothy; Aybek, Selma; David, Anthony S; Tuck, Sharon; Kanaan, Richard A; Roelofs, Karin; Carson, Alan; Stone, Jon

    2018-04-01

    Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder. We did a meta-analysis, with assessments of methodology, sources of bias, and sensitivity analyses. 34 case-control studies, with 1405 patients, were eligible. Studies were of moderate-to-low quality. The frequency of childhood and adulthood stressors was increased in cases compared with controls. Odds ratios (OR) were higher for emotional neglect in childhood (49% for cases vs 20% for controls; OR 5·6, 95% CI 2·4-13·1) compared with sexual abuse (24% vs 10%; 3·3, 2·2-4·8) or physical abuse (30% vs 12%; 3·9, 2·2-7·2). An association with stressful life events preceding onset (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·4-6·0) was stronger in studies with better methods (interviews; 4·3, 1·4-13·2). Heterogeneity was significant between studies (I 2 21·1-90·7%). 13 studies that specifically ascertained that the participants had not had either severe life events or any subtype of maltreatment all found a proportion of patients with functional neurological disorder reporting no stressor. Stressful life events and maltreatment are substantially more common in people with functional neurological disorder than in healthy controls and patient controls. Emotional neglect had a higher risk than traditionally emphasised sexual and physical abuse, but many cases report no stressors. This outcome supports changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5; stressors, although relevant to the cause in many patients, are not a core diagnostic feature. This

  17. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder: association to life events and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V.; Vinberg, M.; Aznar, S.

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... neuroticism scores and two or less recent stressful events were associated with decreased whole blood BDNF levels (n=50, pdeveloping depression...

  18. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Prado-Oviedo

    Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian; sex (male vs. female; and origin (imported vs. captive-born. Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05 between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05. Other differences (p<0.05 included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  19. Family factors and life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harland, P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify groups of children at increased risk of behavioural or emotional problems on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and recent life events with a focus on unemployment and divorce or separation. We obtained data on the

  20. The impact of resilience and subsequent stressful life events on MDD and GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Christina M; Lind, Mackenzie J; Brown, Emily A; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2018-02-01

    There remains a dearth of research examining the "buffering" effect of resilience, wherein resilience at one point in time would be expected to protect an individual against development of psychopathology following future adverse life events. Using longitudinal data from an epidemiological twin sample (N = 7463), this study tested whether resilience would act as a buffer for stressful life events (SLEs) against risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Resilience, demographics, and psychopathology were measured at Time 1 and recent SLEs and current MDD and GAD were measured at Time 2. Final models, controlling for demographic covariates and Time 1 diagnosis, examined the impact of Time 1 resilience, recent SLEs, their interaction, and a three-way interaction adding sex on MDD and GAD. The pattern of findings was the same for MDD and GAD, wherein main effects and two-way interactions of resilience and SLEs were significant, such that greater resilience was protective even in the context of high numbers of past-year SLEs. The three-way interaction was not significant, suggesting that the relationship between SLEs and resilience on psychopathology was the same for both men and women. Findings support the conceptualization of resilience as a buffer against the impact of future life stressors on common internalizing psychopathology. Longitudinal designs and trajectory-based studies that include recurring measures of SLEs could inform conceptualizations of resilience in the context of ongoing adversity and aid in developing interventions aimed at fostering healthy adaptation in the face of stressors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  2. Role of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles, and neuroticism in online game addiction among college students: a moderated mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huanhuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online game addiction (OGA is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs, and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS, Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC, Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire (CCSQ, and Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8% were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  3. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  4. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27920734

  5. Continuous event recorders did not affect anxiety or quality of life in patients with palpitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefman, Emmy; Boer, Kimberly R.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Koster, Rudolf W.; Bindels, Patrick J. P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Palpitations can generate feelings of anxiety and decrease quality of life (QoL) due to fear of a cardiac abnormality. Continuous event recorders (CERs) have proven to be successful in diagnosing causes of palpitations but may affect patient QoL and anxiety. The aim is to determine

  6. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.

  7. Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course) cured patients: ... which is a specific instrument and covers four domains of health i.e. physical, ... thereby necessitating measures for the improvement of the overall health of ...

  8. Psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families: the role of proximal and distal adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2008-12-01

    The study investigated if proximal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced in the last year) or distal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced before the last year) is a better predictor of adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior. It also tested for the specificity, accumulation and gradient of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior, and for the interaction between proximal and distal contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior. The sample was 199 11-18 year old children from a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which measures four difficulties (hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems) and prosocial behavior, was used. Confounders were age, gender, and maternal educational qualifications. To model the relationship between the five SDQ scales and contextual risk multivariate response regression models and multivariate response logistic regression models that allow the error terms of the scale specific models to be correlated were fitted. This study highlighted the importance of proximal contextual risk in predicting both broad and externalizing psychopathology, and the importance of considering risk accumulation rather than specificity in predicting psychopathology. By showing that the number of proximal adverse life events experienced had a steady, additive effect on broad and externalizing psychopathology, it also highlighted the need to protect adolescents experiencing current risk from further risk exposure. By showing that the number of distal adverse life events experienced did not affect the proximal risk's impact on either broad or externalizing psychopathology, it highlighted the need to protect all adolescents, irrespective of experience of early life adversities, from risk.

  9. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12-19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may

  10. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (pdivorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all pchildren leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all pdivorce and increased after (all pimpact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  11. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-07-31

    Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities, completed the questionnaire survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior. Bayesian network was further adopted to probe their probabilistic relationships. Of the 5972 students, 7.64% reported the presence of suicidal behavior (attempt or ideation) within the past one year period. Stressful life events such as strong conflicts with classmates and a failure in study exam constituted strong risk factors for suicidal behavior. The influence of coping skills varied according to the strategies adapted toward problems with a high score of approach coping skills significantly associated with a reduced risk of suicidal behavior. The Bayesian network indicated that the probability of suicidal behavior associated with specific life events was to a large extent conditional on coping skills. For instance, a stressful experience of having strong conflicts with classmates could result in a probability of suicidal behavior of 21.25% and 15.36% respectively, for female and male students with the score of approach coping skills under the average. Stressful life events and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal behavior among youth students. The results underscore the importance of prevention efforts to improve coping skills towards stressful life events.

  12. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part II: moving from resuscitative to end-of-life or palliative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events addresses decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps. Part II concerns communications moving from resuscitative to palliative and end-of-life treatments. After completing the steps involved in determining decision-making, emergency physicians (EPs) should consider starting palliative measures versus continuing resuscitative treatment. As communications related to these end-of-life decisions increasingly fall within the scope of emergency medicine (EM) practice, we need to become educated about and comfortable with them. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.

  14. Violence and other stressful life events as triggers of depression and anxiety: what psychosocial resources protect African American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.

  15. Stress, Life Events, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Mero, Richard P.; Williams, David R.

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to stress and negative life events is related to poor health outcomes, and that differential exposure to stress plays a role in socioeconomic disparities in health. Data from three waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 3,617) were analyzed to investigate prospectively the relationship among…

  16. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these va...

  17. Life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults : A cross-sectional comparison of the brief LTE-Q questionnaire and life events and difficulties interview as part of the CASPER study

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, Hjördis M; Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; House, Allan O; Lewis, Helen; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. METHODS: 960 participants over 65 year...

  18. Brief communication: Post-event analysis of loss of life due to hurricane Harvey

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life directly caused by hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred directly due to the event. Most of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area, which was most severely affected by extreme rainfall and heavy flooding. The majority of fatalities in this area were recovered outside the designated 100 and 500 year flood zones. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles...

  19. The Role of Trauma and Stressful Life Events among Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danessa Mayo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The experience of childhood trauma (CT and stressful life events (SLEs is associated with subsequent development of a variety of mental health conditions, including psychotic illness. Recent research identifying adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis allows for prospective evaluation of the impact of trauma and adverse life events on psychosis onset and other outcomes, addressing etiological questions that cannot be answered in studies of fully psychotic or non-clinical populations. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current emerging literature on trauma and adverse life events in the CHR population. Up to 80% of CHR youth endorse a lifetime history of childhood traumatic events and victimization (e.g., bullying. Several studies have shown that the experience of CT predicts psychosis onset among CHR individuals, while the literature on the influence of recent SLEs (e.g., death of a loved one remains inconclusive. Multiple models have been proposed to explain the link between trauma and psychosis, including the stress-vulnerability and stress-sensitivity hypotheses, with emphases on both cognitive processes and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Despite the preponderance of CHR individuals who endorse either CT or SLEs, no clinical trials have been conducted evaluating interventions for trauma in CHR youth to date. Furthermore, the current process of formal identification and assessment of trauma, SLEs, and their impact on CHR youth is inconsistent in research and clinical practice. Recommendations for improving trauma assessment, treatment, and future research directions in the CHR field are provided.

  20. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  1. A serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), drinking-to-cope motivation, and negative life events among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli, Stephen; Conner, Tamlin S; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard; Kranzler, Henry R

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to examine whether a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene was related to college students' reports of relief drinking (drinking-to-cope motives) and whether it moderated the associations between negative life events and drinking to cope. We examined reward drinking (drinking-to-enhance motives) as a comparison and to see whether these effects varied across gender. Using an Internet-based survey, college students (N = 360; 192 women) self-reported on drinking motives and negative life events for up to 4 years. Study participants provided saliva for genotyping the triallelic (LA vs LG or S) variants of 5-HTTLPR. Among men, individuals with two risk alleles (LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed lower drinking-to-cope motives. Among women, individuals with one risk allele (either LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed stronger drinking-to-enhance motives. The association between yearly changes in negative life events and drinking-to-cope motives varied across 5-HTTLPR genotype and gender and was strongest in the positive direction for women with the LA/LA variant. Our findings are not consistent with prior speculation that stronger positive associations between life stress and alcohol use among individuals with the LG or S allele are the result of increased use of alcohol as a method for coping with stress. The importance of examining gender differences in the relations between 5-HTTLPR, substance use, and related constructs is also noted.

  2. Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eCharland-Verville

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Near death experiences (NDEs are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers is still a matter of debate. To date, the most widely used standardized tool to identify and characterize NDEs in research is the Greyson NDE Scale. Using this scale, retrospective and prospective studies have been trying to estimate their incidence in various populations but few studies have tackled to associate the experiences’ intensity and content related to etiology. Methods: This retrospective investigation assessed the most frequently recounted features of self-reported NDEs after a non-life-threatening event (i.e., NDE-like experience or after a pathological coma (i.e., classical NDEs and according to the etiology of the acute brain insult. We also compared our retrospectively acquired data in anoxic coma with historical data from the published literature on prospective post-anoxic studies using the Greyson NDE Scale. Results: From our 190 reports who met the criteria for NDE (i.e., NDE scale total score Conclusions: It appears that real NDEs after coma of different etiologies are similar to NDE-like experiences occurring after non-life threatening events. Subjects reporting NDEs retrospectively tend to have experienced a different content compared to the prospective experiencers

  3. Stressful Life Events Predict Eating Disorder Relapse Following Remission: Six-Year Prospective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Markowitz, John C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pinto, Anthony; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the natural course of bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS) and test for the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on relapse after remission from these eating disorders. Method 117 female patients with BN (N = 35) or EDNOS (N = 82) were prospectively followed for 72 months using structured interviews performed at baseline, 6- and 12-months, and then yearly thereafter. ED were assessed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, and monitored over time with the longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation. Personality disorders were assessed with the diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-personality-disorders, and monitored over time with the follow-along-version. The occurrence and specific timing of SLE were assessed with the life events assessment interview. Cox proportional-hazard-regression-analyses tested associations between time-varying levels of SLE and ED relapse, controlling for comorbid psychiatric disorders, ED duration, and time-varying personality-disorder status. Results ED relapse probability was 43%; BN and EDNOS did not differ in time to relapse. Negative SLE significantly predicted ED relapse; elevated work and social stressors were significant predictors. Psychiatric comorbidity, ED duration, and time-varying personality-disorder status were not significant predictors. Discussion Higher work and social stress represent significant warning signs for triggering relapse for women with remitted BN and EDNOS. PMID:21448971

  4. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio, E-mail: scipioni@unipd.it

    2017-03-15

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  6. [Design and validation of the scales for the assessment of the psychological impact of past life events: the role of ruminative thought and personal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Márquez-González, María; Losada-Baltar, Andrés; García, Pablo E; Romero-Moreno, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Older people's emotional distress is often related to rumination processes focused on past vital events occurred during their lives. The specific coping strategies displayed to face those events may contribute to explain older adults' current well-being: they can perceive that they have obtained personal growth after those events and/or they can show a tendency to have intrusive thoughts about those events. This paper describes the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Scales for the Assessment of the Psychological Impact of Past Life Events (SAPIPLE): the past life events-occurrence scale (LE-O), ruminative thought scale (LE-R) and personal growth scale (LE-PG). Participants were 393 community dwelling elderly (mean age=71.5 years old; SD=6.9). In addition to the SAPIPLE scales, depressive symptomatology, anxiety, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, physical function and vitality have been assessed. The inter-rater agreement's analysis suggests the presence of two factors in the LE-O: positive and negative vital events. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported this two-dimensional structure for both the LE-R and the LE-PG. Good internal consistency indexes have been obtained for each scale and subscale, as well as good criterion and concurrent validity indexes. Both ruminative thoughts about past life events and personal growth following those events are related to older adults' current well-being. The SAPIPLE presents good psychometric properties that justify its use for elderly people. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  8. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  9. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and stressful life events in non-cardiac adolescent chest pain: a comparative study about the hidden part of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Kanik, Ali; Bolat, Nurullah; Mertek, Hilal; Guven, Baris; Karadas, Ulas; Dogrusoz, Buket; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi

    2017-08-01

    Chest pain in adolescents is rarely associated with cardiac disease. Adolescents with medically unexplained chest pain usually have high levels of anxiety and depression. Psychological stress may trigger non-cardiac chest pain. This study evaluated risk factors that particularly characterise adolescence, such as major stressful events, in a clinical population. The present study was conducted on 100 adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain and 76 control subjects. Stressful life events were assessed by interviewing patients using a 36-item checklist, along with the Children's Depression Inventory and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children, in both groups. Certain stressful life events, suicidal thoughts, depression, and anxiety were more commonly observed in adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain compared with the control group. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis showed that trouble with bullies, school-related problems, and depression may trigger non-cardiac chest pain in adolescents. Non-cardiac chest pain on the surface may point to the underlying psychosocial health problems such as depression, suicidal ideas, or important life events such as academic difficulties or trouble with bullies. The need for a psychosocial evaluation that includes assessment of negative life events and a better management have been discussed in light of the results.

  10. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.F.M.; Wiersma, J.E.; Giltay, E.J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  11. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  12. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  13. The role of nonverbal cognitive ability in the association of adverse life events with dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether nonverbal cognitive ability buffers the effect of life stress (number of adverse life events in the last year) on diatheses for depression. It was expected that, as problem-solving aptitude, nonverbal cognitive ability would moderate the effect of life stress on those diatheses (such as dysfunctional attitudes) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in information-processing or problem-solving skills, but not on diatheses (such as hopelessness) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in motivation or effort to apply problem-solving skills. The sample included 558 10- to 19-year-olds from a state secondary school in London. Nonverbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with both dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness. As expected, nonverbal cognitive ability moderated the association between life adversity and dysfunctional attitudes. However, hopelessness was not related to life stress, and therefore, there was no life stress effect for nonverbal cognitive ability to moderate. This study adds to knowledge about the association between problem-solving ability and depressogenic diatheses. By identifying life stress as a risk factor for dysfunctional attitudes but not hopelessness, it highlights the importance of considering outcome specificity in models predicting adolescent outcomes from adverse life events. Importantly for practice, it suggests that an emphasis on recent life adversity will likely underestimate the true level of hopelessness among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    Life in the ocean is shaped by the trade-off between a need to encounter other organisms for feeding or mating, and to avoid encounters with predators. Avoiding or achieving encounters necessitates an efficient means of collecting the maximum possible information from the surroundings through...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  16. Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; Abel, Kathryn; McNamee, R.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Most societies believe that a mother's psychological state can influence her unborn baby. Severe adverse life events during pregnancy have been consistently associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight and prematurity. Such events during the first trimester have also been...... associated with risk of congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect in offspring of antenatal maternal exposure to an objective measure of stress on risk of adverse neurodevelopment, specifically schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the strongest relationship would be to maternal exposures...... not linked with a higher risk of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This finding is consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors...

  17. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, R.; Uher, R.; Huezo-Diaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    , and several polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been genotyped including the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Stressful life events were shown to predict a significantly better response to escitalopram but had no effect on response to nortriptyline...

  18. Association of PER2 genotype and stressful life events with alcohol drinking in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Blomeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1 to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2 to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. RESULTS: Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020. While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  19. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  20. Traumatic life events and development of post-traumatic stress disorder among female factory workers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Taylor Jennelle; Yu, Xiao; Chien, Lung-Chang; Karim, Mohammad Monjurul; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2018-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be more prevalent and burdensome in developing countries. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of PTSD, (2) identify types and number of traumas related to screening positive for PTSD and (3) determine other sociodemographic risk factors and health/medical conditions that may be correlated to PTSD among garment-factory workers and a comparable working population in Bangladesh. A survey was administered to a convenient sample of 607 lower socio-economic status (SES) working women in Bangladesh, 310 of who were garment workers. The primary outcome PTSD was measured by the PTSD Checklist. The Life Events Checklist determined the number and type of traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD was found to be 17.79% - 7.25% in garment workers and 21.55% in the comparison worker group. In multivariate analysis, PTSD was found to be significantly associated with age, income, chronic pain and number of stressful events. Participants between 45-50 years of age had the greatest odds of reporting PTSD - 15.68 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.08, 60.29) compared with those younger than 24 years. PTSD was more common in those with lower income (2,000-4,000 taka) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% CI = 0.79, 3.26), who had chronic pain (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.51, 4.07) and who experienced over three traumatic life events (OR = 11.25; 95% CI = 4.59, 27.59). The mean number of traumatic events experienced by this entire population was 4.9 with PTSD being more likely in those who experienced physical assault (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 4.07, 9.90), who caused serious harm or death to someone else (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.36, 16.87) and who had exposure to combat or war (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 1.17, 19.34). Undiagnosed and untreated PTSD impacts the quality of life and decrease worker productivity among working-age women in this developing country.

  1. The impact of students with left-behind experiences on childhood: The relationship between negative life events and depression among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Zhao, Sheng-Yu; Pan, Xuan-Ying; Liao, Chuan-Jing

    2018-02-01

    The number of left-behind children in rural China has increased dramatically over the last decade. It is reported that about 21.88% of child population with an estimated number of 61 million are left-behind children whose parents leave them to work in cities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the impacts of left-behind experience (LBE) on college students' depression and other influencing factors. This study discusses the mediation effect of self-esteem together with psychological resilience on college students with depression and negative life events of left-behind. The study also discusses the regulation effect of LBE. A total of 788 college students were selected from three universities in Sichuan and Chongqing (367 with LBEs, 421 without LBEs). Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Resilience Scale of Chinese Adolescent (RSCA) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative life events, self-esteem, psychological resilience and depression, respectively. Bootstrap program was used to test the mediation effect, and multiple-group analysis was used to examine the regulation effect for LBE. Scores of ASLEC for the college students with LBEs were higher than those without LBEs (8.59 ± 3.57) vs (7.06 ± 3.38), p ASLEC and SDS were positively correlated with the college students with LBEs ( r = .21 to .29, p < .01), while the scores of RSCA and SES were negatively correlated ( r = -.30 to -.59, p < .01). The mediation effect of college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience between negative life events and depression was significant (mediating effect = .08, .13, .07; p < .01). Thus, the college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience on negative life events had strong mediation effect on depression. The test of Bootstrap showed that the mediation effect of self-esteem and psychological resilience was significant (95% confidence

  2. Antipsychotics, glycemic disorders, and life-threatening diabetic events: a Bayesian data-mining analysis of the FDA adverse event reporting system (1968-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMouchel, William; Fram, David; Yang, Xionghu; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Grogg, Amy L; Engelhart, Luella; Ramaswamy, Krishnan

    2008-01-01

    disproportionality reporting ratios relating to glycemic effects, especially life-threatening events, in the AERS database. The relative associational rankings of drugs are similar in reports from younger and older patients. These results agree with several other reports in the literature, do not support a "class effect" hypothesis, and provide a strong rationale for further studies to clarify the issue.

  3. Impact of health and recreation on work-life balance: a case study of expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2016-01-01

    Factors influencing work-life balance are evolving at a very fast pace, thus creating a fecund ground for innovative work-life balance tools and techniques. The increasing significance of expatriates in the global workforce necessitates a targeted set of work-life balance initiatives to help expatriate workers contribute more effectively in the competitive work environment. Health and recreation are the two important life spheres which play a very important role in success or failure of an ex...

  4. The Interrelation of Prayer and Worship Service Attendance in Moderating the Negative Impact of Life Event Stressors on Mental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, G

    2017-09-13

    The interrelation of worship service attendance and private prayer in moderating the negative impact of life event stressors on mental well-being is examined using hierarchical multiple regressions on a national sample of 2601 Americans. A theoretical model is proposed in which stressful life events are made less distressing under conditions in which exposure to pro-social content at worship services is internalized through frequent private prayer. Interactive models controlling for a block of potential confounds are run to confirm that the stress-moderating effects of worship service attendance are noted only when attendance is complemented by relatively frequent engagement in private prayer.

  5. Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Early Young Adulthood : Do Adverse Life Events Play a Role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Hoek, Hans W.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different classes of body mass index (BMI) development from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether these classes are related to the number of adverse life events children experienced. Methods: Data were from the TRAILS

  6. Risk factors and antecedent life events in the development of anorexia nervosa : A Portuguese case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    ObjectiveThe aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is considered to be multifactorial. This study aims to identify potential risk factors for AN and whether these factors are specific to AN or precede the development of psychiatric disorders in general and to identify specific life events in the

  7. Adverse life events and emotional and behavioural problems in adolescence: the role of coping and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella

    2013-12-01

    We tested whether emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and coping (distraction, avoidance, support seeking and active coping) mediate or moderate the association between change in life stress (change in number of adverse life events) and change in adolescent problem behaviour. We used prospective and retrospective longitudinal data from a community sample. We measured change in problem behaviour as emotional and behavioural problems at Time 2 controlling for emotional and behavioural problems at Time 1, a year earlier. We measured change in life stress as life stress between Times 1 and 2, controlling for total previous life stress (before Time 1). Neither coping nor emotion regulation mediated the association between change in life stress and change in problem behaviour. Avoidance and expressive suppression were related to an increase in problem behaviour. Only cognitive reappraisal moderated the effect of increase in life stress on worsening of problem behaviour, suggesting that, as expected, cognitive reappraisal was a protective factor. In adolescents who reported they habitually reappraise, the association between change in life stress and change in emotional and behavioural problems was non-significant. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : Results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J C; Hillegers, M. H J

    2015-01-01

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  9. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J. C.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  10. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Chander P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.

  12. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  14. Pacemaker dislocation - Truly ectopic activation necessitating surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, TL; Witsenburg, M; Bogerts, AJJC

    Intra-abdominal migration of a generator from an epicardial pacemaker system is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. We report on a case of a 2-year-old child in whom the generator silently migrated from the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle in the upper abdominal wall down into

  15. Does organisational justice protect from sickness absence following a major life event? A Finnish public sector study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, M; Kivimäki, M; Linna, A; Brockner, J; van den Bos, K; Greenberg, J; Pentti, J; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown that fairness perceptions have a strong impact on health, especially under conditions of great work stress. The aim of this study was to extend previous research in studying whether working in high justice workplace would protect from health effects following environmental stressors outside work. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the relationships between organisational justice and sickness-related absences both before and after a major life event among 25 459 public sector employees working in 2551 work units were studied. Sickness absences covered the period from 36 months before the event until 30 months after the event. The increase in sickness absences after the event was larger and stayed at a higher level even 30 months after the event, among those who perceived the management practices in their work unit to be relatively unfair. Similar patterns were found for each of the distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions of organisational justice. Fair organisational and managerial procedures may buffer the negative health effects of psychosocial health risks outside work.

  16. The Effects of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Positive and Negative Life Events on a One-Year Course of Depressive Symptoms in Euthymic Previously Depressed Patients Versus Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet; Roelofs, Karin; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    We investigated a) the concurrent impact of positive and negative life events on the course of depressive symptoms in persons remitted from depression and healthy controls, b) whether the impact of life events on symptom course is moderated by the history of depression and the personality traits of

  17. The Moderating Effect of Impulsivity on the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Depression among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transpersonal model of stress, the purpose of the study was to investigate the moderating effect of impulsivity on the relationship between stressful life events (SLE) and depression among first year university women. Impulsivity consists of tendencies towards lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, urgency and sensation seeking.…

  18. Eventual sport performance level: What about the role of type of sport, perception of critical life events, and practice quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toering, Tynke

    2017-01-01

    The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development. Some interesting differences were found in the motivation for and approach to practice, but little detail was given about what the athletes exactly were doing at the time. The concept of self-regulated learning may be useful in explaining how super-elite athletes action their goals through quality practice. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Life Events and Black-White Differences in Adult Children's Financial Assistance to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung S

    2017-05-23

    Parents who experience life events with negative economic consequences may rely on adult children for financial assistance. This study provided national estimates of Black and White mothers' financial help from adult children. It also examined whether the Black-White difference in the likelihood of a mother's receipt of financial assistance persisted after accounting for life events reflecting parental need and children's ability to provide help. The Health and Retirement Study was used to examine late middle aged (51-70) Black and White mothers' financial help from adult children. Cross-sectional point estimates of financial help from noncoresident and coresident children were based on pooling these data. Random effects logistic regression at the mother-wave level was used to estimate the likelihood of receipt of financial assistance from noncoresident children. On average, 9% (8%) of Blacks and 3% (4%) of Whites reported help from noncoresident (coresident) children in a given interview wave, but Blacks received lower amounts. Changes signifying greater parental financial need and noncoresident children's greater resources were positively associated with receiving financial help from noncoresident children. After accounting for these factors, race differences remained. Black mothers are more likely to rely on children for financial help than Whites. Since this help hinges on the ability of their children to provide, the strength of Blacks' economic safety net as they age also depends on the socioeconomic well-being of the younger generation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. There may not be a cultural life script for public events, but there is a youth bias: Response to Janssen (2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    Janssen asserts that, in a recent paper, we introduced the concept of a cultural life script for public events, in the form of the youth bias. Moreover, he contends that we claimed to have found evidence for such a life script. Correspondingly, he frames his own failure to find evidence for a lif...

  1. Food insecurity, stressful life events and symptoms of anxiety and depression in east Africa: evidence from the Gilgel Gibe growth and development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, C; Tegegn, A; Tessema, F; Cowan, J A; Asefa, M; Galea, S

    2008-11-01

    Common mental disorders are a major contributor to the burden of disease in developing countries. An assessment was carried out of whether food insecurity and exposure to stressful life events, two common features of life in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), are associated with symptoms of mental disorders among adults. The Gilgel Gibe Growth and Development Study (GGGDS) is an ongoing cohort study in rural Ethiopia. Participants of the GGGDS were randomly selected from households from a complete census of persons living in the area. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were used to assess anxiety and depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Among 902 adult participants, food insecurity, stressful life events and symptoms of common mental disorders were highly prevalent. In separate multivariate models adjusting for potential confounders, food insecurity and stressful life events were independently associated with high symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. Potentially modifiable stressors may influence variation in common mental disorders in Ethiopia, and SSA more generally. These findings suggest that the negative effects of food insecurity extend beyond nutritional outcomes and that interventions that promote food security may also positively influence adult mental health in the region.

  2. The Impact of Negative Life Events on Attempted Suicide in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of negative life events (NLEs) on attempted suicide in a Chinese cultural setting. The sample comprised 791 suicide attempters and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and location from selected rural counties in China. Conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NLEs and suicide risk. The impact of NLEs on attempted suicide was further examined using regression-based method to explore its mediation effect. The types of NLEs that were most likely to precede a suicide attempt in rural sample included the events in marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship. Rural women were more likely to experience more interpersonal conflicts than rural men. Approximately 75.6% of suicide attempters had experienced at least one NLE, and NLEs were strongly associated with attempted suicide. Total effect (0.676), direct effect (0.501), and the total indirect effect (0.301) of NLEs on suicide attempts were significantly mediated by hopelessness and depression. NLEs play a crucial role in predicting suicidal attempt in rural China, and they are mediated by depression and hopelessness.

  3. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Self-Reported Extremely Adverse Life Events and Longitudinal Changes in Five-Factor Model Personality Traits in an Urban Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Patriciu, Nicholas S.; Eaton, William W.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal personality change in response to extremely adverse life events in a sample (N = 458) drawn from the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Five-factor model personality traits were assessed twice over an average interval of 8 years. Twenty-five percent of the participants reported an extremely horrifying or frightening event within 2 years before the second personality assessment. Relative to the rest of the sample, they showed increases in neuroticism, decreases in the compliance facet of agreeableness, and decreases in openness to values. Baseline personality was unrelated to future events, but among participants who reported extreme events, lower extraversion and/or conscientiousness at baseline as well as longitudinal increases in neuroticism predicted lower mental health at follow-up. PMID:19230009

  5. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  6. The use of symptom dimensions to investigate the longitudinal effects of life events on depressive and anxiety symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J.; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BACKGROUND: Findings on the association between life events and depression have been quite inconsistent. This could be due to the heterogeneity of traditionally used depression outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific symptom dimensions can be used as an alternative to

  7. The use of symptom dimensions to investigate the longitudinal effects of life events on depressive and anxiety symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, K.J.; Veen, T.; Giltay, E.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Findings on the association between life events and depression have been quite inconsistent. This could be due to the heterogeneity of traditionally used depression outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific symptom dimensions can be used as an alternative to

  8. Stressful life events and onset of mood disorders in children of bipolar parents during 14-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Reichart, CG; Verhulst, FC; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J

    Background: Although multiple studies have examined the association between stressful life events (SLEs) and the development of mood disorders, the exact nature of the association and the degree to which it is independent from familial loading (FL) and gender-specific are still not fully elucidated.

  9. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  10. The role of general cognitive ability in moderating the relation of adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Panourgia, Constantina

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have established the role of various measures of cognitive functioning in dampening the association between adverse life events ('life stress') and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems. However, it is not yet clear if general cognitive ability ('intelligence') is a protective factor. In this study of 1,175 10- to 19-year-olds in five secondary schools in England, we explored this issue. We found that even after controlling for sex, age, family poverty, and special educational needs, the association of life stress with emotional, hyperactivity, and conduct problems was significant. General cognitive ability moderated the association between life stress and conduct problems; among adolescents with higher than average general cognitive ability, the association between life stress and conduct problems was non-significant. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  11. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  12. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne; Christiansen, Erik; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Data on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Parental divorce significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers, decreasers, high persisters and low persisters), we found that children with a consistently high level of behavioural problems also had the highest number of adverse life events compared with any other group. Family break-up was found to be a significant risk factor. This supports findings in previous studies. The fact that no other risk factor proved to be of significance might be due to lack of power in the study. Children experiencing high levels of adverse life events are at high risk of chronic problem behaviour. Thus these risk factors should be assessed in daily clinical practice.

  13. Investigating the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity and personality traits in prediction of the severity of Multiple Sclerosis (MS symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition recognized by demyelination in the central nervous system. The present study was conducted to investigate the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity, and personality traits in prediction of the severity of symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS symptoms. Materials & Methods: This is a correlational study whose statistical population consisted of all the patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis in Shiraz in the first half of 1394, among whom 162 patients were included in this research by means of purposive sampling method. Five-Factor Personality Inventory, Jackson Personality Inventory, Stressful Life Events Scale, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS were utilised as research tools. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential methods were used. The data were analysed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression. Results: The findings revealed that stressful life events (β = 0.41, p <0.001, Behavioral Inhibition System (β = 0.26, p<0.05, and neuroticism index (β = 0.92, p <0.05 were able to predict variance of scores of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis significantly. Conclusion: Stressful life events, Behavioral Inhibition System, and neuroticism showed a significant relationship with the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis; thus, it seems that interaction of personality traits and environmental conditions are among influential factors of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. This fact implies that individuals' personal traits play an eminent role in the progression of the disease.

  14. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  15. Tasting the Tree of Life: Development of a Collaborative, Cross-Campus, Science Outreach Meal Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Wendy L; Elliott, Kathryn T; Cordova-Hoyos, Okxana; Distefano, Isabel; Kearns, Kate; Kumar, Raagni; Leto, Ashley; Tumaliuan, Janis; Franchetti, Lauren; Kulesza, Evelyn; Tineo, Nicole; Mendes, Patrice; Roth, Karen; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-01

    Communicating about science with the public can present a number of challenges, from participation to engagement to impact. In an effort to broadly communicate messages regarding biodiversity, evolution, and tree-thinking with the campus community at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ), a public, primarily undergraduate institution, we created a campus-wide, science-themed meal, "Tasting the Tree of Life: Exploring Biodiversity through Cuisine." We created nine meals that incorporated 149 species/ingredients across the Tree of Life. Each meal illustrated a scientific message communicated through interactions with undergraduate biology students, informational signs, and an interactive website. To promote tree-thinking, we reconstructed a phylogeny of all 149 ingredients. In total, 3,262 people attended the meal, and evaluations indicated that participants left with greater appreciation for the biodiversity and evolutionary relatedness of their food. A keynote lecture and a coordinated social media campaign enhanced the scientific messages, and media coverage extended the reach of this event. "Tasting the Tree of Life" highlights the potential of cuisine as a valuable science communication tool.

  16. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  17. Separating acoustic deviance from novelty during the first year of life: a review of event-related potential evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena V.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.; Winkler, István

    2013-01-01

    Orienting to salient events in the environment is a first step in the development of attention in young infants. Electrophysiological studies have indicated that in newborns and young infants, sounds with widely distributed spectral energy, such as noise and various environmental sounds, as well as sounds widely deviating from their context elicit an event-related potential (ERP) similar to the adult P3a response. We discuss how the maturation of event-related potentials parallels the process of the development of passive auditory attention during the first year of life. Behavioral studies have indicated that the neonatal orientation to high-energy stimuli gradually changes to attending to genuine novelty and other significant events by approximately 9 months of age. In accordance with these changes, in newborns, the ERP response to large acoustic deviance is dramatically larger than that to small and moderate deviations. This ERP difference, however, rapidly decreases within first months of life and the differentiation of the ERP response to genuine novelty from that to spectrally rich but repeatedly presented sounds commences during the same period. The relative decrease of the response amplitudes elicited by high-energy stimuli may reflect development of an inhibitory brain network suppressing the processing of uninformative stimuli. Based on data obtained from healthy full-term and pre-term infants as well as from infants at risk for various developmental problems, we suggest that the electrophysiological indices of the processing of acoustic and contextual deviance may be indicative of the functioning of auditory attention, a crucial prerequisite of learning and language development. PMID:24046757

  18. Discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other adverse life events in people with epilepsy: Population-based study to assess the burden of these events and their contribution to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo-Smith, Victoria; Brugha, Traolach S; Kerr, Michael P; McManus, Sally; Rai, Dheeraj

    2016-11-01

    To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England. Doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and other chronic conditions were established by self-report. Discrimination, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse, and other stressful life events were assessed using computerized self-completion and a face-to-face interview, respectively. People with epilepsy were sevenfold more likely to have reported experiencing discrimination due to health problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.3), than the general population without epilepsy. This estimate was substantially greater in people with epilepsy than for people with other chronic conditions. People with epilepsy also had greater odds of experiencing domestic violence and sexual abuse than the general population, although these associations were also found in people with other chronic conditions. There was less evidence of an association between epilepsy and a history of physical abuse or having a greater burden of other stressful life events. In exploratory analyses, assuming they lie on the causal pathway, discrimination, domestic violence, and sexual abuse explained 42.7% of the total effect of the relationship between epilepsy and depression or anxiety disorders. People with epilepsy can face a range of psychosocial adversities and extensively report feeling discriminated against as compared to the general population. In addition, if confirmed in longitudinal studies, the results suggest that these psychosocial adversities may have a significant role in the

  19. SenseCam improves memory for recent events and quality of life in a patient with memory retrieval difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Georgina; Berry, Emma; Kapur, Narinder; Hodges, Steve; Smyth, Gavin; Watson, Peter; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A wearable camera that takes pictures automatically, SenseCam, was used to generate images for rehearsal, promoting consolidation and retrieval of memories for significant events in a patient with memory retrieval deficits. SenseCam images of recent events were systematically reviewed over a 2-week period. Memory for these events was assessed throughout and longer-term recall was tested up to 6 months later. A written diary control condition followed the same procedure. The SenseCam review procedure resulted in significantly more details of an event being recalled, with twice as many details recalled at 6 months follow up compared to the written diary method. Self-report measures suggested autobiographical recollection was triggered by the SenseCam condition but not by reviewing the written diary. Emotional and social wellbeing questionnaires indicated improved confidence and decreased anxiety as a result of memory rehearsal using SenseCam images. We propose that SenseCam images provide a powerful boost to autobiographical recall, with secondary benefits for quality of life.

  20. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations.

  1. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  2. Perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes and life events as predictors of obsessive compulsive symptomatology: test of a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray

    2014-11-01

    It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.

  3. Examining the relationship between lifetime stressful life events and the onset of major depression in Chinese women☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Wang, Zhiyang; Qiu, Jianying; Wu, Wenyuan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Zhoubing; Tao, Danhong; Zhao, Hongsu; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Gao, Chengge; Niu, Qihui; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shanming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yunshu; He, Qiang; Rong, Han; Gan, Zhaoyu; Li, Jianying; Chen, Xiansheng; Pan, Jiyang; Li, Yi; Cui, Yanping; Han, Wei; Ma, Huan; Xie, Shoufu; Jin, Guixing; Li, Ling; Zhang, Ruiling; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Jing; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang

    2011-01-01

    Background In European and US studies, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) report more stressful life events (SLEs) than controls, but this relationship has rarely been studied in Chinese populations. Methods Sixteen lifetime SLEs were assessed at interview in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MDD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results 60% of controls and 72% of cases reported at least one lifetime SLE. Fourteen of the sixteen SLEs occurred significantly more frequently in those with MDD (median odds ratio of 1.6). The three SLEs most strongly associated with risk for MDD (OR > 3.0) preceded the onset of MDD the majority of the time: rape (82%), physical abuse (100%) and serious neglect (99%). Limitations Our results may apply to females only. SLEs were rated retrospectively and are subject to biases in recollection. We did not assess contextual information for each life event. Conclusions More severe SLEs are more strongly associated with MDD. These results support the involvement of psychosocial adversity in the etiology of MDD in China. PMID:21821294

  4. Examining the relationship between lifetime stressful life events and the onset of major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Wang, Zhiyang; Qiu, Jianying; Wu, Wenyuan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Zhoubing; Tao, Danhong; Zhao, Hongsu; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Gao, Chengge; Niu, Qihui; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shanming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yunshu; He, Qiang; Rong, Han; Gan, Zhaoyu; Li, Jianying; Chen, Xiansheng; Pan, Jiyang; Li, Yi; Cui, Yanping; Han, Wei; Ma, Huan; Xie, Shoufu; Jin, Guixing; Li, Ling; Zhang, Ruiling; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Jing; Shi, Shenxun; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang

    2011-12-01

    In European and US studies, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) report more stressful life events (SLEs) than controls, but this relationship has rarely been studied in Chinese populations. Sixteen lifetime SLEs were assessed at interview in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MDD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. 60% of controls and 72% of cases reported at least one lifetime SLE. Fourteen of the sixteen SLEs occurred significantly more frequently in those with MDD (median odds ratio of 1.6). The three SLEs most strongly associated with risk for MDD (OR>3.0) preceded the onset of MDD the majority of the time: rape (82%), physical abuse (100%) and serious neglect (99%). Our results may apply to females only. SLEs were rated retrospectively and are subject to biases in recollection. We did not assess contextual information for each life event. More severe SLEs are more strongly associated with MDD. These results support the involvement of psychosocial adversity in the etiology of MDD in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rumination mediates the relationship between structural variations in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and sensitivity to negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; Wei, D T; Li, W F; Chen, Q L; Che, X W; Li, B B; Li, Y D; Qiu, J; Zhang, Q L; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Individuals have different levels of stress sensitivity. An individual's predisposition to experience negative life events (NLEs) may make him/her more vulnerable to a series of psychopathological and physical diseases. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs remain unknown. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was used to identify the gray matter (GM) associations of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs measured by adolescent self-rating life events checklist. Results showed that there was a positive association between individual NLEs sensitivity and regional GM volume (rGMV) in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GM was mostly evident in the left frontal operculum and a small part of the left middle frontal gyrus. This region was thought to play an important role in introception. Importantly, our study revealed that rumination served as a mediator between the rGMV of the VLPFC and individual NLEs sensitivity. These findings suggest that people with greater VLPFC might be more inclined to ruminate and the ruminative response style might make them more sensitive to NLEs. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The transition to adulthood: A game changer? Panel analyses of the impact of major life events on sport participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in and differences between the sport participation of individuals during the transition to adulthood, and the role of major life events that mark this transition. We employ a neo-Weberian theoretical framework related to changes in temporal and social resources

  7. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  8. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  9. Biological Stress Systems, Adverse Life Events, and the Improvement of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain Across a 6-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Macfarlane, Gary J; Geenen, Rinie; Smit, Johannes H; de Geus, Eco J C N; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1)

  10. Stress: Specific Life Events in the Teaching Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martray, Carl R.; Adams, Ronald D.

    This study examined the greatest stressors in teaching situations that affect teachers, and how these events vary for groups of elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers. The list of possibly stressful situations was taken from the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI), developed by Cichon and Koff in 1978. Data were collected from…

  11. A comparative study on distressful events in affective disorder and normal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rathee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life events’ stresses are concerned with situational encounters and the meaning that a person attaches to such encounters. It refers to our feeling; it is something of importance to us and is being jeopardised by events in our daily life, and the stressful life events are causally linked to a variety of undesirable effects which influence our performance and health. Aim: This study was planned for assessment and comparison of stressful life events between mood disorder and normal people. Materials and methods: In this study, total 90 participants (30 manic patients, 30 depressive patients, and 30 normal participants were recruited and severity of symptoms was assessed by Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Normal participants were screened by General Health Questionnaire. Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale was used for both groups for assessment of stressful life events. Findings and conclusion: The present study results revealed that clinical group had higher score on stressful life events as compared to normal participants. Patients with depression had more stressful life events as compared to the mania and normal population. Overall, life events precede the mood symptoms’ occurrence.

  12. Hour Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty? Future Time Perspective and Preoccupation with Negative Events Across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the “here and now.” Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a US national adult life-span sample (N= 3,933, 18-93 yrs), we found that a two-factor model of future time perspective (focus on future opportunities; focus on limited time) fit the data better than a one-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full—they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty—they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time. This pattern held even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared to men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as two dimensions are discussed. PMID:27267222

  13. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Cumulative life events, traumatic experiences, and psychiatric symptomatology in transition-aged youth with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Gotham, Katherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-occurring mood and anxiety symptomatology is commonly observed among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence and adulthood. Yet, little is known about the factors that might predispose youth with ASD to mood and anxiety problems. In this study, we focus on the role of cumulative stressful life events and trauma in co-occurring psychopathology among youth with ASD who are preparing to exit high school. Specifically, we examined the distribution of cumulative...

  15. Interactive Effects of the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on College Student Drinking and Drug Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covault, J.; Tennen, H.; Armeli, S.; Conner, T.S.; Herman, A.I.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Kranzler, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Background - A common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with heavy drinking in college students. We examined this polymorphism as it interacted with negative life events to predict drinking and drug use in college students. Methods - Daily

  16. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-04-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  17. Equivalencies Regarding the Measurement and Constructs of Self-Esteem and Major Life Events in an Asian-Pacific Islander Sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Robin H.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Andrade, Naleen N.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; Kim, S. Peter; Goebert, Deborah A.; Carlton, Barry S.; Bell, Cathy K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines aspects of self-esteem measures and major life events using the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) with Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, and non-Hawaiian high school students (N=816). There was a lack of consensus regarding the dimensions of RSES as previously reported. Measurement equivalency findings concerning RSES caution against…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Newly Translated Spanish Life Events Inventory and Daily Hassles Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Jean; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Brooten, Dorothy; Bazzani, Dianne; Romero, Norma R; Chavez, Blanca; Picanes, Joann

    2015-01-01

    Measuring stress in Hispanic Americans, the fastest growing U.S. minority, is problematic. The Life Events Inventory (LEI) and the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), widely used stress instruments, are not available in Spanish. To test the psychometric properties of the translated Spanish versions of the LEI and DHS. A convenience sample of 63 Hispanic women completed both instruments in Spanish and English 2 weeks apart. Internal consistency reliability and stability were strong for both instruments (.85-.97). Reliability and validity evidence for the translated Spanish versions were strong and similar to the English version. Psychometric findings suggest that the newly translated Spanish versions are good representations of the English versions and that these newly translated instruments are ready for use.

  19. The major stressful life events and cancer: stress history and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Karalar, Umran; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Keskin, Serkan; Can, Gulbeyaz; Cinar, Fatma Ebru

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the extent of stressful life events' etiology and to compare socio-demographic and medical characteristics of the presence and absence of stress in Turkish cancer patients. Patients with cancer who attended ambulatory patient care units answered the questionnaires. Medical information was reviewed from chart data. The study population comprised 465 women (60.5%) and 303 men (39.5%), in total 768 cases. The median age was 53 years, ranging between 18 and 94. Three-hundred and twenty patients (41.7%) had at least one type of stress since last year of the time of initial diagnosis. Among patients had stress, the median number of stress modalities presented was 1 (range 1-6). Death, lack of livelihood, quarrel, illness, and debt almost always consisted of stress types. History of stress within last year was found more in women (66.3% vs. 56.5%, P = 0.006) and overweight patients (57.5% vs. 47.2%, P = 0.005). Similarly, among cancer types, only patients with breast cancer (41.9% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.04) had lived more stressful situation. However, the married patients (72.2% vs. 80.6%, P = 0.03) had less stress. Patients with gastric cancer had more frequent debt (29.0%, P history (21.4%, P = 0.001). Additionally, in lung cancer patients, their rate of livelihood difficulty was highly less than average (2.4%, P = 0.003). We found that overweight patients had more illness history (68.9% vs. 51.6%, P = 0.004), patients who were not working had more death history (89.7% vs. 78%, P = 0.01), and female patients had more quarrel history (78.2% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.002). Likewise, history of debt in patients who is a member of large family (56.2% vs. 27.4%, P = 0.01) was more frequent. Additionally, the lack of livelihood was prominent in urban patients (92.8% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.002) and in patients with low income (48.5% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.004). The question of whether or not psychological factors originated from stressful life events have an

  20. Problemas Comportamentales y Sucesos de Vida en Niños de 6 a 11 Años de Edad Behavioral Problems and Life Events in 6 to 11 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corina Samaniego

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde la epidemiología la relación entre sucesos de vida y trastornos psíquicos infantiles no es tan clara. El rol etiológico directo asignado a los eventos vitales podría reducirse al considerar los niveles de problemas previos a los eventos. Se examinó en una muestra de población general de niños de 6 a 11 años (N = 69 la asociación entre sucesos de vida y cambios en el grado de problemas comportamentales. Los sucesos fueron predictores del nivel actual de problemas comportamentales, siendo un hallazgo estadísticamente significativo. Sin embargo, al incluir el nivel de problemas previo a los eventos ese efecto se redujo y fue el nivel inicial de problemas el mejor predictor. Los resultados dan soporte a la hipótesis en estudio.From an epidemiological perspective the relationship between life events and psychological disorders in children is not so clear. The direct etiological role given to life events might be diminish when considering the level of psychological disorders previous to the events. The association among life events and changes in the level of behavioral and emotional problems in a general sample of 6-11 years old children (N = 69 was investigated. Life events predicted the actual level of behavioral problems. However, when including the initial level of problems the life events effect lessened. The initial level of behavioral problems was the better predictor of the actual level. The findings give support to the hypothesis under study.

  1. Diablo Canyon internal events PRA [Probabilistic Risk Assessment] review: Methodology and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bozoki, G.; Sabek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCRPA) incorporated some new and innovative approaches. These were necessitated by the unprecedented size, scope and level of detail of the DCRPA, which was submitted to the NRC for licensing purposes. This paper outlines the elements of the internal events portion of the review citing selected findings to illustrate the various approaches employed. The paper also provides a description of the extensive and comprehensive importance analysis applied by BNL to the DCRPA model. Importance calculations included: top event/function level; individual split fractions; pair importances between frontline-support and support-support systems; system importance by initiator; and others. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the effectiveness of the applied methodology. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  3. Rimozione Urbana: La Necessità di una Nuova Direzione di Attività di Pubblica Amministrazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Criscuolo Gabriel Bueno Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro si propone di discutere la legitimità delle decisioni amministrative nel democratico Stato di diritto; il discorso e la democrazia sono correlati nel mondo contemporaneo, mostrando la necessità di discussione pubblica in attività amministrativa, in tale contesto, con il passare dell'atto amministrativo, la razionalità degli decisioni amministrativa dovrebbe essere dimostrata attraverso del processo amministrativo come mezzo di discussione in una prospettiva democratica. Pacifico che il discorso è un mezzo attraverso il quale la democrazia può avvenire, ma devono osservare qui: senza partecipazione sociale, senza coscienza politica, il discorso porta a una democrazia apparente. Questo articolo discute la relazione tra democrazia, discorso e attività amministrativa in processi di rimozione urbana, indagando gli aspette che riguardano, a fini de equilibrio nel rapporto tra stato e cittadino. Questo lavoro ha origine de una ricerca de 2232 documenti, utilizzando la tecnica di analisi di contenuto.

  4. Life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults: A cross-sectional comparison of the brief LTE-Q questionnaire and life events and difficulties interview as part of the CASPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Hjördis M; Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; House, Allan O; Lewis, Helen; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-03-15

    There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. 960 participants over 65 years were recruited in UK primary care to complete the PHQ-9 and LTE-Q. A sub-sample (n=19) completed the LEDS and a question exploring the subjective experience of the LTE-Q and LEDS. Important life adversity was reported on the LTE-Q in 48% of the sample. In the LTE-Q sample the prevalence of depression (PHQ-9≥10) was 12%. Exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression. The LTE-Q only captured a proportion of adversity measured by the LEDS (42% vs 84%). Both measures showed health, bereavement and relationship events were most common. The cross-sectional design limits the extent to which inferences can be drawn around the direction of causality between adversity and depression. Recall in older adults is questionable. UK older adults face adversity in areas of health, bereavement and relationships which are associated with depression. This has clinical relevance for psychological interventions for older adults to consider social context and social support. It helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a brief adversity measure in large scale research. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of onset and direction of causality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms: A conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Worsley, Lyn; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-10-01

    Resilience has provided a useful framework that elucidates the effects of protective factors to overcome psychological adversities but studies that address the potential contingencies of resilience to protect against direct and indirect negative effects are lacking. These obvious gaps have also resulted in oversimplification of complex processes that can be clarified by moderated mediation associations. This study examines a conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience against indirect effects. Two separate samples were recruited in a cross-sectional survey from Australia and Norway to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire -9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Stressful Negative Life Events Questionnaire and the Resilience Scale for Adults. The final sample sizes were 206 (females=114; males=91; other=1) and 210 (females=155; males=55) for Australia and Norway respectively. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted across the samples. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms in both samples. Conditional indirect effects of exposure to stressful negative life events on depressive symptoms mediated by anxiety symptoms showed that high subgroup of resilience was associated with less effect of exposure to stressful negative life events through anxiety symptoms on depressive symptoms than the low subgroup of resilience. As a cross-sectional survey, the present study does not answer questions about causal processes despite the use of a conditional process modelling. These findings support that, resilience protective resources can protect against both direct and indirect - through other channels - psychological adversities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  7. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the improvement of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain across a 6-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; Smit, J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.N.; Dekker, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1)

  8. "Physics and Life" - Teachers Meet Scientists at Major EIROforum Event [

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    More than 400 selected delegates from 22 European countries will take part in "Physics on Stage 3" , organised by the EIROforum [1] research organisations (CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF, ILL) at the ESA ESTEC site (Noordwijk, The Netherlands). It is the culmination of a year-long educational programme and is a central event during the EC-sponsored European Science and Technology Week (November 8-15, 2003). Following the vastly successful preceeding events in 2000 and 2002, the main theme this year is "Physics and Life", reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass more of the natural sciences within an interdisciplinary approach. As before, European teachers, scientists, curricula organisers and others connected to the national education systems in Europe will gather with the main goal of exploring solutions to stimulate the interest of young people in science, by means of exciting and innovative teaching methods and materials. The rich one-week programme has many components: spectacular and original performances by students and professional actors, intensive encounters at a central fair where each country will present the latest developments from its teaching community at their stands, workshops about a host of crucial themes related to the central mission of this programme, seminars where EIROforum scientists and experienced high school teachers get together to discuss new teaching opportunities based on the latest results from front-line research projects at Europe's leading science centres, as well as a publishers fair that will also serve as an international exchange for new educational materials. A mystery cultural event will surprise everyone with its originality. And last but not least, the annual European Science Teaching Awards - the highest distinction in this field - will be presented at the end of the meeting. "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by EIROforum, together with the European Physical Society

  9. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  10. Reproductive life events and Alzheimer’s disease in Italian women: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bono G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zucchella,1 Elena Sinforiani,1 Antonietta Citterio,1 Valentina Giarracca,2 Giorgio Bono,2 Marco Mauri21IRCCS National Neurological Institute, C Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy; 2Department of Neurology, Ospedale di Circolo/Università dell’Insubria, Varese, ItalyAbstract: The aim of our study was to understand the complex relationship between the major reproductive life events in women with Alzheimer’s disease. In a retrospective, case-control study, 275 women with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and 276 control patients from a hospital population were enrolled from July 2007 to December 2010. The AD patients presented with later menopause (P < 0.01, lower occurrence of surgical menopause (P < 0.04, reduced hormone-replacement therapy intake (P < 0.0001, and a longer reproductive life span (P < 0.01, compared to controls. No significant differences were found with respect to age at puberty, number of pregnancies, previous abortions, or contraceptive therapy. A higher education level appeared to have a protective role against the risk of developing AD. In women, menopause and hormone-replacement therapy can differentially modulate the clinical manifestations of AD, but these factors do not play a predictive role in its development.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, gender, menopause, hormone-replacement therapy, surgical menopause, education

  11. Stressful Life Events: Moderators of the Relationships of Gender and Gender Roles to Self-Reported Depression and Suicidality among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)

  12. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  13. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  15. Memories of Recent Life Events: Differences in Emotional Reactivity and Regulation of Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Existing studies investigating involuntary memories (IMs) in the context of depression extend their hypotheses from PTSD models. Findings suggest that the frequency and suppression of IMs are associated with depression. However, in order to fully understand the memory-mental health relationship......, it is of paramount importance to identify the centrality of events to an individual's identity, and potential differences between IMs and word-cued memories (i.e., voluntary). Method: Participants of this two-staged study were 205 non-clinical adults (Mage = 22.72, SD = 1.99). In Stage 1 participants completed...... questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and recent positive and negative life events. Participants nominated the most and least central events to their identity. Emotion reactivity and regulation of IMs of both events were rated. In Stage 2, participants (n = 48) reporting low and high...

  16. When hard times take a toll: the distressing consequences of economic hardship and life events within the family-work interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marisa; Schieman, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Using two waves of data from a national survey of working Americans (N = 1,122), we examine the associations among economic hardship, negative life events, and psychological distress in the context of the family-work interface. Our findings demonstrate that family-to-work conflict mediates the effects of economic hardship and negative events to significant others on distress (net of baseline distress and hardship). Moreover, economic hardship and negative events to significant others moderate the association between family-to-work conflict and distress. While negative events to others exacerbate the positive effect of family-to-work conflict on distress, we find the opposite for economic hardship: The positive association between hardship and distress is weaker at higher levels of family-to-work conflict. These patterns hold across an array of family, work, and sociodemographic conditions. We discuss how these findings refine and extend ideas of the stress process model, including complex predictions related to processes of stress-buffering, resource substitution, and role multiplication.

  17. Inequality in mobilizing online help after a negative life event: the role of education, digital skills, and capital-enhancing Internet use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, E.; Matzat, U.

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have investigated inequalities in coping with stressful life events and often education is found to play a role in this (the higher educated are usually more successful in dealing with their problems in terms of well-being consequences). We examine whether something similar occurs on

  18. Understanding retirement: the promise of life-span developmental frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2012-09-01

    The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.

  19. The interaction of miR-34b/c polymorphisms and negative life events increases susceptibility to major depressive disorder in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Aixia; Xu, Yong; Li, Xinrong; Liu, Zhifen; Liu, Sha; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Kerang

    2017-06-09

    Previous studies have shown that microRNAs(miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of MDD; in particular, miR-34b/c has been implicated in MDD risk and found to exert antidepressant effects. However, the effects of miR-34b/c polymorphisms on MDD risk have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of miR-34b/c gene polymorphisms and their interaction with negative life events in relation to MDD, using data from 381 Han Chinese patients with MDD and 291 healthy volunteers. Allelic, genotypic, haplotypic, and gene-environment associations were analyzed using UNPHASED and SPSS software. After discarding data with extremely severe negative life events in our study population, we found an association between rs4938723, rs2187473 polymorphisms and MDD in the dominant models (TC/CC vs. TT, OR=1.45, P=0.027; TC/CC vs. TT, OR=3.32, P=0.030). In haplotype analysis, the C-G haplotype (rs4938723/rs28757623) showed the strongest association with MDD (OR=1.95, P=0.026). Additionally, we found significant gene-environment combination rs4938723 C allele, rs28757623 G allele and high level of negative life events (C-G-HN) was significantly associated with MDD (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.62-9.13). In addition, the combination of (C-C-HN) is of significance (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.36-6.60), indicating that the rs28757623 C allele may contribute to the risk of MDD as well. The sample size was small and the role of miR-34b/c polymorphisms for MDD should be assessed using independent samples from other ethnic populations. Our results suggest that miR-34b/c is a susceptibility factor for MDD stratified by negative life events and that rs4938723 is a significant association locus for gene-environment interaction in relation to MDD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood adverse life events, disordered eating, and body mass index in US Military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Barmine, Marissa; Druskin, Lindsay; Olsen, Cara H; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2018-03-02

    US service members appear to be at high-risk for disordered eating. Further, the military is experiencing unprecedented prevalence of overweight and obesity. US service members also report a high prevalence of childhood adverse life event (ALE) exposure. Despite consistent links between early adversity with eating disorders and obesity, there is a dearth of research examining the association between ALE exposure and disordered eating and weight in military personnel. An online survey study was conducted in active duty personnel to examine childhood ALE history using the Life Stressor Checklist - Revised, disordered eating using the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire total score, and self-reported body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). Among 179 respondents, multiple indices of childhood ALE were positively associated with disordered eating. Traumatic childhood ALE and subjective impact of childhood ALE were associated with higher BMI and these associations were mediated by disordered eating. Findings support evaluating childhood ALE exposure among service members with disordered eating and weight concerns. Moreover, findings support the need for prospective research to elucidate these relationships. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Academic Aspirations as a Moderator of the Link between Negative Life Events and Delinquency in a Sample of Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.; Cooley, John L.; Poquiz, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Latino youth are one of the fastest growing populations in the United States and are at a disproportionately higher risk for experiencing negative life events (NLEs). However, there are few studies examining risk and protective factors for the potentially negative outcomes that Latino youth who experience high levels of NLEs may face.…

  2. Paleo-event data standards for dendrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; P. Brewer; W. Gross

    2017-01-01

    Extreme environmental events, such as storm winds, landslides, insect infestations, and wildfire, cause loss of life, resources, and human infrastructure. Disaster riskreduction analysis can be improved with information about past frequency, intensity, and spatial patterns of extreme events. Tree-ring analyses can provide such information: tree rings reflect events as...

  3. Event recognition using signal spectrograms in long pulse experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Arcas, G.; Lopez, J. M.; Vega, J.

    2010-01-01

    As discharge duration increases, real-time complex analysis of the signal becomes more important. In this context, data acquisition and processing systems must provide models for designing experiments which use event oriented plasma control. One example of advanced data analysis is signal classification. The off-line statistical analysis of a large number of discharges provides information to develop algorithms for the determination of the plasma parameters from measurements of magnetohydrodinamic waves, for example, to detect density fluctuations induced by the Alfven cascades using morphological patterns. The need to apply different algorithms to the signals and to address different processing algorithms using the previous results necessitates the use of an event-based experiment. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform is an example of architecture designed to implement distributed data acquisition and real-time processing systems. The processing algorithm sequence is modeled using an event-based paradigm. The adaptive capacity of this model is based on the logic defined by the use of state machines in SCXML. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform mixes a local multiprocessing model with a distributed deployment of services based on Jini.

  4. Experience of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... separation from mother and paternal death was related to less discordance. However, none of these differences were significant. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate independent effects of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood....

  5. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  6. PROFESSIONAL AND NONPROFESSIONAL EVENT MANAGERS: AGENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS OF EVENT-ACTIVITIES FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaevna Startseva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main research question focuses on studying of the «new», non-traditional, recent forming professional group of event managers in modernRussia. This article provides the event group boundaries, its numerical and structural composition. On the basis of existing community event stereotypes, perceptions of event managers, supervisors’ event agencies and customers such the all agents included in the event activities, the author designed the image of professional and nonprofessional manager.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work is leading to characterize agent-field-event activities and outline the prospects for the professional groups’ formation of event managers in modernRussia.Conceptuality and validity of the study is based on using theoretical and methodological comparative, functional and activity approaches.The obtained results can be used for further investigations in the event managers’ field and for other professional-groups, as well as useful in the study plan such as «Sociology of professions and professional groups» and «Sociology of culture and spiritual life».

  7. Association of small life events with self reports of tic severity in pediatric and adult tic disorder patients : A prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    Background: Clinical experience suggests an association between stressful life events and fluctuations in symptom severity of tic disorder patients. The aim of the present study was to examine this possible relationship in a prospective longitudinal design. Method: Two groups of patients with tic

  8. Misfortune and family. How negative events, family ties, and lives are linked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerbrugge, M.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313868980

    2014-01-01

    Despite a considerable number of persons experiencing negative life events such as serious psychological problems, financial difficulties, or an addiction to alcohol or drugs, scholarly attention on the life course has focused mostly on “normal” life events associated with the family life cycle (for

  9. Forensic mental health evaluations of military personnel with traumatic life event, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah

    2017-10-01

    The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In

  10. Negative Life Events, Social Support, and Self-Efficacy in Anxious Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Solfrid; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Hoffart, Asle; Dyregrov, Kari; Håland, Åshild Tellefsen; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and correlates of anxiety in a community sample of adolescents. Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of anxious adolescents is valuable to improve anxiety prevention strategies and interventions. Design Cross-sectional data about anxiety were collected via a school survey from a community sample of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-17 ( N = 1719). Methods Based on scores from the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, the adolescents were categorized as not anxious or anxious. Logistic regression analysis was performed to access the impact of each factor on the likelihood that participants would report an elevated level of anxiety. Results A total of 22% of the adolescents were categorized as anxious. Female gender, experienced negative life events, low social support, and low self-efficacy were associated with elevated level of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of anxiety in adolescents demonstrates the importance of improved prevention interventions targeting anxious adolescents. We argue that addressing is the responsibility of not only the individual adolescents and their families but also schools, school health services, and policy makers. School-based interventions that increase social support and self-efficacy would probably be particularly beneficial for anxious adolescents.

  11. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  12. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  13. The effects of poverty on childhood brain development: the mediating effect of caregiving and stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Botteron, Kelly; Marrus, Natasha; Harms, Michael P; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Barch, Deanna

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was conducted at an academic research unit at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development in preschool children who participated in neuroimaging at school age were used to investigate the effects of poverty on brain development. Children were assessed annually for 3 to 6 years prior to the time of a magnetic resonance imaging scan, during which they were evaluated on psychosocial, behavioral, and other developmental dimensions. Preschoolers included in the study were 3 to 6 years of age and were recruited from primary care and day care sites in the St Louis metropolitan area; they were annually assessed behaviorally for 5 to 10 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with clinical symptoms of depression participated in neuroimaging at school age/early adolescence. EXPOSURE Household poverty as measured by the income-to-needs ratio. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Brain volumes of children's white matter and cortical gray matter, as well as hippocampus and amygdala volumes, obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Mediators of interest were caregiver support/hostility measured observationally during the preschool period and stressful life events measured prospectively. RESULTS Poverty was associated with smaller white and cortical gray matter and hippocampal and amygdala volumes. The effects of poverty on hippocampal volume were mediated by caregiving support/hostility on the left and right, as well as stressful life events on the left. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The finding that exposure to poverty in early childhood materially impacts brain

  14. Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events, Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Almeida, David M; Crain, Tori L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-06-01

    Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day's experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.

  15. Evento com aparente risco de morte: uma revisão Evento con aparente riesgo de muerte (alte: una revisión Apparent life-threatening event: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tresoldi das N. Romaneli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão crítica reunindo informações disponíveis a respeito dos eventos com aparente risco de morte. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica dos artigos (em português, inglês e espanhol obtidos dos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando as palavras-chave: eventos com aparente risco de morte, evento com aparente risco de vida infantil, lactente, apneia, monitorização e cianose. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os eventos com aparente risco de mortesão súbitos e caracterizados por uma combinação de apneia, alteração na coloração da pele e tônus muscular, com inúmeras causas subjacentes. Sua incidência verdadeira é desconhecida e a faixa etária mais acometida é de 11 a 12 semanas. Não há correlação entre o evento com aparente risco de morte e a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente, embora já tenham sido consideradas manifestações da mesma doença. Muitas vezes, o lactente tem aparência saudável ao ser avaliado pelo pediatra após apresentar eventos com aparente risco de morte, porém, isso não afasta a possibilidade de existir uma doença grave associada ao evento, que deve ser investigada e tratada. Quando não são encontradas as causas, o evento é idiopático, geralmente com boa evolução. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário investigar os lactentes levados ao pronto-socorro após apresentarem eventos com aparente risco de morte, devido ao risco de sequelas e mortalidade. Não há uma padronização das condutas a serem realizadas diante de um lactente com aparência saudável que tenha evento com aparente risco de morte, mas recomenda-se que o paciente seja internado e a causa do evento, investigada. A observação e o monitoramento em ambiente hospitalar devem ocorrer no mínimo 24 horas após o evento.OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión crítica, reuniendo las informaciones disponibles respecto a los Eventos con Aparente Riesgo de Muerte (ALTE - Apparent life-threatening event

  16. 个性、生活事件、应付方式对大学生抑郁情绪的影响%The effect of life events,personality and coping strategies on depressive of undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志敏; 刘哲宁; 国效峰

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of life events,personality and coping strategies on depression of undergraduates.METHOD:Fifteen hundred students were selected in the three schoolyards of Central South University.Life Events Scale,Coping Strategies Scale,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ)and Self rating Depressive Scale (SDS) were used to assess all samples.RESULTS:The score of SDS was (42± 8).The life events came from relationship of person,stress of study,loss,punishment,health and adaptation,love and family were higher in the SDS group of higher score,which the SDS group of higher score took more negative coping strategies than the normal score.CONCLUSION:The rate of depression was higher in undergraduates,which need more attention on it.More life events, introversive instability personality and negative coping strategies may be the main risk factors that caused depression.

  17. A Case of Apparent Life-Threatening Event: Comorbid Gastric Volvulus Associated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Epilepsy in a 4-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most isolated episodes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs do not lead to the diagnosis of serious conditions, and their prognoses are generally benign. However, recurrent ALTEs are often associated with a risk of future serious adverse events and should be evaluated for appropriate management. Here we present ALTE case in which gastric volvulus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected as an etiology initially, followed by the detection of epilepsy as another etiology. Clinicians should consider possibility of two or more etiologies in a single recurrent ALTE case.

  18. The cultural life script as cognitive schema: How the life script shapes memory for fictional life stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    with the life script, memory for its valence was reconstructed to fit the script (in Study 2); and, third, intrusions in recall were disproportionately for life script events (in Study 3), though that was not the case in recognition (in Study 1). We conclude that the life script serves as a cognitive schema...

  19. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  20. Black-swan events in animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sean C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    Black swans?statistically improbable events with profound consequences?happen more often than expected in financial, social, and natural systems. Our work demonstrates the rare but systematic presence of black-swan events in animal populations around the world (mostly birds, mammals, and insects). These events are predominantly downward, implying that unexpected population crashes occur more frequently than increases. Black-swan events are not driven by life history (e.g., lifespan) but by ex...

  1. Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex- dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early adverse life events (EALs increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. Methods: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women. Functional and anatomical network properties of centrality and segregation were calculated for the core regions of the two networks using graph theory. Moderator analyses were applied to test hypotheses. Results: The type of adversity experienced influences brain wiring differently, as higher general EALs were associated with decreased functional and anatomical centrality in salience and emotion regulation regions, while physical and emotional EALs were associated with increased anatomical centrality and segregation in emotion regulation regions. Sex moderated the associations between EALs and measures of centrality; with decreased centrality of salience and emotion regulation regions with increased general EALs in females, and increased centrality in salience regions with higher physical and emotional EALs in males. Increased segregation of salience regions was associated with increased general EALs in males. Centrality of the amygdala was associated with physical symptoms, and segregation of salience regions was correlated with higher somatization in men only. Conclusions: Emotion regulation and salience regions are susceptible to topological brain restructuring associated with EALs. The male and female brains appear to be differently affected by specific types of EALs. Keywords: Early adverse traumatic life events, Centrality, Segregation, Network metrics, Moderating effects of sex, Emotion regulation network, Salience network

  2. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further......Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental...

  3. The normativity of life scripts and its relation with life story events across cultures and subcultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatiboğlu, Neşe; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the normativity of individual life scripts and their relation to actual life story memories across countries (Turkey and Germany) and subcultures (urban vs. rural, of migrant vs. of indigenous descent). Young adults from provincial Karabük and metropolitan Istanbul (Turkey), second generation Turkish migrants and Germans from Frankfurt a.M. (Germany) provided both their individual versions of the life script and seven most important personal memories. We expected the agreement on the life script, that is, its normativity, and correspondingly its guiding influence on the selection of life story memories to correlate positively with a collectivistic, negatively an individualistic cultural orientation, that is, to be highest in provincial Karabük, less in Istanbul, still less in Turkish migrants in Germany, and finally lowest in native Germans. The study confirmed expectations for the normativity of life scripts, but not for the normativity of most important memories. We conclude that the normativity of life scripts is influenced both by the individualist vs. collectivist orientation.

  4. Future opportunities and trends for e-infrastructures and life sciences: going beyond the grid to enable life science data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Afonso M S; Psomopoulos, Fotis E; Blanchet, Christophe; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Corpas, Manuel; Franc, Alain; Jimenez, Rafael C; de Lucas, Jesus M; Nyrönen, Tommi; Sipos, Gergely; Suhr, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of data in life sciences we are witnessing a major transition in the way research is conducted, from hypothesis-driven studies to data-driven simulations of whole systems. Such approaches necessitate the use of large-scale computational resources and e-infrastructures, such as the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). EGI, one of key the enablers of the digital European Research Area, is a federation of resource providers set up to deliver sustainable, integrated and secure computing services to European researchers and their international partners. Here we aim to provide the state of the art of Grid/Cloud computing in EU research as viewed from within the field of life sciences, focusing on key infrastructures and projects within the life sciences community. Rather than focusing purely on the technical aspects underlying the currently provided solutions, we outline the design aspects and key characteristics that can be identified across major research approaches. Overall, we aim to provide significant insights into the road ahead by establishing ever-strengthening connections between EGI as a whole and the life sciences community.

  5. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  6. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne

    2014-01-01

    on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Results: Parental divorce......Background and aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Methods: Data...... significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers...

  7. The Effects of Depression and Stressful Life Events on the Development and Maintenance of Syndromal Social Anxiety: Sex and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed age and sex differences in the prevalence and incidence rates of syndromal social anxiety (SSA), as well as the predictive role of depressive symptoms and stressful life events on the development and persistence of SSA. A sample of 1,439 young people, between 11 and 14 years of age, was assessed twice within a 12-month…

  8. Prevalence of epilepsy and seizure disorders as causes of apparent life- threatening event (ALTE) in children admitted to a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Alessandra Marques dos; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and describe clinical characteristics of seizure disorders and epilepsy as causes of apparent life- threatening event (ALTE) in children admitted at the emergency and followed in a tertiary hospital. Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection using specific guidelines to determine the etiology of ALTE. During the study, 30 (4.2%) children admitted to the hospital had a diagnosis of ALTE. There was a predominance of males (73%) and term infants (70%). Neonatal neurological disorders and neuropsychomotor development delay were found respectively in 13.4% and 10% of the cases. Etiological investigation revealed that 50% of the cases were idiopathic, and 13.4% were caused by epilepsy or seizure disorders. Although all patients had recurrent ALTE events, epilepsy had not been previously suspected. Epilepsy should be included in the differential diagnosis of ALTE, particularly when events are recurrent.

  9. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  10. Predicting the evolution of social networks with life cycle events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharmeen, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model of social network evolution, to predict and simulate changes in social networks induced by lifecycle events. We argue that social networks change with lifecycle events, and we extend a model of friendship selection to incorporate these dynamics of personal social

  11. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  12. Major life events as potential triggers of sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, April F; Lumley, Thomas; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara; Strogatz, David S; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Siscovick, David S

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in association with the recent loss of, or separation from, a family member or friend. Our case-crossover study included 490 apparently healthy married residents of King County, Washington, who suffered sudden cardiac arrest between 1988 and 2005. We compared exposure to spouse-reported family/friend events occurring ≤ 1 month before sudden cardiac arrest with events occurring in the previous 5 months. We evaluated potential effect modification by habitual vigorous physical activity. Recent family/friend events were associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.4). ORs for cases with and without habitual vigorous physical activity were 1.1 (0.6-2.2) and 2.0 (1.2-3.1), respectively (interaction P = 0.02). These results suggest family/friend events may trigger sudden cardiac arrest and raise the hypothesis that habitual vigorous physical activity may lower susceptibility to these potential triggers.

  13. Insecure attachment style and cumulative traumatic life events in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacak, Yeliz; Morawa, Eva; Tuffner, Daniela; Erim, Yesim

    2017-12-01

    Current models assume somatoform pain disorder (SPD) to be the result of a complex interaction between bio- and psychosocial factors, but the etiology is still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of attachment style and the frequency of traumatic life events, especially childhood adversities, in patients with SPD compared to healthy controls. We compared 65 patients with SPD (confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview, SCID-I) to 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The following questionnaires were employed: Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between SPD and psychological factors. Insecure attachment was significantly more prevalent (60%) in patients with SPD compared to healthy subjects (14%; pcumulative traumatic events emphasize their importance as risk factors of SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Culture and context: buffering the relationship between stressful life events and risky behaviors in American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.

  15. Life cycle and nano-products: end-of-life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Twomey, Janet; Overcash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Understanding environmental impacts of nanomaterials necessitates analyzing the life cycle profile. The initial emphasis of nanomaterial life cycle studies has been on the environmental and health effects of nanoproducts during the production and usage stages. Analyzing the end-of-life (eol) stage of nanomaterials is also critical because significant impacts or benefits for the environment may arise at that particular stage. In this article, the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) model was used, which contains a relatively large and complete nanoproduct list (1,014) as of 2010. The consumer products have wide range of applications, such as clothing, sports goods, personal care products, medicine, as well as contributing to faster cars and planes, more powerful computers and satellites, better micro and nanochips, and long-lasting batteries. In order to understand the eol cycle concept, we allocated 1,014 nanoproducts into the nine end-of-life categories (e.g., recyclability, ingestion, absorption by skin/public sewer, public sewer, burning/landfill, landfill, air release, air release/public sewer, and other) based on probable final destinations of the nanoproducts. This article highlights the results of this preliminary assessment of end-of-life stage of nanoproducts. The largest potential eol fate was found to be recyclability, however little literature appears to have evolved around nanoproduct recycling. At lower frequency is dermal and ingestion human uptake and then landfill. Release to water and air are much lower potential eol fates for current nanoproducts. In addition, an analysis of nano-product categories with the largest number of products listed indicated that clothes, followed by dermal-related products and then sports equipment were the most represented in the PEN CPI (http

  16. Life cycle and nano-products: end-of-life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Twomey, Janet; Overcash, Michael, E-mail: mrovercash@earthlink